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ΚΩΔ. Γ.Γ. 2229 ISSN 1107-3179

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NAFS magazine is printed in recycled paper with eco friendly colors and without any varnishes in order to protect the environment.

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91 - VISIT OUR NEW WEBSITE FOR BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr /bwts

Ballast water

management systems


P.03.13

HOUSTON • ODESSA • SHANGHAI • PIRAEUS

PROFESSIONALISM • EXPERTISE • DEDICATION

Head Office - Mηχανουργείο - Aποθήκη: ΒΙ.ΠΑ Σχιστού, οδός 1, αριθµός 2, 18863, Πέραµα, ΕΛΛΑΔΑ, τηλ: 210 40 00 111 κιν: (+30) 6932210060 | 6947008961-2, fax: 210 40 00 225, turbomed@otenet.gr, www.turbomed.gr, Skype: turbomedtechnical


Index

NAFS magazine is printed in recycled paper with eco friendly colors and without any varnishes in order to protect the environment.

Nikos K. Doukas

06 | Ballast water management systems... Right before the Storm Κώστας Δούκας

08 | Περί αερίων και πετρελαίου και ποιοί...δεν τα θέλουν

Cover Story

18- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

18.story Cover

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

PANASIA

Panasia: Global leader in Green techGlobal Leader in Green technology nology & smart instruments & smart instruments

Ted Petropoulos

14 | End of P&I Renewals for 20132014

Dimitris Sorokas

30 | Ecochlor BWTS exceeds IMO - D2, meets USCG proposed standards Dr. Stelios Kyriacou

40 | Demand for effective ballast water systems grows as shipping regulation tightens Features

36 Evangelos Moschoulis Ballast Water Treatment – Briefing and tips by Germanischer Lloyd 38 Charles Dorchak Ballast water management regulations and guidance – the evolution continues 42 Charalampos Anastasakis Guidance on installation of Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) 52 Lambros A. Chahalis More questions than answers 42 Andrea Cogliolo In the choice of the most appropriate solution

System

62. PureBallast 2.0: Ballast water treatment system

72. RWO GmbH : CleanBallast® Ballast Water Tre

Victoria Liouta

16 | Human error still a major reason for ship losses

59. SiCURE™ Ballast Water Management

68. ERMA FIRST B.W.T.S System Presentation

12 | Zombies riding the Storm

Dr. Marina Papaioannou

receives type approval.

28. DESMI Ocean Guard’s containerised

BWTS solution tested by A.P. Moller Maersk

34. BalClorTM Ballast Water Management

74. Θεόδωρος Βενιάμης:: Η Ελληνική

ναυτιλία αποτελεί εθνικό ζωτικό κεφάλαιο μη διαπραγματεύσιμο atm

82. INDUSTRY NEWSTent

System

44. Hyde marine® leads ballast water treatment system installations 48. Pål Sanner: “The industry is changing and we’re evolving rapidly to retain our market leading position.” 54. atg UV Technology

Specialist UV Systems for Offshore and Marine Applications

56. IMO Type approval for CrystalBallast 57. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV Ballast Water

Management System

Issue 91 - FEB/MARCH, 2013 Publisher

Nikos K. Doukas

Editor in Chief

Panagiotis Doukas

Editorial

Ted Petropoulos, Victoria Liouta, Dr. Marina Papaioannou, Dimitris Sorokas, Dr. Stelios Kyriakou

99. Η συμβολή του Αριστοτέλη Παυλίδη στην Εμπορική Ναυτιλία ent at 99. ΤΑΞΙΔΙ ΣΤΗ ΓΝΩΣΗ Γράφει ο Κ.ωστας Δούκας

Layout and Design

Nikos K. Doukas Publications

NAFS magazine is printed in recycled paper with eco friendly colors and without any varnishes in order to protect the environment.


MARINE TURBO Inc.

Turbochargers Repair Center

P.03.13

WORLDWIDE

all types turbocharger

info@proturbo-texas.com, www.proturbo-texas.com


MIRROR - www.nafsgreen.gr /bwts

06- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

Nikos K. Doukas Editor NAFS magazine/ www.nafsgreen.gr

Ballast water management systems... the missing 6% The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments by ships’ ballast water, attached to ships’ hulls and via other vectors has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world’s oceans and to biodiversity globally. The other three are land-based sources of marine pollution, overexploitation of living marine resources and physical alteration/destruction of marine habitat. Shipping moves over 80% of the world’s commodities and transfers approximately 3 to 5 billion tonnes of ballast water internationally each year. A similar volume may also be transferred domestically within countries and regions each year. Ballast water is absolutely essential to the safe and efficient operation of modern shipping, providing balance and stability to un-laden ships. However, it may also pose a serious ecological, economic and health threat. Ballast is any material used to weight and/or balance an object. One example is the sandbags on conventional hot-air ballons, which can be discarded to lighten the ballon’s load to allowing it to ascend. Ballast water is therefore water carried by ships to ensure stability, trim and structural integrity. Ballast tank arrangements on board different types of vessels are to meet the requirement of ballast water on board. For this reason after more than 14 years of complex negotiations between IMO Member States, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted by consensus at a Diplomatic Conference held at IMO Headquarters in London on 13 February 2004. The Convention will require all ships to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan. All ships will have to carry a Ballast Water Record Book and will be required to carry out ballast water management procedures to a given standard. Parties to the Convention are given the option to take additional measures which are subject to criteria set out in the Convention and to IMO guidelines. Considerable efforts were made to formulate appropriate standards for ballast water management. They are the ballast water exchange standard and the ballast water performance standard. Regulation D-3 of the BWM Convention requires that ballast water management systems used to comply with the Convention must be approved by the Administration taking into account the Guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8).

The Coast Guard’s final rule was published on March 23, 2012 in the Federal Register, and became effective 90 days after publication, or June 21, 2012. The Coast Guard amended its regulations on ballast water management by establishing a standard for the allowable concentration of living organisms in ballast water discharged from ships in waters of the United States. The Coast Guard also amended its regulations for engineering equipment by establishing an approval process for ballast water management systems. The numerical limits set by the discharge standard in this Final Rule were supported by reports from the National Academy of Science and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board in 2011 as the most stringent that vessels can practicably implement and that the Coast Guard can enforce at this time. The problem as you can realise is really complicated. IMO and US Coast Guard apply regulations that are not in full compliance for the time being. An additional 6% of the world tonnage is required in order for the rules to be applied mandatory in a period of 12 months. On the other hand, more than 40 companies woldwide have invested a great amount of money in order to design porduce and install ballast water treatment systems to shipping companies. Shipowners are a little bit hesitant in terms of choosing which systems is or will be finally approved especially form the state of California. The systems rely on different methods and may produce a little bit complicated issues if we add the uncertaincy of rules and the serious amount of money shipowners have to invest. In this issue we give readers a clear view of the technologies and ballast water management systems that are available in the market. Soon, all fields will be crystal clear. And then the competition will be relentless. Now the market stands in sunny wheather, but it is just a little time before the heavy rain or even the storm. For your convenience our team has created a new web site dedicated to Ballast water treatment systems. You can get a lot of helpful info at www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts Nikos K. Doukas


Reliability.

Germanischer Lloyd. You need ships that operate on schedule – as well as a global partner, always available on time, who supports you in running operations at highest efficiency. As a classification society, we develop state-of-the-art rules and guidelines for the shipping industry. Moreover, we are also a provider of innovative software solutions and consulting for increasing your ship’s efficiency. www.gl-group.com


ΙΣΑΛΟΣ ΓΡΑΜΜΗ - www.nafsgreen.gr /bwts

08- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

Κώστας Δούκας Περί αερίων και πετρελαίου και ποιοί …δεν τα θέλουν Η Ελλάδα φαίνεται ότι μπήκε στον αστερισμό του πετρελαίου και του φυσικού αερίου. Όλοι οι μετά τον καθηγητή Σταύρο Κατράκη ειδικοί, ο οποίος από το 1965 σε έκθεσή του αναφέρεται στα κοιτάσματα υδρογονανθράκων της χώρας, παρουσιάζονται τώρα στα κανάλια και μας δίνουν τα φώτα τους γύρω από τις διανοιγόμενες προοπτικές να γίνει η Ελλάδα πετρελαιοπαραγωγός χώρα. Αλλά και εδώ άρχισαν οι έριδες μεταξύ των ειδικών, όπως συμβαίνει μεταξύ των σεισμολόγων ύστερα από ένα μεγάλο σεισμό. Άλλοι ισχυρίζονται ότι δεν πρόκειται να μπεί χρήμα στα άδεια ταμεία της Ελλάδος από την εκμετάλλευση των κοιτασμάτων υδρογονανθράκων πριν από το 2025 στην καλλίτερη περίπτωση, ενώ άλλοι βαρύγδουποι καθηγητές υποστηρίζουν ότι οι έρευνες θα μπορούσαν να επιταχυνθούν, ώστε τα πρώτα τρυπάνια να χτυπήσουν τον βυθό του Ιονίου μέσα σε τρία χρόνια. Το ότι βέβαια ο Ελλαδικός χώρος, που βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο της καταβυθισθείσας Αιγηΐδος πριν 10.000 με 15.000 χρόνια, με ό,τι αυτό συνεπάγεται γεωλογικά, βρίθει υδρογονανθράκων, είναι γνωστό εδώ και 150 χρόνια, μολονότι την εποχή εκείνη δεν υπήρχαν μέθοδοι και μέσα γιά τον ακριβή εντοπισμό και την εκτίμηση των αποθεμάτων των διαφόρων “οικοπέδων”. Όμως, τις τελευταίες λίγες δεκαετίες, οι συζητήσεις γύρω από τα κοιτάσματα αερίου και πετρελαίου είχαν ενταθεί και μάλιστα η εταιρία Χέλη είχε διενεργήσει ήδη από το 1938 ένδεκα γεωτρήσεις μέχρι και το 1954. Μία άλλη εταιρία, η Deilman-Ήλιος είχε κάνει εξι γεωτρήσεις στην Δυτική Θράκη το 1956-60, ενώ η εταιρία ESSO είχε κάνει το 1960 συστηματικές έρευνες μεγάλης εκτάσεως στην Δυτική Πελοπόννησο, στην Ζάκυνθο και στους Παξούς. Οι έρευνες θα έπρεπε κανονικά να είχαν

ενταθεί μετά την επικύρωση από την Ελλάδα της διεθνούς συμβάσεως περί Δικαίου της Θαλάσσης, που έδινε το δικαίωμα στην χώρα μας όχι μόνο να οριοθετήσει τα χωρικά της ύδατα κατ’ εφαρμογή του διεθνούς δικαίου, αλλά και να καθορίσει την περιώνυμη Αποκλειστική Οικονομική Ζώνη (ΑΟΖ). Ωστόσο η Ελλάδα, υπό την απειλή του «casus beli» της Τουρκίας και της απελπιστικής εθνικής ανεπάρκειας μετριότητας των Ελλήνων πολιτικών, απεμπόλισε τα δικαιώματά της και καθυστέρησε αδικαιολόγητα να αρχίσει τις έρευνες, ακόμη και σε περιοχές, όπως το Ιόνιο, που δεν ενέπιπτε στην τουρκική απειλή. Τώρα, μετά τις πρώτες εκτιμήσεις των ειδικών περί αποθεμάτων, φθάσαμε στις ρηματικές ανακοινώσεις στον ΟΗΕ, τόσο από την Ελλάδα όσο και από την Τουρκία, η οποία δεν έχει υπογράψει την διεθνή σύμβαση και... κατηγορεί την Ελλάδα επειδή θέλει να την εφαρμόσει! Το μεγάλο ερώτημα είναι πού οφείλεται η μεγάλη αυτή καθυστέρηση, όταν οι πολιτικοί ταγοί της Ελλάδος γνώριζαν εδώ και 15 τουλάχιστον χρόνια την άθλια οικονομική κατάσταση της χώρας που οι ίδιοι δημιούργησαν με τον υπερδανεισμό και τις κρατικές σπατάλες. Και μόνο με την δυσμενή αυτή προοπτική, θα έπρεπε να είχαν προωθήσει τις διαδικασίες γιά τις έρευνες υδρογονανθράκων, ώστε σήμερα να ήταν σε θέση η Ελλάδα να αντλεί αέριο, και αργότερα πετρέλαιο, η αξία του οποίου υπερβαίνει τα 600 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ μόνο στην θαλάσσια περιοχή του Ιονίου, από την Κέρκυρα μέχρι την Κεφαλληνία και την Ζάκυνθο. Καθηγητής μεγάλης ηλικίας και μεγάλου κύρους, κατήγγειλε σε πρωινή εκπομπή εφοπλιστικού καναλιού, ότι όλες αυτές οι καθυστερήσεις, και ιδιαίτερα οι καθυστερήσεις των δρομολογημένων ερευνών, που έχει ήδη ολοκληρώσει ειδικό πλοίο στο Ιόνιο, οφείλεται

σε λίγες γνωστές οικογένειες, γύρω στις 30, οι οποίες εισάγουν στην χώρα πετρέλαιο και αέριο από την Μέση Ανατολή και όχι μόνο και, επομένως, έχουν κάθε λόγο να καθυστερούν οι έρευνες, διότι αλλοιώς θα… μείνουν άνεργες. Η αποκάλυψη αυτή έδωσε και την πραγματική διάσταση της διαπλοκής πολιτικών και επιχειρηματιών σε μία χώρα με οικουμενική ιστορικότητα, η οποία, χάρη στους πολιτικούς της, κατόρθωσε να κατέχει παγκοσμίως τα σκήπτρα της διαφθοράς, αφού τριάντα οικογένειες, μεταξύ των οποίων και αρκετές επώνυμες εφοπλιστικές, κατόρθωσαν να αποτρέψουν την Πολιτεία να κάνει το εθνικό της καθήκον γιά να εξασφαλίσει την ευημερία των πολιτών της, όταν μάλιστα γνωρίζει ότι η χώρα βαδίζει προς ολοκληρωτική καταστροφή. Και πώς άραγε είναι δυνατόν να επιτρέψουν οι οικογένειες αυτές την εξόρυξη αερίου και πετρελαίου, όταν κάποιες απ’ αυτές αντιπροσωπεύουν μεγάλα πετρελαϊκά συμφέροντα, που ανήκουν σε εταιρίες κολοσσούς της Μέσης Ανατολής, οι οποίες πάλι με την σειρά τους ελέγχονται από τα συμφέροντα Ροκφέλερ; Οι συγκεχυμένες πληροφορίες γύρω από τα αποθέματα υδρογονανθράκων του Ελλαδικού χώρου προκαλούν νέα ερωτήματα, όπως: -Γιατί οι ελληνικές κυβερνήσεις δεν σπεύδουν να ανακηρύξουν τις ΑΟΖ, αλλ’ αντιθέτως, καθυστερούν την αναγκαία αυτή ενέργεια, επιβαλλομένη από την διεθνή συνθήκη περί Δικαίου της Θαλάσσης, χωρίς τις οποίες δεν είναι δυνατή η εκμετάλλευση των πεδίων υδρογονανθράκων; -Γιατί δίδονται συγκεχυμένες πληροφορίες γύρω από την πιθανή ημερομηνία, κατά την οποία η Ελλάδα θα μπορούσε να εισπράξει τα πρώτα έσοδα από την εκμετάλλευση των κοιτασμάτων υδρογονανθράκων; Επί του προκειμένου, κάποιοι εμπειρογνώμονες, εμφανιζόμενοι στα κανάλια, υποστηρίζουν ότι οι πρώτες γεωτρήσεις θα πραγματοποιηθούν το 2025, ενώ άλλοι


ΙΣΑΛΟΣ ΓΡΑΜΜΗ - www.nafsgreen.gr /bwts

εμφατικά τονίζουν, ότι η πρώτη παραγωγή θα μπορούσε να πραγματοποιηθεί μέσα στο 2018. -Ποιές είναι οι ποσότητες υδρογονανθράκων στον χερσαίο και υποθαλάσσιο χώρο, όταν κάποιοι ειδικοί εκτιμούν το αέριο νοτίως της Κρήτης σε 1,3 τρισεκατομμύρια κυβικά, ποσότητα που θα μπορούσε να τροφοδοτήσει επί δύο τουλάχιστον δεκαετίες την Ευρώπη; Μέσα στην γενικώτερη σύγχυση και την παραπληροφόρηση, έχουμε και κάποιους μεγαλοδημοσιογράφους, γνωστούς γιά τον ρόλο τους στην παραπληροφόρηση και τον αποπροσανατολισμό και την χειραγώγηση της κοινής γνώμης, οι οποίοι υπόσχονται να… πιούν ένα ποτήρι πετρέλαιο, αν βρεθεί το ορυκτό αυτό στο Αιγαίο. Υπερήλικας συγγραφέας, γνωστός για τις ειδικές υπηρεσίες που είχε προσφέρει στο ΝΑΤΟ, ισχυρίζεται με τα βιβλία του ότι τα αποθέματα στην θέση Μπάμπουρας και στα Ίμια είναι τεράστια. Πρώην βουλευτής και νυν βιβλιοπαρουσιαστής, που προειδοποιεί καθημερινά τον δυστυχή ελληνικό λαό γιά την επικείμενη εξαφάνιση των καταθέσεών του λόγω πτώχευσης της χώρας, αποκαλύπτει από δευτερεύοντα κανάλια που μονοπωλούνται κάθε μεσημέρι από τους βιβλιοπώλες, ότι η αξία των αποθεμάτων σε υδρογονάνθρακες είναι εξαπλάσια του δημοσίου χρέους της χώρας και ότι η συνολική αξία εγγίζει τα 10 τρισεκατομμύρια ευρώ. Αν η Ελλάδα αποκόμιζε το 20% του ποσού τούτου θα είχε εξοφλήσει το χρέος της και θα συγκαταλεγόταν μεταξύ των πλουσιωτέρων χωρών του κόσμου. Ταυτόχρονα επιδεικνύεται φευγαλέως από τηλεοράσεως φύλλο Εφημερίδας της Κυβερνήσεως, εκ του οποίου προκύπτει ότι ο Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος είχε αναθέσει σε ξένη εταιρία την διενέργεια γεωτρήσεων γιά την εξόρυξη ελληνικού πετρελαίου, ώστε η Ελλάδα να μπεί στο κλαμπ των πετρελαιοπαραγωγών χωρών με επίσημο πετρελαϊκό νόμισμα την δραχμή. Κατά τους ισχυρισμούς των βιβλιοπαρουσιαστών, η απόφαση αυτή του Παπαδόπουλου υπήρξε και η αιτία της πτώσης της δικτατορίας και όχι το

Πολυτεχνείο. Επώνυμοι καθηγητές ειδικοί στα ενεργειακά, όπως ο κ. Αντ. Φώσκολος, ο καθηγητής κ. Αβραάμ Ζελελίδης και ο καθηγητής κ. Μανιάτης, παρουσιάζονται στα τηλεοπτικά κανάλια και ομιλούν γιά γιγαντιαία κοιτάσματα αερίου στην Κρήτη. Υποστηρίζουν ότι, σύμφωνα με εκτιμήσεις Νορβηγών και Γάλλων εμπειρογνωμόνων, που επιβεβαιώνει και η Ντώιτσε Μπανκ, η αξία του αερίου τούτου ανέρχεται σε 200 δισ. ευρώ. Ειδικώτερα ο κ. Φώσκολος δήλωσε ότι ούτε ο ελληνικός λαός ούτε οι Έλληνες πολιτικοί μπορούν να συνειδητοποιήσουν το μέγεθος των τεραστίων αποθεμάτων φυσικού αερίου, που βρίσκεται κάτω από τον πυθμένα των ελληνικών θαλασσών. Ο χώρος που θα ερευνηθεί στο Ιόνιο, συμπεριλαμβανομένων και των χερσαίων εκτάσεως της Δυτικής Ελλάδος, ανέρχεται σε 225.000 τετραγωνικά χιλιόμετρα, αλλά υπάρχουν άλλες τόσες εκτάσεις προς έρευνα στην περιοχή του Αιγαίου, κάτω από την Ρόδο και μέχρι την ΑΟΖ της Κύπρου, πέραν του “οικοπέδου” νοτίως της Κρήτης. Ο καθηγητής έγινε ακόμη πιό συγκεκριμένος λέγοντας ότι ολοκληρώνονται τρείς μελέτες στο Ιόνιο μέχρι 15 Φεβρουαρίου 2013, η αξιολόγηση των κοιτασμάτων θα γίνει σε εξι μήνες και στις αρχές του Φεβρουαρίου του 2014 θα ερευνηθούν νέα οικόπεδα. Οι μνηστήρες των ελληνικών κοιτασμάτων θα δώσουν αρχικά ως προκαταβολή ένα μικρό ποσό γύρω στα 5 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ και μέχρι το 2020 θα έχει αρχίσει η εξαγωγή του φυσικού αερίου, κάτω από το οποίο μπορεί να βρεθεί και πετρέλαιο, το οποίον ως γνωστόν “μεταναστεύει” λόγω διαφόρων γεωλογικών φαινομένων που συμβαίνουν στον φλοιό της Γης. Στο μεταξύ, πολλαπλασιάζονται τα ειδικά βιβλία, σύμφωνα με τα οποία η Ελλάδα διαθέτει και αξιόλογα κοιτάσματα ουρανίου, την διαδικασία εξόρυξης του οποίου είχε αρχίσει και πάλι ο Γεώργιος Παπαδόπουλος, ο οποίος φέρεται μάλιστα να είχε δημιουργήσει εργοστάσιο επεξεργασίας των εξορύξεων, λέγοντας ότι “ η Ελλάς δεν είναι Ελλαδίτσα,

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 09

διότι διαθέτει τεράστιο ορυκτό πλούτο”. Το εργοστάσιο αυτό δεν λειτούργησε λόγω πτώσεως της δικτατορίας, διότι, ο μεν “εθνάρχης” Κων. Καραμανλής ανέστειλε τις εργασίες του, ο δε εν συνεχεία επελθών Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου το σταμάτησε τελείως. Και μία ακόμη πληροφορία, που έρχεται και “δένει” με τα εκμεταλλεύσιμα κοιτάσματα φυσικού αερίου στην Ελλάδα: Οι Έλληνες εφοπλιστές έχουν παραγγείλει στα διάφορα ναυπηγεία του κόσμου περί τα 280 πλοία μεταφοράς αερίου LNG τελευταίας τεχνολογίας με οικολογικές προδιαγραφές, βελτιώνοντας αισθητά τον μη οικολογικό τους στόλο αξίας τριών τρισεκατομμυρίων δολλαρίων, προφανώς γιά να μπουν δυναμικά στις μεταφορές φυσικού αερίου. Βεβαίως ο ελληνικός λαός λέει ότι, όπου ακούς πολλά κεράσια, κράτα και μικρό καλάθι, αλλά οι Έλληνες καθηγητές είναι κατηγορηματικοί και υποστηρίζουν ότι, αν αξιοποιηθούν τα κοιτάσματα υδρογονανθράκων, τότε η Ελλάδα θα καταλάβει την 15η θέση παγκοσμίως σε αποθέματα φυσικού αερίου. Τώρα το μπαλάκι της νέας αυτής προκλήσεως πηγαίνει στους εν πολλαίς αμαρτίαις περιπεσόντας πολιτικούς, καθώς δεν αντιλαμβάνονται ή δεν θέλουν ν’ αντιληφθούν κωλυόμενοι...αρμοδίως, ότι κοιμώμαστε κυριολεκτικά πάνω στο πετρέλαιο και το φυσικό αέριο. Καθήκον των ντόπιων πολιτικών είναι να αγνοήσουν ή να παραγκωνίσουν τους εσωτερικούς διαπλεκομένους επιχειρηματίες, να σκεφθούν σοβαρά με γνώμονα το εθνικό και μόνο συμφέρον και να προβούν στις αναγκαίες ενέργειες με σοβαρούς ξένους οίκους, ώστε αυτός ο τεράστιος πλούτος να «ξελασπώσει» την Ελλάδα από την φτώχεια, στην οποία οι ίδιοι την εξώθησαν με τις πράξεις και τις παραλείψεις τους. Αλλά και ο ελληνικός λαός πρέπει να αφυπνισθεί επί τέλους από τον ραγιαδισμό και την κομματική υποταγή και να κάνει τις αναγκαίες επιλογές γιά να σώσει τα παιδιά του, τα εγγόνια του και τα δισέγγονά του από τα αρπακτικά νύχια των τοκογλύφων και των Ευρωπαίων νεοβαρβάρων. Κ. ΔΟΥΚΑΣ


sense

the marine

of technology


London Office INTRA MARE LTD Southgate N14 5BP, U.K Tel: +44 20 8242 5520 e-mail: info@intramare.com

Piraeus Office INTRA MARE HELLAS, 4 Skouze Str. - 185 36 Piraeus - Greece tel: +30-210-4293843 - fax: +30-210-4293845 e-mail: info@intramare.gr

Oslo Office TANKER ENGINEERING AS Colbjornsens Gate 13 - 0256 Oslo - Norway Tel: +47 22441515 e-mail: haaarset@online.no web: www.intramare.gr

Cyprus Office Limassol - Cyprus Tel: + 357 25 348568 e-mail: info@intramare.net


FINANCIAL FOCUS - www.nafsgreen.gr

12- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

Ted Petropoulos Head, Petrofin Research, www.petrofin.gr

Zombies riding the storm A new and very descriptive word has crept into shipping terminology in recent months: Zombie shipping companies. What is a Zombie then? A Zombie is defined as a company that is kept alive by the support of its banks. It may help readers to explain further that when firms are kept alive by the consent and support of their banks, auditors qualify their statements in the production of the firm’s audited accounts, as it affects the firm’s status “ as a going concern”. This is different to a firm simply restructuring its debt obligations. In practical shipping terms , it means a shipping company whose fleet’s cash flow is unable to meet its principal and sometimes even interest loan obligations and where the value of its fleet is well short of its loan obligations and relies on its banks to keep it alive by continuous loan restructures, unwillingness to foreclose on loans ,willingness to waive financial covenant and asset cover violations, allowing the build-up of unpaid bank obligations and so on. Banks often allow shipping companies to carry on despite their non-adherence to the terms of its loans (original or restructured) because the alternative of foreclosing in a bad market would realize substantially more losses for the banks. So, banks keep the patient (shipping client) barely alive until either the market would revive or a better opportunity might arise to terminate the relationship or transfer the vessels to another client with a lesser loss to the bank. With the whole shipping market in deep trouble ,with rare exceptions, and with shipping cash flow often barely covering fleet operating expenses, a large number of shipping companies have been increasingly drawn into the “ zombie “ zone. Often, such entry

into the zombie zone can be delayed by adequate liquidity and / or unencumbered assets from previous good years and by having performing period charters at attractive rates. However, the longer and deeper the crisis, the quicker such buffers shall be used up, thus rendering such companies zombies. The question, therefore, is ,are you and/ or the shipping company you are working in, a zombie? Moreover, does the firm itself and its principals realize their zombie status? Mr Yamasato recently in Lloyd’s list referred to a spotter’s guide to zombie companies focussing primarily on publicly quoted companies whose financials are known. I shall concentrate on the private sector, although the methodology adopted can also be readily adapted for the public sector. I have devised, therefore, an easy test for all readers able to answer some key questions, to carry out and find out for themselves. I hasten to add that such test is indicative and not definitive or exhaustive. However, the questions being asked, represent to me the main determinants of whether a firm is or is in danger of becoming, a zombie. In addition, by carrying out this test at regular intervals, one may see how the rating (score) evolves over time, as well as the speed of change. Banks too may find the test useful in their analysis. Moreover, they may well wish to modify it by adding questions or changing the rating of each answer. So please have a go and see for yourselves. There are 11 questions and the maximum possible score is100. In my view, a score of over 60 points implies a firm well and clear into the zombie range. A score of 40-60 implies a firm that is very close to being or becoming

a zombie firm. A score of 20- 40 implies a firm that is well outside the zombie zone that should however, keep monitoring its position and taking whatever steps it can not to increase its zombie status risk. Lastly, a firm with only 0-20 points is not at risk and this is especially important during this deep and long shipping crisis. A zombie firm may indeed survive as long as its bankers continue to support it. In order to recover, though, and lift itself outside the zombie zone ,it shall require an improvement in the shipping market and a recovery of its fleet cash flow and fleet values. Additionally and sometimes as an alternative, a recovery ,may be achieved by the injection of fresh capital or additional collateral or a conversion of debt for equity by the financing banks. The management of a zombie firm too may assist in its survival. This is done by being transparent and communicative to its banks, by being a good vessel manager, keeping administrative and vessel running costs low but not at the expense of ship maintenance and in maximizing fleet earnings. Timely sales may be considered at the early stages of a difficult market if they reduce the overall debt burden. If possible, acquiring vessels at low cost near the bottom of the market will be very helpful, but is often difficult to obtain bank support, as banks may also find it difficult to justify the additional risk to a zombie company. Still, there are many possibilities available internally and in the market for zombies to improve their status. We all know that shipping is a highly cyclical industry and that it is a question of time for a recovery to take place .The aim of every zombie or near zombie shipping firm is to survive and benefit from such recovery.


FINANCIAL FOCUS - www.nafsgreen.gr

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 13

ZOMBIE TEST 1) Income Protection

% of income over the next 2 years, covered by time charters or COAs (contracts of affreightment) 0 - 10%

10 - 30%

30 - 50%

over 50%

10 p

5p

2p

0p

2) Ability to service interest obligations 0 - 20%

20 - 50%

50 - 75%

75 - 100%

over 100%

10 p

7p

5p

3p

0p

3) Ability to service principal obligations 0 - 20%

20 - 50%

50 - 75%

75 - 100%

over 100%

5p

3p

2p

1p

0p

4) Asset cover ratio (current vessel prices) Asset / loan

25 - 50%

50 - 75%

75 - 100%

100 - 125%

over 125%

10 p

5p

3p

1p

0p

5) Loan restructures effected over the last 5 years / per bank loan

6) Increase

2+

2

1

0

5p

3p

2p

0p

in average bank loan margins over 300%

200-300%

100-200%

0 - 100%

no change

10 p

7p

5p

1p

0p

7) Committed / available cash liquidity over total bank debt 0 - 5%

5 - 10%

10 - 15%

15 - 20%

over 20%

10 p

3p

2p

1p

0p

8) Availability of unencumbered (non-mortgaged assets) over total bank debt 0%

upto 10%

10 - 20%

over 20%

10 p

5p

2p

0p

9) Increase of trade and crew debt over the past 2 years over 50%

30 - 50%

10 - 30%

0 - 10%

reduction

10 p

5p

2p

1p

0p

10) % of bank relationships still active in shipping 0 - 10%

10 - 30%

30 - 50%

50 - 75%

75 - 100%

10 p

5p

3p

1p

0p

11) Offhires and claims during the past 12 months due to breakdowns and

disputes with charterers as a % of gross income

over 20% 15 - 20% 10 P 7p 1. Over 60 points: Zombie status 2. 40-60 points: Serious risk of Zombification 3. 20-40 points: Medium risk of Zombification 4. 0 - 20 points: Low risk of Zombification

10 - 15% 5p

5 - 10% 2p

0 - 5% 0p


INSURANCE NEWS - www.nafsgreen.gr

14- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

Victoria Liouta Managing Director, Vilmar International, S.A

End of P&I Renewals for 2013-2014 Happy New Year! All working in P&I insurance market use to wish to each other a happy new year after end of renewal period the 20th of February. This year can be described as one of the most difficult and confronting period for both Clubs and owners, but not easy at all for brokers as well.

has increased the overall group retention from $60m to $70m and has raised individual club retentions to $9m form $8m a year earlier. While these are relatively small moves in the context of the hundreds of millions of dollars of reinsured losses, these changes still weigh in underwriters’ favour and improve the quality of the risk to reinsurers.

Each Club of the International Group wanted to keep a strict stance as far as general increases announced last year by their Board of Directors and on top gave great attention to the loss ratio and records of claims last year for each member. The big casualties last year of Costa Concordia which sank off the coast of Italy in January 2012 and Rena which sank off the coast of New Zealand in October 2011, was the basis that Clubs asked for additional increases due to Reinsurance cost attributed to Club members. As a result, Clubs and members spent a lot of time to calculate total additional increases over and above the general increase and many hours to negotiate open claims for this year which seriously affect the Club records. We may all be of the same mind that individual claims and general appearance of any Club members’ records can, one way or another, be tolerantly negotiated with Clubs’ claims handlers who, taking into account many factors and lawyers’ advices, support an estimate for each open case, based on which underwriters go on with their views and decision for final premium amount to be asked for next insurance year, with regards also to the particular trading of each fleet or vessel and general performance of the members.

Brokers had additionally to give owners good reason for the amendments that were made to International Group excess reinsurance rates for clean tankers, dry cargo ships and passenger vessels compared to those advised earlier this year. International Group referred to the objective of moving towards a “claims versus premium” balance for each vessel type over the medium to longer term. Is this to encourage bulk carrier owners to seek to have a separate category to containerships and Ro-Ro vessels, the wrecks of which are more difficult to remove than those of bulk carriers? Or this is to penalize bulk carriers to raise the additional premium required by reinsurers in view of the fewer number of containerships and ro-ros than bulk carriers? One wonders, Is it really difficult times for insurers? Or owners bear the heavy impact of the low market rates and lack of any finance with an unpredictable future, which have an effect on accepting the Re-insurers’ and Clubs’ imposed premium rates? Do the huge casualties only burden the insurance year and force a high P&I number? Discussing with many owners and insurers it would be hard to explain if or how the present market conditions and the insurance environment can be separate aspects in our minds. However it is true that despite the wreck of the cruise ship Costa Concordia, cruise market rates, against all expectations, have remained steady. On the other hand, there is little doubt that across the insurance market there has been a significant hardening that seems unlikely to be undone given the fundamental way that huge casualties have changed the nature of risks in

It has, though, been a much tougher time for brokers this year, after many before, to justify and clarify the various calculations and increases imposed by Clubs and as the renewal deadline approached, brokers had to advise that for 2013 the International Group

question. Negotiating a minefield of claims issues of a huge casualty leads sometimes to an estimate that keeps increasing and cannot be defined for several years ahead. One may expect that these claims will further drag out hopes for a timely resolution and can be expensive for all. Following one underwriter’s words, “Marine is no different to any other insurance product in that it must make an adequate return on capital, and above anything else, Costa Concordia incident is a clear and visible reminder that marine is a highly specialized insurance sector and not a place to be experimenting”. Owners struggle to find their way around modern ships at the best of times, while insurance cannot intervene in addressing the need for modifications to the way ships are built so that they have a greater chance of remaining upright and afloat. This certainly brings the issue of marine safety to the owners’ minds and it is also undoubtedly in the insurers’ mind when they are looking at these large risks. It is worth, though, considering that while big losses demonstrate the toughness of the International Group reinsurance arrangements, they have led to an increase in costs of about 40% this year!! It has, though, been a much tougher time for brokers this year, after many before, to justify and clarify the various calculations and increases imposed by Clubs and as the renewal deadline approached, brokers had to advise that for 2013 the International Group has increased the overall group retention from $60m to $70m and has raised individual club retentions to $9m form $8m a year earlier. While these are relatively small moves in the context of the hundreds of millions of dollars of reinsured losses, these changes still weigh in underwriters’ favour and improve the quality of the risk to reinsurers.


ilmar

International s.a

Claims Consultants & Insurance Brokers

107-109, Filonos Str. 6th Fl. - Piraeus 18536, Greece Tel: +30 210 4511615 - Fax: +30 210 4511616 Email: info@vilmar.gr


16- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

HUMAN FACTOR - www.nafsgreen.gr

Dr. Marina Papaioannou GL Academy Coordinator

Human error still a major reason for ship losses According to a new Allianz report 106 ship losses were identified in 2012. Although regulations dealing with safety are in force and new technologies contribute to the reduction of accidents, human factors such as inadequate skills or insufficient competence in key areas are still responsible for the majority of maritime accidents. Over the past ten years the average number of ship losses has generally been on the decline, but when compared with last year in 2012 the number actually rose, from 91 identified ships to 106. The report also states that most incidents are caused by human errors: Tiredness, cost pressure and a lack of training are the main reasons identified. In the 1990s, political and public concern about human-related causes of shipping disasters prompted the IMO to focus on the human element in shipping, with special regard given to the safe operation of ships and training of seafarers. As a result, the ISM Code was introduced and the STCW Convention completely revised. The ISM Code in particular requires that the relevant rules, regulations, codes and guidelines be understood, training needs identified and the necessary training provided. The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), 2006, now entering into force in August 2013, aims to improve the working and living conditions for seafarers thereby supporting the general idea of safety at sea. But rules and management systems are only effective as the personnel that are dealing with them. This means appropriate measures have to be undertaken and high operational standards have to be ensured. Being in compliance with the regulations is a first step, but integrating, understanding and implementing them to bring them to life for all the people involved is the only way to make them an effective and helpful tool. If human errors can be avoided by training staff and raising their awareness through a culture of safety management and the trends and current technological developments, what could be better than investing in human resources? It is the easiest way to ensure safety procedures are followed and to improve the company’s economic efficiency by reducing the incidence of human error. Focus on building competence and exploiting resources According to the new Allianz report, sufficient investment in human resources remains as vital as ever; well-trained staff are the basis for

safety at sea and the company’s profit line. GL Academy is able to assist its clients by providing the appropriate seminar for every stage of the process. For example, managing risks and emergencies: The best approach is a holistic one, covering all the possible phases and aspects of the topic – from thorough risk assessment procedures, advisable and sensible handling during an incident, through to final investigation and analysis. Risk assessment and management methods enable shipping companies to make a realistic estimation of the situation. In an emergency it is crucial that the right decisions are taken at the right time. That is why staff should be given support with regard to controlled decision-making under conditions of great stress. If the worst case scenario does occur there are documented procedures for conducting maritime accident and incident investigations which will give effective support during such critical moments. With a complete range of seminars covering all aspects of the risk management process – before, during and after – GL Academy shows it understands what it means to be a reliable business partner for its clients. With more than 100 different seminar topics GL Academy already offers its customers one of the broadest portfolios in the industry. It covers a wide range of topics, from Maritime Regulations, Management of Risks and Emergencies, Ship Operation, to Marine Safety Management Systems and Energy Efficiency.


18- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Cover story

PANASIA

Global Leader in Green technology & smart instruments


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 19

APPROVALS & CERTIFICATES G9 IMO APPROVED, G8 FLAG STATE APPROVED, EX-PROOF TYPE DNV ATEX APPROVED, THE NETHERLANDS FLAG, RINA TYPE APPROVED, RS TYPE APPROVED, CR TYPE APPROVED, Llody’s TYPE APPROVED,.

Treatment Technology Types Ultraviolet light : UV radiation is used to attack and break down the cell membrane killing the organism outright Electrolytic Chlorination: Electrical current is applied directly to the ballast water flow in an electrolytic chamber, generating free chlorine, sodium hypochlorite and hydroxyl radicals, causing electrochemical oxidation through the creation of ozone and hydrogen peroxide.


20- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Treatment Technology Types Ozone : Ozone is an oxidising biocide that that a long history of disinfecting water. Since ozone is an unstable gas that decomposes readily to oxygen, the contact time is an essential feature. It only has an immediate effect as it does not leave a residual disinfection agent. Ozone is not effective at eliminating larger organisms. It is best used a the second stage, combining it with a method that successfully eliminates larger organisms at the first stage. Example : SP Hybrid BWMS and DESMI Ocean guard.


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Consideration to select right BWTS

Less efefctive in low

pwr consumption

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 21


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

22- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

For HMD , H6069/70, 82K BC, GloEn-P1500, SKID type LR Class Ballast Pump Cap.: 1,500m3/h Treatment Cap.: 1,500m3/h x 2

For DSME in Changdong, Y001, 58K BC, GloEn-Patrol P1000, SKID type LR ClassBallast Pump Cap.: 1,500m3/h Treatment Cap.: 1,500m3/h x 2

For DSME , H1704, BLOCK CARRIER, GloEn-Patrol P1000 SKID type Ballast Pump Capacity : 2,500m3/h x 4 Treatment Capacity : ,1,000m3/h x 1

For SPP shipyard, S5112, 52K PC, GloEn-Patrol P750 EX, GloEn-Patrol P500, On Deck Installation Ballast Pump Capacity : 750m3/h Treatment Capacity : 750m3/h


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 23

Filter As an water treatment technology, Filtration and UV is one of the universal, well verified one. FILTRATION UNIT (PF250/PF500/PF750) Removing large oragnisms over 50μm with low pressure drop. SCREEN FILTER 50μm Hastelloy mesh CAPACITY 50 - 6,000 m3/hr BACKFLUSHING Automatically Operating at setting point MAX. OPERAT. PRESSURE 10kg/cm3 EX-PROOF TYPE APPROV. DNV-ATEX (Option)

FIlter element Use a special material 50μm mesh Hastelloy


24- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 25


26- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 27

Potential risks involved in installing BWTS on board ships. In case of installation of existing vessel, the installation place can be considered at engine room, pump room or on deck. These vessels were not considered BWMS installation at building stage, the space is not sufficient. So it is essential the space to be prepare with modifying basic equipment and hull structure when additional equipment are installed. However this work can have some safety precaution because some fire work is needed. In addition, if BWMS is installed during sailing, there are many environmental factors such as wave, wind, rain and so on. Especially it seems that there are many limitations if the system is installed on deck. Other spaces such as engine room and pump room have also some dangerous due to heavy materials handling (equipment, pipe, seat, ETC) can have some risk for dropping according to onshore condition. Moreover material store space for the system can’t be enough. Of course it the material is stored in outside, it is exposed to damage by sea water and rain. So when shipowners are needed to consider installation BWMS, they should prepare above things not to make any kinds of safety precaution and material damage.


28- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

DESMI Ocean Guard’s containerised BWTS solution tested by A.P. Moller - Maersk

OxyClean Ballast Water Treatment System tested for use also in fresh water is now type approved by Lloyds Register of Ships! This is the first UV-type BWTS which has been IMO-tested on land in fresh water! It is a great pleasure to announce that on November 7th DESMI Ocean Guard A/S received type approval of the OxyClean Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS). This means that the system is fully certified according to the requirements and guidelines adopted by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in the Ballast Water Management Convention. With the type approval certificate in hand we can now offer the Industry a fully compatible BWTS which is setting new standards for effective treatment under very challenging conditions. During the more than three years of development and testing we have gained groundbreaking understanding of the water treatment challenges a system may encounter under real operating conditions. In particular these challenges have turned out to be related to the treatment of fresh water and water with very low UV-transmission1, and with the type approval certificate in hand we can today document industry leading performance in both respects. Extensive testing has proven that the system is IMO compliant irrespective of the salinity of the treated water, and down to UV-transmission values as low as approx. 0.35. “The excellent performance we have been able to demonstrate has already spurred a lot of interest from potential customers, and with the issuance of the type approval certificate we expect this to increase in the coming months. The majority of the shipowners are today painfully aware that type approved BWTS’ do not have equal performance, and that a number of already approved systems have proven unable to comply with the IMO requirements in ports where the water conditions are challenging. This may result in fines, detained ships and ultimately it can force a shipowner to replace already purchased and installed systems, if time after time they turn out to be non-compliant. Such a replacement is extremely costly”, says Rasmus Folsø, CEO of DESMI Ocean Guard. Performance is not the only important parameter when evaluating BWTS’. Cost, power consumption, footprint, no handling of chemicals and world-wide after sales support functions are all important aspects for most shipowners when having to chose a BWTS. Our OxyClean system is competitive on cost, has very low power consumption relative to performance, small and flexible footprint due to the modularity of the system, no use of added chemicals and finally we have an already established global network of after sales support centres available for our customers through the global network of the DESMI organisation. DESMI Ocean Guard A/S was established by A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S, DESMI A/S and Skjølstrup & Grønborg ApS in 2009. The company is located in Aalborg, Denmark, and its main activity is development of systems for removal of living organisms from ballast water discharged by ships. Such systems are required to be installed on the world fleet according to the IMO (International Maritime Organization) Ballast Water Management Convention. It is anticipated that between 50,000-70,000 vessels need to install ballast water treatment systems in the period up to 2019, so the market potential is extensive. 1 UV-Transmission is the UV light’s ability to penetrate into the water. A value of e.g. 0.6 means that after penetrating 1 cm into the water only 60% of the UV light remains (40% has been absorbed).

The OxyCleanTM system based on UV and ozone has done successful testing in both fresh, brackish and salt water. DESMI Ocean Guard is happy to announce that its containerized solution for ballast water treatment has been tested by A.P. Moller – Maersk, concluding that it is a very attractive solution in particular for container vessel retrofits. Per Hother Rasmussen from Maersk Maritime Technology explains: ”We have tested containerized ballast water treatment system plants on two different vessels and we find it a viable way of overcoming space problems in crowded engine rooms as well as it gives the advantage of easy and short installation time, even with the vessel in service. Starting in September 2011, we have tested the DESMI Ocean Guard containerized solution over 7 months on one of our vessels and found that it lived up to our needs and expectations. We are satisfied with the results.” DESMI Ocean Guard offers the OxyCleanTM system to the market both as a component delivery, skid-mounted or installed in a container. The containerized solution can be delivered with flow rates up to 500 m3/h in a 20” container, and up to 3000 m3/h in a configuration with two 40” containers placed on top of each other. The reason for placing the containers on top of each other is to accom-modate the required service height of the filter. The DESMI Ocean Guard OxyCleanTM ballast water treatment system was type approved by Lloyd’s Register in November 2012. In January 2013 DNV concluded their Safety Assessment of the system and ABS issued a Design Assessment certificate. The OxyCleanTM system is based on mechanical filtration followed by disinfection with a combination of UV and ozone. The system is the first ballast water treatment system on the market that has done successful IMO testing in both fresh, brackish and salt water.


Tailormade Ballast Water Treatment Solutions Granted IMO Final Approval & Type Approval from Lloyd’s Register of Shipping In DESMI Ocean Guard we combine our experience from both operating marine equipment and our long history of supplying to the shipbuilding industry. Our expertise is your insurance when selecting the right ballast water treatment system to fulfill your requirements. Test us - contact us with your inquiry and let us show you what we are able to do. Proven effective in all water salinities - including freshwater Proven tests in waters with UV-transmittance as low as 0,38 Patent-pending filtration procedure during de-ballasting Cost-effective water treatment Highly modular with small footprint Simple & flexible installation - well suited for retrofit No chemicals added Low space requirements Low power consumption

Local representative in Greece:

PROVEN TECHNOLOGY www.desmi.com

Intra Mare Hellas 4, Skouze Str. 185 36 Piraeus Greece Phone: +30 210 429 3843 Fax: +30 210 429 3845 E-mail: project@intramare.gr

AP TYPE PR OV ED


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We understand environmental challenges that vessels are faced with. Effectiveness, simplicity, transparency are key factors for decision-makers. Our corporate awareness and dedication to serve our customers, led us becoming an integrated environmental supplier, offering unique, “future-proof” solutions.

Dimitris Sorokas General Manager, Marine Environmental Dept. - Maritech Group

Ecochlor BWTS exceeds IMO - D2, meets USCG proposed standards Ecochlor is a US based company, founded in 2001, providing Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) to the shipping industry. Ecochlor holds a unique position as the only company utilizing patented chlorine dioxide (ClO2) treatment technology for ballast water. There is an exclusive distribution agreement with EKA Chemicals (part of the Akzo Nobel group of companies) for the EKA ClO2 generation technology for use in the marine and shipboard environment. Maritech Group serves the Greek/Cyprus global maritime market since 1977 and in 2005, established a dedicated Marine Environmental department. Through it’s group companies; Ecochlor Hellas and Ecochlor Hong Kong; our team has exclusive sales agreement for Ecochlor BWTS for Greece, Cyprus and China market. Ecochlor’s IMO G8 testing, both land-based and shipboard, proved beyond question that the Ecochlor ClO2 treatment technology will meet any future biological standard. During land based testing, conducted at the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the Ecochlor BWTS averaged 0.07 organisms per cubic meter at discharge in the above 50 micron size class. This is over 100 times more effective than the IMO D-2 standard and is in line with more stringent standards expected from the USCG. During shipboard testing non-detect was achieved on all tests for organisms in the above 50 micron classification, as well as the 10 to 50 micron range. Now that ship owners have accepted that

BWTS regulations will come into force they will start to examine test data very carefully. The technology behind the Ecochlor system will place it as one of the top BWTS for consideration in their vessels. The results are pubic, including the raw data, and are available to anyone interested. Go to www. ecochlor.com/about_regulatory.php Ecochlor President and Founder, Tom Perlich explained, “Ship owners and ship builders are consistent in their acknowledgment of the effectiveness of our technology.  They are pleased this effectiveness can be achieved with very low power requirements and that our system is able to operate in low temperatures, low / no salinity, and high sediment levels.  This allows a vessel using the Ecochlor system to travel anywhere in the world and provides the owner with peace of mind knowing the ballast water will meet even the most stringent biological efficacy discharge standards.” Most other technologies have one or more water quality criteria that may limit their ability to guarantee treatment that meets regulatory requirements. The Ecochlor systems have been tested under a wide range of temperatures, salinity, turbidity and waters throughout the world. Chlorine dioxide (unlike chlorine) does not combine with organics and therefore highly turbid waters do not affect performance. The Ecochlor filtration systems have also been successfully tested in the Yangtze River in China, one of the dirtiest waters in the world!

Ecochlor is one of two organizations who have received IMO basic approval, IMO final approval and is part of the STEP initiative. The Ecochlor BWTS has IMO Type Approval from Germany (BSH), as well as a Type Approval from the Liberian Administration. They received Product Design Assessment (PDA) from ABS, and are actively working with top tier Classification Societies such as Lloyd’s Register and Germanischer Lloyd to gain additional approvals. Ecochlor’s technology was one of the first accepted into the Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP). Their application for approval as an Alternative Management System (AMS) under the recently published guidelines by the USCG has been submitted and they expect to be one of the first commercial systems to obtain that approval. Ecochlor has a long history of working closely with the USCG that allows them to understand,


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work well with and satisfy the USCG as they move forward with their current and future requirements. Ecochlor technology is best suited for vessels with high ballast water pump capacities because of the low power requirement, size advantages and ease of installation as compared to other BWTS. The Ecochlor IMO Type Approvals include systems capable of treating up to 16,000 cubic meters per hour and has one of the lowest power consumption technologies, if not the lowest, available on the market today. The size of the system does not, as many other technologies do, grow in proportion to the ballast water flow rates either in physical size or in power consumption. A common challenge for all BWTS vendors is to find adequate space aboard vessels to install the BWTS equipment, especially in existing vessels. The Ecochlor system, with the exception of the filters, can be placed almost anywhere on the vessel. The retrofit market and the new building market have their differences and Ecochlor is well positioned to capture a significant portion of both. The flexibility of the BWTS and its ability to be installed in various locations on the vessel give them a competitive edge in either market. Ecochlor BWTS’ are the most effective and reliable ones on the market. The effectiveness and flexibility of the system in terms of ease of installation and lifecycle costs provide a very strong position in the market based on their technology. Ship owners will need this in order to satisfy both today’s performance standards, as well as future, more stringent requirements.

Maritech Group is a Greek registered group of companies dedicated to the supply of marine equipment. Having its roots since 1977 by Founder and Chairman A. Sorokas, M.Sc. Mech. Engineer; Maritech’s 2nd generation management continues the successful corporate evolution by combing past experience with new solutions, driven by current and future customer and market requirements. Maritech is one of the very few proven companies serving the Greek/Cyprus global maritime industry. Through the strategic development of its

Environmental Protection and Spares/ Machinery departments; Maritech provides integrated technical and environmental solutions to its customers. Company’s vision is to be a market leading company regarding its products, services and people – to satisfy customer needs and expectations. Maritech’s corporate and individual reliability and integrity are considered value-added factors from its customers. Being a customer-oriented company, team’s goal is customer satisfaction by delivering what they promise.

Maritech HR manager, Kereni Mary said: “We understand that the quality of a company’s human resources is one of the best predictors of its success and thus Maritech, is staffed with skilled personnel from the maritime industry; sharing the same vision. We believe in teamwork, resulting that our structure and operation chain is direct and effective”. Expertise is one of the critical factors to differentiate Maritech since its services are not limited to the supply of spares/equipment but also provides onsite services, operates


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specialized workshop, provides consultancy and after sales support to its customers. Maritech takes pride representing market leading manufacturers and unify expertise and resources, to serve more effectively its customer’s needs and expectations. They operate an Environmental Protection department and a Spares/Machinery department; each one specialized in its competent sector.

• No need for neutralization • No restrictions (salinity, temperature, quality of water) • Non corrosive to ship’s metals and coatings • Very low power needs • No treatment at Discharge, does not restrict stripping operation • Flexible installation, Ideal for Retrofit vessels.

Environmental Protection Integrated Marine Environmental Solutions

For more info, Go to www.maritechspares. com_environmental technologies.

IMO and International marine regulations mandate the use/installation of both Ballast Water Treatment Systems and Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems. Maritech representing pioneer manufacturers; offers superior, unique, proven solutions - at competitive prices for both New Builds and Retrofits.

Main Products • Clean Marine A/S, Norway – Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems EGCS (Scrubbers) Clean Marine EGCS is fully compliant with IMO Annex VI sulfur requirements. “Made By Ship Owners, For Ship Owners” Key Characteristics • One cleaning unit serves all exhaust sources (multistreaming) • Zero back pressure • No blockage risk • Operates in both open and closed mode (process fluid recirculation) • Low CO footprint • Suitable for new ship builds and retrofits • Easy to maintain and operate; Ecochlor Inc, USA - Ballast Water Treatment Systems BWTS Ecochlor BWTS meets or exceeds 10X IMO discharge standards. Key Characteristics • Proven, Reliable, Safe and Cost effective technology • Effective on all invasive species without generating by-products

Operating in close cooperation with its principals, Maritech’s project team is the key to getting your project done on time and within budget. Maritech’s commitment to successful projects includes various phases from concept study to installation and commissioning.

Spares/Machinery - Integrated Technical Solutions Having the overall expertise in FWG Distillers and Plate Heat Exchangers (PHEs), Maritech understands that this one of the distinguishing competitive advantages of company’s spare parts department. In addition, through strategic partners, they offer high quality spares for Pumps, Separators and, ME/AE parts.

Main Products FWG Distiller Parts - Titanium Plates, Gaskets and Spare Parts for Fresh Water Generators. Maritech supplies equivalent to OEM parts, for the below makes/types: NIREX: JWP-16C - JWP-26C - JWP-36C - DPU series AQUA: 65 - 80 - 100 – 125 series ATLAS DENMARK: AFGU series SONDEX: SFD 13 - SFD 23 series Titanium plates have 18 months warranty and followed by Material Certificate.

Heat Exchanger Parts - Plates (Titanium/ SUS) and Gaskets for Plate Heat Exchangers. Maritech supplies Gaskets equivalent to OEM, for all types of below makes: - Alfa-Laval - APV - Hisaka - Sondex - Gea - Tranter - Pasilac - Fischer - Reheat - Swep - Schmidt - Donghwa Vicarb. Maritech supplies Plates equivalent to OEM, for the all types of below makes: - Alfa-Laval - APV - Sondex - Gea. Through company’s market-leading global network, they provide customers full traceability, quality control and guarantees on all products supplied at very competitive prices.

Additional Services: Regasketing, troubleshooting, rotation plate packs, in-site/on-site maintenance, hydraulic testing of plate heat exchangers. • Pump Parts – IMO, Naniwa, Shinko, Teikoku, Ishii, Taiko • Separator Parts – Alfa Laval, Westfalia, Mitsubishi • Filter Parts – Moatti • M/E, A/E Licensee Parts For more info, Go to www.maritechspares. com_spare parts/machinery. Spare parts supplied are manufactured to stringent quality standards, are fully interchangeable to OEM parts, have 1 year warranty while offered at very competitive prices. Though corporate network, most of the parts can be delivered within 24 hours, worldwide. Maritech through its own offices in Greece, Cyprus, Hong Kong and Shanghai (logistic warehouse) as well its principal’s global network, is working to provide a network of strategically located dedicated spare-parts consolidation centres in the maritime hot spots across the globe.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

BalClorTM Ballast Water Management System INTERNAFTIKI S.A, a leading trading and service company in Piraeus – Greece, has recently announced an agency agreement with Sun Rui Marine Environment Engineering Co, Ltd. Sun Rui Marine Environment Engineering Co., Ltd in Qingdao has developed the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) BalClorTM already from 2007 on. Sun Rui as part of the CSIC Group has got decades of experiences in corrosion control, antifouling technology and water treatment as a research institute and manufacturer. The BalClorTM BWMS is based on systems used for large thermal conventional and nuclear power plants. Growth of organisms inside the cooling water systems is prevented by the disinfection of the cooling water. This technology is successfully working in more than 100 conventional and nuclear power plants all over the world in 24/7 operation. A similar technology is used for the disinfection of drinking water or large public swimming pools. The BalClorTM BWMS is working in 2 stages 1. The ballast water is prefiltered in an automatic back flushing filter to filter out organisms and particles larger than 40 µm. 2. From the filtered ballast water a partial stream is extracted and passed through the electrolyzation unit. In this unit sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is created. Reinjected into the main ballast water flow the sodium hypochlorite disinfects the ballast tanks reliably within a few hours. The prefilter (Picture1, Pos1) is installed in the main ballast water inlet pipe. It keeps back larger inorganic and organic particles which would cause unnecessary sedimentation in the tank and are more difficult to disinfect. The filter is back flushed from time to time to free it from the captured particles. The flushing is automatically initiated by the differential pressure between in- and outlet. During back flushing the filter mesh is cleaned without interrupting the ballast water flow. The removed particles and organisms are directly pumped back into the sea This is harmless for the environment, as the particles are remaining in the same location. The main component of the BalClorTM system is the Electrolysis unit EDU (Picture1, Pos2). Its core is the tubular plate type electrolytic cell. This special designed electrolytic cell requires only small installation space, is vibration proof and can work in low water temperatures down to 2° C and very low salinities of down to 3 PSU. Their main advantage however is the low power-consumption of <35kW for 1000m3 seawater under 20° C and 35 PSU. Only a small partial stream of about 1% is diverted from the main ballast line to the EDU. This gives the system a high flexibility for installation, because it has not to be installed in the ballast line, but can be installed in any convenient place, just connected with very small pipe connection. Additionally the module can be broken down to allow a real customized installation (Picture2)

The seawater in the EDU flows through the electrolytic cell where the disinfectant is created according to the following reaction: NaCl + H2O → NaOCl + H2↑ The NaOCl (sodium hypochlorite) is very effective and used for water disinfection since beginning of the 20th century. It creates a solution with the seawater and is injected back in the ballast line after passing a hydro cyclone. The hydro cyclone separates the hydrogen from the solution. The hydrogen is then diluted with air by 2 redundant blowers, so that the hydrogen concentration (0.28%) is much below the explosive limit (min 4%). For additional safety a H2 detector and a spark- arrestor are installed. The concentrated sodium hypochlorite is injected back in the ballast water pipe, where it is mixed sufficiently by the turbulences created by the ballast water pump. In the tank the disinfectant after a few hours kills reliably all germs and small organisms. The concentration of 5 ppm in the tank is very low, comparable to allowable limits for public pools. Due to this low concentration, there is no danger for health or damage of tank surfaces. The disinfectant is degrading quickly, so after a week it can be below 0.1 ppm, which is the allowed limit for discharge. However the disinfected tank remains clean for up to 6 months without regrowth. Under normal conditions the ballast water can be discharged now without further treatment. When the interval between ballasting and de-ballasting is very short however the concentration of the disinfectant may be still too high. In that case an automatic neutralizer unit ANU (Picture1, Pos3) is adding automatically neutralizing agent by means of a dozing pump. The neutralizing agent (sodium thiosulfate) is cheap, not harmful for health and can be stored for up to 5 years. The ANU consists of a tank, a blender, the dosing pump and the control unit. In case the ship has to ballast regularly in pure freshwater and the storage of a small amount of seawater is impossible, an Automatic Freshwater Module (AFM) can be installed. All operations of the BalClorTM BWMS are automatic and controlled by flow sensors and chemical sensors (TRO sensors) to guarantee the minimum necessary dosage and power consumption. The operator just need to press a start stop button or a signal from the ballast pumps starts the system automatically. The system has no consumable spare parts, as there are no movable parts except auxiliary pumps. Key components like the electrolyser have lifetimes exceeding the average ship’s lifetime. The only service necessary is a regular inspection of sensors and seals and a cleaning of the electrodes every couple of years. Summarized, the key advantages of the BalClorTM system are: • Proven technology • Long lasting disinfection effect (up to 6 months) • Treatment of turbid and brackish water possible • Easy to install, due to modular design and side-stream principle


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• Low spare part consumption • Low energy consumption (<35kW/1000m3 at 30 PSU salinity and 20 deg. C) • Low operation cost due to low energy consumption low spare part cost (<5USD/1000m3 water). The system is easy and simple to install in new buildings or as a retrofit. Only the pre-filter has to be installed in the main ballast pipe. The other equipment can be installed modular or separately wherever suitable. (Picture 3) Retrofits can be done in 10 to 12 days without the need of docking the vessels Since receiving the CCS type approval Sun Rui has got orders for more than 50 vessels from small Multi-Purpose Carriers over larger Bulk carriers to VLCCS as well as large Containerships and Car Carriers. Tests of the installed systems in normal operation i.e. in Japan have confirmed its efficiency. With the IMO Final Approval in 2010 and the CCS Type Approval in 2010, BalClorTM is the first Chinese BWMS system to be fully approved. In addition to the Type Approval of CCS BalClorTM has received a Type Approval by DnV and LR. USCG AMS approval is pending. Retrofits under supervision of other classes have been performed successfully. The technology of disinfection by sodium hypochlorite by Sun Rui has been identified as potentially able to fulfil much more stringent rules proposed for the future e. g. by California State Lands Commission. With the BalClorTM BWMS ship owners can have confidence to have a system which will serve him for the life time of his ship. Sun Rui’s BalClorTM is a safe, efficient and energy saving solution for the ships of tomorrow! Internaftiki is responsible for the promotion and sales of the Balclor Ballast Water Treatment System. Its target is to effectively cover both new building and retrofit market needs intendment for Greek interests, in alignment with the impending IMO regulations.

With the IMO Final Approval in 2010 and the CCS Type Approval in 2010, BalClorTM is the first Chinese BWMS system to be fully approved. In addition to the Type Approval of CCS BalClorTM has received a Type Approval by DnV and LR. USCG AMS approval is pending. Retrofits under supervision of other classes have been performed successfully.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Evangelos Moschoulis M.Sc.Eng. “Expert Plan Approval Engineer (Deputy HoD) in GL Ship Service Delivery - FS Hellas”.

Ballast Water Treatment – Briefing and tips by Germanischer Lloyd Ballast water transportation is one of the four major threats for marine environment besides oil pollution, over-exploitation of sea and climate changes. It has been found that every two months one new species is re-located outside its native environment, becomes competitor with other species and cause a negative impact on existing marine ecosystem and biodiversity. Exchanged ballast water carries toxic substances which becomes part of food chain and at the end harms human life. IMO introduced relevant regulations in 2004 and provided 2 standards, the exchange standard D1 (sequential, flow through and dilution method) and the performance standard D2 (Ballast Water Treatments). The implementation dates as of today are summarized below.

BWM Convention is not yet in force and the above time table is subject to ratification of the Convention. As of January 2013 it has been ratified by 36 countries which have the 29% of world’s GT. The minimum required is 30 countries which represent the 35% of world’s GT. When the remaining 6% of gross tonnage sign (e.g.Panama or some others with smaller tonnage), then the BWM Convention becomes internationally mandatory 12 months later. On the other hand US regulations on ballast water management and regular removal of hull fouling and sediment have been entered into force on 21st of July 2012. All ships calling US ports and intending to discharge ballast water are required to use an approved ballast water treatment system meeting the US ballast water discharge standard, which is similar to the IMO D-2 standard. Compliance date is 01/12/2013 for new ships, first scheduled dry docking after 01/01/2014 for ships constructed before

01/12/2013 with ballast water between 1500 and 5000 cub.m and first scheduled dry docking after 01/01/2016 for the rest. Despite the aforementioned schedule it has been announced that a practicability review will be carried out in 2016 by USCG to check the possibility to implement more stringent standard. The new US federal rules do not prevent individual states with wide environmental problem (such as California) to implement even tougher ballast water standards. All BWT systems, which are installed in vessels calling US ports, have to be approved by a test facility accepted by USCG even if BWTSs with an approved certificate (by Flag or Classification Society) might be accepted for use in US waters after a USCG review, with grace period of five years. For the time being none of the systems which have already been approved through the IMO process has gained USCG approval. The reason is that several test facilities are reported to be seeking acceptance by USCG. It seems that the first USCG type approved BWTS will not enter the market earlier than two years. There are 3 categories of BW treatment methods mechanical, physical and chemical. Mechanical methods (eg. cyclonic separation, filtration, coagulation) are used for elimination of large size of species from ballast water while physical (eg. cavitation, UV, ultra sound, de-oxygenation) and chemical (eg. chemical additives, electrolytic chlorination, ozonation) methods are used for elimination of medium and small size of species from ballast water such as microbes, bacteria and other non visible organisms. The following table provides some advantages and disadvantages of the most common used treatment methods in the market (as reported so far by individual parties).


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

The GL approval scheme for BWMS includes the following steps: 1) Type Approval Certificate by RO (for compliance with IMO) shall be provided, by the Makers. The environmental acceptance of process for active substances (basic & final approval) is given exclusively by IMO. 2) Type approval by GL certifies components and functions like pressure vessels, plastics, vibrations, temperatures, software tools, electro magnetic compatibility (EMC) etc. EMC shall be taken seriously under consideration especially for high voltage systems. This step is optional. 3) Plans of the treatment plant showing its connection with existing on board systems (structural, piping, electrical, monitoring, automation, safety systems etc) shall be submitted for approval to GL prior installation. 4) After successful survey and reporting, GL issues either a STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE with the BWM Convention or an INTERNATIONAL BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT CERTIFICATE or a DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE depending on whether convention has been ratified and flag is party of the convention. Beyond the granted approval there are some concerns based on the existing regulations and practical experience. Despite the IMO and Classification Approvals there is uncertainty whether the system will always maintain the D2 performance standard. IMO reads“Approval of a system however, does not ensure that a given system will work on all vessels or in all situations. To satisfy the Convention, a discharge must comply with the D-2 standard throughout the life of the vessel.” The type approval certificate guarantees the performance of the system, when treating the particular sea water which was used for the laboratory tests. The performance of each system when tested in a different marine environment could be different. Additionally there is no practical experience whether already installed BWMS fulfil IMO requirements. The main reason is that installed systems are not yet in operation due to additional operational costs. Technology is not yet fully developed and implemented (especially for sampling). It seems that implemented Regulations are in some cases ahead of technology. At this respect many parties within shipping community addressed the need for revision of the guidelines for approval of the ballast water management system (G8), to improve transparency and harmonization with sampling procedures, however it is decided any revision of the G8 guidelines to take place after ratification of the convention. Also in the IMO sub-committee for Bulk Liquids and Gases (BLG 17), which it was held between 4th and 8th of February, it was agreed to undertake a trial period for two years for port state control sampling and analysis once the IMO Convention has entered into force. Within this period detaining a vessel for non compliance with the BWMC standards is not allowed. After this period IMO will contact a review and amend the sampling and analy-

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sis protocol as necessary. The aforementioned arrangements will be adopted in next MEPC 65 meeting in May. The selection and the performance monitoring of the BWMS for both NB (by design) and FiS (by retrofit) is very important as it depends on various different parameters like: • Ship routing (country, ports, rivers, temperature, salinity, sediments disposal etc) • Ship type, size & age (operational issues and ballast capacity) • Tank coating (certification & testing reports by makers / suppliers) • Installation of the BWT system on board (arrangement, footprint, weight, connections etc) • Pressure loss (varies 0.3 to 3.5 bars) • Energy consumption (load balance, when the power is needed) • Time & Occurrence (how often the BW is discharged) • Maintenance (consumables & spare parts availability and after sales service) • Cost (purchase, installation, operational, maintenance, training) Owners are advised to spend time making the right selection of the system The decision about a BWT system is not easy & unique process, due to the complexity of the problem although some BWT system suppliers make the whole procedure to seem simple during quotation. According to estimations about 68,000 vessels shall implement the BW treatment system worldwide until end of the decade (abt. 24 ships per day!). At present, 100 shipyards worldwide are capable of doing this job and about 45 will be the certified manufacturers by the end of 2013 with 70 available systems. Since nobody is sure that this bottleneck (between 2016 to 2018) will be eliminated, it was recommended an extension of the implementation dates for fleet in service, however this proposal creates a harmonization issue with USCG set dates. Cost of making the necessary changes varies between $1m and $5m per vessel in the worst downturn the last years (totally abt. $60bn between 2011 and 2016). The demand will be increased significantly in a few years, so the suppliers do not intend to lower the prices, yet. On the other hand treatment systems seem to provide few or none strategic operational benefits to the old ships and are rather a tool to achieve compliance. Many observers believe that IMO BWM Convention as a whole, is in doubt. However, due to non existence of feasible alternatives (land-based treatment plants, ballast water barges or port to port comparison need plenty of time and money for research) the IMO Convention is intended to be ratified, maybe within this year. Being the authors of this article we will be more than happy to receive any inquiry on the subject. So, please do not hesitate to contact GL service delivery department in Piraeus: FS Hellas (CL-D-FH), 85, Akti Miaouli, 185 38 Piraeus Phone: +30 210 4291683, Fax.: +30 210 4290357 e-mail) : fs-hellas@gl-group.com http://www.gl-group.com/en/snb/ship_safety_environment.php


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ABS

Charles Dorchak Environmental Solutions Group, ABS

Ballast water management regulations and guidance – the evolution continues For more than a decade, shipowners and operators, naval architects, marine engineers, ballast water treatment technology providers, Flag States, Coastal States and Classification Societies have been formulating solutions associated with the development, approval, energy efficiency and installation of ballast water treatment systems. These discussions have focused on issues of footprint, ease of installation, power consumption, compatibility with existing ballast systems, effects of treated ballast water on ballast tank coatings, storage of chemicals and cost, both in terms of CapEx and OpEx. Despite the development of practical solutions as well as improvements to the treatment systems, concerns still remain. While the majority of owners and operators have generally accepted the concerns of the international community and coastal states regarding the potential impact of the discharge of ballast water containing invasive species, they continue to have reservations about the treatment systems’ reliability in real world application. Reducing sampling uncertainty In response to these concerns, the International Maritime Organization’s Sub-Committee on Bulk Liquids and Gases (BLG) at its recently concluded meeting, agreed to several draft circulars/revisions to existing IMO Resolutions to help reduce industry’s uncertainties. Included in the circulars is guidance on ballast water sampling and analysis for trial use that is in accordance with the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention and its Guidelines (G2), recommendations related to the trial period for reviewing In addition, guidance on improving and standardizing the BWM Circular for sampling and analysis as well as information reporting on Type Approved BWM Systems and draft amendments to the Guidance for Administrations on the Type Approval process for ballast water and sediments were included. Recognizing that sampling and testing analysis is high priority issue, a BLG working group updated a draft circular regarding ballast water sampling and analysis procedures, incorporating state-of-the art sampling and analysis approaches and methodologies. The BLG subcommittee also recognized that the draft circular is a ‘living’ document that is likely to need revision both during and after the recommended trial period, to include lessons learned and to incorporate new technologies that may become available. The current version of the draft circular provides general recommendations on the methodologies and approaches to sampling and analysis to test for compliance

with the D-1 and D-2 performance standards contained in the IMO BWM Convention. The BLG Sub-Committee agreed on a trial period to provide for time required to validate the proposed approaches and methodologies and to enable these methods to be fully integrated into Port State Control (PSC) procedures so as to support the practical utility for determining compliance with the Convention. Noting that sampling methods are rapidly improving, the SubCommittee called on members and observers to further develop sampling and analysis protocols based on the range of options outlined in the draft circular for inclusion in future revisions. The proposed trial period will be for two to three years following the entry into force of the Convention. It is important to note that the Sub-Committee agreed that the sampling by PSC should be no more stringent than the sampling and the analysis used for Type Approval. The goal at the end of the trial period would be to have a suite of acceptable procedures that can be used for sampling and analyzing ballast water in a globally consistent manner. It is recommended that ship owners and operators obtain a copy of the draft circular ‘Guidance to Ballast Water Sampling and Analysis for Trial Use in Accordance with the BWM Convention and Guidelines (G2)’ to gain a working level understanding of the proposed compliance testing and advise ship crews of the expectations and potential procedures that they may need to undertake. By doing so crew will be better prepared to respond to the requirements of PSC officers and better informed of the protocols employed. Improving testing transparency Included within the agenda of 64th session of the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) which met in October 2012, was the longstanding item of ‘harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water’. While many issues were discussed within the review group and the committee’s plenary session, one of the most pressing topics was the consideration, interpretation and adoption of BWM-related guidelines. Following extensive discussions the Committee decided that a new set of amendments to the Guidelines for the Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems (G8) was unnecessary, but that clearer interpretations and additional guidance on the application of these Guidelines would be appropriate. As a result, the Committee agreed that the most effective course of action was to update resolution MEPC.175 (58) ‘Information


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Reporting on Type Approved Ballast Water Management Systems’ and BWM.2/Circ. 28 ‘Guidance for Administrations on the Type Approval Process for Ballast Water Management Systems in accordance with Guidelines (G8)’. The Committee also invited member states and Non-Governmental Organizations to provide submissions to BLG 17, with the intention of achieving greater transparency in the performance of BWM systems during Type Approval testing and to address a range of related testing and operational issues. On the basis of submissions received, BLG agreed to proposed amendments to resolution MEPC.175 (58), including a copy of any appendices to the Type Approval certificate which includes details on all imposed limiting conditions on the operation of the ballast water management conditions specified in paragraph 6.1 of the Guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems. These limiting conditions include any applicable environmental conditions (eg: salinity, UV transmittance, temperature) and/or system operational parameters (eg: min/max pressure, pressure differentials, min/max Total Residual Oxidants) as well as details of the protocols according to which testing was undertaken. BLG also developed draft amendments to BWM.2/ Circ.28 to enhance the overall testing and certification of the Type Approval process. These draft amendments include a provision requiring the submission of sufficient information to verify the operation of the ballast water management system in different salinity and temperature ranges, Suggested improvements to the installation related to safety and additional testing, as well as the submission of land-based and shipboard tests results, successful or otherwise to the Administration were also included. A new paragraph was also added to BWM.2/Circ. 28 requiring BWM systems to be provided with self-monitoring equipment that will monitor and record sufficient data to verify the correct operation of the system. When implemented and combined, the enhanced communication and testing will enable ship owners and operators to be better informed when evaluating BWM systems. Consideration should be given in advance of the implementation, requesting vendors to provide the information specified in the revised MEPC.175(58) to assist in their system selection process. US Coast Guard/EPA developments In terms of the ongoing implementation of US Ballast Water Management Regulations, which entered into force on 21 June 2012, it should be recalled that these regulations provide for the use of BWM systems approved by Administrations other than the US for any vessel operating and discharging ballast water into US waters. These systems are required to be tested in accordance with the provisions in the IMO BWM Convention as well as the guidelines which support the Convention and be approved by an IMO member state. The US Coast Guard’s ‘bridging management strategy’ which accepts these systems as being equivalent to ballast water exchange is referred to as Alternate Management Systems (AMS). The adoption of this strategy is intended to accelerate the use of ballast water treatment systems and to gain a better understanding of the type approval process. To date 11 systems have applied for AMS acceptance and the Coast Guard is nearing the issuance of its acceptance of the first system. Owners intending to operate in US waters are encouraged to review the US ballast water regulations and when selecting BWM systems for

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use in these waters, request confirmation that the system has been submitted to the USCG for evaluation. In addition, owners are encouraged to become familiar with the Coast Guard’s guidance on evaluating a vessel’s ballast water management plan. In accordance with 33 CFR 151.2050(g), each vessel equipped with ballast tanks must develop and maintain onboard a BWM plan with associated documents. The intent of this plan is to detail the safe and effective shipboard procedures for BWM. The central elements of the plan should be the processes equipment, and vessel safety measures used when implementing the vessel’s BWM strategy. At a minimum, each BWM plan must be specific to the vessel, must show that there is a BWM strategy for the vessel and allow the master or other officers serving on the vessel to understand and implement the BWM strategy. While many of the specific elements required to be indicated on the BWM Plan are similar to those contained in the BWM Convention and the IMO G4 Guidelines, the Coast Guard regulations also require that fouling maintenance procedures be documented in a standalone document or be integrated as part of the vessel’s operational procedures and referenced in the BWM plan. The intent of 33 CFR 151.2050(g) is to provide effective measures for controlling the growth of organisms on submerged vessel surfaces. These fouling maintenance procedures assist in preventing the transport and introduction of aquatic nuisance species into the waters of the United States via fouling on vessels. It should also be noted that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of completing the development of the 2013 Vessel General Permit (VGP). It is very likely that this VGP will contain a numeric discharge standard for ballast water as well as specific regulations relating to the monitoring of systems on a periodic basis, with the results reported to the US EPA on an annual basis. In addition, the 2013 VGP is expected to contain requirements addressing the maximum amount of residuals that can be discharged and it is very conceivable that the maximum discharge residuals will differ both in composition and amount than what is currently accepted by IMO. Due to the importance of obtaining, to the greatest degree possible, assurance that their vessels are in compliance with all the applicable legislation in the US, it is strongly recommended that the USCG and EPA websites(www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg522/cg5224 and http://cfpub. epa.gov.npdes/vessels/vgpermit.cfm)are reviewed on a regular basis as both agencies go to great lengths to keep the maritime industry informed of latest developments. ABS provides assistance With the regulatory picture continuing to evolve, the question remains as to whether the amendments and revisions discussed above go far enough in reducing the concerns expressed by owners and operators. ABS is continuing to support its clients with the sharing of knowledge designed to help manage the transition towards a world of regulated BWM. To assist shipowners and operators in understanding these complex and often confusing regulations, ABS has held a program of BWM seminars around the world. These seminars have been well attended and participation of delegates has demonstrated a continued need for high quality impartial information on the subject. Owners are encouraged to contact their local ABS office to determine when the next seminar is scheduled for their area. ABS is also revising the ABS Ballast Water Advisory and it is anticipated that this publication will be available by the end of June 2013.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Dr Stelios Kyriacou Technical Director, Ballast Water Management Systems, Environmental Solutions, Wärtsilä Ship Power

Demand for effective ballast water systems grows as shipping regulation tightens In December 2012, the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV BWMS was granted Type Approval in accordance with requirements of the 2004 IMO Convention for the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. This endorses Wärtsilä’s BWMS market entry and provides ship owners with greater cost effective BWMS technology choice, and installation flexibility through its modular design and approach. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is the first system to have been fully endorsed and type approved by the Flag Administration of the Netherlands and is the result of a focused development program, which commenced in 2010. The AQUARIUS® range of BWMS became part of the Wärtsilä portfolio with the acquisition of Hamworthy plc in January 2012 and further reaffirms Wärtsilä’s commitment to develop environmental solutions for the marine industry.

Ballast water treatment is a significant issue and on the agenda of every ship owner and operator this year, with regulatory debate and a growing interest in technology driving demand for effective ballast water management systems. The latest IMO developments in the ballast water regulation debate include a proposal to implement a two-year trial period for port state control sampling and analysis techniques once the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) enters into force. This reflects the need for clarity when it comes to sampling methods for assessment of compliance and during the trial period no sanctions or vessel detentions will be carried out based on sampling according to the proposal. After the two-year period a review will be conducted by the IMO to assess which methods should continue to be used and to amend the sampling and analysis protocols as necessary. This proposal developed by BLG17 (Bulk Liquids and Gases) will now be forwarded to the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), for its approval and adoption when it meets in May this year. Amidst ongoing regulatory debates, demand for type approved BWMS continues. This signifies that ship owners are willing to embrace the technology and with support from credible marine suppliers, to provide ship specific solutions from equipment only to full turnkey delivery, meet their environmental respectability targets. Ensuring minimal total cost of ownership, whilst remaining compliant with environmental regulations is the challenge for every ship owner and operator across the global fleet. Ballast water management systems will become intrinsic to compliance and the importance of a common type approval regulatory framework for this technology will therefore continue to drive ongoing development and improvement of the BWMS market. Recent ballast water management requirements introduced by the United States Coast Guard have further boosted demand for BWMS that have been validated by the IMO’s rigorous type approval process. The USCG regulations 33 CFR Part 151 and 46 CFR Part 162 entered into force in June 2012 and applies to all new ships constructed on or after December 2013. Existing ships will be included under these regulations from 2014 onwards. These new regulations require vessels operating in US waters to ultimately have a BWMS that is type approved in accordance with USCG requirements. Currently, those BWMS that have an IMO type approval can be considered for Alternate Management System (AMS) status, which will enable ship operations to continue until US-type approved BWMS become available. Over recent years, there has been a flourish of regional regulations with hugely diversified compliant requirements that demand varied, and sometimes challenging operational and management practices onboard. To overcome this, BWMS regulations will play a critical role in ensuring a level playing field across the global fleet, with type approval safeguarding quality and performance standards. In December 2012, the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV BWMS was granted Type Approval in accordance with requirements of the 2004 IMO Convention for the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. This endorses Wärtsilä’s BWMS market entry and


The Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is based on a two stage treatment process using proven and validated system components. Upon uptake, seawater is first passed through a back washing screen type filter.

provides ship owners with greater cost effective BWMS technology choice, and installation flexibility through its modular design and approach. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is the first system to have been fully endorsed and type approved by the Flag Administration of the Netherlands and is the result of a focused development program, which commenced in 2010. The AQUARIUS® range of BWMS became part of the Wärtsilä portfolio with the acquisition of Hamworthy plc in January 2012 and further reaffirms Wärtsilä’s commitment to develop environmental solutions for the marine industry. The Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is based on a two stage treatment process using proven and validated system components. Upon uptake, seawater is first passed through a back washing screen type filter. The filtered seawater then passes through a UV chamber where ultra-violet light is used to disinfect the water before entering the ballast tank. On discharge, water from the ballast tank is pumped through the UV chamber for a second time to complete the disinfection process prior to discharge. The filter is not used during discharge. The modular approach provides maximum flexibility during system design and installation where key components are positioned to suit available space, a major advantage when considering retrofit projects. Retrofit installations can be carried out either during dry-docking, at the quayside or whilst the ship is in operation, thus minimising any impact on ship downtime. Wärtsilä provides a complete BWMS turnkey service from concept technical support through ship survey and system design, engineering, project management, procurement, installation, commissioning and a comprehensive global after-sales spares and service support. This ensures the benefit of full lifecycle value

from Wärtsilä, and represents best value in terms of total cost of ownership for the customer. Working in partnership with the Netherlands’ Flag Administration, independent testing facilities and the leading classification society Lloyds Register, Wärtsilä tested and optimised the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV BWMS during both land-based and shipboard trials conducted in accordance with IMO requirements. Land-based tests were conducted at the NIOZ (Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research) test facility and ship trials onboard the ‘MV TWISTER’, an LPG carrier owned by Chemgas Shipping BV. The vessel is one of two 2,000 dwt sister vessels specifically designed to transport LPG and chemical gases in shallow waters on European coastal and inland trades. To minimise the impact on ship operations, mechanical installation on MV TWISTER was carried out over a four day scheduled off-charter period at the quayside in Rotterdam. Working in partnership with Chemgas Shipping BV space and access challenges were overcome, facilitated by the AQUARIUS® modular design approach and Wärtsilä’s BWMS service support. This Wärtsilä turnkey installation also included all required Class and Flag approvals. With a number of new build orders to date and advanced stage discussions with other ship owners and operators looking to install Wärtsilä’s BWMS in the near future, this will prove to be a critical piece of technology to assist the global fleet for years to come. Whilst type approval of Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV represents one milestone on the journey to efficient BWMS development, the market will continue to demand further technological innovation in line with regulatory development. Working in partnership with the customer, Wärtsilä is committed to continuous product development and to the delivery of compliant, progressive and cost effective environmental solutions.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Charalampos Anastasakis Marine Design Support Surveyor

Guidance on installation of Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS) The BWM Convention has not yet entered into force pending ratification from 30 IMO Member States representing not less than 35% of the world tonnage. Following the latest ratification by Denmark in September 2012, the number of contracting Parties to the Convention has reached 36 representing 29.07% of the world tonnage. Upon entry into force, Regulation B-3 of the Convention will require ships to treat ballast water to a specified standard (D-2). Therefore, all ships to which this Regulation applies will be required to install and use a type approved BWTS.

1. BWTS design and operational safety requirements

To ensure that the ship’s sea water ballast system remains operational in the event of a BWTS failure or emergency, a suitable by-pass which can be remotely and manually controlled is to be installed. Operation of the by-pass valve is to activate an audible and visual alarm in all stations from which the ballast water operations are controlled. Alarms are to be recorded by the control equipment. In general, safety procedures are to be developed for managing and minimising risks in the design and operation of the treatment unit. BWTS using chemicals/active substances are to have fully developed safety procedures covering areas such as: - loading chemicals into storage tanks - prevention of overflow during filling - safe handling and storage of chemicals on board - accidental spills and leakages - residual chemicals and by-product gases prior to discharge - chemical inhalation or contact with skin - management and disposal of wastes from filtered material. Advice on the storage and handling of chemicals is contained in the IMO Circular BWM.2/Circ.20. Safety features to prevent accidental discharge or operation are to be incorporated including level indications, temperature and pressure sensors, gas detection systems, chemical dosage and monitoring systems. All shutdown conditions are to be defined. Provision of sampling points and the sampling process are to comply with the requirements of MEPC.173(58) – Guidelines for Ballast Water Sampling (G2). Provision is to be made for record keeping of all ballast water operations with the capability to print reports and log or electronically store data. Records should include:

- records of operation, including any malfunctions or bypass operation - all essential parameters necessary to ensure proper functioning - the date and time of the start and end of each ballast operation - the ballast operation mode (loading, discharge, transfer) For BWTS using chemicals/neutralising agents, quantities of such chemicals are to be available. Chemical storage tanks are to be designed and installed to minimise the risk of damage through impact and chemical release under all sea conditions. Sufficient secondary containment arrangements are to be provided to contain all chemical spills from the chemical storage tank. Monitoring equipment is to be provided to ensure discharge of treated ballast water does not exceed acceptable discharge limits to sea. The chemical toxicity and quality of ballast water discharged to sea can be regulated by local or national water quality regulations and can vary from port to port; these limits are to be adhered to where relevant in addition to the IMO D-2 standard. BWTS manufacturers are to provide evidence that during ship installation treated ballast water has no detrimental effect on the ship’s specific ballast water tank coatings. Other considerations such as accelerated corrosion may be considered. Such evidence is to be supported by adequate test data.

2. Piping materials

For BWTS using chemicals/active substances, consideration is to be given to selecting materials which are chemically compatible with the shipboard sea water ballast pipe fittings and ballast tanks. Plastic pipes proposed for connecting the BWTS with other shipboard sea water ballast piping are to meet the fire endurance requirements of the LR Rules and Regulations, with reference to IMO Resolution A.753(18). In addition, the use of plastic pipes on ships is to comply with each national flag authority’s specific requirements. During various operational activities involving the BWTS (operation of ballast stripping and eductors, for example) the D-2 discharge standards are to be complied with.

3. Electrical systems

In case of a single failure compromising the operation of the BWTS, audible and visual alarm signals are to be given in all sta-


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Hellenic Lloydâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tions from which ballast water operations are controlled. Such failures include: - power failure to the BWTS or any subsystem - failure of any sensor, meter, or recording device - a hazardous condition detected by the control system - operation outside the set parameters of the BWTS.

- system selection and fitness for purpose - specific ballasting requirements (operational requirements, ballasting rate, etc) - size and footprint of installation - integration with existing pipe work; - operational issues.

4. Shipboard installations

The following details related to the suitability of all equipment to be contained within the space must be provided in accordance with the Rules and Regulations: - safe-type certification details of all electrical equipment - the gas group and temperature class of equipment - ventilation arrangements - a hazardous zone assessment against a recognised standard.

All proposed BWTS installations on board LR classed ships are to comply fully with statutory requirements and the relevant LR Rules and Regulations. 4.1. BWTS restrictions in hazardous areas The installation of BWTS in hazardous areas will be considered on a case-by-case basis against the requirements of the LR Rules and Regulations (Electrical equipment for use in explosive gas atmospheres or in the presence of combustible dusts). Installation is not to permit ballast water discharge from hazardous areas to non-hazardous areas. By-products of treated ballast water in ballast water tanks located in non-hazardous areas are not to render the area hazardous. 4.2. Installation in cargo pump room For existing ships (those already in service) and ships under construction, installation of BWTS within the cargo pump room is to be avoided if practical. For ships under construction, an alternative location for the BWTS is to be considered at the design stage. If restrictions imposed by space and system operation prevent practical installation in other locations; consideration may be given to installation in the cargo pump room. In all cases, suitable technical justification to this effect must be provided taking into account the following points. Installation in the cargo pump room may invalidate the compliance of existing systems and equipment located within the space. Consequently, the pump room may need to be re-certified. If the installation is also a source of hazard (hydrogen, ozone etc), any equipment located in the space is to be suitably certified for the hazards expected. For installation on existing vessels this may necessitate the re-assessment of the existing equipment for suitability with the newly identified hazard. For some existing ships, where adequate space for installation may be limited, consideration is to be given at the earliest opportunity to the selection of a type of BWTS that offers the flexibility of installation of the various components in the shipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current available spaces and ease of integration with existing ship systems without violating statutory requirements or the LR Rules and Regulations. Technical and operational justifications are to be provided to clarify the reasons that prevent installation in other non-hazardous or less hazardous locations. In addition, reference is to be made to:

A full risk assessment of the impact of the installation in the proposed location should also be conducted, as required by the LR Rules and Regulations, including mitigating factors agreed with the owner/operator to reduce or remove the risks, supported by documentary evidence. The risk assessment may include: - high/low level - high flow/low flow/reverse flow - high/low pressure - high/low temperature - leakage - corrosion/erosion - contamination - loss of power - loss of utilities - control system failuremixing failures - heating/cooling failures - blockage/fouling - poor separation - fire/explosion - toxic materials - maintenance - start up - shutdown - emissions. 4.3. Aft peak tanks (APT) By-products of treated ballast water in APT are not to render the area above APT hazardous. An APT designated as a ballast water tank can transfer content to a location in a hazardous area on the following conditions: 1. The BWTS is located in a hazardous area. 2. There shall be no ballast water supply from the hazardous area to the aft peak tank or engine room. 3. If ballast water from the APT is to be discharged to a hazardous area, the piping is to be provided with two non-return valves. 4. All pipes penetrating from the APT to the hazardous area must be led above main deck level. 5. The ballast water pipes on main deck are to be well supported. 6. Penetrations of engine room and pump room bulkhead are not permitted. 7. Where a removable piece is used, the pipe is to be secured using blanks after ballasting and de-ballasting. For more information on Ballast Water Management visit www. lr.org/bwm


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

MHI and Mitsui O.S.K. Lines Codevelop Japan’s First ClassNK Approved Installation Technology for Container-Type Ballast Water Treatment System

dedicated water tanks to provide stability and adjust the ship’s trim as desired, according to cargo load and other factors. International concern about ballast water has increased since the late 1980’s due to the possibility of transporting marine organisms beyond their habitat boundaries and affecting marine ecosystem and biodiversity conservation. In response, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments in February 2004, an agreement which is currently in the process of being ratified by IMO members prior to its entry into force. Going forward, MHI will widely promote the easy-to-install advantages of container-type BWTS to ship owners and builders, and aggressively explore BWTS installation needs for container ships and other types of vessel already in service. Note: Concept Approval of Installation for Packaged Container Ballast Water Treatment System in Cargo Hold.

-- Will Enable Faster BWTS Retrofitting and Deployment --

Hyde marine® leads ballast water treatment system installations

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI), working jointly with Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL), has developed installation technology of a ballast water treatment system (BWTS) enclosed in a standard-size freight container in the hold of container ships. The system using container-type BWTS design is the first to receive the concept approval from Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (ClassNK)*. The new technology will significantly reduce BWTS retrofitting turnaround time in comparison to engine-room BWTS installation. Going forward, MHI and MOL will strengthen proposal-based marketing of the new technology as a key solution for Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention compliance. The container-type BWTS houses most devices necessary for ballast water treatment in a 40-ft high-cube container - approx. 12.2meters (m) in length, 2.4m in width x 2.9m in height. Within the container, the devices are arranged to maximize available space and facilitate maintenance. When installing the container-type BWTS in the ship hold, preliminary surveys are simplified because the only major work needed is ballast water intake/discharge and power line connection. In most cases, work can be completed in approximately two weeks, about seven days less than installation in an engine room. The work does not require cutting of the ship’s side shell, and can be completed at pier, eliminating the need to drydock. The container-type BWTS is ideal for ships that do not have enough space in the engine room for related systems and piping. MHI and MOL will verify the new system’s operation by installing it on MOL COMPETENCE, an 8,100 teu (20-ft equivalent unit) container ship that MHI built at its Nagasaki Shipyard and Machinery Works and delivered to MOL in 2008. MHI has already begun detailed design of a system with the capacity to process 750 cubic meter (m3) of ballast water per hour on the ship, with installation slated for this spring. Ballast water consists of seawater taken into and discharged from

Since Hyde Marine® installed the maritime industry’s first Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) on the M/S Regal Princess cruise vessel in 2000, the company’s Hyde GUARDIAN® technology has emerged as one of the top BWTS of choice among shipowners around the world seeking to comply with pending IMO ballast water management regulation. The company’s chemical-free Hyde GUARDIAN BWTS, which in 2009 was one of the first BWT Systems in the world to receive IMO Type Approval, now has more than 200 Hyde GUARDIAN units sold or installed on virtually every vessel type to help the maritime industry control the spread of non-indigenous aquatic organisms. The 200th unit was purchased by Korean-based Hyundai Mipo Dockyard Co., LTD, for the Sovcomflot (SCF) Novorossiysk Shipping Company (Novoship), the largest shipping company in Southern Russia. The Hyde GUARDIAN units will be installed on two LPG tankers in 2013. The Hyde GUARDIAN BWTS harnesses the technological advantages of automatic backwashing depth filtration and powerful UV disinfection. The filter and UV are used during ballasting, and the water receives a second dose of UV prior to discharge. The Hyde GUARDIAN system offers a compact, modular design with low power consumption, low-pressure drop, and simple, fully automatic operation, making it a technically attractive solution for any type and size of vessel. “Hyde Marine is a pioneer in early ballast water research and continues its position as a technology leader,” said Chris Todd, director of sales at Hyde Marine, Inc. “We are committed to building long term relationships with shipbuilders, owners, and operators to help them comply with pending ballast water treatment regulations.” The Hyde GUARDIAN BWTS was the first BWT System accepted into the U.S. Coast Guard’s Shipboard Technology Evaluation Program (STEP). Calgon Carbon’s UV Technology Division and Hyde Marine received ISO 9001:2008 accreditation from the registrar Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the ANAB (ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board) in 2010. The Hyde GUARDIAN BWTS can also be retrofitted in-transit in existing vessels, preventing downtime typically associated with other BWT Systems now entering the market.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

OceanSaver is ripping up the rulebook of the ballast water treatment (BWT) industry

Coldharbour Marine are proud to announce the first ever retrofit of a ballast water treatment system to a VLCC

For just 10% of the cost of its market-leading BWT system, OceanSaver has announced that it will configure new ships for the easy installation of a unit at a later date, fitting base components to allow its typeapproved system to be simply ‘plugged in’ when required. This is a first for the industry. Tor Atle Eiken, Senior Vice President Sales & Marketing of OceanSaver; believes the offer is genuinely compelling when set against the current confusion that has seemingly engulfed the entire BWT issue. “IMO’s BWT mandates are looming large on the horizon,” he explains, “with all tonnage required to comply with the legislation and fit systems by 2016. However, several key territories are yet to ratify these IMO treaties, creating uncertainty – not to mention the potential for major system installation bottlenecks - right across the industry. “As a result, many shipowners are simply delaying planning for compliance… a dangerous game to play when the future operation of their vessels is at stake.” OceanSaver’s 10% deal – which sees essential piping and power supply installed, alongside other key base parts such as system bed plates and connections – gives owners and operators peace of mind, without the need for substantial financial outlay in an increasingly cost conscious sector. Once configured, ships are essentially future-proofed. If the conventions are ratified, as expected, systems can be fitted quickly, minimising the downtime of ships that can command day rates of tens of thousands dollars. The huge demand for BWT systems, upon ratification, will also push up dry docking prices exponentially, meaning lengthy retrofitting operations will cost a premium. OceanSaver’s ‘plug in’ preparations will ensure ships leave the yards in record time, keeping installation costs to an absolute minimum. “It’s a win-win situation,” Eiken adds. “It gives shipowners a kind of insurance policy, whereby they are prepared for any outcome. If the mandates are ratified the system can be quickly fitted, but if not then the shipowner has only paid a fraction of the price of complete installation. The sense of security that provides is something simply unheard of in the BWT arena.” Proof of the compelling nature of the 10% proposition has been immediately provided by Foremost Group, which has charged OceanSaver with configuring two bulk carriers for future system installation. Preparation work is due to take place on the vessels 2013 and main installation during first dry docking or according to IMO rules and regulations. Eiken is delighted at Foremost Group’s acceptance of the offer: “It demonstrates that we were right to break with tradition in the sector and give people something completely new”. “But in order to make this happen a close and open cooperation between OceanSaver and Foremost Group was needed,” Eiken adds. Foremost Group is a respected and well-known shipping company in the industry and it’s great to see a company of their pedigree signing up to accept our revolutionary installation concept.

The 308,000 dwt Gulf Marine vessel ‘Alfa Glory’ was fitted out by Coldharbour Engineers at the COSCO Zhousan shipyard in China. The ‘Alfa Glory’ is one of the largest vessels afloat anywhere in the world, and so far certainly the largest vessel ever to be retrofitted with a ballast water treatment system. For this particular installation all the main equipment was located on an area of open deck adjacent to the engine casing. The equipment was then subsequently enclosed within a new purpose built deck housing, an elegant and simple solution to the limited availability of space on board ship which is required to accommodate a ballast water treatment system. The Coldharbour Marine GLDTM ballast water treatment system is an inert gas based ‘in-tank, in-voyage’ treatment rather than the more common in-line systems which treat the ballast water at uptake/discharge. Consequently there are no concerns over flow rates and the usual associated problems. The inert gas which drives the Coldharbour Marine GLDTM system is provided by a Coldharbour Marine Sea GuardianTM third generation inert gas generator linked to a series of Gas Lift Diffusers mounted within the ballast water tanks, which is where the full treatment takes place during a portion of the ships voyage.

OceanSaver has taken the strategic decision to establish a base in the world’s number one shipbuilding centre, South Korea. The Norwegian company has expanded rapidly since opening its doors in Drammen, near Oslo, in 2003, forging a strong reputation for its reliable, robust and technically advanced systems in the dynamic BWT market. Asia has recently emerged as a key growth driver for the company, with the team opening its first office on the continent in Shanghai, China, in 2011. OceanSaver is currently making preparations to open its South Korean office in Busan, on 1 January 2013. The operation will be led by General Manager Hyunsoo Jeon, with Sales Executive Jae Wook Bae taking charge of the local sales division. South Korea, which last year accounted for over 37% of all shipping newbuilds, is the latest target market for the ambitious business – for obvious reasons, explains Houtan Houshangi, CEO of OceanSaver: “It makes perfect business sense for us to move into the world’s number one shipbuilding destination,” he says. “Our new, dedicated office in Busan will allow us to provide local clients with what we believe is an unparalleled level of support within the sector – giving them technical expertise, project support, sales and commissioning support, and comprehensive OceanSaver product service right on their doorsteps.”


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Pål Sanner CEO, Optimarin

“The industry is changing and we’re evolving rapidly to retain our market leading position.” Optimarin announces record-breaking results for 2012 Ballast water treatment (BWT) system specialist Optimarin has revealed that 2012 has been a year of breath-taking development for the business, resulting in its highest ever revenues and staff numbers. A busy orderbook promises more growth for 2013, with the firm’s simple and flexible systems in demand from many of the most respected names in the shipping industry. Optimarin, a genuine pioneer in its field, installed the world’s first BWT system in 2000, and has this year surpassed the landmark of achieving a total of 200 individual system orders. This has helped push revenues for 2012 to around 150million NOK (27million USD), while driving up operating profits. Pål Sanner, Optimarin’s CEO, is pleased with the results. “This has been our best year in business,” he stresses, “roughly doubling our revenues from last year (77million NOK in 2011), a feat that we have now achieved for each of the last four years.” Sanner continues: “We have spent the last decade building our reputation for providing simple, flexible and reliable BWT systems to the shipping industry. This pedigree is now really paying off for the team, and we look forward to cementing our position at the head of the BWT sector in 2013.” The last year has seen orders from a host of respected players in shipping, with Saga Shipholding, The British Royal Navy and Evergreen, among others, opting for Optimarin’s easy-to-install, modular BWT system. Business has been conducted on a truly global level, with installations in key shipyards such as the Hyundai, Oshima, Samsung and DSME operations in Asia and the STX yards in Europe. The systems, which are suitable for vessels of up to 60,000 dwt, have found favour with owners of a broad range of ships, such as Offshore Supply Vessels (OSVs), bulk carriers, container vessels and ro-ro vessels. This success has facilitated a rapid growth in staff numbers at the firm’s base in Stavanger, Norway, with numbers now up to 40. Worldwide, the firm now has satellite offices in six international locations (Germany, Japan, USA, UK, Italy and China) and more than 20 agents spread across the globe. Sanner envisages more of the same for next year, noting: “By December 2013 we forecast that our headcount will have risen substantially again. In particular, we’ll be looking to grow our team internationally to provide our customers with the best possible service, exactly where and when they need it.” He continues: “In Norway, we’ll also be moving into new offices, providing us with roughly double the space we have now. These offices will also house custom-built testing facilities, as we continue our drive to test and develop the very best systems available in the marketplace.” In terms of financial growth, Sanner predicts revenues in the region of 240million NOK (43.1million USD) for the year ahead, with a similar, proportional rise in operating profits. “We have aggressive growth plans for the business and we’re firmly on track with them. If final ratification of the IMO’s Ballast Water Management mandate is forthcoming this year, we can expect our performance figures to be even higher than forecast.” He concludes: “The industry is changing and we’re evolving rapidly to retain our market leading position. Through continual investment in rigorous testing, further development and the best people in the industry, we believe we’re equipping ourselves very well for many more years of similarly impressive growth.”


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Severn Trent De Nora’s MARINER OMNIPURE® Series M55 Sewage Treatment System Selected For Use Aboard LNG Tanker

Severn Trent De Nora Wins Contract from Aker Philadelphia Shipyard to Supply its BALPURE® Ballast Water Treatment System to Two Crude Oil Tankers

Severn Trent De Nora, announced that the MARINER OMNIPURE® Series M55 marine sewage treatment system has been selected by German ship operator Pronav for use aboard the “LNG Gemini”, a 72,472dwt LNG tanker. The M5508 model, which can treat black and gray water for up to 25 persons, will be installed aboard the vessel in late November 2012 when she is in Subic Bay, Philippines. Vessels generate sewage that can contain contaminants that have a detrimental effect on water quality and the overall marine environment. The MARINER OMNIPURE system treats sewage from such marine applications and helps lessen the environmental impact of contaminants. The electrolytic process generates a powerful oxidant from seawater to effectively disinfect biological wastes. The MARINER OMNIPURE system has received the certificate of approval from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) in accordance with IMO Resolution MEPC.159(55). This proved to be a critical factor for Pronav as the “LNG Gemini” makes regular calls to U.S. ports. Certification by the USCG involves testing rigorous environmental standards such as shock and vibration above and beyond IMO requirements. The system also has Bureau Veritas certification to MEPC.159(55) standards. In addition to MARINER OMNIPURE’s robust and reliable design, Dana Casbeer, marine and offshore product line manager for Severn Trent De Nora, highlighted the system’s compact design and bulkhead-mounted arrangement – a first of its kind. “Engine rooms are getting tighter, and space for sewage treatment systems and other equipment is at a premium. This is where the physical attributes of the MARINER OMNIPURE system unit make it an attractive fit. More than 50 of these systems have been installed over the past three years aboard various vessel types with limited engine room spaces, ranging from multipurpose vessels to PSVs, yachts, fishing vessels and even floating accommodation houses,” said Casbeer. The contract with Pronav was secured through Barthels + Lüders, a division of Blohm + Voss Repair GmbH, which recently entered into an agreement with Severn Trent De Nora to represent its BALPURE® ballast water treatment system and MARINER OMNIPURE Series M55 sewage treatment system in Germany. According to UNCTAD’s 2011 Review of Maritime Transport, Germany is the third largest ship-owning country in the world with 9.17 percent of world fleet tonnage, after Greece (16.17 percent) and Japan (15.76 percent). “The German market has a lot of potential for ballast water treatment and marine sewage treatment solutions, and we look forward to working closely with Barthels + Lüders to secure more orders for the BALPURE and MARINER OMNIPURE systems. With more than 35 years of electrochlorination experience and a global network of support, Severn Trent De Nora is a proven and trusted partner for prudent ship operators,” said Ulf Hallberg, regional sales manager of Severn Trent De Nora.

The Type-Approved BALPURE® ballast water treatment system from Severn Trent De Nora was selected for use on two new 115,000dwt crude oil tankers being constructed for SeaRiver Maritime Inc. by Aker Philadelphia Shipyard. The crude oil tankers will be trading regularly in the Pacific Ocean on the United States’ West Coast and Alaskan waters. BALPURE features proven technology, ease of installation and operation, minimal maintenance and low operating costs. The two sets of BP 3000 systems will be installed as sub-assemblies, capable of treating ballast water flow rates of up to 3,230 m3/h. A 40-micron filter with IECEx explosion proof rated control system will be installed in the main ballast line in the pump room. The first installation is scheduled for December 2012, with the second installation to be completed by July 2013. “It is crucial for shipping operators that the ballast water treatment systems they select are robust, cost-effective and have all the necessary approvals for international trading,” said Jim McGillivray, BALPURE general manager for Severn Trent De Nora. “Severn Trent De Nora has made a formal submittal to the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) for the designation of BALPURE as an Alternate Management System (AMS). With the acceptance of BALPURE as an AMS, the Type-Approved ballast water treatment system will be accepted for use on board vessels trading in U.S. waters, like the SeaRiver tankers, that need to comply with the USCG Final Rule.” Eighteen BALPURE systems have been installed / sold to international shipowners operating various vessel types such as LNG carriers, VLCCs, bulk carriers, pipelay vessels and more. The systems, which utilize electrolytic disinfection technology, are an advantageous and economical ballast water treatment approach on board crude oil tankers. BALPURE’s slip stream treatment approach, where approximately one percent of the total ballast water flow is used to generate the hypochlorite disinfection solution, enables remote mounting away from the main ballast line. The slip stream treatment approach, coupled with a design that requires treatment only during the uptake of the ballasting cycle, offers significantly reduced power requirements when compared to competing technologies – ensuring low operational costs. BALPURE offers a virtually maintenance-free approach to ballast water treatment through the use of proprietary self-cleaning electrodes that eliminate the need for time-consuming chemical and mechanical maintenance.


KROHNE Skarpenord offers complete solutions for monitoring of liquids onboard all kinds of ships

Monitoring of liquid cargo is in safe hands CARGOMASTER® – The all-in-one tank monitoring system CARGOMASTER® is the complete solution for tank monitoring. The system is well proven and is installed on all kinds of vessels. Combined with the high precision cargo tank level radar OPTIWAVE 8300 C Marine, the system offers unique benefits for tanker operators.

EcoMATE® – System for monitoring of fuel consumption and bunkering EcoMATE® is a reliable system for monitoring of fuel consumption and bunkering operations. Together with the OPTIMASS series of flowmeters, it offers accurate and maintenance free solutions for all fuel systems.

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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Lambros A. Chahalis Bureau Veriras, Regional Chief Executive Hellenic & Black Sea Region

Bureau Veritas

More questions than answers At the moment nothing is clear – not when the rules will enter into force, not the exact standards that will be enforced, nor the technologies which will ultimately prove the best in service. The best advice for shipowners is to investigate carefully, take a range of advice and then evaluate that advice with a lot of care and a degree of scepticism. They do need to act now, or they may be caught in a horrific retrofit backlog, but they also need to act carefully as every ship, route and fleet may have a different answer to the question - what should I fit and when?” There are still more questions than answers about Ballast Water Management (BWM). “If anyone says they can tell you for sure what will happen and when, and which technology to adopt for Ballast Water Treatment Systems (BWTS), then they either have a direct line to the future or they are trying to sell you something you don’t want to buy,” advises Christian Robeson, who is in charge of BWMS for classification society Bureau Veritas. “This is a situation where the regulators and the demand from the public have run ahead of available technology. At the moment nothing is clear – not when the rules will enter into force, not the exact standards that will be enforced, nor the technologies which will ultimately prove the best in service. The best advice for shipowners is to investigate carefully, take a range of advice and then evaluate that advice with a lot of care and a degree of scepticism. They do need to act now, or they may be caught in a horrific retrofit backlog, but they also need to act carefully as every ship, route and fleet may have a different answer to the question - what should I fit and when?” IMO adopted the Ballast Water Management Convention in 2004 with the intention that it would enter into force by 2011 and lead to a timetable for newbuilding and retrofits which would see over 60,000 vessels globally fitted with appropriate BWTS by 2017. It is probably not going to work out like that. As of now the convention is not in force

but it has reached the required number of states ratifying it. It now needs a further 6 per cent of the global fleet by gt to adhere and it will enter into force. The big flag states are holding back, reacting to pressure from shipowners who are concerned that the equipment they need is not yet proven. There are also doubts about the definitions of the Type Approval process, about the ability of current systems to handle all potential water conditions and sampling requirements for ballast water. “Coastal states want clean ballast only and no transfer of harmful aquatic life,” says Robeson. “Equipment makers are doing their best to build and get approved systems to do that. But a lack of clarity is hampering progress.” Despite that, the US Coast Guard has made rules which broadly mirror the IMO BWM requirements, albeit with slightly different dates for when systems are required to be fitted. It is likely these will enter into force for ships trading to the USA even if the IMO convention is further delayed. IMO’s Bulk Liquid Gas working party met in the first week of February to try to address some of the issues. It is expected to issue a guidance circular on Ballast Water analysis and sampling protocols in accordance with the BWM Convention and approve changes to the type approval process. Robeson says that owners’ representatives at the meeting were extremely unhappy with the proposed convention and regulations and the continuing lack of clarity over when it will be implemented. Bureau Veritas has so far issued written guidance to owners on factors to consider when making choices, and has type approved four systems using different technologies. There are currently twentyeight systems type approved globally and around forty more under process of approval, while two systems have had type approval withdrawn already. “We have built up a big body of knowledge on this issue and the more we know the more we prefer to move steadily and with caution in this matter,” says Robeson. “We want to give owners carefully balanced advice and not to offer a seemingly simple solution to what is still a complex situation. You can opt for mechanical systems such as cyclones, filtration and flocculation, or physical systems such as ultrasound, ultraviolet or de-oxygenation, or there are chemical systems or biocides, electrolytic treatment or ozone. Each method has its own advantages or disadvantages and so far we have not got a good sample of results of systems in service to know which will be the technologies which emerge as the leaders for different types of vessel. All the systems do have to be bench tested and tested for six months on ships before Type Approval, but the test standards are for quite low flow levels and they do not guarantee that that system will work for every type of water or situation, or that what works for one ship will work for another with different needs. No-one knows yet what will work best for 2,000 cu m per hour of very cold and very dirty brackish ballast.”


We support innovative solutions to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions For more information, please contact: Bureau Veritas Greek Central Office 23, Etolikou Str. - 185 45 PIRAEUS Tel: +30 (210) 40 63 000 Fax: +30 (210) 40 63 063 Email: grc_lpr@gr.bureauveritas.com Visit us on: www.bureauveritas.com - www.veristar.com www.bureauveritas.gr

Move Forward with Confidence


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atg UV Technology Specialist UV Systems for Offshore and Marine Applications atg UV Technology Offer of Offshore Solutions

The process of disinfecting water with UV light is a proven technology for drinking and process water in many industries, however the high standards required by the offshore industry commanded the disinfection systems to be engineered way beyond the normal specification of many manufacturers. From small scale platform applications such as crew drinking water supplies to large water injection packages treating over 10,000 m3/h, atg UV Technology can offer a range of UV disinfection / treatment solutions to suit any application. As the clear market leader for the offshore and marine industry, atg UV Technology can offer solutions for a range of offshore applications. ATEX & IECEX Hazardous Area UV Systems ATEX systems for use in hazardous zones 1 and 2 require engineering far beyond the specification of normal Ultraviolet disinfection systems. atg UV Technology have engineered a new range of ATEX duty/standby packaged products for installation on both offshore platforms and ocean going shipping vessels. atg UV Technology are one of the few suppliers able to offer Low Pressure UV systems as an both an ExP and ExD Solution, and remain the only UV company in the world who can offer an ExD rated Medium Pressure solution. UV Skid Packages for Crew Drinking Water Supplies atg UV Technology are the worlds’ leading provider of skid based UV disinfection packages for the offshore industry. atg UV have provided skid packages to some of the worlds’ leading offshore brands such as Shell, Texaco, BP, Conoco Phillips, Statoil and many others. Our experience includes designing and manufacturing skid packages to Norsok, NiPH, GOST and ATEX specifications. Well Injection Packages atg UV Technology have provided down-hole injection systems treating over 4,000 m3/hr to the world’s leading offshore operators. UV disinfection, supplemented by periodic shock dosing using chemical biocides is perfectly suited to down-hole injection applications, and has proved to be both a cost effective and highly efficient method of removing harmful microorganisms such as SRB’s (Sulphate Reducing Bacteria) from water sources. A correctly sized atg UV system dramatically reduces the amount and frequency of chemical dosing and vastly reduces the associated handling / transportation costs. Estimated savings for a down-hole injection application switching to UV treatment are substantial, and could be as much as £1 million a year in chemical biocide cost savings alone. Mobile UV Plants for SRB Reduction atg UV Technology have provided a number of specialist UV packages for the treatment of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB’s), which when left untreated can lead to corrosion, scaling and the formation of slime. atg UV Technology’s offshore SRB treatment packages are highly

specialised, and are often supplied as a fully integrated containerised package, with all equipment including UV chambers, control panels, manifolds and valves housed within a single compact, built for purpose offshore container. Additionally atg UV Technology have experience with using exotic materials, such as Duplex and super duplex for chambers and manifolds. Applications for atg UV mobile UV plants include: • UV Disinfection Packages for Shale Gas Recovery - Hydraulic Fracking. • UV Disinfection Packages for Hydro-Testing (oil and gas pipelines). • UV Disinfection Packages for Well Injection. Effluent Discharges (Shipping and Cruise Liners) Cruise liners and ocean going vessels are required to treat their effluent waste water with UV disinfection systems in order to comply with the Alaska standard. atg UV Technology have supplied a large number of UV systems for the treatment of waste water and effluent discharges to some of the world’s leading brands. atg UV Technology have developed a bespoke range of multi-lamp low pressure UV systems designed specifically for operation in marine environments (high temperatures, vibrations, humidity). Ballast Water Packages All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability, where upon arrival to their destination the water is released. This water contains marine microorganisms such as zooplankton, veligers, algae, bacteria, viruses and the eggs, cysts, and larvae of various species. When discharged, these transported species threaten to invade the natural balance of local eco systems, often out-competing native species and causing serious damage both environmentally and economically. Ballast discharge is now treated as one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans. Atg UV Technology offers highly advanced UV disinfection systems for the treatment of ships ballast water before it is released into the oceanic environment. Our leading compact chamber designs allow for ease of installation into restricted spaces and provides protection against microorganisms, zooplankton, veligers, algae, bacteria, viruses, eggs, cysts, and larvae without the use of chemicals. This leads to an environmentally friendly solution to the challenges faced by marine engineers worldwide. atg UV Technology System A typical atg UV disinfection system is highly compact and easy to operate. The atg UV design utilizes an inline configuration that makes it easy to install into existing pipework with minimal disruption. Furthermore, atg UV’s systems are fully automatic and unlike traditional chemical treatments cannot be overdosed and do not increase the toxicity of the water with harmful biocides.


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IMO Type approval for CrystalBallast Auramarine CrystalBallast® is a two-step process, with an efficient automatic filter to remove sediment and larger organisms, followed by an intensive medium pressure UV unit to disinfect and inactivate smaller plankton, bacteria and pathogens. Ballast water is treated using filter and UV during ballast water intake and re-treated during ballast water discharge through the UV reactor only (filter bypassed). Auramarine offers a full range of ballast water treatment systems from 75 m3/h to more than 3.000 m3/h. CrystalBallast® is available in both complete skid mounted modules for newbuilding projects, as well as prefabricated component kits for retrofits. Auramarine has recently received an IMO type approval for its CrystalBallast® ballast water treatment system. The approval was issued by DNV on behalf of the Norwegian Maritime Directorate after the successful land-based and shipboard testing in accordance with International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) “Guidelines for approval of BWM Systems (G8)” and DNV rules. Certificate In addition, the electrical components were subjected to DNV’s “Environmental test specification for instrumentation and automation equipment, DNV Standard for Certification No 2.4”. These requirements are more stringent than the IMO requirements and include, for instance, also electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), vibration, low temperatures and damp heat testing.

Auramarine CrystalBallast® is a two-step process, with an efficient automatic filter to remove sediment and larger organisms, followed by an intensive medium pressure UV unit to disinfect and inactivate smaller plankton, bacteria and pathogens. According to Auramarine, the Combination of automatic filtration and ultraviolet light based ballast water treatment is becoming the leading technology, offering considerable benefits compared to other disinfection methods. Filter and UV disinfection is a proven purely physical and chemical-free disinfection process and it is not affected by salinity variations in seawater. Disinfection is fast and ballast water is ready to be discharged immediately after treatment without any by-products. Ballast water is treated using filter and UV during ballast water intake and re-treated during ballast water discharge through the UV reactor only (filter bypassed). Re-treatment during discharge is necessary to eliminate possible re-growth of bacteria in ballast tanks due to cross contamination or incomplete intake disinfection. Both process steps have been carefully selected to provide a minimal pressure drop over

the treatment system and a small and compact installation area. Birka Cargo Ab, former United Shipping Ltd, member of Eckerö Group has recently ordered two type CB 250 CrystalBallast® equipment for Eckerö Group/Birka Express, which are delivered in Autumn 2012. Mr. Juhani Aarnio of Birka Cargo Ab says: “We feel confident that we have found a reliable supplier of ballast water treatment with good quality for a competitive price. This timely installation is in line with our environment policy. We believe that the CrystalBallast® system using filters and UV is the most suitable system for our vessels as well as for the environment, since no chemicals or other harmful substances are being used.” Auramarine offers a full range of ballast water treatment systems from 75 m3/h to more than 3.000 m3/h. CrystalBallast® is available in both complete skid mounted modules for newbuilding projects, as well as prefabricated component kits for retrofits. Configurable design and compact size lead to affordable capital and installation costs, says Auramarine. About Auramarine Ltd. Auramarine has more than 30 years of experience in supplying heavy fuel oil supply units and other equipment for fuel handling to shipbuilding industry and power plants. As a market leader in its segment, Auramarine has gathered vast experience in liquid handling technologies and the know-how is now being used to develop new, environmentally friendly products like CrystalBallast® ballast water treatment systems and Marine Gas Oil (MGO) handling systems.

Auramarine is a privately owned company and has valid ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 3834-2 certifications. About Birka Cargo Ab Birka Cargo Ab was founded in 1990 and is a member of the Eckerö Group. The head office of Birka Cargo Ab is situated in Mariehamn on the Aaland Islands with direct access to the accumulated experience and know-how of the owners. Birka Cargo presently operates a fleet of 7 modern Ro-Ro vessels under Finnish flag. For the time being three vessels are chartered to Finnlines Plc, Helsinki, another three vessels are chartered to Holmen Paper AB, Norrköping, and one vessel is chartered to UPM Seaways, Kotka.


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 57

Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV Ballast Water Management System receives type approval Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is the first system to have been fully endorsed and type approved by the Flag Administration of the Netherlands and is the result of a focused development program which commenced in 2010. Wärtsilä, the marine industry’s leading solutions and services provider, has today announced that their Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) has been granted Type Approval in accordance with requirements of the 2004 IMO Convention for the control and management of ships ballast water and sediments. This endorses Wärtsilä’s BWMS market entry and provides ship owners with greater cost effective BWMS technology choice and installation flexibility through its modular design and approach. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is the first system to have been fully endorsed and type approved by the Flag Administration of the Netherlands and is the result of a focused development program which commenced in 2010. The AQUARIUS® range of BWMS became part of the Wärtsilä portfolio with the acquisition of Hamworthy plc in January 2012 and further reaffirms the company’s commitment to develop environmental solutions for the marine industry. Compliance with the IMO Ballast Water Convention helps protect local ecosystems from the spread of harmful invasive species and gives operational peace of mind to the ship owner operators. The Wärtsilä AQUARIUS® UV BWMS is based on a two stage treatment process using proven and validated system components. Upon uptake, seawater is first passed through a back washing screen type filter. The filtered seawater then passes through a UV chamber where ultra-violet light is used to disinfect the water before entering the ballast tank. On discharge, water from the ballast tank is pumped through the UV chamber for a second time to complete the disinfection process prior to discharge. The filter is not used during discharge. The modular approach provides maximum flexibility during system design and installation where key components are positioned to suit available space, a major advantage when considering retrofit projects. Retrofit installations can be carried out either during dry docking, at the quayside or whilst the ship is in operation, thus minimising any impact on ship downtime. Wärtsilä provides a complete BWMS turnkey service from concept technical support through ship survey and system design, engineering, project management, procurement, installation, commissioning and a comprehensive global after-sales spares and service support. This ensures the benefit of full lifecycle value from Wärtsilä, and represents best value in terms of total cost of ownership for the customer. Working in partnership with the Netherlands’ Flag Administration,

independent testing facilities and the Lloyds Register classification society, Wärtsilä tested and optimised the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV BWMS during both land based and shipboard trials conducted in accordance with IMO requirements. Land based tests were conducted at the NIOZ (Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research) test facility and ship trials onboard the ‘MV TWISTER’, an LPG carrier owned by Chemgas BV. “Receiving type approval for the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV Ballast Water Management System is a significant achievement,” says Dr. Joe Thomas, Director, Wärtsilä Ballast Water Management Systems. “It has been a real team effort from Wärtsilä and Hamworthy engineers throughout and I express my sincere thanks to all involved in this project including the Flag Administration, our strategic partners and independent consultants, all of whom have unreservedly devoted their time and skills to secure Type Approval of the Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV within just two years. Wärtsilä AQUARIUS®UV is one of three BWMS products available from Wärtsilä. Technology choice and supply flexibility are fundamental in partnering with customers to assess which technology best meets their needs and to delivering energy and operational efficiencies that ensure minimal total cost of ownership when meeting environmental obligations. “There is already significant market demand for our BWMS as owners look to prepare their ships ahead of the regulatory implementation. We have secured several new build orders to date and are in advanced discussion with other owners looking to install our BWMS in the near future,” Dr Thomas says. Wärtsilä’s range of environmental solutions include exhaust gas cleaning to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere, waste water management systems to improve the quality of discharge and inert gas systems to ensure a high level of safety onboard.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

OceanGuard™ BWMS once again Won International Invention Patent and is Named “Qingdao Brand” OceanGuard™ Ballast Water Management System (BWMS), developed by Qingdao Headway Technology Co., Ltd., as set of removing alga and bacterium by micro-current, has won Japan invention patent. As of now, the project has two international invention patents, four domestic invention patents and eight model patents. Headway always pays close attention to the protection of intellectual property, which stands for innovation vigor and level of enterprise. Besides, to master core technologies with independent intellectual property is the key to grasp the initiative in the new round of industrial restructuring and upgrading competition. With the complete independent intellectual property, it not only protects the advanced technology of OceanGuard™ BWMS, but also reflects the leading level of the product. In 2012, Headway had filed an application to review and upgrade the “China Patent Shandong Star Enterprise” honored yet and finally succeed with the result of upgrading to Two-star “China Patent Shandong Star Enterprise”. So far, Headway has declared nearly 40 patents domestically and internationally, including more than 10 invention patents and has obtained more than 6 authorizations. Meanwhile, OceanGuard™ BWMS has been honored as “Qingdao Brand” for its unique product advantages and leading technology. The convincing Technology of Advanced Electrocatalysis Oxidation Process (AEOP) adopted by OceanGuardTM BWMS is unique all over the world , whose high and complete sterilization,excellent performance in fresh water also sea water, with no corrosion or secondary pollution, is far superior to other ballast water management technologies. The compact design and small footprint makes it easy and flexible to be fitted on various vessels with different internal structures, solving the problem of shortage of space which customers have always worried about. Compared with other technologies, power consumption of OceanGuardTM BWMS is only about 1/5 of that of UV technology. OceanGuardTM BWMS has reached the international leading level, and occupied a leading position among the manufacturers of similar products. OceanGuardTM BWMS has obtained IMO Basic Approval, IMO Final Approval, CCS Type Approval and DNV Type Approval on behalf of the administrations, while USCG Approval is ongoing, which is the first brand to obtain both CCS and DNV Type Approval in the world. “Qingdao Brand” lives up to its name. In the coming year 2013, Headway will cherish the honor, revivify and set fine achievement again.

OceanGuard BWMS cracked European High-end Shipping Market, Won Orders for Barges Once Again Following that Headway successfully signed agreements for the Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) projects for Norwegian multi-purpose vessels, Italian luxury cruise and oil tanker from Greece well-known shipping company, Headway cracked European High-end shipping market once again, and got new orders from a Norwegian well-known shipping company, and OceanGuardTM BWMS will be installed onboard barges. The frequent access of European market orders proved once again that Headway OceanGuardTM BWMS has won wide attention and high recognition of the European market, and the leading ballast water treatment technology has reached international advanced level, highlighting the advantages in competition with European brands. According to the PIC of technical department of the Norwegian Shipping Company, as the only ballast water management system from China which completed tests successfully in NIVA Facility in Norway– an international renowned institute for ballast water research and test, also the first non-European brand to obtain DNV Type Approval, Headway OceanGuardTM BWMS enhanced the confidence

of ship owners. Based on the long-term research and analysis of varieties of different technologies, OceanGuardTM BWMS of Headway finally impressed their team for its high efficient sterilization, small footprint, low energy consumption and complete global service system. Successful signing of this order is another export of OceanGuardTM BWMS. In 2011, OceanGuardTM BWMS was exported to Italy for the first time, which is the first unit of BWMS in China exported to foreign countries. By now, OceanGuardTM BWMS is the BWMS in China with the largest export volume and most installation references. At this point, orders and applications of OceanGuardTM BWMS have covered bulk cargo carrier, container ship, oil tanker, luxury cruise, research vessel, multi-purpose vessel, semi-submerged ship, tug, platform supply vessel, coastal patrol vessel , barge and so on, which can provide a variety of references of design and installation experience for customers.


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

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SiCURE™ Ballast Water Management System Water Technologies is a sub-division of Siemens Industry Solutions Division (Erlangen, Germany) and has a wide-ranging portfolio of environmental solutions to help industrial companies use energy, water and equipment efficiently, reduce emissions and comply with environmental guidelines.

function and minimizes maintenance requirements of the system.

To help meet ballast water treatment management standards as outlined in the 2004 IMO Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, Siemens Water Technologies has developed a ballast water treatment system that provides a reliable, environmentally sound solution that is designed to protect against the proliferation of aquatic invasive species.

The most efficient method of hypochlorination is to produce sodium hypochlorite in-situ, electrolytically, on demand, by using Concentric Tube Electrode (CTE). This hypochlorination technology is wellknown in the maritime industry as the Chloropac system by Siemens Water Technologies.

SiCURE™ ballast water management system. The patent pending SiCURE™ ballast water management system uses a combination of physical separation and a proprietary, on-demand treatment with biocides, produced in-situ from seawater, without the addition of chemicals. The system is based on a proven 30+ year record and over 2,500 shipboard installations of Siemens’ wellknown Chloropac® biofouling control system.

For electrochlorination, the SiCURE ballast water mangement system uses proven technology to oxidize and eliminate aquatic invasive species (AIS) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Sodium hypochlorite has been used for many years to prevent marine growth in the seawater piping and heat transfer systems of land-based, offshore and shipboard installations.

Proprietary control logic of the SiCURE ballast water management system monitors the chlorine dose level necessary to provide the required efficacy. Biocide dosing level is variable and depends on ballast water conditions – the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics that, cumulatively, is called chlorine demand.

The SiCURE ballast water management system – technical principals

The SiCURE ballast water management system provides a technical solution designed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention D-2 regulations for ballast water management.

The SiCURE system is based on three pillars: • Filtration • Electrochlorination • Demand-regulated control logic Major functions of the filter in the SiCURE ballast water management system are to remove or break larger organisms using a 40 micron weave wire screen, and to provide reliable, non-stop operation at high sediment loads while minimizing backwash flow. The patent pending biofouling control provided to the filter assures its reliable

SiCURE™ Ballast Water Management System Advantages: • Treatment only on intake • In-situ biocide generation • Flexible footprint • Dose on demand • Biofouling protected ballast water filter • Low energy requirements • Optional dual-purpose operation – ballast water treatment in port and biofouling control for seawater circuits during voyage.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

The European UV water treatment specialist, BIO-UV, is now Type-approved for its BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System

2011, as well as land-based tests at DHI facility in Denmark. The results exceeded IMO requirements. In partnership with CMA-CGM, and Marfret, in order to test the BIOSEA® system in different water qualities, BIO-UV carried out its shipboard testing in 2012 on 2 container ships equipped with different filters, at 1000 and 500 m3/h and on different trade routes (Korea / China / Indonesia and North Europe / America / Australia). With these successful tests, BIO-UV received its Type Approval in record time. During this process, BIO-UV has received support through the European Fund for Regional Development, Oséo, and Languedoc-Roussillon Region in Southern France. For more than one year, BIO-UV and Mr. Xavier Deval who manages the BIO-SEA® department have developed a certified network of Distributors with Sales & Technical partners in order to deliver top-quality service to Ship Owners and Naval yards.

BIO-UV went well beyond the International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements for Ballast Water Treatment (BWTS). Indeed both requirements were met: the land tests where various and numerous filtration cycles were required, as well as the on-board testing for 2 different vessels (one on board the CMACGM with 1000 m3/h, the other on board the Marfret with 500 m3/h). Moreover, the tests that took place during the summer of 2012 at the MERC in Balitimore, MD, USA offered many different challenges representing various port water qualities allowing us to further our knowledge. This success for BIO-UV represents almost 3 years of work and 3 Million Euros in R&D. BIO-UV is also the only company in France dedicated to the BWT. Through the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (a.k.a. BWM Convention) and in accordance with the G8 IMO Guidelines, BIO-UV is awarded the Type Approval from Bureau Veritas, mandated by the French government, for its BWTS BIO-SEA®. Ms. Charlene Ceresola, BIO-UV’s BWT Project Manager, is a biological engineer and is working with the French delegation on the IMO International Convention. For 13 years, BIO-UV has been designing, manufacturing, and offering competitive and well-adapted solutions for many applications: waste water treatment, REUSE, purification of industrial effluents, drinking water production, water treatment for residential and commercial pools, aquariums, etc. … and now BALLAST WATER TREATMENT. The management’s experience in water treatment and engineering fields enables this European company to gain a place amongst the market leaders in all UV-C technologies providing safe and efficient solutions to ensure the best water quality. BIO-SEA® by BIO-UV Ballast Water Treatment Systems combine mechanical filtration and UV disinfection. BIO-SEA® works without chemical products and provides 2 filtration options, both of which are type approved. The whole certification process has been monitored by Bureau Veritas. BIO-UV should obtain other equivalent Type-Approvals soon: DNV, Lloyd’s, ABS… Environmental testing (temperature, humidity, vibration, inclination, power, variation, and failure, EMC) was successfully performed in

JX Tanker – Techcross, Contract for Clean Technology One of major tanker companies in Japan, JX Tanker has contracted to install Techcross’ ECS on JX Tanker’s fleet in January, 2013. This is the first BWMS to be installed on a JX Tanker vessel which is part of their ‘Environmental & Quality Policy’ to ensure the safe operation of vessels at sea and environmental protection. To prevent global and marine environmental pollution, JX Tanker established their ‘Environmental & Quality Policy.’ According to this policy, they will pursue energy and resource conservation, recycling of materials, purchasing eco-friendly goods, promoting the application of the most environmentally conscious technology, and reducing waste. This project also complies with new regulatory requirements related to the environment using high quality equipment. ECS shows its superiority once more through this contract with JX Tanker since they selected ECS among all the various BWMS manufacturers. ECS to be Installed on JX Tanker’s VLCC Techcross, the world’s first IMO Basic Approved company, won the contract with JX Tanker (total 3 vessels: 317K VLCC and two 120K Aframax class tankers). This is not the first time for Techcross to install ECS on a VLCC. Techcross already has experience of installing ECS5400A x 1 set model on two VLCCs in 2011~2012 at HHI, the first of which was considered the world’s first installation on a VLCC at the time. However, the installation of ECS in JX Tanker vessels will be fitted with 2 sets of Ex-ECS 3600B model (starting in December 2012 to later this year) for more reliable operation. JX Tanker Confirms to Install ECS on their Fleet JX Tanker spent much time and resources to closely review and scrutinize BWMS from among numerous makers before finally selecting Techcross for their fleet based upon the conclusion that ECS has a very effective disinfection efficacy compared to other systems on the market. JX Tanker even specifically requested priority status of obtaining ECS in case there might be a shortage of systems due to the BWM Convention Ratification in the near future. Furthermore, with the recent Type Approval of ECS B Explosion Type Model and the order from JX Tanker above, more and more Japanese ship-owners and shipyards are inquiring about ECS technology and installation methods for tankers. With this very favorable trend towards ECS, we expect another successful year for many new orders.


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PureBallast 2.0: Ballast water treatment system

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Alfa Laval • Chemical-free, UV-based treatment • Global support from a leading supplier • High quality in components and process

PureBallast gives you: Chemical-free operation PureBallast meets the requirements of IMO legislation without the addition or generation of chemicals, and without the crea¬tion of residuals. The system’s operation does not pose risks to the environment or the crew, nor does it influence the corro¬sion of the ballast water system. In addition, the avoidance of chemicals means ship owners can avoid the expensive and time-consuming logistics of dealing with chemicals, both on board and on shore. Global support from a leading supplier Alfa Laval is a truly global supplier and the most experienced partner in the area of ballast water treatment. Shipyards can expect clear and thorough PureBallast documentation, as well as expert consultation. Ship owners can rely on a worldwide network of harbour support, with technical support, onboard service and genuine spare parts all available at short notice.

Application The introduction of invasive species via the ballast water of ships has been identified as one of the four greatest threats to the world’s oceans. Once introduced into a new environ-ment, non-native species have the potential to reproduce quickly, thereby devastating native ecosystems, local eco-nomies and even human health. To combat this problem, the International Maritime Organiza-tion (IMO) has adopted the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. This convention defines ballast water treatment requirements to be phased in over the coming years. PureBallast from Alfa Laval PureBallast is an easy-to-use ballast water treatment system that ensures full compliance with the requirements of IMO and Port State Control. The latest version, PureBallast 2.0, incorporates a range of advances that further simplify installation and operation. These fulfil the needs and wishes expressed by shipyards, ship owners and ship operators since the release of the original PureBallast in 2008. Why PureBallast? PureBallast is today’s market-leading ballast water treatment system and possesses an extensive global reference list, ranging from container vessels and tankers to offshore supply ships and drill ships. Likewise, PureBallast has been installed at major shipyards all over the world, with new shipyards added to the list each month. PureBallast is the first choice when looking for a chemical-free, UVbased ballast water treatment system that is globally supported by a leading supplier – a supplier with an uncom¬promising focus on robust design, with high quality in both components and process.

High component quality The selection of PureBallast components and materials is based on Alfa Laval’s vast experience of supplying equipment for real-life conditions on board vessels. Some examples:– The material in the UV unit is SMO 254, an austenitic stain-less steel that will last the entire lifetime of the vessel.– The filter candle mesh is woven from superduplex stainless steel for a maximized service life. High process quality PureBallast is based on a treatment process that ensures the system will fulfil treatment standards not only during type approval testing, but also in real life. For example, the system is equipped with a startup sequence that ensures no ballast water passes through the system before it is fully operational. A unique Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) unit, which has no moving parts in the seawater flow, keeps the system free from scaling and ensures treatment efficiency. Last but not least, PureBallast is designed according to the strictest regulations for upscaling or downscaling the capacity of the type-approved ballast water treatment system. Flexible concept PureBallast is a modular system that allows compact and flexible installation. This makes PureBallast suitable for a wide range of vessels – both newbuilds and retrofits. A single system consists of one filter and one to twelve UV units. The UV units are connected in parallel to achieve a total flow capacity between 250 m3/h and 3000 m3/h. Installation PureBallast can be completely integrated with the vessel’s ballast water system and does not interfere with existing ballast operations.


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Layout design, system integration and installation are handled by the shipyard with the guidance of detailed technical documentation and a thorough system manual. Alfa Laval is always available throughout the process with support that includes clarifications, recommendations and best practices. Alfa Laval has thousands of hours of daily experience from integration projects at shipyards. Trained Alfa Laval engineers will start up the system after installation is completed. Standard scope of supply The PureBallast scope of supply includes everything needed to construct a complete ballast water treatment system in accordance with the IMO convention, with the exception of pipes and cables. • 1 x filter • 1–12 x UV unit (Wallenius AOT) • 1 x control system • 1 x flow meter • 1 x flow control valve • 1 x Cleaning-in-Place unit (CIP) • 1 x bypass valve • 4 x main valves • 2 x sampling points • 1 x pressure transmitter • 1 x pressure indicator Options – remote control • Remote control panel(s) • Remote interface/Modbus Option – explosion-proof • PureBallast 2.0 EX version (Zone 1, IIC and T4)

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System components (standard scope of supply) Filter A 40 μm filter is used during ballasting operations. (During deballasting, the filter is bypassed.) This not only blocks the intake of larger organisms, but also reduces the amount of sediment in the ballast water tanks. The filter is cleaned via automatic backflushing. UV unit(s) (Wallenius AOT) Depending on the system flow rate, one or more UV units comprise the active stage of PureBallast treatment. Flow rates of 250-3000 m3/h can be achieved, with individual UV units handling a flow of 250 m3/h. The UV units can be placed in a number of configurations, including the linear configuration shown above. A lamp drive cabinet for powering the UV lamps (12 pcs) is attached to each UV unit. The electronic components in the cabinet are cooled by low-temperature fresh water. Control system A durable, full-colour graphical touch screen provides access to all aspects of the system, including monitoring and log functions. Flow meter A flow meter connected to the flow control valve ensures that the PureBallast system does not exceed its certified flow rate. The meter also provides the control system with data regarding the amount of ballast that has been taken in or discharged. Flow control valve A flow control valve regulates the flow through the system and en-


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

sures that the maximum rated flow is not exceeded. This valve also ensures that there is enough pressure drop over the filter to safeguard efficient backflushing. Bypass valve A bypass valve, which is controlled by the vessel, makes it possible to completely bypass the PureBallast system. Additional valves (4 pcs) Three valves are used in the main ballast line in connection with the filter: inlet, outlet and filter bypass. A fourth valve is used for seawater cooling during the start-up sequence and in pause mode. CIP unit Performance is safeguarded by an automatic Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) unit, which circulates a non-toxic and 100% biodegradable cleaning solution that prevents seawater scaling within the UV units. This solution is reusable and is replaced when its pH reaches 3.0. The cleaning cycle occurs auto-matically after each ballasting or deballasting operation. Sampling points In accordance with IMO guidelines, sampling points are installed both before and after the PureBallast system. This allows for the removal of water and the evaluation of its quality. Pressure transmitter and pressure indicator A pressure transmitter and pressure indicator provide both automatic and analogue monitoring of pressure within the PureBallast system.

Operations The control system (whose MIMIC is shown below) is included in the standard scope of supply. The durable, full-colour graphical touch screen provides access to every aspect of the PureBallast control system. It allows operator to monitor the system, to operate it manually and automatically, and to set system parameters. The main control system can also be connected to remote control panels or via Modbus to other onboard automation systems, allowing access to all functions through the vessel’s standard interface. Operating modes (with reference to MIMIC above). Ballasting In preparation for ballasting, the lamps of the UV units undergo an automatic start-up sequence, during which they are cooled by a flow of seawater. When ballasting begins, the incoming ballast water first passes through the filter, which removes organisms and particles larger than 40 μm. The water then continues through the UV units, which treat the water to IMO-established limits before it enters the ballast water tanks. Deballasting The deballasting process is essentially the same as the ballasting process. However, the filter is bypassed during deballasting since the water has already been filtered. After leaving the ballast water tanks, the outgoing ballast water passes through the UV units to eliminate any re-growth of microorganisms that may have occurred in transit. Hav-

ing thus been treated to the limits set by IMO, it is then discharged into the receiving water at the deballasting site. Automatic cleaning (CIP) and filter rinsing Once ballasting or deballasting is complete, the UV units are cleaned via an automated Cleaning-in-Place (CIP) cycle. This cycle can be automatically initiated directly after ballasting, or manually initiated from the control system within 30 hours. The UV units are automatically rinsed with fresh water before the CIP cycle begins and filled with fresh water upon its completion. The filter is also rinsed with fresh water once ballasting is completed. It is not rinsed after deballasting, since it is not in use during the deballasting process. Bypass The bypass valve is controlled by the vessel and makes it possible to completely bypass the PureBallast system, e.g. in the case of an emergency. Pause The start-up and shutdown sequences can be bypassed when operation is suspended for short intervals, e.g. during heeling.

Maintenance Maintenance intervals: – Filter inspection once per year – Lamp replacement after 3000 operating hours – CIP fluid replacement when the pH value reaches 3.0 The system manual provides detailed information in electronic or printed format: – Installation instructions – Operating instructions – Alarms and fault finding – Service and spare parts

Filter functionality The filter, which is automatically backflushed, is equipped with filter candles designed to separate particles and organisms larger than 40 μm from the ballast water flow. The filter candles used are of mesh


Always chemical-free.

40% less power consumption from now on.

PureBallast 2.0 gives you more When ballast water treatment regulations take effect,

By choosing PureBallast 2.0, you choose the world’s

you’ll want a mature technology to meet them.

most experienced supplier in ballast water treatment.

PureBallast 2.0 is the second generation of Alfa Laval’s

Behind the updated system are thousands of hours of

market-leading ballast water treatment system, which

experience, logged both with shipyards and out at

means it’s even better adapted to your vessel’s real-life

sea.

needs.

In addition, you select a global working partner. With a

Reduced power consumption, more responsive control

far-reaching organization and a worldwide network of

and a PureBallast 2.0 EX version for explosive onboard

harbour support, Alfa Laval can provide the parts,

environments are just a few of the new advantages.

service and true peace of mind you need.

www.alfalaval.com/pureballast

Alfa Laval AEBE, 20th km Lavrion Avenue, Thesis Karella, 194 00 Koropi-Attica Tel. 210-6683500, Fax 210-6643960, e-mail hellas@alfalaval.com


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type and are made of super duplex stainless steel. Backflushing is performed when the pressure drop over the filter exceeds 0.4 bar, at a defined time interval (normally 20 minutes) and when the ballast operation is stopped. The flushing arm is turned to flush each individual filter candle in sequence. At the same time, the backflushing discharge valve is opened, which causes a high axial flow in the filter candle such that the dirt particles are flushed away. The flow control valve secures the pressure needed to perform the backflushing. If the differential pressure still is too high after backflushing, the sequence is repeated. The backflushing does not interrupt the filtering process, since the filter candles are cleaned one by one. The filter candles that are not currently being cleaned continue the filtration of the ballast water. Best practice is to install the filter with as low pressure drop as possible in the backflushing discharge line.

UV unit functionality The PureBallast treatment process is based on UV radiation and a patented form of advanced oxidation technology (AOT). The PureBallast AOT process occurs within the closed chamber of the UV unit (Wallenius AOT), in which radicals are generated. These radicals are highly reactive, so they instantaneously neutralize microorganisms and organic contaminants. How-ever, the short-lived radicals exist for only a few milliseconds, which means they have no possibility of leaving the reaction chamber. No chemical substances are required or generated by the AOT process, and no toxic residuals are created. Each UV unit has 12 UV lamps with a total power consumption of 36 kW per 250 m3. The lamp drive cabinet, which is placed back-to-back with the UV unit, contains 12 lamp power supply units, one for each UV lamp. The lamp drive cabinet is cooled by low-temperature cooling water (max. temperature 38째C).

BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts


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ERMA FIRST B.W.T.S System Presentation Specifically, the process includes: • a mechanical removal of suspended material and living organisms larger than 20 μm accomplished via the cyclonic separator made of frictionless material. To maximize its operation and prevent blocking from anything that might pass through shipboard sea chests and strainers, a 200 μm self-cleaning basket filter has been installed prior to the cyclone. What this kind of mechanical filtering yields is a lower disinfectants’ concentration demand during the second phase of treatment, which in turn results in less energy and the absolute absence of any secondary environmental impacts when discharging at sea.

ERMA FIRST ESK ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS S.A. is a company created by a group of expert scientists and engineers on water and wastewater treatment onboard vessels. The company established in 2009 and it is located in the newly constructed Industrial park of Schisto Perama. Main target of the company is the development and production of a sound and reliable system able to manage ballast water, so called Ballast Water Treatment System, and provides an integrated, reliable and autonomous solution to the invasion species transportation problem via the ballast water. The treatment process – Simplicity and unrivalled efficacy ERMA FIRST Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) is the successful outcome of a robust effort of quest, scientific research and technology development for one of the most challenging environmental problems that the shipping industry has ever been facing, that of eliminating the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens in ballast water. The success was first attested with the Type Approval certification by the Greek Flag State Administration on 10th of May 2012 immediately following the two IMO unanimous approvals, but substantially with its establishment as a preferred choice of a growing number of shipowners and managers. ERMA FIRST BWTS is an integrated, autonomous and modular treatment system with treated rated capacity from 50 to 3,000 m3/ hour. Its treatment process consists of two distinct stages, super filtration in a specially designed hydrocyclone and electrochlorination, which together run into a reliable and effective combination of technologies to eradicate the full range of organisms in ballast water, regardless of the latitude and longitude a vessel will be trading. Testing of the system in the laboratory, land-based and onboard trials has demonstrated the technology’s effectiveness in treating ballast water and deactivating invasive species. It is one of the technologies that various organizations including US EPA have credited as one of the most effective in ballast water treatment and also one of the strong candidates in complying with a more stringent treatment standard.

• in situ electrochlorination to achieve the required biological efficacy as stipulated in the respective IMO D2 standard. Electrolysis of ballast water aimed at producing up to 10 mg/L of free active chlorine takes place during ballasting with its products flowing into ballast tanks, so that the residual oxidants rapidly deactivate any harmful organisms taken onboard. Integral components of the system are the control and monitoring equipment that ensure its proper operation as well as the neutralization process of treated ballast water prior to its eventual discharge into the sea. The operational status of the system is continuously monitored at a central data logger, located into the central control panel of the system. Data logging includes the operation status of the system, operation, flow and temperature at the electrolytic cell, pressure difference across the self-cleaned filter and the cyclonic separator, the operational status of the neutralizing agent dosing pump as well as the chlorine level of the system. ERMA FIRST BWTS has been designed to require minimal care by the officers of the vessel with the system starting and stopping the necessary treatment steps based on electronic signals. Modes of operation Ballast water treatment is accomplished using a simple three-step process of filtration, production of free chlorine and neutralization of residual chlorine and other substances. There are two operational modes, one as ballasting takes place and another one during discharging of treated ballast water. During ballasting, ballast water will pass through the pre-filtering equipment and the cyclonic separator, where sediments, coarse material, zooplankton and elongated phytoplankton species will be spontaneously removed entrapped in an underflow stream drained back to waters of their origin. The sediments-free ballast water overflows towards the electrolytic cell where a flow switch, installed upstream activates the electrochemical process and the production of free chlorine, the level of which is constantly being monitored. The production rate of free chlorine is continuously tuned to the ballast water flow rate and the free chlorine level to enable adjusting the required voltage. The electrolytic cell of the system has been specifically designed to produce free chlorine at temperatures as low as 5oC and water salinities more than 0.5 PSU. What lays behind this extensive operational range as it happens in real life in shipping, is the special coating material of the electrodes, and


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 69

also to their design that provide sufficient contact time of the initially produced and other secondary active substances in the water stream with the electrodes. The electrolysis of ballast water results in the formation basically of hypochlorous acid in equilibrium with hypochlorite ion as well as of other substances which eventually flow to the ballast water tanks where an appropriate residual concentration is maintained to ensure complete and effective deactivation of invasive species and eliminate their re-growth. During de-ballasting, neutralization of total residual chlorine will take place by adding sodium bisulphite aqueous solution (38% w/w). At this mode, the cyclonic separator and the electrolytic cells of the system are by-passed. Neutralization of total residual chlorine is an indispensable stage to ensure the environmental acceptability of treated ballast water with the whole process controlled in such a way to ensure that the defined, maximum allowable discharge concentration (0.1 mg/L as Cl2) will not be exceeded. When treated ballast water is ready to be discharged, sodium bisulfite is injected directly into the ballast water discharge line. The added chemical substance reduces any free chlorine and other residual chemical by-products. There are no potential risks to the safety of ships, human health and the environment from the operation of the system. The quantity of neutralizing agent that needs to be stored on a vessel depends on the capacity of her ballast tanks and the total residual chlorine level in the ballast tanks, which is strongly related to the particular voyage pattern of the vessel and practically to the time elapsing since the treatment of ballast water, as this time determines the decay rate of the active substances produced by the system. The holding time is the time that treated ballast water must be temporary retained within the ballast tanks of a vessel to ensure that, upon discharge, there is no adverse effect concentration. As neutralization of the residual oxidants is an integral component of the process in the ERMA FIRST BWTS, the discharge can be carried out, as soon as the intended treatment has been accomplished, without delaying the commence of loading operation of the vessel. Another remarkable feature of the controlled operation of the system is the lack of any negative impacts to the protective coating of ballast tanks. Rigorous corrosion testing revealed that after long exposures of standard specimens of commercial coatings, no deposits, degradation and blistering were identified, showing comparable results in treated and untreated ballast water. “The US will not be ratifying the IMO convention in the foreseeable future. This fact makes uncertain whether equipment approved under the IMO scheme will be able to meet US requirements “ and/or “It remains an open question whether the supplier, yard and engineering capacity will be sufficient to meet the surge in future demand”.

Τo decipher the impact of the USCG Ballast Water Discharge Standard to owners and managers of ships trading in US waters, the Final Rule must be read in conjunction with the upcoming second version of the Vessel General Permit requirements. The Ballast Water Discharge Standard constitutes the phase one standard, as almost initially defined in the proposed notice of rulemaking. It is identical to the so-called D2 treatment standard of the IMO Ballast Water Management Convention. Although it is a practicable and achievable standard providing a level of protection against invasive species that is at least as effective as ballast water exchange, nobody knows whether it would remain as the single ultimate standard of treatment in the United States. A thorough assessment of the state of improved technologies in the future is expected not later than 2015 by the US Coast Guard, together with an evaluation of emerging sampling and testing methods capable of verifying that a more stringent standard would be measurable. On the first hand, the US Coast Guard allows an owner with a foreign type-approved ballast water treatment system that has been installed prior to the vessel’s compliance date to keep operating the system in US waters for five years after the vessel is required to comply with. What are these conditions? These systems must be qualified as Alternate Management Systems by the US Coast Guard, and it’s up to their makers to timely apply for such determination.

Next step: USCG approval It is not surprising that the US Coast Guard acts unilaterally to launch a national regime to control shipping across the US jurisdictional waters. Regardless of any similarities to the global regime that it is not yet in force (equivalency of treatment standards, compliance schedule for newbuildings and existing ships, etc.) and also of the underlying principle that thousands of foreign flagged ships call to US ports every year, it must be noted that the shipping industry is a global activity and should be regulated in a uniform manner without distortions to keep boosting commerce and fair competition.

For a treatment system to be type approved under the US scheme, there are two viable options, either making use of existing data produced in the context of the approval testing for a foreign Maritime Administration, or testing data from an independent laboratory accepted by the US Coast Guard. It is anticipated that this type approval process will be launched not earlier than 2015. The prerequisite for the first option is that consistency between the EPA Environmental Technology Verification protocol and the landbased testing protocol used for a specific system can be demonstrated in respect to design, material, manufacture and proved ability to meet the US Coast Guard treatment standard. The ERMA FIRST BWTS has been tested and type approved according to the IMO G8 and G9 Guidelines and the information and data that have been produced and have been provided to the US Coast Guard exceed the required completeness and adequacy. ERMA FIRST in co-operation with a US consultant is preparing the AMS as well as the USCG Type Approval Application. The company is planning for official submission within March 2013. The AMS designation is anticipated summer this year. The alignment of the US and IMO implementation regimes, which are only slightly differentiated and the imminent entry into force of the first that sweeps the compliance for many thousands existing ships trading in US waters will obviously have peaks when it comes to the years 2014 and 2016. As the number of ships that must be fitted with approved treatment system would progressively increase, additional pressure on shipyards and facilities but also to the manufacturers of the systems will be exerted to cope with the increased demand. ERMA FIRST ESK is currently working to ensure availability of its system to suffice any emerging needs in the near future by standardizing production, facilitating designing for installation on new and retrofitting on existing ships, after sales services, training of crews and adjustment of ballast water management plans.


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

Andrea Cogliolo RINA, Marine Innovation & Research.

RINA

In the choice of the most appropriate solution The introduction of invasive marine species into new environments, by ships’ ballast water attached to ships’ hulls and via other vectors, has been identified as one of the greatest threats to the world’s oceans. Shipping transfers approximately 10 to 12 billion tonnes of ballast water across the globe each year and there are thousands of marine species that may be carried in ballast water: basically anything that is small enough to pass through a ship’s ballast water intake. This includes bacteria and other microbes, small invertebrates and eggs, cysts and larvae of various species. It is estimated that at any one time, from 3,000 to over 4,500 different species are being carried in ships’ ballast tanks around the world. The vast majority of marine species carried in ballast water do not survive the journey. However, when all factors are favourable, an introduced species may establish a reproductive population in the host environment and even become invasive, out-competing native species and multiplying into pest proportions. As a result, whole ecosystems are being changed. In response to the threats posed by invasive marine species, the International Maritime Organization adopted, on 12 February 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention). The BWM Convention will enter into force twelve months after the date on which not less than thirty States, the combined merchant fleets of which constitute not less than thirty-five percent of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant shipping, have become parties to it. At the time being is not yet into force. When in force the BWM Convention will apply to ships, flying the flag of a Party except: (a) ships not designed or constructed to carry ballast water; (b) ships operating exclusively in waters under the jurisdiction of a Party, unless the party determines that the discharge of ballast water from such ships would impair or damage their environment; (c) warships, naval auxiliary or other ships owned or operated by a Party; (d) ships with permanent ballast water not subject to discharge. Exemptions from the management of ballast water may be granted to ships on voyages between specified ports or operated exclusively between specified ports or locations when ballast water is not mixed other than between these ports or locations. In application of the BWM Convention, following an implementation calendar, after 2016 all new and existing ships will be required to have systems to make the treatment of their ballast water. Many systems are available on the market, using different technologies such as mechanical filtration, ultra violet lamps, oxidation, de-oxygenation (using inert gas or CO2), electrolysis/electro-chlorination, ozonation, ultrasound and so on. In the choice of the most appropriate solution, the designer should consider the dimensions of the ballast treatment system, the possible need to increase in the power and the dimension of diesel generators, the arrangement of new ballast lines, the increased capacity of fuel diesel oil tanks (if more powerful generators are required), the compatibility between the protective coating and the active substances that may be used by the treatment system to kill the harmful aquatic organisms, the type approval from the Flags and USCG and many other parameters specific to the ship and its trade.


when a growing

BODY

covers huge distances

RINA GROUP making the best together


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BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

RWO GmbH : CleanBallast® Ballast Water Treatment System Overview of System: The CleanBallast system is designed to be operated in-line using ballast water disk filters for particle removal and the EctoSys® electrolysis disinfection process during ballast water uptake. As the first treatment step, Bremen-based RWO has designed a proprietary ballast water disc filter that achieves a high flow rate with a small footprint. The filters are specially designed to deliver excellent performance for heavy-duty operation in harbours with high sediment load, where most ballasting operations take place. The second treatment step is RWO’s EctoSys® electrolysis disinfection system, which disinfects all global water qualities inline, without the need for consumables or additional power generation systems. Company: RWO – Marine Water Technology is one of the leading suppliers for water and wastewater treatment systems on board ships and offshore installations. For more than 35 years RWO’s experts develop, design, manufacture and service forward-looking and cost-efficient technologies for any kind of water treatment, whether on board ships or offshore installations, for new builds as well as retrofitting. The System: The two-stage treatment principle consists of the proven in-depth disk-filtration technology combined with advanced electrochemical EctoSys® disinfection - and guarantees a rapid and reliable handling of ballast water. CleanBallast is not only type-approved by one of the toughest authorities, but also has real commercial operational experience. It is designed for real ballast water conditions and sustainable with the potential to be upgraded for even tighter future limit values. Features: As one of only very few systems CleanBallast has real operational experience. To date more than 60 units are already delivered, the company confirms that 46 of these units have been commissioned for commercial operation at present. Facing the volatile conditions in the market and a still insecure regulatory situation, CleanBallast is upgradeable for even stricter limit values. The filtration stage removes particles that are >55 μm and uses short-living hydroxyl radicals at the disinfection stage. The CleanBallast system ensures minimum power consumption and can operate effectively in all kinds of water, regardless of its salinity or turbidity. The modularity of the system allows a high flexibility in installation. Further Technical Details: Filtration process During ballast water uptake the raw ballast water is pumped evenly into the parallel working DiskFilters. Each DiskFilter is equipped with a series of thin plastic filter discs, which are stacked on several spines. The hydraulic and spring supported forces press the grooved discs together. While filtered water passes through the discs, particles, fibres, algae etc., are retained on the outside surface of the

discs and in the grooves. When a predefined differential pressure is reached the fully-automatic backflushing mode starts. The spring that compresses the discs in the filtration phase is automatically released b y the pressure of the flushing water (treated ballast water) and thereby eases the compression of the filter discs. Flushing water then flows from the cores of the elements to the peripheral ends of the filter discs and sets them into rotation, which guarantees a very short and effective backwashing of the filter in only a few seconds. Advanced electrolysis disinfection The EctoSys® disinfection technology is an extremely efficient and robust system working both in seawater and low salinity water. It provides a reliable and sustainable disinfection of the ballast water in an economical, ecological and operator-friendly way. By applying electricity to the special electrodes arranged in the cell, disinfectants are produced from the water directly in the piping. Due to the chemical and electrochemical properties of the electrodes used, they produce – among other disinfectants – very short-living and reactive hydroxyl (OH) radicals* which eliminate bacteria and organisms. EctoSys® also stands out for fulfilling its function in waters with higher salt content, meaning in sea and brackish water, and also in water with low salt content, whereby it differs greatly from standard chlorine electrolysis. In water with low salinity, the EctoSys® unit produces only hydroxyl radicals as active substances. The produced hydroxyl radicals have an extremely short lifetime and therefore give no response to Total Residual Oxidant analysis. If brackish water or seawater is treated, the produced active substances are short-living hydroxyl radicals and chlorine/bromine. The residual disinfectants chlorine and bromine can be analysed as Total Residual Oxidant (TRO). News: As of February 2013 RWO announced that it took orders for over 30 CleanBallast units in 2012 – bolstering the total orders to date past the 90 unit mark. With the first unit commissioned in 2008 CleanBallast is one of only a few systems experienced in commercial operation. In September 2012 a slight optimization of the system was presented, allowing to reduce the footprint without touching the tried and tested cleaning principle. To date CleanBallast has been already selected by customers from countries all over the world like China, Cyprus, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and the Netherlands for bulker, container, heavy lift, multi-purpose and tanker vessels.


BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - www.nafsgreen.gr/bwts

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 73

“RWO is represented in Greece by Franman Ltd.

The Agony of Choice

Recommendations and guidance to help clients for choosing a ballast water treatment system Peter Wolf, Director of Sales & Marketing at RWO

For many years the discharge of untreated ballast water in the port of destination has caused serious ecological and economic damage, as well as harm to public health. Organisms in ballast water find themselves in a foreign environment, one where the absence of their natural enemies means they can multiply rapidly and threaten the ecological balance. With the adoption of the Convention on Ballast Water Management the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has reacted to the problem mandating that ballast water must be treated to reduce the number of discharged living organisms to a minimum. Today, eight years after the Ballast Water treatment Convention was adopted, the market has widened and more than 30 suppliers and manufacturer advertise their treatment systems on a market, which has emerged out of ecological necessity. Shipowners and yards are struggling to make a decision, in the face of the amount of new products, most of them newly developed and in many cases missing the experience that has led other maritime technologies to arrive at a sensible ratio between sophistication and usefulness. Sustainability and experience of the system is the most obvious necessity – and the rarest feature in a young market It is clear, that a BWTS should not only be type approved but work in real life conditions. That includes testing not only under given standards for the average ballast water composition, but under all prevailing conditions that vessels possibly have to face during their voyages. In a time of still developing regulations from various sides, an upgradeable and sustainable system can save future headaches and provides longevity. Once in operation, no time must be lost during the ballasting and de-ballasting phase, likewise easy handling and maintenance, and no flow interruptions should be a given. These are obvious requirements, which some producers claim are valid for their systems. But what else should be considered when a purchasing decision is pending? A first checklist gives clarity A short checkup of contemplable systems is a good start. Type approval and system capacity are easily checked out; furtheron the amount of spare power onboard the vessel is always a good indicator to judge a system, like the available space for a retrofit could also be a limiting criteria. What always plays an important role is the water quality the vessel will operate in; some systems require special conditions and may not work in turbid water or water with low salinity. All these questions help to create a checklist, which allows a first estimation about the suitability of systems. The market feedback will finally give an indication which systems are reliable enough to provide long-term operation. It is always useful to get independent operational references and experiences of a BWTS; positive long term operational experience is key! Once the list is narrowed down to a few technologies, it is time for a more extensive review. Taking a system to the proof Typically, as a first step one starts with the easiest part of the comparison: check-

ing simple numbers and facts. Among these are total cost of ownership, total power consumption, holding time needed, maintenance intervals and service availability. A modular system gives flexibility at installation and often allows an upgrade path for stricter values if necessary. Step two includes a more precise look at the cleaning concept itself. In past discussions the removal of sediments had played an important role here. A cleaning concept including a proper filtration provides important advantages: clean tanks avoid the loss of valuable cargo capacities and expensive tank cleaning costs can be saved. In addition other economic benefit can be realized from fuel savings due to the reduced weight, some calculations indicating savings of more than 3%. As the IMO standard is a discharge standard, BWTS with treatment steps also at discharge are always up front. A disinfection step during deballasting ensures conformity with existing regulations and the danger of regrowth in the tanks or contamination by organism from the tank environment is averted. Of course the continuous intensity of the ballast water production without interruptions of the water flow is important to ensure short loading and unloading times. As a last important aspect the history and financial stability of the producing company need to be taken into consideration. Nobody wants to buy a product, whose manufacturer won’t still be in existence in 10 years time. Due to the fast regulatory developments and the significant size of the market, ballast water products are very attractive even for newcomers, who have no experience in water treatment or the specialties of maritime technology. Purchasing companies therefore need to keep a watchful eye on the background of their possible suppliers. Particular attention should be focused on financial stability and global availability of service. Purchasing the right BWTS is a challenge – but not an insoluble problem The purchase decision for equipping a vessel with ballast water treatment technology is certainly an important one, which has to be considered carefully asa poorly operating system or one which requires heightened backend attention may eventually cost a lot more. The points above can help shipowners and shipyards find a way through the abundance of choices in a still emerging market. In the light of the latest market developments some recommendations should be taken into account. The American institutions are still working on national regulations – valid e.g. for everyone targeting US American harbours. As the first authority US Coast Guards has adopted regulations and implementations schedules for it, the first systems are on the brink to the approval as Alternate Management Systems (AMS), a bridging of the USCG type approval. Due to its wide outreach and impact it may become the de-facto standard for BWTS. Owners who need to install technology should have an eye on it, if their chosen system meets the standards of the USCG or better is already approved as AMS. And a second aspect has to be considered: Already now are a wide range of technologies available, which suit to the needs of many vessels and their owners. Once the IMO convention is ratified, a boom is expected and may well cause a severe bottleneck, increasing the price level to a maximum. The best time to purchase is now.


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ΕΝΩΣΗ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ ΕΦΟΠΛΙΣΤΩΝ- www.nafsgreen.gr

Θεόδωρος Βενιάμης Πρόεδρος Ενώσεως Ελλήνων Εφοπλιστών

Η Ελληνική ναυτιλία αποτελεί εθνικό ζωτικό κεφάλαιο μη διαπραγματεύσιμο Πραγματοποιήθηκε στο Ίδρυμα Ευγενίδου, η Ετήσια Τακτική Γενική Συνέλευση των μελών της Ενώσεως Ελλήνων Εφοπλιστών, στη διάρκεια της οποίας ο Πρόεδρος κ. Θεόδωρος Βενιάμης, αναφέρθηκε λεπτομερώς στις εξελίξεις που σημειώθηκαν στην ποντοπόρο ναυτιλία τον περασμένο χρόνο, καθώς και στα πεπραγμένα της Οργανώσεως του ελληνικού εφοπλισμού. Ακολουθεί ολόκληρο το κείμενο της ομιλίας του Προέδρου κ. Θεόδωρου Βενιάμη: «Κυρίες και κύριοι Συνάδελφοι, Αγαπητοί φίλοι, Θα ήθελα να σας καλωσορίσω όλους στην φετινή Γενική Συνέλευση της Ενώσεώς μας, στο γνώριμο και φιλικό περιβάλλον του Ευγενιδείου Ιδρύματος και να ευχηθώ για όλους μας μια καλή και δημιουργική νέα χρονιά. Ο νέος χρόνος, θέλω να ελπίζω ότι θα είναι καλύτερος από τον παλαιό και για τη ναυτιλία μας και για την πατρίδα μας. Μετρημένη αισιοδοξία, που ασφαλώς δεν μας επιτρέπει κανέναν εφησυχασμό. Καλούμαι λοιπόν να κάνω απολογισμό των πεπραγμένων μιας χρονικής περιόδου που δικαιολογημένα μπορεί να χαρακτηρισθεί ως η κρισιμότερη στη σύγχρονη ιστορία τόσο της χώρας μας όσο και της Ευρώπης, λόγω των δυσμενών οικονομικών συγκυριών. Πράγματι το προηγούμενο έτος συνέχισε να αποτελεί εποχή διαρκούς ύφεσης για τη διεθνή ναυτιλιακή αγορά, οφειλόμενη κυρίως σε τρεις παραμέτρους. Ειδικότερα: Στην εξωγενή παγκόσμια οικονομική επιβράδυνση, η οποία έχει ως συνέπεια την ανάσχεση του διεθνούς εμπορίου και την επακόλουθη μείωση του θαλάσσιου μεταφορικού έργου. Στην υπερπροσφορά της χωρητικότητας – η οποία δημιουργήθηκε υπό συνθήκες υπεραισιοδοξίας στη φάση της άνθησης του γνωστού σε όλους μας οικονομικού κύκλου- και έχει σαν αποτέλεσμα την δραματική πτώση των ναύλων και την επακόλουθη μείωση της αξίας των πλοίων. Στο σοβαρά κλονισμένο τραπεζικό σύστημα, το οποίο θεωρείται το πρώτο “θύμα” της οικονομικής κρίσης παγκοσμίως και το οποίο αδυνατεί προς το παρόν να συνεργαστεί και να στηρίξει

ως ένα βαθμό τον εφοπλισμό, δηλαδή δεν προσφέρεται να χρηματοδοτήσει είτε προγράμματα ανανέωσης στόλων – κομβικό σημείο για την ανταγωνιστικότητά μας – είτε κεφάλαια κίνησης των ναυτιλιακών εταιριών, ώστε να ξεπεράσουν το πρόβλημα της περιορισμένης ρευστότητας και να καταστούν περισσότερο βιώσιμες και λειτουργικές. Δεν έχω πρόθεση να εξωραΐσω την κατάσταση που βιώνουμε. Ως επιχειρηματίες όμως στο ναυτιλιακό στίβο, γνωρίζουμε πολύ καλά τις δυσκολίες αλλά και τις δυνατότητες και ευκαιρίες που υπάρχουν στο επάγγελμά μας, ένα επάγγελμα χωρίς σύνορα, εκτεθειμένο σε πολλαπλές και συχνά απρόβλεπτες συγκυρίες αλλά και στον παραδοσιακά κυκλικό χαρακτήρα της ναυτιλίας με τις εναλλαγές περιόδου ύφεσης και ανάπτυξης. Εν τούτοις, η κρίση δημιουργεί ευκαιρίες επανατοποθέτησης. Εξάλλου, ο Έλληνας πλοιοκτήτης χαρακτηρίζεται από προσαρμοστικότητα, ευελιξία και επιχειρηματική διαίσθηση. Το στοίχημα είναι μεγάλο για τη νέα χρονιά αλλά είναι πρόωρο ακόμη να προβούμε σε ασφαλή εκτίμηση των ενδείξεων. Το βλέμμα μας παραμένει στραμμένο στις αναπτυσσόμενες χώρες και κυρίως την Κίνα και την Ινδία, με την ευχή μιας γρήγορης ανάκαμψης του παγκόσμιου εμπορίου. Μέσα λοιπόν στις ανακατατάξεις που συντελούνται γύρω μας στο παγκόσμιο οικονομικό γίγνεσθαι, αλλά κυρίως σε εθνικό επίπεδο, έχουμε κάθε λόγο να αισθανόμαστε ικανοποιημένοι από το δυναμικό ρόλο που συνεχίζει να διαδραματίζει η ελληνική ναυτιλία στο διεθνή στίβο. Η ελληνόκτητη ναυτιλία παραμένει στην πρώτη θέση τόσο διεθνώς όσο και στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, με 3.428 πλοία (άνω των 1.000 gt), χωρητικότητας περίπου 245 εκατομμυρίων dwt, από τα οποία 820 πλοία με χωρητικότητα 74 εκατομμύρια dwt, βρίσκονται στην ελληνική σημαία. Ειδικότερα, ο ελληνόκτητος στόλος εκπροσωπεί το 15,56% του παγκόσμιου στόλου, ελέγχοντας παράλληλα το 23,55 % και το 17,20 % του παγκόσμιου στόλου δεξαμενοπλοίων και φορτηγών χύδην φορτίων αντιστοίχως. Οι Έλληνες πλοιοκτήτες συνεχίζουν ένα πρόγραμμα συνεχούς ανανέωσης του στόλου τους, είτε μέσω των προγραμμάτων ναυπηγήσεων που σταδιακά ολοκληρώνονται, είτε μέσω αγορών μεταχειρισμένων αλλά ποιοτικών πλοίων νέας ηλικίας. Επιπλέον, η στροφή πολλών συναδέλφων μας προς τα εξειδικευμένα πλοία μεταφοράς υγροποιημένου LNG, καθώς και πλοία κατάλληλα για τον διάπλου της Αρκτικής Οδού,


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αντανακλά πλήρως τις διεθνείς τάσεις και τον πρωτοποριακό χαρακτήρα της ελληνικής επιχειρηματικότητας. Όμως αυτή τη φορά, δεν θα ήθελα να επεκταθώ περισσότερο στα διεθνή οικονομικά δρώμενα της ναυτιλιακής αγοράς. Προτιμώ να επικεντρωθώ στις εξελίξεις σε εθνικό επίπεδο και στο ρόλο που καλείται να παίξει η ναυτιλιακή μας οικογένεια το προσεχές κρίσιμο διάστημα για την έξοδο της ελληνικής οικονομίας από την κρίση. Όλο το προηγούμενο έτος, οι κλυδωνισμοί της ελληνικής οικονομίας και το αδιέξοδο στο οποίο έφτασε αρκετές φορές, ταλαιπώρησαν ψυχολογικά το σύνολο του ελληνικού λαού. Ανασφάλεια, αβεβαιότητα, οικονομική στενότητα, ανεργία, παράγοντες ανασταλτικοί για κάθε αναπτυξιακή πρωτοβουλία, για κάθε επενδυτικό σχέδιο, για κάθε επιχειρηματικό όραμα. Στο ζοφερό αυτό περιβάλλον, τα Ποσειδώνια του Ιουνίου 2012 ήταν πραγματικά μια ένεση αυτοπεποίθησης και εθνικής περηφάνιας. Για μια εβδομάδα η καρδιά της διεθνούς ναυτιλιακής βιομηχανίας χτυπούσε στην πρωτεύουσα της Ελλάδας, της χώρας στην οποία την ίδια χρονική περίοδο η εθνική οικονομία της παρέπαιε, η αξιοπρέπειά της δεχόταν προσβολές και το μέλλον της στην Ευρωζώνη τελούσε υπό συνεχές καθεστώς αμφισβήτησης. Παρά ταύτα, η Έκθεση των Ποσειδωνίων έφερε για άλλη μια φορά στο διεθνές προσκήνιο την πρωτοκαθεδρία της ελληνικής ναυτιλίας στα διεθνή ναυτιλιακά τεκταινόμενα και την οικονομική διπλωματία που ασκεί, αφού κατέχει το μεγαλύτερο ποσοστό μεταφορικής ικανότητας στη διακίνηση του διεθνούς εμπορίου. Λίγο μετά τα Ποσειδώνια και τις εκλογές της 17ης Ιουνίου 2012, άρχισε ο αγώνας δρόμου της νέας κυβέρνησης για τη διάσωση της ελληνικής οικονομίας. Από την πρώτη στιγμή, η ναυτιλιακή μας οικογένεια, μέσω της Ενώσεώς μας, δήλωσε παρούσα στην πρόσκληση του Πρωθυπουργού της χώρας για κάθε δυνατή συμβολή στις σκληρές προσπάθειες που καταβάλλονται για την αναγέννηση της ελληνικής οικονομίας. Στο σημείο αυτό, θα ήθελα να επαναλάβω την πάγια συμβολή της ναυτιλίας στην ελληνική οικονομία, μία συμβολή που συχνά, επιμελώς και εσκεμμένα, υποτιμάται και σε καμία περίπτωση δεν προβάλλεται, τουλάχιστον εντός της πατρίδας μας. Η μελέτη του Ιδρύματος Οικονομικών και Βιομηχανικών Ερευνών (ΙΟΒΕ), που κυκλοφόρησε τις πρώτες ημέρες του 2013, επαναλαμβάνει νούμερα και εκτιμήσεις γνωστές σε εμάς και στους εταίρους μας στις διεθνείς ναυτιλιακές αγορές. Ειδικότερα: • 6,1% του ΑΕΠ της Ελλάδας το 2009 προήλθε άμεσα ή έμμεσα από τελική ζήτηση για θαλάσσιες μεταφορές. Η σημαντική σμίκρυνση του ΑΕΠ την τριετία 2009-2012 υποδηλώνει ότι το ποσοστό αυτό θα πρέπει να έχει αυξηθεί σημαντικά την

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περίοδο αυτή φθάνοντας περίπου στο 8%. • Η τελική ζήτηση για θαλάσσιες μεταφορές δημιούργησε στο σύνολο, άμεσα και έμμεσα, 13,3 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ εγχώρια προστιθέμενη αξία το 2009. • Το έτος 2011 τα έσοδα από την παροχή ναυτιλιακών υπηρεσιών σε ξένο συνάλλαγμα ανήλθαν σε 14 δισεκατομμύρια ευρώ. • Οι θαλάσσιες μεταφορές προσφέρουν άμεσα και έμμεσα απασχόληση σε περίπου 200.000 άτομα. Εξίσου θετική είναι η προτεινόμενη, στο υπό εξέταση πολυνομοσχέδιο του Υπουργείου Ναυτιλίας και Αιγαίου, σύσταση Γραφείου Σταδιοδρομίας το οποίο θα κατευθύνει τη ναυτολόγηση των δοκίμων στα πλοία των ναυτιλιακών μας εταιρειών. Εν τέλει, θα ήθελα να επαναλάβω την ανάγκη για αναβάθμιση της ναυτικής εκπαίδευσης, καθώς και για υλοποίηση του συστήματος ιδιωτικής εκπαίδευσης. Δεδομένης της ανεπάρκειας των υφιστάμενων υποδομών των Ναυτικών Ακαδημιών μας να προσφέρουν περισσότερες θέσεις φοίτησης δοκίμων, η δημιουργία ιδιωτικών σχολών θα δώσει επαγγελματική διέξοδο σε αρκετούς νέους της πατρίδας μας σε μία εποχή όπου η ανεργία μαστίζει αδιακρίτως όλα τα επαγγέλματα της στεριάς. Στο πλαίσιο αυτό είναι σημαντικά τα ευρήματα της προαναφερόμενης πρόσφατης μελέτης του ΙΟΒΕ σχετικά με τη δυνητική συμβολή της ελληνικής ναυτιλίας στην απασχόληση με τη δημιουργία νέων θέσεων εργασίας. Τον ίδιο στόχο θα εξυπηρετήσει άμεσα η ρύθμιση που περιλαμβάνεται στο υπό εξέταση πολυνομοσχέδιο για τη σύναψη ατομικών συμβάσεων εργασίας στην ποντοπόρο ναυτιλία και στον κλάδο των σκαφών αναψυχής, κατά τη διάρκεια του Μεσοπρόθεσμου Πλαισίου Δημοσιονομικής Στρατηγικής και με την προϋπόθεση ότι δεν υπάρχει σε ισχύ αντίστοιχη Συλλογική Σύμβαση Εργασίας. Μέσω αυτών, η ναυτολόγηση ελληνικών κατώτερων πληρωμάτων θα είναι πλέον πρακτικά εφικτή με δεδομένες τις συνθήκες του διεθνούς ανταγωνισμού που επικρατούν σήμερα στην παγκόσμια ναυτιλία. Η ανταγωνιστικότητα είναι η καθοριστική παράμετρος για να επιβιώσει το ελληνικό πλοίο στο διεθνή στίβο της θάλασσας, και επομένως να συνεχίσει να αποτελεί στρατηγικό πυλώνα και μοχλό ανάπτυξης της ελληνικής οικονομίας. Θα είναι πράγματι απογοητευτικό εάν μία τόσο ελπιδοφόρος προοπτική για τη δημιουργία θέσεων εργασίας, στη δίνη της οικονομικής κρίσης που βιώνει η χώρα μας, ανατραπεί στο βωμό των μικροπολιτικών σκοπιμοτήτων, στερώντας από άνεργους συμπολίτες μας το δικαίωμα για εργασία και δημιουργία. Κυρίες και Κύριοι συνάδελφοι, Στη χρονιά που πέρασε, η Ένωσή μας συνέχισε δυναμικά το έργο της διεθνούς εκπροσώπησης της ελληνικής ναυτιλιακής κοινότητας, παρακολουθώντας στενά τα ναυτιλιακά δρώμενα τόσο σε διεθνές όσο και σε κοινοτικό επίπεδο και παρεμβαίνοντας κατά περίπτωση, πάντοτε με τεκμηριωμένες θέσεις, υπέρ της


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εύρυθμης λειτουργίας της ναυτιλιακής δραστηριότητας. Θα ήθελα να αναφερθώ με συντομία στα κυριότερα θέματα στα οποία επικεντρωθήκαμε: Το 2012, σε κοινοτικό επίπεδο, πρωταρχικό θέμα που μας απασχόλησε και συνεχίζει να μας απασχολεί είναι η διερεύνηση εκ μέρους της Γενικής Διεύθυνσης Ανταγωνισμού της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής της χρονικής παράτασης και ανανέωσης των Κατευθυντήριων Γραμμών για τις κρατικές ενισχύσεις στις θαλάσσιες μεταφορές. Στο θέμα αυτό, ο ευρωπαϊκός εφοπλισμός ακολουθεί κοινή συντονισμένη πολιτική υποστηρίζοντας ότι η βιωσιμότητα της κοινοτικής ναυτιλίας εξαρτάται από τη διατήρηση της ανταγωνιστικότητας του στόλου της έναντι των συνθηκών οξύτατου ανταγωνισμού που αντιμετωπίζει από τις ναυτιλίες τρίτων χωρών. Καθοριστική παράμετρος της ανταγωνιστικότητας είναι η παράταση της ισχύος των Κατευθυντήριων Γραμμών. Όμως ανεξαρτήτως της συγκεκριμένης υπό εξέλιξη διαδικασίας, η ελληνική κυβέρνηση έλαβε από την ίδια Γενική Διεύθυνση δύο διερευνητικές επιστολές, με τις οποίες ζητούνται διευκρινίσεις για το ελληνικό καθεστώς φορολογίας χωρητικότητας καθώς και για σειρά συμπληρωματικών ρυθμίσεων που ισχύουν για τη ναυτιλία, προκειμένου να διαπιστωθεί η συμβατότητα αυτών με τους κανόνες της εσωτερικής αγοράς και τις προαναφερθείσες Κατευθυντήριες Γραμμές. Σημειωτέον ότι ανάλογες επιστολές έχουν λάβει και άλλα κράτη μέλη της Ευρωπαϊκής Ενώσεως. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, οι υπηρεσίες της Ενώσεώς μας με τη συμβολή εξωτερικών νομικών συνεργατών, εξειδικευμένων σε θέματα φορολογικού δικαίου και δικαίου του ανταγωνισμού, ανέπτυξαν τεκμηριωμένη επιχειρηματολογία υπέρ του ελληνικού φορολογικού συστήματος χωρητικότητας, το οποίο θα ήθελα να υπενθυμίσω ότι πρώτη εφάρμοσε η Ελλάδα, χρόνια πριν από την ένταξή της στην τότε ΕΟΚ, και το οποίο αποτέλεσε τον εμπνευστή ανάλογων φορολογικών συστημάτων που υιοθέτησαν στην πορεία τα περισσότερα κράτη μέλη της ΕΕ, καθώς και αρκετά εκτός Ευρώπης. Η επιχειρηματολογία μας παρεδόθη στις αρμόδιες Ελληνικές Αρχές, οι οποίες συνεκτιμώντας τις θέσεις μας, προέβησαν στην επίσημη απάντηση της ελληνικής κυβέρνησης στις αιτιάσεις της Ευρωπαϊκής Επιτροπής. Προς το παρόν, βρισκόμαστε στο στάδιο αναμονής για την αξιολόγηση των απαντήσεων αυτών από την Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή. Θέλω να πιστεύω ότι οι Ευρωπαίοι πολιτικοί, έχοντας πλήρη συνείδηση της στρατηγικής, οικονομικής και πολιτικής σημασίας μιας εύρωστης κοινοτικής ναυτιλίας για την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση, θα συνεχίσουν να προασπίζουν την ανταγωνιστικότητα αυτής, χωρίς να ξεχνούν ότι χώρες χωρίς φιλική ναυτιλιακή πολιτική και όραμα σημαίνει στην πράξη, τελικά, χώρες χωρίς ναυτιλία.

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Όσον αφορά τη μάστιγα της πειρατείας, το φαινόμενο δυστυχώς εξαπλώνεται και σε άλλες περιοχές, εκτός του Ινδικού Ωκεανού όπου παρατηρείται κάποια ύφεση, όπως είναι η περιοχή του Κόλπου της Γουινέας και μάλιστα με βίαια περιστατικά ένοπλης ληστείας. Η διεθνής κοινότητα, αν και καλείται επιμόνως να επιδείξει ισχυρή πολιτική βούληση για να αντιμετωπίσει ριζικά το πρόβλημα, δεν έχει ακόμη αναπτύξει την αναγκαία και αποτελεσματική στρατηγική. Ευτυχώς πάντως, το πρώτο τρίμηνο του περασμένου έτους η χώρα μας υιοθέτησε την αναγκαία νομοθεσία σύμφωνα με τα πρότυπα των σχετικών Οδηγιών του ΙΜΟ, βάσει της οποίας επιτρέπεται η χρήση προσοντούχων ιδιωτών ενόπλων φρουρών επί των πλοίων ελληνικής σημαίας. Όμως θα επαναλάβω ότι αυτό αποτελεί μόνο ένα επιπρόσθετο μέτρο αυτοπροστασίας των εμπορικών πλοίων και των πληρωμάτων τους και όχι τη λύση στο πρόβλημα. Για το λόγο αυτό, συνεχίζονται οι προσπάθειες για την ανάδειξη των εμπορικών, οικονομικών και ανθρωπιστικών διαστάσεων του προβλήματος στους διεθνείς οργανισμούς, αλλά και στα κέντρα λήψης πολιτικών αποφάσεων, ώστε να υπάρξει συντονισμένη και αποτελεσματική πάταξη του φαινομένου. Στο θέμα της μείωσης των εκπομπών διοξειδίου του άνθρακα από τη διεθνή ναυτιλία, οι υπό εξέλιξη διεθνείς διαπραγματεύσεις καρκινοβατούν κυρίως λόγω πολιτικών διαφορών μεταξύ αναπτυγμένων και αναπτυσσόμενων χωρών. Όμως, ο κίνδυνος υπαγωγής της ναυτιλίας στο περιφερειακό ευρωπαϊκό σύστημα εμπορίας ρύπων (Emission Trading Scheme) απομακρύνεται, αφού με σημαντική μεταστροφή της πολιτικής της η Ευρωπαϊκή Επιτροπή φαίνεται να εγκαταλείπει την ιδέα αυτή, υποστηρίζοντας πλέον την αναγκαιότητα εύρεσης διεθνών λύσεων μέσω του Διεθνούς Ναυτιλιακού Οργανισμού, του ΙΜΟ. Θα χρειασθεί όμως επαγρύπνηση, διότι η επιδίωξη εναλλακτικής καθιέρωσης συστήματος παρακολούθησης, αναφορών και ελέγχου των εκπομπών των πλοίων που καταπλέουν σε κοινοτικά ύδατα μπορεί να αποτελεί προπομπό λήψης μέτρων εισπρακτικού χαρακτήρα. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, οι εξελίξεις χαρακτηρίζονται θετικές και αποτελούν πράγματι δικαίωση για τις μάχες που δώσαμε σε όλα τα επίπεδα καθώς και παραδοχή της τεκμηριωμένης επιχειρηματολογίας μας ότι η ναυτιλία ως διεθνής δραστηριότητα απαιτεί πάντοτε διεθνείς λύσεις. Καταληκτικά, μεταξύ πληθώρας άλλων θεμάτων, θα ήθελα να αναφερθώ επιγραμματικά και στα εξής: - Στην ενεργό συμμετοχή της Ενώσεως Ελλήνων Εφοπλιστών στις συντονισμένες παρεμβάσεις των οργανισμών της ναυτιλίας στον ΙΜΟ για την πρακτική αντιμετώπιση των δυσκολιών της μελλοντικής συμμόρφωσης των πλοίων με τη διεθνή σύμβαση για τη διαχείριση του θαλάσσιου έρματος. - Στις συνεχιζόμενες προσπάθειές μας για την εναρμόνιση της υπό υιοθέτηση κοινοτικής νομοθεσίας για την ανακύκλωση των πλοίων με την υπάρχουσα διεθνή σύμβαση του ΙΜΟ. - Στις συνεχείς πιέσεις προς όλες τις κατευθύνσεις


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για την εκλογίκευση του ιδιωτικού συστήματος vetting της RightShip με την κατάργηση των καταχρηστικών και εμπορικά αθέμιτων πρακτικών που ως τώρα ακολουθεί. - Στις καθοριστικές παρεμβάσεις μας σε θέματα που αφορούν την ομαλή λειτουργία των αλληλασφαλιστικών οργανισμών της ναυτιλίας, των P&I Clubs, με γνώμονα πάντοτε την προάσπιση της θεμελιώδους αρχής λειτουργίας αυτών, της αρχής της αμοιβαιότητας. Επιπροσθέτως, θα ήθελα να επαναλάβω την πάγια πολιτική της Ενώσεως Ελλήνων Εφοπλιστών να επιδιώκει συνεργασία με τις εθνικές εφοπλιστικές ενώσεις, ευρωπαϊκών αλλά και άλλων χωρών, με στόχο να σφυρηλατεί διεθνείς συμμαχίες για την προάσπιση και προώθηση των κοινών συμφερόντων της διεθνούς εμπορικής ναυτιλίας, μέσω συντονισμένων χειρισμών και δράσεων. Στο πλαίσιο αυτό, τον Φεβρουάριο του 2012 η ΕΕΕ είχε την πρωτοβουλία διοργάνωσης στην Αθήνα συνάντησης κορυφής με τους Προέδρους ευρωπαϊκών εφοπλιστικών ενώσεων, καθώς και με την συμμετοχή του Αμερικανικού Ναυτιλιακού Επιμελητηρίου και της Ένωσης Εφοπλιστών της Κορέας, η οποία αποδείχθηκε ιδιαίτερα επιτυχής και γι’ αυτό προτιθέμεθα να την επαναλάβουμε. Στο ίδιο πλαίσιο, συνεχίσαμε την στενή συνεργασία με τους διεθνείς οργανισμούς της ναυτιλίας, ICS, Intertanko, Intercargo και BIMCO, καθώς επίσης με τους νηογνώμονες και τη Διεθνή Ένωση Νηογνωμόνων (IACS). Ειδικότερα, όσον αφορά τη BIMCO, οι παρεμβάσεις μας, με τη συμβολή των Ελλήνων συναδέλφων εκπροσώπων μας, ήταν συνεχείς και μεθοδικές προκειμένου να διατηρηθεί η αρχική φυσιογνωμία της ως οργανισμού υπέρ των συμφερόντων της πλοιοκτησίας. Σε ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο, η συνεργασία μας με την ECSA είναι απολύτως επιτυχημένη και παράλληλα, λόγω της ενισχυμένης νομοθετικής αρμοδιότητας του Ευρωπαϊκού Κοινοβουλίου, συνεχίζουμε την συστηματική ενημέρωση των Ελλήνων ευρωβουλευτών περί των θέσεών μας σε θέματα που εκκρεμούν στο Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινοβούλιο. Εξίσου συστηματική και εποικοδομητική είναι η ανταλλαγή απόψεων με το γραφείο του Επιτρόπου Μεταφορών Kallas, όπου διαπιστώνουμε πλήρη ταύτιση με τις θέσεις μας σε πολλά θέματα μείζονος σημασίας. Αγαπητοί συνάδελφοι,Πριν ολοκληρώσω τον απολογισμό του περασμένου έτους, θέλω να εκφράσω τις εγκάρδιες ευχαριστίες μου προς τους συναδέλφους μου στο Προεδρείο της Ενώσεως, καθώς και σε όλα τα μέλη του Διοικητικού Συμβουλίου για την αμέριστη συμπαράστασή τους και την καθοριστική συμβολή τους στο δύσκολο καθημερινό έργο της προάσπισης των θεμιτών συμφερόντων της ελληνικής ναυτιλίας, που όλοι εσείς μας έχετε εμπιστευτεί. Θέλω να σας διαβεβαιώσω ότι καταβάλλουμε κάθε προσπάθεια, ενεργώντας πάντοτε υπεύθυνα, με αποκλειστικό γνώμονα το συλλογικό συμφέρον. Η δύσκολη χρονιά που πέρασε ήταν για εμάς μια ακόμη επιβεβαίωση ότι ενωμένοι μπορούμε να καταφέρουμε τα μέγιστα ακόμη και υπό τις πιο αντίξοες συνθήκες. Άλλωστε, όπως ξέρουμε, ένα δάχτυλο μόνο του δεν είναι τίποτα. Πέντε

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δάχτυλα ενωμένα, όμως, σχηματίζουν γροθιά. Θέλω να εκφράσω επίσης τις ευχαριστίες μου στη Διεύθυνση της Ενώσεως και σε όλους τους συνεργάτες της που στηρίζουν με επαγγελματισμό και αφοσίωση το καθημερινό έργο της και ιδιαίτερα, στον Διευθυντή μας, Στράτο Ξυνό. Θερμές ευχαριστίες ακόμη στους συναδέλφους μας στην Ελληνική Επιτροπή Ναυτιλιακής Συνεργασίας, στο Ναυτικό Επιμελητήριο της Ελλάδας και στην HELMEPA για την αρμονική συνεργασία μας και την αμέριστη υποστήριξή τους στο έργο μας. Ευχαριστώ επίσης το φίλο και συνάδελφό μας Λεωνίδα για τη φιλοξενία του σήμερα. Εντέλει, νοιώθω την υποχρέωση να εξάρω τη συνέχιση της αρμονικής συνεργασίας με τους εκπροσώπους των Ελλήνων ναυτικών μας, ακόμη και υπό τις δύσκολες οικονομικές και κοινωνικές συνθήκες που βιώνει η πατρίδα μας. Είναι αξιοσημείωτο ότι σε αρκετά θέματα μείζονος σημασίας για το μέλλον της ναυτιλίας μας όπως είναι η ναυτική εκπαίδευση και η παραγωγή προσοντούχων αξιωματικών, στα οποία ήδη έχω προαναφερθεί διεξοδικά, πλοιοκτησία και ναυτεργασία παρουσιάσθηκαν με κοινές θέσεις, μοιραζόμενες κοινά οράματα, με αποτέλεσμα να βρεθούν άμεσα λύσεις και να διευκολυνθεί η ελληνική πολιτεία στην υλοποίηση αυτών. Και είναι εμφανές ότι η συνέχιση της εποικοδομητικής αυτής συνεργασίας θα είναι προς όφελος και των δύο πλευρών. Αγαπητοί φίλες και φίλοι, Όσο περήφανοι και αν νοιώθουμε ο καθένας ξεχωριστά για τις ατομικές μας επιχειρηματικές επιτυχίες στο χώρο της ναυτιλίας, πιστεύω ακράδαντα, και είμαι βέβαιος ότι θα συμφωνήσετε μαζί μου, πως είμαστε εξίσου εθνικά υπερήφανοι επειδή ανήκουμε στη μεγάλη ελληνική ναυτιλιακή οικογένεια, που κατά γενική παραδοχή, ακόμη και των ξένων ανταγωνιστών μας, έχει μεγαλουργήσει και έχει τα εχέγγυα να συνεχίσει να το κάνει, ακόμη και μέσα στις κοσμογονικές αλλαγές που συντελούνται στο σύγχρονο διεθνές οικονομικό γίγνεσθαι. Για το λόγο αυτό, είμαστε υποχρεωμένοι να διαφυλάξουμε την ανοδική πορεία και το μέλλον του κλάδου μας ως συνόλου. Αυτός πρέπει να είναι ο επιχειρηματικός, αλλά και ο εθνικός μας στόχος. Όλοι μαζί επομένως, αλλά και ο καθένας χωριστά, έχουμε την ευθύνη της συνέχισης της μεγάλης ελληνικής ναυτιλιακής παράδοσης. Σε εμάς θα χρεωθεί ποια ναυτιλία θα παραδώσουμε στην διάδοχη γενιά μας. Είναι μεγάλη η ευθύνη, αλλά και η πρόκληση. Η ιστορία όμως της Ενώσεώς μας έχει αποδείξει ότι η δύναμη της συλλογικότητας είναι το ουσιαστικότερο όπλο διαπραγμάτευσης των θεσμικών συμφερόντων της ναυτιλίας μας. Και στις τρέχουσες αντίξοες συγκυρίες, αυτό είναι περισσότερο από κάθε άλλη φορά αναγκαίο. Η δυναμική συσπείρωσή μας στους κόλπους της Ενώσεώς μας θα αποτελέσει τον καλύτερο αρωγό στο δύσκολο έργο που επιτελεί. Σας ευχαριστώ για την προσοχή σας.»


THE POWER TO HANDLE THE COMPLEXITY OF RISK Safeguard perfomance

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Swift and dramatic changes in business conditions, stricter regulations, intense public scrutiny: managing risk has never been so critical - and more complex. Since 1864, DNV has built a global capacity to help our clients identify, assess and manage risk - whether they are designing and building a new cruise ship to operating a fleet of gas tankers. We can help you handle the complexity of risk and safely improve your business performance


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The needs for windfarm construction vessels is growing rapidly 2013 marks the start of a period of rapid growth in the windfarm construction vessel market and it coincides with new operational demands that require careful consideration, particularly in the design of jack-up systems. DNV highlights the need for owners and yards to consider both class and flag state requirements when evaluating limited operation designs.

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able to escape bad weather at very short notice. They enter port to pick up windfarm components on a regular basis and this equipment is increasing in size as the industry moves more and more towards pre-fabrication of wind turbine units,” says Derek Hoare, business development manager region India and Middle East. DNV released class notations for offshore windfarm construction vessels in 2009, and DNV’s GeniE design and analysis software is extensively used to develop the hull structure for these vessels. Experience with the classification of the latest and largest windfarm construction vessels has highlighted the importance of the structural interactions between hull, crane and jack-up technology. DNV therefore assists owners with the communication required between yard and flag state to ensure that the design and construction of the jack-up system meets international safety, operational and market demands including extended fatigue requirements. “2013 sees us strengthening our position in the market yet again as we bring our regulatory knowledge and technical experience to focus on the safety of jack-up systems. Nothing can be taken for granted, and owners need specialist technical support,” says Jørgen Traun. Author: Per Wiggo Richardsen

Pathways toward Low Carbon Shipping At least 20 new windfarm installation vessels will be required by 2020 only to meet Europe’s anticipated growth in offshore wind capacity which the European Wind Energy Association expects to reach 40GW. “Growth in vessel orders is now doubling every two years,” says DNV’s regional manager India and Middle East Jørgen Traun. “It is therefore critical that the already established practice of allowing for limited design conditions are treated consistently across flag states and that emerging trends in operational requirements are catered for.” Flag states have flexibility in deciding the level of compliance required with SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) and MODU (Mobile Offshore Drilling Units) codes depending on the intended operational envelope of the vessel. DNV warns that communication is important to ensuring robust designs are produced that will meet future international market needs. SOLAS certificates are required because of the operation of these vessels as cargo ships and MODU code compliance is required for the elevated phase of operations. The need for a large nonmaritime crew also means additional SPS requirements for stability and life-saving. “These vessels are a mix of offshore jack-up and cargo ship that is relatively new to the maritime world. They carry out repeated operations in restricted waters, but unlike other offshore units, they are constantly on the move, requiring jack-up operations on average every second day. They also need to be

Possible pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from shipping are published in a new DNV Research & Innovation position paper, giving directions for more environmentally friendly seaborne trade. “If shipping should be required to reach emission levels in 2050 consistent with a global 2oC stabilisation target, we need to do more than stabilising emissions at present level. To achieve the 2oC target, the shipping sector must reduce CO2 emissions by 60 % from today’s emission level”, says Magnus Strandmyr Eide, Senior Researcher at DNV Research & Innovation and main author of DNVs pathways study. The study has identified two plausible pathways for the 2oC target for shipping; either allowing for nuclear power, or by providing financial incentives for biofuel. It is realised that other pathways are possible, e.g. by including technologies currently very costly or immature, or through technological breakthroughs which are not identified, but which should be expected. From the existing alternatives, the introduction and use of biofuels stands out as the best option, considering the overall environmental, safety and security impacts. Widespread use of biofuel in shipping depends on price, incentives and availability in sufficient volume. To capitalise on the potential, action must be taken by ship-owners, technology developers and regulators.


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The tanker Stena Sunrise named New ship naming ceremonies in South Korea in South Korea

January 31st the Suezmax tanker Stena Sunrise was named at the Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) shipyard in Geoje, South Korea. The vessel is the last in a series of seven units and is owned by Stena Bulk. The Stena Sunrise is a third generation, fuelefficient Suezmax and, like the other tankers in the series, will be employed on the spot market via Stena Sonangol Suezmax Pool. She was delivered on 30 January and will sail with a cargo of gas oil from Asia to Europe.

The Suezmax tanker AST Sunshine was named at a ceremony at Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) in Geoje, South Korea. The vessel is owned by Stena Bulk and Japanese Asahi Tankers, each with 50 percent, in the joint venture Asahi Stena Tankers. The tanker is a third generation, fuel-efficient Suezmax and will be employed on the spot market via the Stena Sonangol Suezmax Pool. Delivery is set for Sunday, 13 January 2013 when the tanker will sail with a cargo of gas oil from South Korea to Europe.

The Stena Sunrise is the last vessel in a series built at SHI and ordered at the beginning of 2010. “The seven sisters”, each representing an investment of just under SEK 500 million, were projected by Stena Bulk. The seven sister ships, all of which have now been delivered, are the Stena Superior (owned by Stena Bulk), the Stena Suède (Stena Bulk), the Montesperanza (Spanish Ibaizabal Tankers), the MonteStena (Ibaizabal Tankers), the Stena Supreme (Concordia Maritime), the AST Sunshine (joint venture between Japanese Asahi Tankers and Stena Bulk) and the Stena Sunrise (Stena Bulk). Together with SHI, Stena Teknik has been responsible for the development of the new ship model, where the focus has been on energy efficiency. The vessel’s technical equipment and design mean that fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 10-15 percent compared with standard tonnage. As a result, fuel consumption can be reduced by 4-6 thousand litres per day thus saving USD 3-4,000/day. “Like Stena Teknik, we are very satisfied with the collaboration with the Samsung shipyard, which has characterised both the development and production of this tanker series. Besides the generally good quality delivered by the shipyard, we have together achieved our fuel efficiency target, which was the single most important objective”, says Erik Hånell, President and CEO of Stena Bulk, in a comment. Technical data for the Stena Sunrise: 
Length 274.0 metres; Beam 48.0 metres; Deadweight 158, 700 tons Photos: Kristofer Hulthén

The AST Sunshine’s godfather is Mr. Katsumi Goto, President of Idemitsu Tanker. The AST Sunshine is the sixth tanker in a series of seven units, each representing an investment of just under SEK 500 million, designed by Stena Bulk and ordered at the beginning of 2010. Together with SHI, Stena Teknik has been responsible for the development of the new ship model, where the focus has been on energy efficiency. The vessel’s technical equipment and design mean that fuel consumption can be reduced by up to 10-15 percent compared with standard tonnage. “We are very satisfied with the vessels delivered so far and the quality and precision of the Samsung shipyard. With this tanker, we now have yet another addition to the successful pool collaboration with Sonangol”, says Erik Hånell, President & CEO of Stena Bulk. Technical data for the AST Sunshine: Suezmax, Length: 274.0 metres, Beam: 48.0 metres; Deadweight: 158,700 tons. The Suezmax tanker Sonangol Cabinda will be named on Saturday, 12 January at the DSME Okpo shipyard in Busan, South Korea. The Sonangol Cabinda is the last in a series of identical tankers, all of which will be included in the Stena Sonangol Suezmax Pool. These vessels are owned by the state-owned Angolan oil company Sonangol. Delivery is set for Tuesday, 15 January, when the tanker will sail with a cargo of gas oil from South Korea to West Africa.


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Diana’s ‘Maersk Malacca’ is the first Greek owned vessel to be issued with MLC certification by Lloyd’s Register

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Clipper vessels certified to ISO 50001 by Lloyd’s Register

Picture: Kristian Morch (left) and Ian Revell.

Picture: Apostolos Poulovassilis (left) with Simeon Palios. Simeon Palios, Director and President of Diana Shipping Services S.A., said: “We are proud to be amongst the pioneers in obtaining a Maritime Labour Certificate and in implementing the Convention’s requirements onboard our vessel ‘Maersk Malacca’. This achievement was made possible through the strong relationship built over the years with our seafarers and also via Lloyd’s Register’s strong support and knowledge sharing.” The initial vessel inspection was carried out on board the Marshall Islands registered container ship at Livorno on 19 December 2012 where it was found to be in full compliance with the requirements of the Maritime Convention. The MLC certificate has now been handed over to Simeon Palios by Apostolos Poulovassilis, Lloyd’s Register Marine Regional Manager EMEA, during a ceremony at the premises of the company in Athens. “This is a major addition to the package of International Maritime Regulations which should go a long way in ensuring a level playing field for decent working and living conditions on board ships globally.”, said Apostolos Poulovassilis. “We are very pleased to be presenting this first to Diana Shipping Services S.A. and congratulations go to their management, shore and seaboard staff for all their great efforts in achieving full compliance. Diana Shipping Services S.A. is one of a number of other leading shipping companies who are prudently navigating their way to early compliance with MLC well before the deadline of August 2013.” Apostolos Poulovassilis added: “LR, working as a recognised organisation (RO) on the behalf of Flag States, is well placed and ready to support companies in this task with a strong workforce of more than 300 inspectors - in the key worldwide ports - who are fully trained, qualified and available to address the large volume of ship inspections required in this less-than 8 month period before the convention enters into force.”

Danish shipping company joins vanguard of ship operators using the 50001 energy management standard. Lloyd’s Register presented Clipper Fleet Management with ISO 50001 certification issued by LRQA, Lloyd’s Register’s provider of independent business assurance. “To us, the ISO 50001 certification is a valuable recognition and documentation that we’re doing the right things within fuel efficiency and energy management,” says Kristian Morch, Group CEO, Clipper Group. “Going through the certification process has made us further streamline our fuel efficiency management processes, and we see the certification as a natural step in our continuous focus on reducing our fuel consumption and environmental impact.” The ISO 50001 standard specifies requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an energy management system. It can be seen as a superstructure to the mandatory Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (SEEMP), a requirement by IMO (International Maritime Organization) and establishing a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a vessel. “It is clear that some leading companies can see the value of adopting this ISO standard. 50001 helps with regulatory compliance and in demonstrating environmental actions. It also helps deliver bottom line savings. With the emphasis on energy efficiency in shipping today this standard really can help our clients manage their systems to maximise their energy efficiency”, says Lloyd‘s Register’s Nordic Marine Manager, Ian Revell. “Clipper are to be congratulated for taking this step. They are among the first shipping companies in Scandinavia to adopt 50001 and they are also one of the very first dry cargo operators globally to do so.” Clipper is developing and implementing its own Energy Performance Management System, which will facilitate benchmarking, analysis and improvement on the individual vessels’ performance. Concrete performance initiatives include speed optimisation, trim optimisation as well as hull cleaning and paint. “Optimisation never stops”, Kristian Morch comments further. “Our objective is to constantly increase fuel efficiency for Clipper vessels and other vessels in our management. With an annual bunker consumption in our scale every saving, big or small, significantly contributes to bring down our environmental footprint.” In addition to the ISO 50001 certification, Clipper Fleet Management and all vessels in technical management have also been ISO 14001 certified on overall environmental management.


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NSC to implement GL Condition Monitoring Survey Arrangement for Engine Pistons German shipping company NSC Schifffahrtsgesellschaft mbH & Cie. KG (NSC) has decided to implement a Condition Monitoring (CM) survey arrangement on the main diesel engine pistons of 49 GL-classed vessels of its fleet. The arrangement was agreed to at the end of 2012 at NSC’s head office in Hamburg by Heiko Meyer, Managing Director of NSC, and Tobias Neumann-Overholthaus, GL’s Area Manager for Central Europe. Implementation of the CM survey arrangement demonstrates NSC’s commitment to promoting efficient ship operation within their fleet, maintaining a high level of reliability and availability, even under difficult and challenging market conditions. GL’s CM survey arrangement helps ship managers to improve the efficiency of the ship operation in their fleets by supporting cost efficient condition-based maintenance schemes. Condition monitoring trend data, for example from regular inspections through the scavenge ports of large 2-stroke diesel engines, documented in electronic forms provided by the engine designer, are presented annually to experts at GL head office. After evaluation and assessment of the data, according to the engine designer’s instructions and class rules, a statement is sent back to the superintendent and forwarded to the vessel. This statement can then be recognised during the next annual class survey performed by GL surveyors. If there are no indications of areas of concern with the machinery, the surveyor is encouraged to credit the respective components without resorting to a further open-up inspection. “The prevention of unnecessary open-up inspections and surveys is one of the significant benefits of the CM survey arrangement,” says Dr Jörg Rebel, GL condition monitoring expert. “Open-up inspections and surveys, are costly and time-consuming, especially in the case of piston overhauls for large diesel engines. The dismantling and re-assembling of the engines always holds the risk of damaging a system which is running well.” GL offers the CM survey arrangement for crank-train bearings and pistons of 2-stroke diesel engines, as well as for rotating auxiliary machinery, such as centrifugal pumps, electric motors, fans and purifiers. Diesel engine pistons

GL’s ASEAN Committee Meets in Singapore Classification society Germanischer Lloyd’s ASEAN Committee meeting took place in Singapore, with more than thirty participants from all of the ASEAN member countries. Over the quarter century that has passed since the first meeting a revolution has taken place in the way that communication takes place, yet the Committee remains as ever a forum where strong and lasting bonds can be formed between business partners. The shipping industry finds itself also in a period of revolution, with existing practices facing the stresses of an increasing competitive market environment, regulatory pressure and rising costs. The committee was chaired for the first time by Cedric Foo, Group Deputy President & Chief Officer of Neptune Orient Lines (NOL). In his welcome speech, the new chairman pointed out that innovations and technological progress are the most important drivers to overcome the current difficulties in the maritime markets. Change was a theme not only in the industry but at the GL Group, with Group CEO Erik van der Noordaa speaking of the planned merger with Norwegian classification society Det Norske Veritas (DNV). The merger would benefit customers by providing them with an even more extensive network of offices, strengthening the Group’s ability to provide expert services to new and existing customers around the world, and a broader scope of services, backed by leading technological expertise


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and enhanced innovation capabilities, he said. LNG looks to be a key fuel for the next quarter century and Mr. Naveen Kumar, Vice President Norgas Carriers presented LM Skaugen’s Small Scale LNG concept. The concept is an effective solution for making natural gas available to energy users not currently connected to pipeline networks, he explained and could increase the market for natural gas. LNG would be distributed from either a LNG plant, LNG import terminal or directly from a LNG carrier using a combination of both sea and land based transport directly to the end-user on islands both in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and South East Asia. With a viable gas supply available through Small Scale LNG, power plants on these islands could switch from generators burning diesel or fuel oil to more cost effective and environmental friendly combined cycle gas turbines firing on gas. Jan-Olaf Probst, GL’s Global Ship Type Director, set out how, in response to client queries GL has been able to develop a new class notation for route dependent container stowage, based on long-term statistical data on wave conditions. The notation allows for route dependent container stowage schemes that take into account the variance in sea conditions on particular sea lanes. It is built around the realistic determination of route specific loads on the deck containers and their lashing systems and will enable container lines to carry more cargo while accel-

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erating cargo operations in ports and maintain a higher degree of loading flexibility. The new class notation for route dependent container stowage will be available for all GL classed container vessels in 2013. Steen Lund, GL’s Managing Director Asia/ Pacific, gave an outlook for the shipbuilding sector in Asia. His prophecy was clear, some Asian shipyards would be facing difficult times in the future and many companies would find their existences under threat from increased competition for reduced orders. Achim Drescher, former Chairman of Columbus Line Australia, gave a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of the bulk markets. He pointed out that mining companies were today behaving in the same manner as oil majors, in many ways, when the majors had controlled a large proportion of the world tanker fleet. In addition, GL’s Chief Commerical Officer Christian von Oldershausen highlighted GL’s expertise in bulk carriers and explained the commercial advantages of various services. Albrecht Grell, Head of GL’s Maritime Solutions, looked at how energy efficiency was set to drive opportunities in the shipping market. Fuel efficiency was now the biggest lever to increase cost competitiveness,he said, with bunkers costs rising to more than one third of a vessel’s total operating costs. The best operators were already taking note of this trend, he said, with top players in the market today designing and building vessels 30% more efficient than the average. With

the entry of such optimised vessels into the market cost pressures on existing vessels would continue to mount, he noted, making the importance of making efficiency gains, especially in operational strategies, increasingly important. GL has built a strong hub in Singapore, with training and an emphasis on providing customers access to energy optimising products, such as the GL ECO Assistant. GL’s dedicated FutureShip Singapore team has grown to four, since its inception in January 2012, with plans to double the number of staff again in 2013. Dr Alam Khorshed, VP of FutureShip showed what can be done on the operational side to optimize existing ships, including: slow steaming, hull cleaning, crew training and trim optimization. The Maritime Singapore Green Pledge initiative is an important step forward in making the industry more environmentally friendly and GL sees Singapore as an important focus for “green” technologies. The GL Group recently consolidated its offices in Singapore and now has over 150 staff working under one roof - allowing for increased access to experts from multiple service areas and more room for experts to gain valuable insights from each other, especially in the area of energy efficiency and environmental protection. To wrap up the event, GL Maritime Software Director Dominic Ng, looked at the benefits of the new GL Emission Manager, a novel performance monitoring and emission tracking software tool.


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Shipping meets CSR in Focus at space as DLR and GL GL Group’s Green expand their Wednesday Event strategic cooperation agreement

Photo: Albrecht Grell, Senior Executive Vice President of GL’s Maritime Solutions, stressed the importance to address CSR issues. Picture: (left to right) Dr Pierre C. Sames, Senior Vice President Research and Rule Development of GL and Dr. Dietmar Heyland, Deputy Head of DLR Technology Marketing , DLR sign the agreement. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Germanischer Lloyd (GL) have renewed and expanded their strategic innovation cooperation agreement. They have agreed to jointly identify and develop novel technologies and applications for the shipping industry. The agreement will build upon the cooperation of the two partners which began in 2010 with joint projects that aimed at addressing ship emissions, indoor navigation, advanced materials and wave prediction via satellite. “The maritime industry has begun to take a hard look at the ways in which it operates, especially in the area of energy efficiency and the use of new fuels”, explained Dr Pierre C. Sames, Head of GL’s Department of Research and Rule Development. “With optimization of ship hydrodynamic performance becoming rapidly standard, we now see the optimisation of ship structures as an additional target, with a view to applying modern nonsteel materials, and this is certainly a field where bringing together creative minds from both our industries can result in the emergence of new and innovative ideas.” “Securing a future in which transport systems operate in as safe and as environmentally friendly manner as possible is very much at the heart of our mission at DLR,” said Dr Dietmar Heyland,, Deputy Head of DLR Technology Marketing, “and likewise these values are part of the core goals of GL.

The GL Group held its first Green Wednesday event at its head office in Hamburg. The event focused on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and the challenges and solutions of sustainability reporting. More than 50 participants attended, including representatives from the logistic and trade sectors, NGOs, and organisations involved in CSR and carbon reporting. Albrecht Grell, Senior Executive Vice President of GL Maritime Solutions, welcomed the participants to the event, stating that Green Wednesday was intended as “a platform where stakeholders could come together to discuss, share and approach ideas, as a dialogue rather than a lecture.” Green Business and CSR were intertwined, he noted, and being driven from both wiThe CSR within the Otto Group organisation was the focus of the keynote speech given by Andreas Streubig, Division Manager of Corporate Development at the Otto Group. Emerging from the deep involvement of Michael Otto, he highlighted how the Otto Group has dealt with the increased demand for transparency in the digital age, and outlined their detailed Corporate Responsibility (CR) strategy. “Due to the rise of social media and the multitude of information that is available on the internet, companies no longer have control over what is said about them,” Streubig noted. He suggested that in response companies should collect and maintain the information concerning their sustainability, social responsibility programmes, carbon footprint and other emissions, in as open a manner as possible, in order to compete with and distinguish themselves from their competitors.

First Combined DQSCertificate awarded to GL Group

Photo (f.l.t.r.): Christian Ulrich Diehl, Senior Vice President Group Quality, Governance & Risk, Pekka Paasivaara, Member of GL Group’s Executive Board, Erik van der Noordaa, CEO GL Group, Götz Blechschmidt, DQS Managing Director, Dr Joachim Segatz, Member of GL Group’s Executive Board, Ramón Azúa, Head of Department Group QHSE Management and Gert Krüger, DQS’s Head of Key Account Management. The GL Group has received a combined certificate of compliance with the BS OHSAS 18001, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 standards after successfully passing an integrated management system audit conducted by the German certification body DQS. The Group is the first technical advisor for assurance, consulting, classification and certification to receive such a combined matrix certificate. Erik van der Noordaa, CEO of the GL Group, was delighted to receive the certificate from DQS managing director Götz Blechschmidt at the GL Group’s head office in Hamburg. “The combined certification is a clear reflection of GL Group’s ambition to continue to take the company in a direction that makes it safer, smarter and greener. I am very grateful for the dedication and cooperation of the DQS team who worked with us in the process of attaining this certification. Both companies invested several months of intensive planning, training, documentation and internal audits across our three business segments to reach this successful conclusion.” The DQS certificate was issued as proof of the compliance of the GL Group’s management system with these international standards that assess occupational health and safety management systems, BS OHSAS 18001, the quality standards of products and services, ISO 9001, and the environmental friendliness of processes, products and services, ISO 14001.


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MAN Diesel & Turbo Ultra-Long-Stroke Engine Passes First Test 7G80ME-C9.2 passes shop test successfully; new VLCC trend continues on course

Italian Ro-Ro Operator Chooses Complete MAN Power Solution Common-rail 32/44 engines central to RoRo propulsion package

HHI-EMD, the engine and machinery division of Hyundai Heavy Industries, has reported that the world’s first MAN B&W 7G80ME-C9.2 passed its official shop test on 16 January 2013 in Korea. The MAN Diesel & Turbo licensee reported that the shop test proceeded as expected and was a success. Engineers from MAN Diesel & Turbo took part in the entire prototype process, culminating with the very first engine start on 10 January, the official shop test on 16 January and an overhaul inspection the following day. The engine is bound for a Greek customer – Almi Tankers – and will power a VLCC due for delivery by the Daewoo yard in May of this year with sea trials taking place in April. The new engine is the first of two in an identical package ordered by Almi with a second VLCC scheduled for delivery in December of this year. Speaking at the time of the initial announcement of the Almi order, Ole Grøne – Senior Vice President Low-Speed Promotion & Sales – MAN Diesel & Turbo said: “Traditionally, super-long-stroke S-type engines, with relatively low engine speeds, have been applied as prime movers in tankers. Following the efficiency optimisation trends in the market, the possibility of using even larger propellers has been thoroughly evaluated with a view to using engines with even lower speeds for propulsion of particularly VLCCs. We also see a clear trend with focus on fuel optimisation. We now have around 100 G-type engines on order, including the container and bulker segments, which is a successful introduction”. He continued: “VLCCs may be compatible with propellers with larger propeller diameters than current designs accommodate, and thus higher efficiencies can be achieved following an adaptation of the aft hull design to accommodate the larger propeller. The new, ultra-longstroke G80ME-C9 engine type meets this trend in the VLCC market.” It is estimated that such new designs offer potential fuel-consumption savings of some 4-7%, and a similar reduction in CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, the engine itself can achieve a high thermal efficiency using the latest engine process parameters and design features. The G-type programme The G-type programme was introduced to the market in October 2010 with the G80ME-C9 model. MAN Diesel & Turbo subsequently expanded the ultra-long-stroke programme in May 2011 with the addition of G70ME-C9, G60ME-C9 and G50ME-B9 models. The G-types have designs that follow the principles of the large-bore Mk-9 engine series that MAN Diesel & Turbo introduced in 2006. Their longer stroke reduces engine speed, thereby paving the way for ship designs with unprecedented high efficiency.

Italian Visemar has placed an order with the Cantiere Navale Visentini yard, near Venice, for a RoRo ship. The vessel will be powered by a complete MAN propulsion package featuring 2 × 9L32/44CR medium-speed engines. The 9L32/44CR engines each develop 5,040 kW at 750 rpm and are complemented by 2 × Renk RSV 900C gearboxes and 2 × Alpha CPP propellers. The engines fulfill IMO Tier II regulations and will be built at MAN Diesel & Turbo’s Augsburg works in Germany from where they are scheduled for delivery in August 2013. The newbuilding is scheduled to follow in April 2014 and, having already been granted a ‘green passport’ and green star certification, will be one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly vessels in its class. Best in class Visemar wanted a ship that delivered the best efficiency and fuel consumption in its class, and accordingly decided upon an entire MAN Diesel & Turbo package. Sokrates Tolgos – MAN Diesel & Turbo – Head of Cruise & Ferry Sales said: “This MAN propulsion system with common-rail engines gives the customer a perfectly synchronised, high-efficiency solution. The engines’ common-rail fuel injection, with its high


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flexibility, is central to their meeting Tier II exhaust-gas requirements at the lowest possible fuel-consumption, especially in part load.” Tolgos continued: “Another important benefit is the engines’ unmatched performance in terms of minimum smoke emissions, even with lower-quality fuels like HFO. We are very pleased that Cantieri Navali Visentini and shipowner Visemar, two longstanding customers of MAN Diesel & Turbo, expressed their confidence in our company by asking us not only to supply the engines but, additionally this time, the complete propulsion package including MAN Alpha CP propellers.” Propulsion package MAN Diesel & Turbo optimised the propulsion system in close cooperation with the Cantieri Navali Visentini shipyard and NAOS, the Italian RoPax/RoRo ship-design specialist. The MAN Alpha CP propellers stem from the new HUB Mark 5 series, which – courtesy of a project-specific special propeller-blade design – deliver a very high propulsive efficiency, leading to substantial fuel-oil savings for the complete propulsion plant. Similarly, the Renk gearboxes work with very low friction, incurring fewer losses and a higher efficiency.

Photo 1: Library photo of a 6-cylinder L32/44CR engine similar to those bound for Italy. Photo 2: Graphical rendering of the Visemar newbuilding.

MAN 35/44G Makes Successful Début MAN Diesel & Turbo recently showcased its new range of gas engines and turbines at its Augsburg facility with the company’s 35/44G engine, the latest addition to its four-stroke power portfolio, featuring prominently. Martin Kalter – Vice President Sales Power Plants – MAN Diesel & Turbo, said: “Essentially, the MAN 35/44G offers customers a compact, clean and flexible power solution for baseload, peaking and cogeneration plants and meets requirements for total cost of ownership for energy production with fast ramp-up times and long times between overhauls.” The newly developed Otto gas engine has an electrical efficiency of 47.2%, and is available for Combined Heat & Power (CHP) and/ or jointly with an MAN steam turbine of the MARC series – in a combined cycle mode reaching high total plant efficiencies with low emissions. It also features a single-stage turbocharger with variable turbine area (VTA) technology and many innovative technological elements. The spark-ignited unit, which is ideal for combined cycle and combined-heat and power configuration with waste-heat utilisation, complies with all current emission limits solely by in-engine measures. Power density The 35/44G is offered in a V-type version with 20 cylinders and an output of 10,600 kWm, (10,200 kWm). Its rated outputs – 530 kW per cylinder for 50 Hz power generation and 510 kW for 60 Hz power generation – give the 35/44G best-in-class power density among gas engines.

Fuel In addition to a high supply reliability and the potential for savings in terms of operating and procurement costs, the advantage of gas-fired power plants lies chiefly in extremely low emissions coupled with a high level of efficiency. Due to the lower carbon content of the fuel, gas engines emit around 25% less CO2 than diesel engines. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are roughly 80% lower, while emissions of sulfphur oxides, soot, and particles are virtually non-existent. Lean-burn concept In a lean-burn gas engine, the mixture of air and gas in the cylinder is lean, that is, more air is present in the cylinder than is needed for complete combustion. With leaner combustion, the peak temperature is reduced and less NOx is produced. Higher output can be reached while avoiding knocking and increasing efficiency. Advanced ignition technology The ignition system comprises a capacitive discharge system and an ignition coil, which delivers the necessary high voltage via an ignition lead to the spark plug. To improve combustion, the spark plug is located in the pre-chamber. Gas is precisely metered to the pre-chamber by means of a separate valve. In conjunction with the lean mixture from the main chamber, which is fed into the pre-chamber by the compression cycle, this creates a highly efficient, almost stoichiometric mixture. This is ignited using the spark plug, providing an ignition amplifier for the main chamber.


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Αύξηση 9,8% στο car terminal του ΟΛΠ Αύξηση 9,8% παρουσίασε ο Τομέας Διακίνησης Αυτοκινήτων στο Car Terminal του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε. κατά το 2012 έναντι του 2011 και κατά 66% έναντι του 2009. Βάσει των στοιχείων της αρμόδιας διεύθυνσης στο Car Terminal του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε. διακινήθηκαν το 2012 458.755 αυτοκίνητα – εμπορεύματα έναντι 417.659 το 2011. Από τα μεγέθη αυτά τα 403.970 ήταν διερχόμενα (transhipment) αυτοκίνητα, τα οποία στη συνέχεια μεταφέρθηκαν σε άλλα λιμάνια της Μεσογείου και τα 54.785 εισήχθησαν στην εγχώρια αγορά αυτοκινήτων. Η μεταβολή της transhipment διακίνησης αυξήθηκε κατά +22,8%, ενώ της εγχώριας διακίνησης μειώθηκε κατά -38,2%. Όπως τόνισε ο Πρόεδρος και Διευθύνων Σύμβουλος του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε. κ. Γιώργος Ανωμερίτ��ς: “Η αύξηση διακίνησης στο Car Terminal του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε., μέσα σε μία χρονιά γενικευμένης κρίσης με σοβαρότατες επιπτώσεις στην εγχώρια αγορά αυτοκινήτων, αποδεικνύει την ορθότητα των πολιτικών μας να καταστήσουμε το λιμάνι του Πειραιά διεθνή κόμβο διακίνησης αυτοκινήτων. Διαθέτοντας τεράστιους χώρους (190.000 τ.μ.), σύγχρονες υποδομές με εφαρμογή ευρωπαϊκών προτύπων, έμπειρο και εξειδικευμένο στη μεταφόρτωση λιμενεργατικό προσωπικό, καταφέραμε να καταστήσουμε το λιμάνι του Πειραιά σταθερό διεθνή κόμβο στο εμπόριο αυτοκινήτων. Στο αναπτυξιακό σχέδιο του 2013: (α) Θα αναπτυχθούν ακόμα περισσότερο οι διαθέσιμες εκτάσεις για χρήση Car Terminal. (β) Θα αξιοποιηθεί ο χώρος των όμορων 90.000 τ.μ. που διαθέτει ο ΟΛΠ (πρώην ΟΔΔΥ) για να δημιουργηθεί Logistic Center Αυτοκινήτων. (γ) θα ολοκληρωθεί εντός του 2013 ο επιλιμένιος σιδηροδρομικός σταθμός φόρτωσης αυτοκινήτων στο Ν. Ικόνιο, ώστε να καταστεί δυνατή η μεταφόρτωση αυτοκινήτων από πλοίο σε τρένο με προορισμό τις βαλκανικές χώρες και την υπόλοιπη Ευρώπη και (δ) θα ξεκινήσουν οι εργασίες νέων λιμενικών έργων στον Προβλήτα Ηρακλέους για υποδομές Car Terminal. Μια απέραντη έκταση ρυπογόνων και υποβαθμισμένων περιοχών, μετατρέπεται σε πρότυπο περιβαλλοντικής διαχείρισης, για αυτοκίνητα – εμπορεύματα, των οποίων η μεταφόρτωση δεν επιβαρύνει ούτε το λιμάνι, ούτε τον αστικό ιστό που το περιβάλλει”.

Η ανάπτυξη του Ελληνικού Λιμενικού Συστήματος στο συνέδριο της ΕΛΙΜΕ Ολοκληρώθηκαν οι εργασίες της συνεδρίασης της Γενικής Συνέλευσης και του Διοικητικού Συμβουλίου της ΕΛΙΜΕ (Ένωση Λιμένων Ελλάδας), στη δύναμη της οποίας συμμετέχουν 17 μεγάλα λιμάνια της χώρας (ΟΛΠ Α.Ε., ΟΛΘ Α.Ε. και οι λιμένες Αλεξανδρούπολης, Καβάλας, Βόλου, Ραφήνας, Λαυρίου, Ελευσίνας, Κέρκυρας, Ηγουμενίτσας, Πάτρας, Κατάκολου, Ηρακλείου, Σαντορίνης, Μυκόνου, Πάτμου, Μήλου και Χανίων). Στη συνεδρίαση, στην οποία βασικός εισηγητής ήταν ο Πρόεδρος της ΕΛΙΜΕ κ. Γιώργος Ανωμερίτης συζητήθηκαν τα θέματα των άρθρων του νέου σχεδίου νόμου του Υ.Ν.Α. Η δημιουργία Ανεξάρτητης Αρχής Λιμένων, η νέα δομή του λιμενικού δικτύου, η συγχώνευση η μετεξέλιξη του Ν.Π.Δ.Δ. σε εταιρίες, οι αδειοδοτήσεις έργων, η ανάπτυξη Περιφερειακού Λιμενικού Συστήματος, η πολιτική αξιοποίησης και ανάπτυξης και η προσέλκυση επενδύσεων, υποστηρίχτηκαν με θετικά σχόλια και ελάχιστες παρατηρήσεις, ενώ έντονος ήταν ο προβληματισμός για τη μετεξέλιξη σε ΔΕΚΟ της Πλοηγικής Υπηρεσίας του Υ.Ν.Α. H EΛΙΜΕ αποφάσισε να συμμετάσχει επίσης στην εταιρία Marketing Greece Α.Ε., την οποία ίδρυσε με πρωτοβουλία του ο ΣΕΤΕ, καθώς και να συμμετάσχει και φέτος ενεργά: (α) στο MIAMI SEATRADE με ενιαίο Εθνικό Περίπτερο μαζί με τον ΕΟΤ και (β) στο The Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum.

Το COSTA MAGICA στον Πειραιά

Το πρώτο κρουαζιερόπλοιο του 2013 υποδέχθηκε η διοίκηση του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε. στο λιμάνι του Πειραιά. Πρόκειται για το COSTA MAGICA της ιταλικής εταιρίας COSTA, η οποία ανήκει στον όμιλο της Carnival, και της οποίας τα πλοία θα επισκεφθούν το λιμάνι του Πειραιά με 74 δρομολόγια το 2013 έναντι 33 του 2012. Όπως δήλωσε ο Πρόεδρος και Διευθύνων Σύμβουλος του ΟΛΠ Α.Ε. κ. Γιώργος Ανωμερίτης, υποδεχόμενος τον πλοίαρχο του COSTA MAGICA cpt. Orazio d’ Aita “Το 2013 θα είναι μια ανοδική χρονιά για την κρουαζιέρα. Στο λιμάνι του Πειραιά θα υποδεχθούμε περισσότερα από 710 κρουαζιερόπλοια με 2,2 εκατ. τουρίστες. Το λιμάνι του Πειραιά, με 11 θέσεις ελλιμενισμού, νέες αίθουσες υποδοχής και σημαντικές επεκτάσεις στο νέο λιμάνι κρουαζιέρας είναι σήμερα το μεγαλύτερο λιμάνι κρουαζιέρας στη Μεσόγειο”.


INDUSTRY NEWS - www.nafsgreen.gr

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 93

OOCL hits Milestone with Double Christening at Geoje Island Shipyard

OOCL is proud to announce the christening of two 13,208-TEU mega vessels at a ceremonial event held at the Geoje Island Shipyard in Korea today, the first time the company is taking delivery of newbuilds of this size. The first vessel was christened the m.v. OOCL Brussels by Sponsor Mrs. Hsu Lai, Chao-Yin, the wife of Mr. Shiu, Kuang-Si, President of Mega International Commercial Bank, Taiwan.  The second vessel was christened the m.v. NYK Helios by Sponsor Mrs. Nintira Sophonpanich, the wife of Mr. Chartsiri Sophonpanich, President of Bangkok Bank. Mr Andy Tung, Chief Executive Officer of OOCL, hosted the naming ceremony and thanked the Sponsors for gracing the stage to perform the formalities and in thanking Mega International Commercial Bank and Bangkok Bank for their support, he said, “Your recognition and faith in OOCL as a business partner is a huge encouragement to us as the company continues to build the business from strength to strength by delivering exceptional product and services to customers, maintaining a healthy financial position, and embracing innovative and cutting-edge technologies to provide a Vital Link to world trade.” He also thanked Mr. D. Y. Park, President and Chief Executive Officer of Samsung Heavy Industries, for the successful newbuilds that marked the largest vessels that Samsung has ever built for OOCL to date.  The two container ships of this size are in a line of ten ordered from the Samsung shipyard. “I am very pleased to acknowledge our partnership with Samsung Heavy Industries as they play an instrumental role in strengthening OOCL’s fleet,” Mr. Tung said.  “OOCL is committed to exceeding international standards and these new vessels are built and equipped with the latest state-of-the-art technologies with advanced green features to meet current and future environmental requirements.” The sophisticated hull form design, for instance, optimizes the ship’s performance to minimize fuel consumption, and with less fuel being used, this helps emissions control with less impact to global warming.  OOCL is exceptionally proud that these newbuilding vessels have

exceeded today’s internationally recognized standard by achieving a much improved Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) level from the baseline required in the year 2025 by the International Maritime Organization. OOCL Brussels will be deployed on Loop 5 of the Asia–Europe service. The port rotation is: Kwangyang / Pusan / Yangshan / Shekou / Yantian / Singapore / Suez Canal / Rotterdam / Hamburg / Thamesport / Suez Canal / Singapore and back to Kwanyang in a 77-day round trip. NYK Helios will be chartered out to NYK and deployed on Loop 4 of the Asia-Europe service.  The port rotation is: Ningbo / Yangshan / Yantian / Singapore / Suez Canal / Le Havre / Southampton / Hamburg / Rotterdam / Suez Canal / Jeddah / Singapore / Yantian and back to Ningbo in a 77-day round trip. Orient Overseas Container Line (OOCL) Limited is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Hong Kong Stock Exchange listed Orient Overseas (International) Ltd. Headquartered in Hong Kong, OOCL is one of the world’s largest integrated international container transportation and logistics companies, with more than 270 offices in 60 countries. Linking Asia, Europe, North America, the Mediterranean, the Indian sub-continent, the Middle East and Australia/New Zealand, the company offers transportation services to all major east/west trading economies of the world. OOCL is one of the leading international carriers serving China, providing a full range of logistics and transportation services throughout the country. It is also an industry leader in the use of information technology and e-commerce to manage the entire cargo process. (http://www.oocl.com/) Photo: (L-R) Mr. Jeremy Nixon, Chief Executive Officer, NYK Line; Mr. Chartsiri Sophonpanich, President of Bangkok Bank; Ms. Lammy Lee, Group Legal Advisor, Company Secretary and Compliance Officer of OOCL; Mrs. Nintira Sophonpanich, Sponsor of NYK Helios; Mr. Andy Tung, CEO of OOCL; Dr. Rulin Fuong Tung, wife of Mr. Andy Tung; Mrs. Hsu Lai, Chao-Yin, Sponsor of OOCL Brussels; Mr. Shiu, Kuang-Si, President of Mega International Commercial Bank


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Sea tourism growth: potential major asset for Greek economy say sector experts 2nd Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum attracts strong international interest

The Greek cruising and yachting sectors have the combined potential to create more than 40,000 new jobs, according to a recent study undertaken by the Hellenic Chamber of Shipping. The full roll out of the homeporting policy for cruise lines alone can add to the Greek economy annual revenues in excess of Euro 1 billion. On a European level this is well illustrated in the words of MSC Cruises’ CEO Pierfrancesco Vago, Vice-Chairman of the European Cruise Council and speaker at the 1st Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum, “We keep repeating the impressive numbers of the economic impact in 2011 alone: €36.7 billion worth of goods and services generated; over 6 million passengers; €3.5 billion spent by passengers and crew during visits to the 250 port cities that welcome cruise ships year-round. And last, but certainly not least, more than 315,000 jobs created across Europe: which, considering the eye-watering levels of unemployment in other sectors, is quite a remarkable result.” The special interest for cruising and its growth potential in our region is further evidenced by the arrival of new brands in the region, including FTI Cruises in 2012, Disney Cruises and Paul Gauguin Cruises in 2013 as well as the new ships coming online this year for operation in the Mediterranean. “Greece’s unique 16,000 km coastline, the country’s 1,200 islands and 4,800 islets as well as the mild climate are nature’s gifts to Greece, yet the vast potential of these treasures and their contribution to the national economy remains largely untapped due to the absence of a strategic framework to attract investments conducive to the development of a quality and holistic sea tourism product. But this seems to be changing now,” said Theodore Vokos, Project Director, Posidonia Exhibitions S.A., the event’s organisers. The Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum, which will be held in Athens on May 28-29, has already attracted strong interest from major international cruise and yachting companies. They will vie for the attention of the industry’s regional decision makers who will converge to the Greek capital for two days of discussions and debates on the sector’s growth challenge for Greece, Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Major cruise lines

Royal Caribbean, Carnival, MSC, Silversea, Costa Crociere, Celebrity Cruises, Paul Gauguin Cruises and Louis Cruises have already committed their presence at the event which additionally has the support of CLIA Europe and MedCruise. A new feature of this year’s Forum will be an Exhibition designed to enable industry suppliers to showcase their services and products. Exhibitors include ports, destinations, hotels, airlines, tourist service providers, technical support companies, sector publishers, new technologies, yacht managers and brokers, yacht interiors specialists and marinas. Senior industry officials agree that initiatives such as the Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum can help attract attention to the region’s sea tourism industry and that the arrival of major international and regional marina developers and operators Camper & Nicholsons Marinas and D-Marine Investments Holding with investments in Greek marinas are indications of a more robust future. According to George Gratsos, President of the Hellenic Chamber of Shipping, “Yachting already creates 40,000 direct and indirect jobs for the Greek economy. A friendlier business environment and the development of new marinas with a capacity for 10,000 more yachts than hosted at present would create an additional 30,000 jobs.” “The recent spate of foreign direct investment in Greek marinas can be the catalyst for more transactional activity in the near future which can resuscitate the Greek yachting sector, thereby reviving a dormant market full of potential and promise,” said Theodore Vokos, Posidonia Exhibitions S.A. The organisers of the event are upbeat about its contribution to the sectors’ long-term prospects: “As a result of the lively debate that took place in the first Forum, a number of high profile policy changes were announced by the Greek Government including the new legal framework for cruise vessel home porting with the lifting of cabotage restrictions and investment incentives which helped funnel foreign funds into Greek yachting infrastructure projects,” said Vokos. Of vital importance for Greece to be successful in its quest to further develop all forms of sea tourism is the parallel development of the sector in Turkey, the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean in general. It is the greater region’s importance for the global tourism industry that will ensure long term and sustainable growth in the future. Strong international interest has already been expressed both for the conference and the exhibition. The 2nd Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum is organised under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Tourism, the Greek Ministry of Shipping, Maritime Affairs and the Aegean, CLIA – Europe, the Hellenic Chamber of Shipping, the Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE), the Association of Passenger Shipping Companies, the Association of Mediterranean Cruise Ports (MEDCRUISE), the Hellenic Ports’ Association (ELIME), the Hellenic Professional Yacht Owners’ Association, the Greek Marinas’ Association, the Union of Greek Cruise Ship Owners & Associated Members, the Hellenic Association of Travel & Tourist Agencies (HATTA) and the Hellenic Yacht Brokers’ Association.


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PPG Protective and Marine Coatings celebrates 1,000 installations of SIGMACARE® PLUS

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 95

Carnival Corporation & plc has signed an agreement with JOWA Technology and JOWA W.F.E.

Leader in marine coatings adds multi-language and offline functionality to unique shipboard management system PPG Protective and Marine Coatings (PPG) has reached a milestone in helping its customers manage their coatings onboard ship, installing its SIGMACARE PLUS system on 1,000 vessels. PPG was the first to offer an online shipboard maintenance tool for its paints and coatings and has continued to refine the product since launch in 2011. The latest release of SIGMACARE PLUS also features ‘offline’ functionality to accommodate vessels with limited internet access at sea. In addition, onboard maintenance charts are now available in 12 languages. The next language to be added is Mandarin, due for release later in 2013. SIGMACARE PLUS was specifically designed to simplify onboard coatings management for individual vessels and large fleets. SIGMACARE PLUS lets owners, vessel managers and crew members organise coatings management, eliminating the complications associated with onboard maintenance. Sijmen Visser, Global Marketing Manager M&R, PPG Protective and Marine Coatings, said: “Managing coatings onboard a vessel can be quite complex. Keeping track of what coatings to use and where to apply them, of which colour and mixing ratios , means giving the crew a system that is clear, easy to understand and which will improve the overall quality of onboard maintenance. SIGMACARE PLUS is all about taking away the complexity in managing all coating-related activities for a fleet. We believe the simpler and clearer something is, the better it will work.” SIGMACARE PLUS includes a unique inventory control and product ordering system, allowing vessels to place stock inquiries whilst at sea. It offers the ability to create simple, clear maintenance charts that can be printed out and used in the vessel’s paint locker. Users have a complete list of PPG products and where they are available world-wide. The system allows for the inclusion of new building specifications and dry docking reports to streamline product delivery and service. Users can easily create tailored maintenance charts for specific vessels which can be printed and used as an easy-to-follow point of reference in the vessel’s paint locker. “SIGMACARE PLUS means that our customers can benefit from streamlined product delivery and service. Orders can be controlled more effectively and placed while at sea if required with a dynamic map showing which ports and products are available in real time,” adds Mr Visser. “The paint inventory and the paint locker become better organised and the crew also work more safely because they can watch training videos on coatings application.” SIGMACARE PLUS has received consistently positive feedback from users. Crew members in particular report that it is easy to work with, finding the maintenance charts a benefit in working with the correct products in the right vessel areas.

This agreement follows a period of extensive testing on board the Princess Cruises’ cruise ship Grand Princess. The tested Diesel Switch DS MKII includes a second display in the ECR, a compatibility test kit, homogenizer and a GPS connection with date/time stamp. The JOWA Water-in Fuel Emulsion unit was also tested. All testing was conducted in co-operation between specialists from Carnival and JOWA Technology engineers, with independent monitoring by Lloyd’s Register. Carnival selected JOWA Technology because of their experience and unique position in the market with the only proven, fully automated fuel changeover system. The Diesel Switch DS MKII is the only unit in the market that carries Class Society Type Approval, and has been acknowledged by the United States Coast Guard as capable of improving the safety of fuel changeover operations. JOWA also has an extensive reference list of successful installations outside the cruise industry. Carnival representatives believe that the automated fuel switching system by JOWA Technology can save fuel by optimising fuel changeover time when transiting in or out of emission control areas, and that the system has proven to be reliable, consistently accurate, and to reduce the potential for crew error. JOWA Technology has developed Diesel Switch DS MKII into one of the few fully automated systems in the market, which is built to ensure a consistent, safe, controlled and accurate fuel change-over from HFO to MDO and vice versa. The DS MKII also has the built in capability to blend compatible heavy and distillate fuels, using in-line fuel blending to safely mix two compatible fuels to obtain a final product with constant, pre-set sulphur content in accordance with local regulations. To ensure the blending compatibility of two fuels, JOWA supplies a simple, portable testing kit for use by ship’s personnel. Further, the DS MKII has full control over the temperature gradient during fuel change over, minimizing risk of thermal shock, gassing, and the potential risk for loss of power. The JOWA system also offers an electronic data storage feature which includes start, stop, sulphur content of HFO, MDO and Blend Fuel, longitude, latitude, date and time.


INDUSTRY NEWS- www.nafsgreen.gr

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Hefei RongAn Power Machinery Co. Ltd. exclusively represented by Franman Ltd. Franman, in the second half of 2012 entered into 6 new cooperations, by signing agreements of exclusive representation in Greece and other countries in the Southeastern Europe. More specifically Franman signed exclusive agreement with the Chinese private manufacturer Hefei RongAn Power Machinery Co. Ltd., which belongs to the same group with Rongcheng shipyards, and is a maker of propulsion engines licensed by WARTSILA and MAN. Furthermore, Franman has also agreed with 4 other major manufacturers and 1 Trading House, namely, Korval Co. Ltd. (S. Korea), S & S Valve Co. Ltd. (S. Korea), Dalian Marine Co. Ltd. (P.R. China), Silla Metal Co. Ltd. (S. Korea) Winners Marine Co. Ltd. (S. Korea). Franman, celebrating 22 years of successful presence in the shipping industry, focused its attention from its early years in the Chinese and Far East market (Japan/Korea) establishing a strong presence therein and forming long-term and very constructive partnerships, like those with Naniwa Pump MFG. Co. Ltd. (Japan) since 1992, Yanmar Co. Ltd. (Japan) since 1996 and Kangrim Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (South Korea) since 1998.

Ecospeed comes with a 10 year guarantee and is expected to last the lifetime of the vessel.

Ecospeed is an environmentally safe underwater ship hull coating system which provides the vessel with long-term protection and dramatically improves the ship’s performance. The coating gives a very thorough and lasting defense against cavitation and corrosion damage for a ship hull’s entire service life.   It provides the underwater vessel with an impenetrable protective layer while its flexibility enables absorption of the forces that are produced by cavitation. This prevents the damage normally caused by this phenomenon. Without proper protection against cavitation and the resulting erosion and corrosion damage, the financial consequences can be severe.   Ecospeed comes with a 10 year guarantee and is expected to last the lifetime of the vessel. This is in strong contrast to traditional anti-fouling paints where a new application is necessary during each drydocking. With an Ecospeed application no repaint will be needed. At most, minor touchups will be needed. Planning the maintenance of the vessel therefore becomes much easier.

RS class: the large-capacity gas carrier “VELIKIY NOVGOROD” has been launched The prototype ship of a series of four modern liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers “VELIKIY NOVGOROD” has been launched in South Korea. The ship will have the dual class of Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS) and Lloyd’s Register. RS class notation: KM Ice2 AUT1 OMBO EPP ANTI-ICE LI CCO ECO-S WINTERIZATION(-30) Gas carrier type 2G (methane). The launching ceremony has been held at STX Offshore and Shipbuildind Co., Ltd (South Korea). The ship is being constructed against the order of Sovcomflot for Gazprom Global LNG, acting as a charterer. The most advanced engineering solutions have been used  during the design of the new Atlanticmax size gas carrier with cargo capacity of approximately 170,000 cubic meters to ensure  its effective operation in arctic conditions. The machinery and equipment have been certified for operation at a temperature of - 30 °C. In addition, the ship will have the highest class of environmental protection. The ships of the series are intended for a year-round gas carriage from almost all existing LNG terminals, including the first Russian LNG terminal - “Sakhalin-2”, as well as in the future - the Shtokman gas field LNG terminal. Main particulars: • length max. - 299.90 m; • width - 45.80 m; • depth - 26.00 m; • draught designed - 12.50 m; • deadweight - 94,700 t; • gross tonnage - 111,665.


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Wärtsilä to power new Scottish RoPax ferry

Wärtsilä, the marine industry’s leading solutions and services provider, has been selected to supply the main engines and auxiliary generating sets for a new Scottish owned ferry. The RoPax vessel, meaning that it is designed for transporting both wheeled cargo and passengers, was ordered by Lloyds Banking Group and leased by Caledonian Maritime Assets, Ltd (CMAL), and it is being built at the Flensburger Schiffbau Gesellschaft shipyard in Germany. The contract was signed in December 2012, and is included in Wärtsilä’s 4th quarter 2012 order book. The shipyard requirements were that the engines must be commercially competitive, compact and light in weight. Wärtsilä will deliver two 8-cylinder in line Wärtsilä 32 main engines and three 8-cylinder in line Wärtsilä 20 gensets. The total weight of this equipment will be only 151,4 tons which is the lowest in their class. The low engine weight contributes to the low overall weight of the vessel itself which is resulting in a relatively high payload the vessel is able to carry. Good fuel efficiency and low levels of emissions were also important considerations in the selection process. The new ferry must be capable of round-the-clock operation since it will replace two existing ferries on the route connecting the mainland of northwest Scotland with the Isle of Lewis in the Hebrides. “CMAL is a progressive, forward-looking company focused on design optimisation for lowest emission, lowest fuel consumption and best vessel availability. This approach is a perfect match with Wärtsilä’s strategy. We have worked closely with both the owner and the yard earlier, and we have been privileged to work with them again on this project,” says Aaron Bresnahan, Vice President, Wärtsilä Ship Power Sales. Andrew Duncan, Director of Vessels at Caledonian Maritime Assets Limited, commented: “We are pleased to announce that Wärtsilä main and auxiliary engines are to be installed on the new build ferry currently being designed at Flensburger Schiffbau Gesellschaft. The engines were selected as the most suitable for the project due to their overall performance in terms of fuel consumption, emissions, weight and size.” The new vessel is designed to carry 700 passengers and 143 cars or 26 trucks. It is scheduled to go into service in 2014. Photo: the CMAL new RoPax ferry

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Wärtsilä signs longterm service agreements for world’s largest tri-fuel power plant Wärtsilä, has signed two important long-term service agreements covering Amman Asia Electric Power’s power plant in Al Manakher, Jordan. The agreements comprise a 15 year Parts Supply Agreement, as well as a 5 year Technical Service Agreement with KEPCO Plant Service & Engineering Co., Ltd, the operations and maintenance contractor for the power plant. The contract was signed in October 2012. The facility is under construction and will have a net electrical output of 573 MW. When completed, it will be the world’s largest tri-fuel power plant with combustion engines capable of using natural gas, heavy fuel oil and light fuel oil. A consortium headed by Wärtsilä was awarded the turnkey contract in October 2012 to build the power plant, which will supply electricity to the Jordanian national grid. The plant is to be powered by a total of 38 Wärtsilä 50DF multi-fuel engines running initially on heavy fuel oil. However, once the natural gas infrastructure is in place, the flexibility of the Wärtsilä engine technology will enable a seamless switch to gas fuel. The first phase of the power plant project is expected to be operational by February 2014. The entire plant is scheduled to be in operation by September of that same year. “With its broad experience in this field, together with the fact that Wärtsilä is the original equipment supplier for this installation, it was an obvious choice to select the company’s parts and service support to ensure the reliability and availability of the equipment,” comments Mr. Choi Jung-ho, Vice President, KEPCO Plant Service & Engineering Co., Ltd. “Wärtsilä provides customers with service solutions that optimise the operational efficiency of their installations throughout the full lifecycle. This of course has many benefits, but being aware that Wärtsilä can be relied on to rapidly respond to technical service and spare part needs, is perhaps the most important benefit of all,” says Loganathan Venkatachalapathi, Area General Manager, Contract Support, Wärtsilä Arab Emirates.


INDUSTRY NEWS- www.nafsgreen.gr

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Major Contract Awards Seal a Successful 2012 for WR Systems WR Systems (WR) has announced further contract success for its Emsys Emissions Monitoring System. During December, the company received new construction contract awards for multiple shipsets from shipyards in China and Korea. In addition, the company announced that it received contracts for retrofit applications for a further two suppliers of Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (Scrubbers). The latest contract values exceed $1M and probably raise WR to the position of leading supplier of maritime Emission Monitoring Systems (EMS). The Emsys system was introduced in September 2010 as a 2nd Generation EMS technology featuring laser based multi-gas sensor and an integral Particulate Matter (PM) sensor. WR also recently announced the award of a patent on its PM sensor which allows measurement of soot and particulates ‘outside of the exhaust stack’, a world’s first. WR’s President, Dave Edwards commented, ‘We developed Emsys for two reasons, firstly to demonstrate to the industry our capability to design a robust high-tech sensor which overcomes the traditional reliability and maintenance issues with first generation EMS systems, and in addition, we were determined to earn a solid reputation for equipment performance and dependable, affordable service.’ Edwards continued, ‘We are now working with the world’s largest shipbuilders in Korea, China and Japan, in addition to oil majors, drilling contractors, cruise ship operators, containership operators, LNG operators and scrubber manufacturers amongst others. Our commercial maritime team has grown extensively since Emsys was launched, culminating in the recent opening of our Commercial Maritime Technology Centre in Jacksonville, Florida, which specialises in manufacturing full navigation bridge suites and service/support of marine electronics worldwide. Our success in supporting suppliers of scrubber systems has meant we are becoming the de-facto standard for these applications.’ In addition to its Commercial Maritime activities, WR has a US based multi-centred operation, employing over 350 technical and logistical staff to support various US Navy and Federal Government programs.

RINA Group supports new UAE class society international commercial shipping. Andrea di Bella, Area Manager Middle East, RINA Group, says, “We are very excited to have been chosen to assist the development of Tasneef after a tender process that included all the major classification societies. We will work closely with Tasneef on a number of newbuilding projects and ships in service to develop their procedures and technical competence. We expect this to be the beginning of a long partnership as the UAE further expands its maritime interests.”

International classification society RINA Group has been chosen as the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) partner to support the development of Tasneef, a new classification society for the United Arab Emirates. Emirates Classification – Tasneef has been established in Abu Dhabi and plans to expand with future world wide-offices. Working in partnership with RINA the goal is to develop Tasneef as an international classification society capable of meeting the technical and classification needs of the region’s maritime industry, the UAE flag and

Mr. Rashed Alhebsi, Head of the Establishment Committee of Tasneef, says, “We selected RINA to help us develop Tasneef because of its proven competence and the good collaboration we experienced with them during our UAE Naval shipbuilding (corvette class) programme. Tasneef and RINA Group will also support this region which is becoming a world hub for the maritime industry where more than 60 per cent of the world’s shipping either operate or pass, especially after establishing Khalifa Port which increases the shipping capacity of this region. Tasneef and RINA are currently finalizing together a portfolio of up to 44 classification projects in 2013 varying from new construction and ships in service to supporting the UAE Flag administration with thousands of statutory certifications.”


INDUSTRY NEWS - www.nafsgreen.gr

FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 99

Η συμβολή του Αριστοτέλη Παυλίδη στη ναυτιλιακή πολιτική Με θερμά λόγια για την προσφορά του πρώην Υπουργού-Βουλευτή Δωδεκανήσου Αριστοτέλη Παυλίδη κατά τη θητεία του , στο Υπουργείο Εμπορικής Ναυτιλίας, αναφέρεται ο τέως Πρωθυπουργός και Επίτιμος Πρόεδρος της ΝΔ Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης στο βιβλίο του « Μπροστά από την εποχή της η Κυβέρνηση της Νέας Δημοκρατίας 1990-1993». Ο κ. Μητσοτάκης στο πόνημα του αναδεικνύει την συμβολή της Ναυτιλίας στην ανόρθωση της ελληνικής οικονομίας, κάνοντας ιδιαίτερη αναφορά στις επιτυχείς παρεμβάσεις του κ. Παυλίδη στην ποντοπόρο ναυτιλία, στην ΕΟΚ για την ακτοπλοΐα, στην ενίσχυση της Λιμενικού Σώματος (Λ.Σ) και των λιμενικών υποδομών, στην Ναυτική Εκπαίδευση και στην ανασυγκρότηση του ΝΑΤ. ΤΟ ΑΛΜΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΟΝΤΟΠΟΡΟ ΝΑΥΤΙΛΙΑ Ποια ήταν όμως η νέα ναυτιλιακή πολιτική που εφαρμόστηκε; Η Κυβέρνηση πήρε τρία τολμηρά μέτρα, τα οποία η ναυτιλία μας επιζητούσε από πολλά χρόνια: Πρώτον, αναθεώρησε την αναχρονιστική νομοθεσία σύνθεσης πληρωμάτων των ποντοπόρων πλοίων, που δεν είχε μέχρι τότε αναγνωρίσει την νέα πραγματικότητα των μεγάλων αυτοματοποιημένων σκαφών. Δεύτερον, αναθεώρησε το επίσης αναχρονιστικό σύστημα φορολογίας των πλοίων.Τρίτον, θεσμοθέτησε την « Ειδική Ναυτιλιακή Επιχείρηση »με απλοποιημένη διαδικασία σύστασης, η οποία διευκόλυνε την ταχεία νηολόγηση πλοίων και τη σύναψη ναυτιλιακών δανείων, την εισαγωγή ναυτιλιακών εταιρειών στα χρηματιστήρια και οδήγησε σε δραστικό περιορισμό τη χρήση υπεράκτιων (off-shore) εταιρειών. Αξιοσημείωτη ήταν και η συμμετοχή του Yπουργείου Ελληνικής Ναυτιλίας στον τομέα των αποκρατικοποιήσεων, που οδήγησε ως γνωστό στην εξαγορά των Ναυπηγείων Ελευσίνας από τον Όμιλο Περατικού και στην προώθηση της αποκρατικοποιήσεως του Νεωρίου της Σύρου . ΒΗΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΚΤΟΠΛΟΪΑ Με τον κανονισμό (ΕΟΚ) αριθ. 3577/92 του Συμβουλίου της 7ης Δεκεμβρίου 1992 θεσπίστηκε οριστικά η « αρχή της απελευθέρωσης των ενδομεταφορών », από την 1η Ιανουαρίου 1993, για τους πλοιοκτήτες της Κοινότητας που εκμεταλλεύονται σκάφη νηολογημένα σε οποιοδήποτε κράτος μέλος της. Κατά τη φάση υιοθέτησης του Κανονισμού από το Συμβούλιο της ΕΟΚ, η Ελλάδα πέτυχε, με επίπονες και επιτυχείς παρεμβάσεις του Υπουργού

Ναυτιλίας κ. Αριστοτέλη Παυλίδη,υπέρ των υπό Ελληνική σημαία πλοίων , σημαντικές παρεκκλίσεις (derogations) στον χρόνο έναρξης της ισχύος πολλών διατάξεων του Κανονισμού, οι κυριότερες από τις οποίες ήταν η αναβολή της απελευθέρωσης για όλα τα πλοία μέχρι την 1η Ιανουαρίου 1999. Ειδικά για τα επιβατικά πλοία και ferry boats καθώς και όλα τα σκάφη κάτω των 650 κόρων ολικής χωρητικότητας,τα «τουριστικά» δηλαδή η εφαρμογή αναβλήθηκε για την 1η Ιανουαρίου 2004. Αντίθετα, η ισχύς του Κανονισμού για μεταφορές με φορτηγά πλοία μεταξύ λιμένων της αυτής χώρας με Κοινοτικά σκάφη ήταν άμεση, ευνοώντας τα ελληνικά συμφέροντα. Εν τω μεταξύ το Υπουργείο Ναυτιλίας εξυγίανε εκ βάθρων το καθεστώς χορήγησης Αδειών Σκοπιμότητας (Α.Σ.) για την ακτοπλοΐα, οι οποίες: •Έπαψαν να είναι αορίστου ισχύος και μεταβιβάσιμες (αυτό δηλαδή που επιχειρείται σήμερα για ταξί και φορτηγά αυτοκίνητα Δ.Χ). •Εκδίδονταν με αίτηση του πλοιοκτήτη και κατάθεση μελέτης βιωσιμότητας για τη γραμμή. •Έκαναν υποχρεωτική την προσέγγιση σε «άγονα » νησιά αλλά χωρίς επιδότηση. •Υπόκειντο σε «παράβολο » υπέρ του Δημοσίου και « τέλος» υπέρ του Ναυτικού Απομαχικού Ταμείου. Άμεσο αποτέλεσμα της ζωτικής αυτής μεταρρύθμισης ήταν η δημιουργία σημαντικών φορέων και η ένταξη σύγχρονων πλοίων στην ακτοπλοΐα από την Blue Star Ferries, Strintzis Lines, Minoan Lines, ANEK, ΝΕΛ, ΔΑΝΕ, και άλλες, που ανέβασαν πολύ το επίπεδο των υπηρεσιών της ακτοπλοιας . ΔΙΟΙΚΗΣΗ – ΥΠΟΔΟΜΕΣ Σημαντικό ήταν και το έργο αναδιοργάνωσης του Υπουργείου Ναυτιλίας από τα πρώτα ακόμη χρόνια της Κυβέρνησης Μητσοτάκη. Σε πρώτη φάση αυξήθηκε στο Λιμενικό Σώμα (Λ.Σ) ο αριθμός των Υπαρχηγών, ώστε να δημιουργηθεί Συμβούλιο Κρίσεων εντός του Λ.Σ , καθιερώθηκαν οι θέσεις Κλαδαρχών, συστήθηκε η Μονάδα Ειδικών Αποστολών για καταπολέμηση της κάθε είδους παρανομίας στους χώρους ευθύνης του Λ.Σ, ενισχύθηκαν αποτελεσματικά τα πλωτά μέσα για να βελτιωθεί η αστυνόμευση του θαλάσσιου χώρου, όπως επίσης αυξήθηκαν σημαντικά και οι επενδύσεις σε λιμενικές υποδομές στα μεγαλύτερα λιμάνια (π.χ Πειραιάς, Θεσσαλονίκη ) αλλά και στους σημαντικούς τουριστικούς προορισμούς (Ρόδος, Μύκονος), χωρίς να παραβλεφθούν και τα μικρότερα λιμάνια και

μάλιστα στον νησιωτικό χώρο. ΝΑΥΤΙΚΗ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ Η Κυβέρνηση της ΝΔ παρέλαβε το 1990 την Εκπαίδευση σε πλήρη μαρασμό και αποδιοργάνωση. Για μικροπολιτικούς λόγους είχε προωθηθεί ένας πληθωρισμός Ναυτικών Σχολών. Ο Υπουργός Ναυτιλίας Αριστοτέλης Παυλίδης, αγνοώντας το πολιτικό κόστος, έκλεισε σχολές που υπολειτουργούσαν ακόμα και στη δική του εκλογική περιφέρεια (Ρόδος). Όπως ήταν φυσικό, αυτό οδήγησε στην αναβάθμιση των υπόλοιπων σχολών με τη συγκέντρωση μεγαλύτερου αριθμού μαθητών και διδακτικού προσωπικού, τη βελτίωση των εγκαταστάσεων και τον εκσυγχρονισμό της διδασκόμενης ύλης που διασφάλισε την άνοδο του εκπαιδευτικού επιπέδου των αποφοιτούντων Αξιωματικών του Ελληνικού Εμπορικού Ναυτικού. Η ΔΙΑΣΩΣΗ ΤΟΥ ΝΑΤ Ένα όμως από τα πιο σημαντικά έργα του Υπουργείου Ναυτιλίας, την περίοδο αυτή, ήταν η διάσωση του Ναυτικού Απομαχικού Ταμείου (ΝΑΤ) και του Οίκου του Ναύτη (Ο.Ν.), που είναι ο κλάδος υγείας του ΝΑΤ, από την βέβαιη πτώχευση. Όταν η Κυβέρνηση της ΝΔ ανέλαβε την εξουσία, το ΝΑΤ ήταν στα πρόθυρα της πτώχευσης. Αναγνωρίζοντας το χρέος της προς τους Έλληνες ναυτικούς, που είχαν μοχθήσει μια ολόκληρη ζωή καταβάλλοντας -μαζί με τους πλοιοκτήτεςανελλιπώς τις εισφορές τους, αλλά διαπιστώνοντας και την ευθύνη των προηγούμενων Κυβερνήσεων για την καταβαράθρωση των οικονομικών του ΝΑΤ, η Κυβέρνηση έκανε το γενναίο βήμα ένταξης του ΝΑΤ στα ενισχυόμενα από τον Κρατικό Προϋπολογισμό Ταμεία. Είναι και αυτό ένα μεγάλο δείγμα της κατανόησης που είχε ο Πρωθυπουργός αλλά και οι δύο, συμπτωματικά νησιώτες, συναρμόδιοι Υπουργοί, Ναυτιλίας Αριστοτέλης Παυλίδης και Οικονομικών Γιάννης Παλαιοκρασσάς (που είχε διατελέσει και ο ίδιος ναυτικός), για τη ναυτιλία μας. Παράλληλα όμως ελήφθησαν και σημαντικά μέτρα ενίσχυσης των εσόδων του Ταμείου, ορισμένα των οποίων ισχύουν και σήμερα.


100- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

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ΠΩΣ ΓΙΝΕΤΑΙ Η ΣΥΝΤΗΞΗ ΣΤΟΝ ΗΛΙΟ *Η ΣΥΓΚΡΟΥΣΗ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΟΣ ΜΕ ΑΤΟΜΑ ΥΔΡΟΓΟΝΟΥ ΔΙΝΕΙ, ΥΣΤΕΡΑ ΑΠΟ ΑΛΥΣΙΔΩΤΕΣ ΑΝΤΙΔΡΑΣΕΙΣ, ΕΝΑ ΑΤΟΜΟ ΗΛΙΟΥ, ΕΚΛΥΟΝΤΑΣ ΤΕΡΑΣΤΙΑ ΕΝΕΡΓΕΙΑ. *ΠΩΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΤΕ ΘΑ ΕΛΘΕΙ ΤΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΚΟΣΜΟΥ, ΜΕ ΒΑΣΗ ΤΙΣ ΠΑΡΑΤΗΡΟΥΜΕΝΕΣ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΕΙΣ ΣΤΟ ΣΥΜΠΑΝ, ΚΑΙ ΟΧΙ ΤΙΣ ΠΡΟΒΛΕΨΕΙΣ...ΤΩΝ ΜΑΓΙΑΣ. *Ο ΧΡΥΣΟΣ, ΤΟ ΟΥΡΑΝΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΑΛΛΑ ΒΑΡΕΑ ΜΕΤΑΛΛΑ, ΔΕΝ ΓΕΝΝΗΘΗΚΑΝ ΣΤΟ ΗΛΙΑΚΟ ΜΑΣ ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ, ΑΛΛΑ ΥΣΤΕΡΑ ΑΠΟ ΕΚΡΗΞΗ ΣΟΥΠΕΡΝΟΒΑ. *ΟΙ ΔΕΙΝΟΣΑΥΡΟΙ ΠΕΘΑΝΑΝ ΑΠΟ... ΔΥΣΚΟΙΛΙΟΤΗΤΑ; ΜΙΑ ΝΕΑ ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΙΚΗ ΑΠΟΨΗ ΓΙΑ ΤΟ ΞΑΦΝΙΚΟ ΤΕΛΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΘΗΡΙΩΝ ΑΥΤΩΝ. *ΤΑ ΣΥΣΤΑΤΙΚΑ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΥ ΑΝΙΧΝΙΧΝΕΥΟΝΤΑΙ ΣΕ ΟΛΑ ΤΑ ΑΣΤΡΑ ΤΟΥ ΣΥΜΠΑΝΤΟΣ. Γράφει ο Κ. ΔΟΥΚΑΣ


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FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 101

Τ

ο ότι τα αστρα γεννιούνται, ζουν και πεθαίνουν, όχι μόνο αποτελεί γεγονός αναμφισβήτητο γιά τους επιστήμονες, αλλά ακόμη η αστρονομία και η αστροφυσική έχουν προχωρήσει τόσο πολύ, ώστε σήμερα είναι σε θέση να...εκδίδουν και ληξιαρχικές πράξεις των αστέρων, έχοντας φωτογραφήσει και γεννήσεις αστέρων και θανάτους. Ο άνθρωπος, έχοντας το προνόμιο να παρατηρεί και να ερευνά το διάστημα με όργανα υψηλής τεχνολογίας, σαν μοναδικό επί του παρόντος νοήμων ον στον Γαλαξία, μέχρις αποδείξεως του εναντίου, μόλις τώρα αρχίζει να αντιλαμβάνεται τον τρόπο που ζει και εξελίσσεται το Σύμπαν. Και όσο βαθύτερα διεισδύει σ’ αυτό, τόσο περισσότερο αναθεωρεί τις αντιλήψεις του μπροστά στα χαοτικά μεγέθη που διανοίγονται προ των οφθαλμών του, αλλά και στην αδυναμία του να κατανοήσει τι είναι η σκοτεινή ύλη και η σκοτεινή ενέργεια που φαίνεται να αποτελούν το 96% του Σύμπαντος, δηλαδή σχεδόν όλο. Πράγματι, όταν η ζωή των αστέρων μετράται σε διάρκεια πολλών δισεκατομμυρίων ετών και το... «ψυχορράγημά» τους διαρκεί εκατοντάδες εκατομμύρια έτη, πώς είναι άραγε δυνατόν ο άνθρωπος να βγάλει ασφαλή συμπεράσματα γιά το πώς ζουν και πεθαίνουν τα άστρα, όταν ο ανθρώπινος πολιτισμός στο σύνολό του αντιστοιχεί σε ένα ανοιγοκλείσιμο του ματιού μπροστά στην αιωνιότητα; Ας το πούμε όμως κι αλλοιώς: Ας φανταστούμε ότι είμαστε εξωγήινοι – όχι βέβαια από τον Άρη – και φθάναμε από ένα μακρυνό αστέρα στην Γη. Θα παίρναμε δειγματοληπτικά μερικά στοιχεία από τα έμβια όντα, δηλαδή από τους ιούς μέχρι τους ελέφαντες και τις φάλαινες, και θα σταματούσαμε ιδιαίτερα στο γένος των ανθρώπων. Θα διαπιστώναμε ότι υπάρχουν δύο φύλα, αρκετά φυλετικά χρώματα, διάφορα φυλετικά χαρακτηριστικά και διάφορα αναστήματα, από 50 εκατοστά μέχρι 200. Αν το διαστημόπλοιό μας προσγειωνόταν σε ένα σχολείο με μεγάλο πληθυσμό παιδιών με μικρό ανάστημα και λίγων με μεγάλο (των δασκάλων), τότε θα αντιμετωπίζαμε σοβαρό πρόβλημα εξήγησης καταγωγής και εξέλιξης του ανθρωπίνου γένους. Οι μικροί γίνονται μεγάλοι, ή οι μεγάλοι μικροί; Το φύλο και το χρώμα αλλάζει σύμφωνα με το ανάστημα και την ηλικία; Αν λοιπόν έπρεπε να εγκαταλείψουμε γρήγορα την Γη, ας πούμε μέσα σε μία εβδομάδα, θα είχαμε σχηματίσει εντελώς εσφαλμένες αντιλήψεις γιά την γέννηση και την εξέλιξη του ανθρωπίνου γένους, διότι τα συμπεράσματά μας θα έβγαιναν με βάση τον συλλογισμό και όχι την παρατήρηση. Το πρόχειρο αυτό παράδειγμα ισχύει απόλυτα ως προς τις παρατηρήσεις μας γύρω από την εξέλιξη των αστέρων. Μπορεί να έχουμε συλλάβει φωτογραφικά την γέννηση αστέρων, όπως στον μικρό και τον μεγάλο νεφελοειδή του Μαγγελάνου, και να έχουμε δεί και απαθανατίσει εκρήξεις σουπερνόβα, που και αυτά τα γεγονότα μας έρχονται καθυστερημένα, ανάλογα με τις αποστάσεις που συμβαίνουν οι κοσμικές αυτές καταστροφές, αλλά και έτσι, δεν είμαστε σε θέση να γνωρίζουμε την ακριβή εξέλιξη των αστέρων, επειδή τους παρατηρήσαμε τις τελευταίες εκατοντάδες χρόνια. Πρόσβαση στον κύκλο ζωής των αστέρων δεν είναι δυνατόν να έχουμε, διότι ο πολιτισμός μας είναι μικρής ηλικίας και η ...συμπαντική μας επίδοση νηπιακή. ΟΙ ΑΣΤΕΡΕΣ ΓΙΓΑΝΤΕΣ ΖΟΥΝ ΛΙΓΩΤΕΡΟ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ ΝΑΝΟΥΣ

Ό

πως οι άνθρωποι, έτσι και τα άστρα έχουν διαφορετική διάρκεια ζωής. Πολλά άστρα είναι νεώτερα του Ηλίου, ενώ άλλα είναι πολύ μεγαλύτερα. Τα νεαρά άστρα είναι συνήθως πολύ πιό φωτεινά από τα γεροντότερα, αλλά καταναλίσκουν πολύ γρηγορότερα τα πυρηνικά τους καύσιμα και πεθαίνουν γρηγορότερα. Και πάλι, η διάρκεια ζωής των αστέρων (ηλίων) έχει απόλυτη σχέση με το μέγεθος. Οι αστέρες γίγαντες, όπως ο α του Βοώτου, ο α του Ηνιόχου, ο β του Πηγάσου (Αντάρης),


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102- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

Η αλυσίδα πρωτονίου - πρωτονίου κυριαρχεί σε αστέρες όπου το μέγεθος του Ηλιου είναι μικρότερο

ο α του Ηρακλέους, ο ε του Ηνιόχου κ.ά., έχουν πολύ μικρότερο προσδόκιμο ζωής από τους αστέρες νάνους, όπως είναι ο δικός μας Ήλιος, ο οποίος καίει...με «οικονομία» το υδρογόνο του, γεννήθηκε πριν από 6-8 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια και έχει μπροστά του να ζήσει άλλα τόσα δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια. Φυσικά, όταν θα έλθει το τέλος του, το ανθρώπινο γένος δεν θα υπάρχει. Θα έχει εκλείψει προ πολλού, διότι, σύμφωνα με τους αστροφυσικούς, κανένας πολιτισμός στον Γαλαξία και οπουδήποτε στο Σύμπαν, δεν μπορεί να ζήσει πάνω από ένα δισεκατομμύριο χρόνια. Κάποτε πιστευόταν ότι οι αστέρες δημιουργήθηκαν σχεδόν ταυτόχρονα, πριν από μερικά δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια. Σήμερα όμως οι επιστήμονες έχουν καταλήξει σε διαφορετικά συμπεράσματα. Κάτω από μυστηριώδεις συνθήκες, οι αστέρες εξακολουθούν και σήμερα να δημιουργούνται ( το «σήμερα» με την διεσταλμένη του έννοια, δεδομένου ότι αυτά που βλέπουμε «σήμερα» στον ουρανό, συνέβησαν πριν από χιλιάδες ή και εκατομμύρια χρόνια, όσα δηλαδή κάνει το φώς γιά να φθάσει μέχρι τον αμφιβληστροειδή μας).

Α

ΤΙ ΣΥΜΒΑΙΝΕΙ ΣΤΟΝ ΗΛΙΟ

ν όμως τα άστρα που γεννιούνται και πεθαίνουν στον Γαλαξία μας και στα δισεκατομμύρια άλλα των γαλαξιών που υπάρχουν στο Σύμπαν, βρίσκονται πολύ μακριά, ο Ήλιος μας απέχει μόλις 150 εκατομμύρια χιλιόμετρα, απόσταση που

το φως διασχίζει σε μόλις 8 λεπτά και 10 δευτερόλεπτα. Θα έλεγε κανείς, ότι λόγω της εγγύτητος, ο άνθρωπος έχει την ευκαιρία να μελετήσει καλλίτερα τις συνθήκες εξέλιξης του άστρου της ημέρας. Αλλά και στην προκειμένη περίπτωση προέκυψαν προβλήματα, διότι κανένα μηχάνημα δεν μπορεί να προσεγγίσει τον Ήλιο λόγω της υψηλής του θερμοκρασίας, που στην ατμόσφαιρά του ξεπερνά τα 2 εκατομμύρια βαθμών, ενώ στο εσωτερικό του η θερμοκρασία ανέρχεται σε 15 εκατομμύρια βαθμών. Οι επιστήμονες διερωτήθηκαν με ποιό τρόπο ο Ήλιος ακτινοβολεί ενέργεια επί 6 και πλέον δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια, χωρίς να έχει μειωθεί καθόλου η ακτινοβολία του και η λαμπρότητά του. Οι επιστήμονες λοιπόν χρησιμοποίησαν το «ηλιοτρύπανο». Δηλαδή τον μαθηματικό λογισμό, γιά να μάθουν τι συμβαίνει στο εσωτερικό του του Ηλίου. Αρχικά υπέθεσαν ότι οι αλυσιδωτές θερμοπυρηνικές αντιδράσεις οφείλονται στον κύκλο άνθρακος – άνθρακος, αλλά τα αποτελέσματα δεν μπορούσαν να ανταποκριθούν στην πραγματικότητα, αφού σε μία τέτοια περίπτωση, ο Ήλιος θα έπρεπε να είχε σβύσει σε 500 εκατομμύρια χρόνια μετά την γέννησή του. Όμως ο Ήλιος λάμπει πάνω από 6 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια και θα λάμπει, όπως είπαμε, γιά άλλα 8 ή και 10 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια. Έτσι, κατέληξαν στην αντίδραση του κύκλου άνθρακος – υδρογόνου. Από την ηλιακή σύντηξη προκύπτουν τα εξής: • Ένα άτομο άνθρακος συγκρούεται με ένα άτομο υδρογόνου. Από την διάσπαση προκύπτει ένα άτομο ισοτόπου του αζώτου. Διάρκεια ζωής 10΄ λεπτά.


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FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91- 103

Μια προσέγγιση σε αυτό το πρόβλημα είναι η αδρανειακής σύντηξης απομόνωση ή έννοια ICF. Σε πειράματα ICF, η έντονη ακτινοβολία με τη μορφή του φωτός λέιζερ, οι ακτίνες Χ ή ενεργητικά σωματίδια βομβαρδίζουν μια σφαιρική κάψουλα των καυσίμων δευτερίου και τριτίου που περικλείεται σε ένα πλαστικό ή βηρύλλιο “ablater”. Το καύσιμο ανταποκρίνεται με καταρρέουσα συμπίεση κατά συντελεστή 1000-10,000, με θερμοκρασίες που φθάνουν τους 100 εκατομμύρια βαθμούς. Η σύντηξη αρχίζει τότε, αναφλέγοντας και προκαλώντας καύση του καυσίμου. Προκειμένου να επιτευχθούν αυτά τα υψηλά επίπεδα συμπίεσης, η ακτινοβόληση του στόχου πρέπει να είναι απίστευτα ομοιόμορφη.

• Το προκύψαν ισότοπο του αζώτου μεταπίπτει σε βαρύ ισότοπο του άνθρακος με διάρκεια ζωής 4,5 εκατομμύρια χρόνια. • Στην συνέχεια, το βαρύ ισότοπο του άνθρακος συγκρούεται με δεύτερο πυρήνα υδρογόνου και προκύπτει σύνηθες άζωτον. Διάρκεια ζωής 50.000 χρόνια. • Ο πυρήνας του συνήθους αζώτου συγκρούεται με τρίτο πυρήνα υδρογόνου και προκύπτει ελαφρύ ισότοπο του οξυγόνου. Διάρκεια ζωής μόλις 2,1 λεπτά. • Το ελαφρύ ισότοπο του οξυγόνου μεταπίπτει σε βαρύ άζωτο. Διάρκεια ζωής 4 εκατομμύρια χρόνια. • Ο πυρήνας του βαρέως αζώτου συγκρούεται με τέταρτο πυρήνα υδρογόνου. Από την αντίδραση αυτή προκύπτει ένας πυρήνας άνθρακος, που επανέρχεται στην αλυσιδωτή θερμοπυρηνική σύντηξη και εκλύεται ένας πυρήνας ηλίου, που αποτελεί την «σκουριά» της πυρηνικής αντιδράσεως. Στο μεταξύ έχει εκλυθεί τεράστιο ποσό ενέργειας, διότι κάθε δευτερόλεπτο γίνονται άπειρες συγκρούσεις πυρήνων. Αξίζει να σημειωθεί ότι, κάτω από τις υψηλές θερμοκρασίες που επικρατούν στον Ήλιο, τα ελαφρά στοιχεία έχουν αποβάλλει όλα τα ηλεκτρόνιά τους και τά βαρύτερα έχουν αποβάλλει τα περισσότερα. Μόνο με αυτή την θερμοπυρηνική αντίδραση δικαιολογείται η ακτινοβολία του Ηλίου γιά τόσο μεγάλο χρόνο. Το ίδιο βέβαια ισχύει και γιά όλα τά άστρα-ηλίους του Σύμπαντος.

Ό

ΠΩΣ ΘΑ ΠΕΘΑΝΕΙ Ο ΗΛΙΟΣ

μως κάποτε όλα τελειώνουν. Ο Ήλιος δεν θα μπορεί επ’ άπειρον να ακτινοβολεί ενέργεια. Έχει κι αυτός ημερομηνία λήξεως, όπως όλα τα άστρα στο Σύμπαν. Έτσι, όταν το υδρογόνο του Ηλίου θα έχει φθάσει στο όριο της

εξαντλήσεώς του, τότε η φωτεινότητά του θα αρχίσει να αυξάνεται εντυπωσιακά, επειδή το πυρηνικό πύρ θ’ αρχίσει να επεκτείνεται από το κέντρο του αστέρος προς το εξωτερικό του περίβλημα, όπου θα υπάρχουν τα τελευταία αποθέματα του υδρογόνου. Αυτό θα αρχίσει να φαίνεται ύστερα από 6 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια, ή και ακόμη αργότερα. Το στοιχείο του ηλίου, που προκύπτει από τις συγκρούσεις των πυρήνων υδρογόνου και άνθρακος, εγκαθιστάμενο στην επιφάνεια του Ηλίου και όντας πιό αδιαφανές, θα επιταχύνει τις αλυσιδωτές θερμοπυρηνικές αντιδράσεις, και ο Ήλιος θα αρχίσει να διογκώνεται, μπαίνοντας στον δρόμο που οδηγεί στην δημιουργία ερυθρών γιγάντων. Οι πιό πρόσφατοι υπολογισμοί δείχνουν πως ο Ήλιος μας θα γίνει ερυθρός γίγαντας σε 8 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια περίπου. Το στάδιο του ερυθρού γίγαντα θα διαρκέσει αρκετές εκατοντάδες εκατομμύρια χρόνια. Τελικά, με αποβολή ύλης ή με έκρηξη σουπερνόβα, ο γιγάντιος πιά Ήλιος μας θα διαλυθεί, αφήνοντας στην θέση του ένα λευκό νάνο. Μερικοί αστροφυσικοί πιστεύουν ότι ο Ήλιος μας δεν θα γίνει ποτέ σουπερνόβα, λόγω της μικρής του μάζας. Ωστόσο κανείς δεν θα μπορεί να τους διαψεύσει ύστερα από...8 δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια. Έτσι, η πρόβλεψη αυτή γίνεται εκ του ασφαλούς, καθώς και πολλές άλλες. ΘΑ ΚΑΤΑΠΩΘΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΕΣΩΤΕΡΙΚΟΙ ΠΛΑΝΗΤΕΣ ΚΑΙ Η ΓΗ

Έ

να από τα αποτελέσματα της διέλευσης του Ηλίου από το στάδιο του ερυθρού γίγαντα, θα είναι οπωσδήποτε η μεταμόρφωση της Γης σε άσπρη καρβουνιασμένη στάχτη. Η αύξηση της φωτεινότητας του Ηλίου θα αυξήσει τις θερμοκρασίες της επιφάνειας της Γης και των άλλων πλανητών. Καθώς ο


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104- FEBRUARY-MARCH 2013 - ISSUE 91

διογκωμένος Ήλιος θα μεγαλώνει συνεχώς σε μέγεθος, οι ωκεανοί της Γης θα βράσουν και θα εξατμισθούν. Το άνω τμήμα της γήινης ατμόσφαιρας θα ζεσταθεί υπερβολικά και η ατμόσφαιρα ολόκληρη θα εξατμισθεί στο κενό διάστημα. Η επόμενη κοσμική καταστροφή περιγράφεται από τους αστροφυσικούς ως εξής: Κάποτε ο Ήλιος θα καταπιεί τις τροχιές του Ερμή και της Αφροδίτης, καταπίνοντας τους πλανήτες αυτούς, που αποτελούν ασήμαντη ποσότητα μάζας μπροστά στην μάζα του Ηλίου, καθώς και όλοι μαζί οι πλανήτες. Η επιφάνεια του Ηλίου θα πλησιάσει την τροχιά της Γης. Εξυπακούεται ότι η ζωή επί της Γής θα είχε εκλείψει προ πολλού. Τελικά, ο γιγαντιαίος Ήλιος θα συρρικνωθεί σε μία μικρή σκοτεινή μπάλα μεγέθους Γης, αλλά με υπερσυμπυκνωμένη ύλη. Που θα περιφέρεται στο διάστημα και θα καταπίνει ό,τι βρίσκει μπροστά του, αφού θα είναι μιά μαύρη τρύπα. Έτσι το άστρο μας θα γίνει ένας από τους βραχίονες του δημιουργού, όπως και τα άλλα άστρα του ουρανού, που θα συνεχίσει το έργο του στο διηνεκές, καθώς το υλικό του θα ανακυκλωθεί γιά την δημιουργία άλλων ουρανίων σωμάτων. ΧΡΥΣΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΟΥΡΑΝΙΟ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΟΥΠΕΡΝΟΒΑ

Φ

αίνεται λοιπόν ότι η ζωή ενός άστρου ξεκινά από την γέννησή του και από υλικά άλλων άστρων που πέθαναν και διαλύθηκαν, συνεχίζεται η ζωή του γιά πολύ μακρό χρονικό διάστημα με συνεχή καύση του υδρογόνου του, και πεθαίνει εκρηγνυόμενο σαν σουπερνόβα ή υπερκαινοφανής, εκτός αν στο μεταξύ καταστραφεί από μία απροσδόκητη μαύρη τρύπα, που περιφέρεται αόρατη στο Σύμπαν. Τέτοιες μαύρες τρύπες έχουν επισημανθεί πολλές στον Γαλαξία, παρά το γεγονός ότι είναι δύσκολη η ανίχνευσή τους. Μία πολύ μεγάλη μαύρη τρύπα βρίσκεται στο κέντρο του Γαλαξία, η οποία εργάζεται συστηματικά γιά την καταστροφή του, σαν την ασθένεια Χασιμότο, που εγκαθίσταται στον θυρεοειδή με μοναδικό στόχο να τον καταστρέψει ολοσχερώς. Την ίδια διαδικασία βιώνει και ο Ήλιος μας, που θεωρείται ερυθρός νάνος, σε σύγκριση με άλλους αστέρες, που είναι γίγαντες. Η «αύρα» ενός σουπερνόβα αστέρος έχει καταλυτικές συνέπειες γιά τους γαιώδεις πλανήτες, που έχουν ζωή και βρίσκονται στην εμβέλεια της εκρηξιγενούς αύρας, που είναι πολύ εκτεταμένη. Οι κοσμικές ακτίνες θα επηρεάσουν σημαντικά τους ζωντανούς οργανισμούς. Όσοι οργανισμοί δεν θα μπορούσαν να προσαρμοσθούν, θα εξέλιπαν οριστικά. Η ποικιλία των τύπων, που η φυσιολογική διαλογή μπορεί να επηρεάσει, εξαρτάται από τον ρυθμό της μετάλλαξης, δηλαδή από την συχνότητα εμφάνισης κληρονομήσιμων βιολογικών αλλοιώσεων. Οι αστροφυσικοί πιστεύουν ότι στις πρώιμες εποχές της Γης, ο πλανήτης μας επλήγη από την αύρα καινοφανών αστέρων. Μέσα σ’ αυτή την αύρα, υπήρχε χρυσός και ουράνιο, διότι τα στοιχεία αυτά δεν μπορούν να έχουν παραχθεί στο ηλιακό μας σύστημα, αφού η μεταστοιχείωση και η δημιουργία βαρέων ραδιενεργών μετάλλων και στοιχείων απαιτεί πολύ υψηλές θερμοκρασίες, που δεν υπάρχουν μέσα στον Ήλιο ούτε υπήρξαν ποτέ.

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ΠΩΣ ΠΕΘΑΝΑΝ ΟΙ ΔΕΙΝΟΣΑΥΡΟΙ

ατροφυσικός Κάρλ Σαγκάν και και ο αστροβιολόγος Ιωσήφ Σκλόφσκι, πιστεύουν ότι οι δεινόσαυροι εξαφανίστηκαν στο τέλος της Κρητιδικής εποχής, εδώ και 100 εκατομμύρια χρόνια, εξ αιτίας μιάς τέτοιας αύξησης της κοσμικής ακτινοβολίας. Οι δύο μεγάλοι αυτοί επιστήμονες υποστήριξαν πως εκείνη την μακρινή εποχή, ο Ήλιος ήταν τυλιγμένος σ’ ένα ραδιονεφέλωμα, σε απόσταση 5-10 «παρσέκ» (κάθε «παρσέκ» εκφράζει απόσταση 33 δισεκατομμυρίων χιλιομέτρων) από μία πρόσφατη έκρηξη σουπερνόβα. Αν η ένταση των κοσμικών ακτίνων είχε αυξηθεί κατά δεκάδες ή εκατοντάδες φορές, τότε η αύξηση του ρυθμού μετάλλαξης των δεινοσαύρων θα πρέπει να προκάλεσε την εξαφάνισή τους. Η διάρκεια ζωής των τεραστίων εκείνων ζώων, θα πρέπει να ήταν σίγουρα αρκετοί αιώνες. Η δυσκολία που παρουσιάζει η επιστημονική αυτή αύξηση είναι, ότι η εξαφάνιση των δεινοσαύρων σε όλη την Γη, έγινε σε σχετικά σύντομο χρονικό διάστημα. Ωστόσο, κάποιος συγγραφέας ισχυρίσθηκε ότι οι δεινόσαυροι πέθαναν από...δυσκοιλιότητα, διότι οι κλιματολογικές συνθήκες στον πλανήτη μας κατά την Κρητιδική εποχή θα πρέπει να εξαφάνισαν ένα είδος φτέρης παρόμοιας με κάποια σύγχρονα φυτά, που έχουν καθαρτικές ιδιότητες. Οπωσδήποτε, μία μακροχρόνια αύξηση της δόσης ακτινοβολίας υψηλής ενέργειας, δεν θα είχε υποχρεωτικά μοιραία αποτελέσματα γιά όλους τους ζωντανούς οργανισμούς. Ίσως μιά τέτοια έκθεση να ήταν μάλιστα ευνοϊκή γιά την εξέλιξη ορισμένων μορφών ζωής και τον σχηματισμό ορισμένων άλλων ζωικών ουσιών στην απώτερη εκείνη εποχή της ιστορίας της Γης. Μερικοί πιστεύουν ότι οι μεταλλάξεις των ειδών ίσως να οδήγησαν και στην τελική δημιουργία του ανθρώπου.

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Ο ΣΟΥΠΕΡΝΟΒΑ ΤΟΥ 1054 μ.Χ. ΣΤΟΝ ΝΕΦΕΛΟΕΙΔΗ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΡΚΙΝΟΥ

όσο θα επηρέαζε την Γη μία κοντινή έκρηξη σουπερνοβα; Αν υπήρχε ακόμη ευφυής ζωή πάνω στον πλανήτη μας, τότε ο υπερκαινοφανής αστέρας θα φαινόταν σαν ένα ιδιαίτερα λαμπρό άστρο στον ουρανό. Θα ήταν ένα εκατομμύριο φορές πιό φωτεινό από τον λαμπρότερο αστέρα του ουρανού, τον Σείριο, αλλά 10.000 φορές λιγώτερο φωτεινός από τον Ήλιο. Την νύχτα το άστρο θα φώτιζε μεγάλες περιοχές. Η ακτινοβολία στο υπεριώδες τμήμα του φάσματος θα ήταν δεκάδες φορές μεγαλύτερο από εκείνη του Ηλίου. Το όζον στην ατμόσφαιρα, αν υπήρχε ακόμη και δεν το είχε καταστρέψει ο άνθρωπος με την αλόγιστη συμπεριφορά του, θα απορροφούσε ουσιαστικά την υπεριώδη ακτινοβολία πριν φθάσει στην επιφάνεια της Γης, χωρίς όμως να αποκλείονται σημαντικές επιπτώσεις στους ζωντανούς οργανισμούς. Στην σύγχρονη ιστορία του ανθρώπου κατεγράφησαν αρκετές εκρήξεις υπερκαινοφανών αστέρων. Στις 4 Ιουλίου του 1054 μ.Χ., εμφανίστηκε στον ουρανό ένα λαμπρό άστρο, που κατεγράφη από Κινέζους μελετητές. Το άστρο αυτό έλαμπε τόσο πολύ, που


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φαινόταν ακόμη και την ημέρα. Ξεπερνούσε και την Αφροδίτη σε φωτεινότητα και μόνο η Σελήνη και ο Ήλιος έλαμπαν περισσότερο. Γιά πολλούς μήνες, το άστρο αυτό ήταν ορατό δια γυμνού οφθαλμού και στην συνέχεια άρχισε σταδιακά να ελαττώνεται η λαμπρότητά του, μέχρι που έσβυσε. Στον νεφελοειδή του Καρκίνου βρίσκεται σε εξέλιξη μία έκρηξη σουπερνόβα. Ο νεφελοειδής αυτός απέχει περισσότερο από 1000 «παρσέκ» από την Γη, δηλαδή βρίσκεται σε τεράστια απόσταση. Από την αύξηση του μεγέθους, οι επιστήμονες καταλήγουν στο συμπέρασμα, ότι η ταχύτητα διασκορπισμού της ύλης ανέρχεται σε 1000 χιλιόμετρα το δευτερόλεπτο. Ο Καρκίνος βρίσκεται στην περιοχή του ουρανού, όπου εμφανίσθηκε το περίεργο εκείνο άστρο το 1054 μ.Χ.. Οι επιστήμονες κατέληξαν στο συμπέρασμα ότι ο νεφελοειδής αυτός είναι πράγματι το κατάλοιπο του γιγαντιαίου διαστημικού κατακλυσμού, που παρατηρήθηκε στην Κίνα όταν βασίλευε η δυναστεία Σουνγκ.

Ο

ΕΙΜΑΣΤΕ ΠΑΙΔΙΑ ΤΩΝ ΑΣΤΡΩΝ

ι εκρήξεις των σουπερνόβα περιλαμβάνονται μέσα στις διαδικασίες ρουτίνας του Σύμπαντος γιά την συμπτωματική δημιουργίας ζωής, η οποία μεταδίδεται από γαλαξία σε γαλαξία και από άστρο σε άστρο με την περιώνυμη πανσπερμία, σύμφωνα με την θεωρία του Αρένιους. Από τις φασματικές αναλύσεις του Ηλίου, είναι φανερό πως ο Ήλιος μας δεν είναι άστρο πρώτης γενεάς και ίσως ούτε και δεύτερης. Αυτό σημαίνει, ότι πολλά από τα άτομα που αποτελούν τον Ήλιο, προέρχονται από ανακύκλωση υλικών, που βρίσκονταν άλλοτε στο εσωτερικό άλλων άστρων, τα οποία εδώ και πολύ καιρό έχουν παρακμάσει μέχρι το στάδιο του «λευκού νάνου». Ακόμη και τα άτομα του δικού μας οργανισμού μαγειρεύτηκαν κάποτε στο εσωτερικό κάποιου άστρου. Τα κοκκαλά μας είναι φτιαγμένα από ασβέστιο, που σχηματίστηκε με συγκεκριμένες διαδικασίες σε κάποιο ερυθρό γίγαντα, όπως θα γίνει κάποτε ο Ήλιος μας, εδώ και πολλά δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια. Το ίδιο συμβαίνει με τον σίδηρο στο αίμα μας, χωρίς τον οποίο φθίνουμε και πεθαίνουμε, με τον άνθρακα, με το άζωτο και το οξυγόνο, που είναι συστατικά όλων των ιστών μας. Μόνο το υδρογόνο, το απλούστερο και το πιό διαδεδομένο στοιχείο στο Σύμπαν, που κι αυτό βρίσκεται στο σώμα μας, δεν σχηματίσθηκε μέσα σε σουπερνόβα, αλλά ούτε

μπορούμε να φανταστούμε πώς έγινε αυτό, μολονότι γνωρίζουμε πώς σχηματίσθηκαν όλα τα στοιχεία. Τα άτομα, που με την φασματική ανάλυση αποκαλύπτουν την παρουσία τους σε μακρινά άστρα, είναι τα ίδια με τα γήινα. Το άτομο του σιδήρου που βλέπουμε στο ζ της Μεγάλης Άρκτου, είναι το ίδιο με τις μπετόβεργες που βάζουμε στα θεμέλια των κτηρίων μας, και αυτή η διαδικασία αποτελεί θρίαμβο της φασματοσκοπίας.

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Ο ΑΠΟΛΥΤΟΣ ΠΑΡΑΛΟΓΙΣΜΟΣ

γέννηση και ο θάνατος των αστέρων έδωσε στους επιστήμονες μία συγκλονιστική υποψία, μήπως δηλαδή και οι γαλαξίες γεννιώνται όπως τα άστρα. Αυτό θα μπορούσε να σημαίνει ότι το Σύμπαν που βλέπουμε με τα δισεκατομμύρια των γαλαξιών, καθένας από τους οποίους περιλαμβάνει κατά μέσον όρο 150 δισεκατομμύρια άστρα, αποτελεί μέρος ενός άλλου υπερσύμπαντος, που και αυτό ανήκει σε ένα ακόμη μεγαλύτερο, κι αυτό να επαναλαμβάνεται επ’ άπειρον. Πρόκειται για τον απόλυτο παραλογισμό, που κανένας νους δεν μπορεί να χωρέσει. Έτσι, αποκτά επικαιρότητα η αντίληψη τών αρχαίων Ελλήνων φιλοσόφων, και ιδιαίτερα των Ελεατών, του Παρμενίδη, του Ξενοφάνη, του Ζήνωνος και του Μελίσσου, οι οποίοι θεωρούσαν ότι χώρος στην πραγματικότητα δεν υπάρχει και ότι είναι ματαιοπονία να αναζητεί κανείς γένηση του Σύμπαντος. Μήπως θα έπρεπε άραγε οι σύγχρονοι σοφοί να ξαναδιαβάσουν τους αρχαίους Έλληνες σοφούς; Ίσως αξιολογήσουν τα συμπεράσματά τους, στα οποία...ξανακαταλήγουν ύστερα από 2.500 χρόνια. Κ. ΔΟΥΚΑΣ


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Conference and Exhibition

The Growth Challenges for the East Med and the Black Sea Cruise, Yachting & Passenger Shipping at the Forefront Join us at the 2nd Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum to explore the future growth potential for cruising, yachting and passenger shipping in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, and capitalise on new investment opportunities opening up in the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sea Tourism industry. The 2013 Posidonia Sea Tourism Forum is the ideal platform to promote the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s destinations and services, showcase investment plans and meet the key industry players.

28 - 29 May 2013 MEGARON ATHENS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CENTRE, GREECE To participate: www.PosidoniaSeaTourism.com

Under the auspices of

Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises

Association of Passenger Shipping Companies

Hellenic Association of Travel & Tourist Agencies

Hellenic Professional Yacht Owners Association

Greek Marinas Association

Hellenic Yacht Brokers Association

Posidonia Exhibitions SA Tel. + 30 210 428 3608, E-mail: seatourism@posidonia-events.com



NAFS March 2013