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‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

ISSN 0178-6288 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Norman_KhalafPrinz_Sakerfalke_Von_Jaffa/publications https://palestine.academia.edu/NormanKhalaf https://issuu.com/dr-norman-ali-khalaf/docs

================================ ‫ النشرة الفلسطينية لعلم األحياء‬: ‫الغزال‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Gazelle : Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin

================================ Monthly Bulletin – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022 Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine

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Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950) ّ ‫الفيل السوري أو الفيل اآلشوري (إلفاس ماكسيموس أسوروس) المنقرض‬ By : Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa

The so-called “Maraṣ Elephant”, discovered at Gavur Gölu, Turkey as exposed in the Natural History Museum (MTA) at Ankara, Turkey. © M. T. A. Natural History Museum, Ankara, Turkey; courtesy Ebru Albayrak. https://journals.openedition.org/syria/5002?lang=en Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Abstract The Syrian Elephant, Assyrian Elephant or Western Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950) is the westernmost population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), which became extinct in ancient times. Skeletal remains of E. m. asurus have been recorded from the Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, from periods dating between 3 million years BC and 100 years BC. Syrian elephants were the largest Asian elephant subspecies to have survived into historic times, measuring 3.5 metres or more at the shoulder; on par with the largest reported Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus), and about the size of an African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana). Skeletal remains show it did not differ much from the Indian subspecies, except its bigger size. Deforestation to produce charcoal for iron working, and the overhunting of Syrian elephants for royal hunts and ivory production ultimately resulted in their extinction by around 100 BC.

A partially reconstructed skull of the Syrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus) from Gavur Lake Swamp, southwest of Kahramanmaraş in Turkey, which is displayed at MTA Natural History Museum in Ankara, Turkey. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_elephant#/media/File:Gavur_Lake_Swamp_Elephant_ Skull.jpg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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‫ُملخص‬ ‫سوري والذي يُسمى أيضا بالفيل اآلشوري أو فيل غرب آسيا ال ُمنقرض أكثر مجموعات‬ ُ ‫يُعتبر الفيل ال‬ ‫ وقد تم العثور على بقايا من الهيكل العظمي للفيل‬. ‫الفيلة اآلسيوية بُعدا في غرب القارة اآلسيوية‬ ، ‫سوريا ولبنان وفلسطين‬ ُ ‫ إيران والعراق وتركيا و‬: ‫سوري من مناطق ُمختلفة من الشرق األوسط من‬ ُ ‫ال‬ ‫سورية أكبر‬ ُ ‫ لقد كانت األفيال ال‬. ‫ سنة قبل الميالد‬100 ‫ ماليين سنة و‬3 ‫من فترات تعود إلى ما بين‬ ‫ مترا أو أكثر عند الكتف‬3.5 ‫ حيث بلغ طولها‬، ‫سالالت األفيال اآلسيوية التي نجت في العصور التاريخية‬ ُ ‫ وقد يصل حجمها تقريبا إلى حجم فيل‬، ‫ وهي على قدم ال ُمساواة مع حجم أكبر األفيال الهندية ال ُمسجلة‬، ‫ بإستثناء‬، ‫ساللة الهندية‬ ُ ‫ وت ُظهر بقايا الهياكل العظمية أنها لم تختلف كثيرا عن ال‬. ‫األدغال األفريقي‬ ‫ وكذلك الصيد الملكي‬، ‫ وقد أدت إزالة الغابات من أجل إنتاج الفحم للصناعات الحديدية‬. ‫حجمها األكبر‬ ‫ كل ذلك أدى في النهاية إلى إنقراض هذه الفيلة في‬، ‫ وإنتاج المشغوالت العاجية‬، ‫الجائر للفيلة السورية‬ . ‫ قبل الميالد‬100 ‫حوالي العام‬

Size comparison between the Syrian Elephant and the Asian Elephant. https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/Syrian_elephant?file=Syrian_elephant_by_sameerprehist orica-d8pspr9.jpg

The Syrian Elephant, Assyrian Elephant, Mesopotamian Elephant, Iraqi Elephant or Western Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950) is the westernmost population of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), which became extinct in ancient times. Skeletal remains of E. m. asurus have been recorded from the Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine, from periods dating between 3 million years BC and 100 years BC (Alchetron, Dinopedia, Parody Wiki). Due to the lack of any Late Pleistocene or early to mid-Holocene record for Asian elephants in the region, it has been suggested to have been anthropogenically introduced during the Bronze Age, though this is disputed (Wikipedia). Early drawings of the animal and fragmentary skeletal remains indicate that it was the largest subspecies of the Asian elephant. The war elephants employed by the Greek King Pyrrhus in 255 BC and engraved upon Roman seals show animals of unusual size. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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“Surus,” which signified “the Syrian,” was the outstanding animal in the elephant battle squadron of the Carthaginian General Hannibal (Nabataea.net). The Syrian Elephants were used for transport and warfare; those pachyderms went extinct during 100 BC due to over-hunting for ivory (Elia, 2018). Ancient Syrian craftsmen used the tusks of E. m. asurus to make ivory carvings. In Syria, the production of ivory items was at its maximum during the first millennium BC, when the Arameans made splendid ivory inlay for furniture (Alchetron, Dinopedia, Wikipedia). Deforestation to produce charcoal for iron working, and the overhunting of Syrian elephants for royal hunts and ivory production ultimately resulted in their extinction by around 100 BC (Alchetron, Dinopedia).

The Carthaginian General Hannibal was one of many to use war elephants during the Punic Wars against the Romans (264-146 BC). Those pachyderms, which numbered to around 37, were mostly African – and to be precise, the now extinct North African elephants, which were actually smaller than their Syrian counterparts. Hannibal’s war elephant was a Syrian elephant called "Surus" (the Syrian). https://www.quora.com/Was-Hannibals-elephant-truly-fromSyria-or-was-it-a-nickname

Description Syrian elephants were the largest Asian elephant subspecies to have survived into historic times, measuring 3.5 metres (11 ft 6 in) or more at the shoulder; on par with the largest reported Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus), and about the size of an African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana) (Novum Terram). Skeletal remains show it did not differ much from the Indian subspecies, except its bigger size (Alchetron, Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Dinopedia, Parody Wiki, Wikipedia). A study of mitochondrial DNA from 3500 year old remains from Gavur Lake Swamp, southwest of Kahramanmaraş in Turkey, which represent an apparently wild population, found that they were within extant genetic variation and belonged to the β1 subclade of the major β clade of Asian Elephants, β1 being the predominant clade among Indian elephants. They carried an extremely rare mitochondrial haplotype only previously found in a single modern elephant in Thailand, the origin of the haplotype was placed between 3,700–58,700 years ago with a mean estimate of 23,500 years ago, suggesting that the population did not descend from Middle Pleistocene Elephas fossils known from the region and if it was natural it must have arrived in the region as an expansion from the core range of the Asian elephant during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. The data was inconclusive as to whether the population had a natural or anthropogenic origin (Wikipedia).

Silver Double Shekel, Spain, circa 230 BC. It was issued by the Barcas in Carthaginian Spain and was part of the Mogente Hoard found in Valencia. The head is thought to represent the Punic (Carthaginian) God Melqart, portrayed as resembling the Greek hero Herakles with a club over his shoulder. It may also resemble the current ruler – who would have been Hamilcar, Hannibal’s father. On the reverse is a very clear picture of a war elephant, as used by Hannibal in his great campaign against Rome. It is an African Elephant and the driver or mahout is shown with a pointed tool used for controlling the creature. This picture does not show any ‘tower’ or other structure on the back of the elephant. http://hannibal-barcacarthage.blogspot.com/2012/02/war-elephant.html

Behaviour and Natural History Asian elephants require wide areas for ranging and large amounts of protein-rich grass to survive. Although woodland areas, rather than marshland, are their preferred habitat (Miller, 1986), they can inhabit scrublands, grassy plains and wetlands adjacent to rivers, as long as sufficient fodder is available (Nowak, 1991). Thus, the ‘marginal areas’ at the edge of the gallery forest along the Orontes and Euphrates and the remaining plains could easily have supported elephant herds, particularly in the absence of Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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hunters or human competition for space. Fallow fields or pastures that became ‘no man's land’ as a result of warfare or political instability, might have been ideal areas in which elephant herds could have rapidly become established (Miller, 1986, DouglasHamilton and Douglas-Hamilton, 1975; Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). Like all Asian elephants, female Syrian elephants are social animals and live in herds lead by elderly females, while males are normally solitary animals other than during breeding seasons, when males experience musth, where males get extremely aggressive towards non-elephant animals. Unlike most other Asian elephant subspecies, Syrian elephants are very tolerant to arid climates and are able to go long without water for about a month, much like African elephants (Novum Terram).

Hannibal’s Syrian Elephant “Surus” (the Syrian). https://www.quora.com/Was-Hannibalselephant-truly-from-Syria-or-was-it-a-nickname

Distribution and Habitat In Western Asia, the Syrian elephants ranged from the mangrove forests and temperate grassland of southern Persia (Iran), Mesopotamia (Iraq) to southern Anatolia, the Syrian steppes, Lebanon and even extended to Palestine (Alchetron, Dinopedia, Wikipedia). The type locality (a place where a biological taxon was first described) of the Elephas Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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maximus asurus, i.e. the Assyrian elephant, was the Habbaniyah swamp west of Baghdad where the subspecies was first described by Deraniyagala in 1950 (Deraniyagala, 1950, 1955; Hatt, 1959), and was based on the discovery of a molar in the natural deposits of the swamp. Habbaniyah is located about 250 km distant from the region of Ana, where Assyrian kings reportedly hunted elephants in the 9th century BC (Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). Ancient accounts indicate that live elephants roamed and were hunted in the Orontes Valley, the Upper Euphrates Valley and the Middle Euphrates Valley around modern Ana in Iraq, at least between the end of the 16th and 9th centuries BC, possibly into the 8th century BC (Breasted, 1906–07; Scullard, 1974; Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016).

Israeli stamps issued on 28.08.2018: Archeozoology: An Elephant from Holon, south-east of Jaffa, Acheulean Stone-work & A Lioness from Jaffa, Late Bronze Age. https://www.wopaplus.com/en/stamps/product/&pid=47980#

Controversy No remains of Elephas are known from the Middle East after 200,000 years ago until 3,500 years ago. This long hiatus makes some scholars suspect that the Asian Elephants were artificial introductions to the Middle East, possibly from India, though this is difficult to prove. The extinction date is suggested to be around 700 BC, based on osteoarchaeological and historical evidence. This was possibly due to climactic shifts and changing land use during the early Iron Age (Wikipedia). Syrian elephants were killed in high numbers. For example, Ashur-nasir-pal II boasted of killing elephants, along with wild oxen and lions (Elia, 2018; Wikipedia).

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An Israeli stamp issued on 28.08.2018: Archeozoology: An Elephant from Holon, south-east of Jaffa, Acheulean Stone-work. The median Acheulean period belongs geologically to the Pleistocene epoch. The excavations were carried out by Dr. Tamar Noy in 1960. The elephant remains date from the late Lower Paleolithic period – the early Stone Age (1,000,000 – 120,000 years ago). The site is located on the third eolianite ridge east of the sea. The elephant tusk relic is on display in the pre-historic exhibit at the Israel Museum, alongside elephant bones from Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge), northern Jordan Valley, Palestine. https://www.wopa-plus.com/en/stamps/product/&pid=47972#

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Map of elephant finds in Southwest Asia. Empty box = archaeological, no postcranial remains; Box with dot = archaeological, postcranial remains; Empty circle = natural, no postcranial remains; Circle with dot = natural, postcranial remains. (Map by Frits Steenhuisen, Groningen Institute of Archaeology, and Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00758914.2016.1198068

Records indicate that in Venatio games sponsored by Caesar Augustus (63 BC–14 AD), games involving the hunting and killing of wild animals in Roman amphitheaters, 3,500 elephants were killed (Bob, 2016; Khalaf, 2022a). Furthermore, accounts of hunting elephants in Syria in huge quantities, as well as lists of tribute of live elephants being brought from there to both Assyrian and Egyptian rulers during the Late Bronze Age, and to Neo-Assyrians in the Iron Age, show that herds of Syrian elephants existed and were a political symbol that helped consolidate ruling power at home and negotiate power in the international arena (Caubet and Poplin, 2010; Pfälzner, 2013; Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). Additionally, depictions as well as texts give us a final date for the occurrence of elephants in Syria. Although accounts of live elephants decrease toward the end of the 9th century BC, mentions of hides and ivory from Syria as items of exchange and/or tribute continue into the 8th century BC (Collon, 1977; Mallowan, 1966; Scullard, 1974). After the 7th century however, no mention of live elephants in Syria is known until the late 4th century BC (Strabo, 1917; Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). Woody vegetation allowed the Syrian elephant to thrive in Southwest Asia. Once the landscape was more densely settled again, around the 8th century BC, forests were felled to produce charcoal for iron working and the resulting deforestation caused Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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elephant herds to die off (Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016). Furthermore, the overhunting of Syrian elephants for royal hunts and ivory production ultimately resulted in their extinction by around 100 BC (Alchetron; Dinopedia; Çakırlar and Ikram, 2016).

Location map of Proboscidean findings of Early Middle Pleistocene (Acheulian) sites from the southern Levant. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271881309_Elephants_at_the_Middle_Pleistocene_ Acheulian_open-air_site_of_Revadim_Quarry_Israel

Syrian elephants are frequently mentioned in Hellenistic history; the Seleucid kings, who maintained numerous war elephants, reigned in Syria during that period. These elephants are believed to be Indian elephants (E. m. indicus), which had been acquired by the Seleucid kings during their eastern expansions. Or they are believed to be population of Indian elephants in Middle East. It is attested by ancient sources such as the Greek historians Strabo and Polybius that Seleucid kings Seleucus I Nicator and Antiochus III the Great had large numbers of imported Indian elephants. Whether these Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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"Indian elephants" were imported due to scarcity of native Syrian elephants or due to their accomplished training and domestication as war elephants remains unclear (Alchetron, Dinopedia, Wikipedia). The Carthaginian General Hannibal had a war elephant known as "Surus"; it has been suggested to mean "the Syrian". It was said by the Roman senator and historian Cato to have been his best (and biggest) elephant. In that case, the elephant may have been of Seleucid stock. If it were in fact of native Syrian stock, or an imported Indian elephant, remains subject to speculation (Alchetron, Dinopedia, Wikipedia). Elephants were considered the tanks of the time, they were the "ace in the hole," able to trample the enemy and sow terror with their massive size (WildFact). Persian War elephants were used in Iranian military history, most notably in Achaemenid, Seleucid and Sasanian periods. The elephants were Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and were recruited from southern provinces of Iran, and Pakistan but also possibly Syrian or Western Asiatic elephants (Elephas maximus asurus) from Syria and western-most Iran (Wikipedia). The usual Carthaginian war elephants, despite popular depictions, were the smaller Carthaginian or North African Elephants (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis), an African bush elephant subspecies also now extinct (Alchetron, Dinopedia; Khalaf, 2022a).

Range of the Syrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_elephant#/media/File:Elephas_maximus_asurus.png

Proboscideans in the Levant Proboscidean species occur in the southern Levant from the Miocene until the Middle Pleistocene (Tchernov and Shoshani,1996; Horowitz, 2002). In terms of hominin culture, the proboscideans encompass the Lower Paleolithic (ca. 1.5 Ma - 350 ka). This situation is very different from that in Eurasia where they continue to appear in the Paleolithic archaeological record until much later (MIS 3 and perhaps beyond). In the southern Levant, proboscideans do not dominate the faunal record in any of the known sites; not a single complete carcass was uncovered and until recently there had been no evidence Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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of usage of proboscidean teeth, tusk or bone as raw material (Stekelis, 1960, 1967; Rabinovich et al. 2012). Several species have been identified in the Levant. Mammuthus meridionalis from ’Ubeidiya, south of Lake Tiberias, Jordan Rift Valley, Palestine (Beden, 1986); Mammuthus trogontherii or M. trogontherii-like from Latamne, Orontes Valley, northwest Syria (Hooijer, 1961; Lister, 2004); Palaeoloxodon antiquus from Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Gesher Benot Ya’aqov), northern Jordan Valley, Palestine (Goren-Inbar et al., 1994; Shoshani et al., 2001; Rabinovich and Biton, 2011), and from Ein Abu Zeid and Shuweika (Revadim), east of Ashdod, Central Coastal Plain, Palestine (Marder et al., 1999; Rabinovich et al.,2005, 2012), and from El-Qarya El-‘Arabiya and Wadi en Nada (Holon), south-east of Jaffa, Central Coastal Plain, Palestine (Davies and Lister, 2007); Stegodon cf. trigonocephalus from Latamne, Orontes Valley, north-west Syria (Guérin et al., 1993); Stegodon sp. from Evron Quarry, Western Galilee, Palestine (Tchernov et al., 1994), and from Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge), northern Jordan Valley, Palestine (Hooijer, 1960); Elephas hysudricus from Evron Quarry, Western Galilee, Palestine (Lister et al., 2013); Elephas sp. From Evron Quarry, Western Galilee, Palestine (Tchernov et al., 1994), and from Oumm Zinat (Evron Quarry), Western Galilee, Palestine (Horwitz and Tchernov, 1989), and from Tabun E/F, Western Galilee, Palestine (Bate, 1937). Stegodon species are contemporaneous with Mammuthus, Elephas and Palaeoloxodon. Stegodon, Mammuthus and Elephas are represented in the abovementioned sites only by teeth (Rabinovich et al., 2012). Only tusks from Unidentified species from Nahr el-Barideh or Wadi Musrara (Nahal Ayalon), Central Coastal Plain, Palestine (Bruins, 1976); and only tusks from Nahabir (Be’eri), near the border with the Gaza Strip, southern Coastal Plain, Palestine (Bruins, 1976; Rabinovich et. al. 2012).

A Roman Syria mosaic showing a Syrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus) fighting with a Caspian Tiger (Panthera tigris virgata). https://www.quora.com/Was-Hannibals-elephant-trulyfrom-Syria-or-was-it-a-nickname & https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspian_tiger#/media/File:Elephant_Attacking_a_Feline.jpg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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The co-occurrence of two genera on several sites is worth noting. Stegodon species are contemporaneous with Mammuthus at the site of ’Ubeidiya, with Elephas at the site of Evron Quarry, and with Palaeoloxodon at the site of Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge). Paleoecological models of dispersal were applied to explain the distribution of Mammuthus and Palaeoloxodon (Lister, 2004), pointing towards a late entrance of Palaeoloxodon antiquus when the Mammuthus trogontherii was firmly established (Rabinovich et. al. 2012). Remains of P. antiquus, the straight-tusked elephant, are the most numerous and varied in the region, and were found in two Acheulian open-air sites besides Ein Abu Zeid and Shuweika (Revadim): at Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge) (Rabinovich and Biton, 2011; Rabinovich et al., 2012), and at El-Qarya El-‘Arabiya and Wadi en Nada (Holon) (Davies and Lister, 2007). As previously mentioned, there is no evidence of proboscideans in any clear Acheulo-Yabrudian context or in any early Middle Paleolithic one in the southern Levant (Rabinovich et. al. 2012).

Columns using Nabataean elephant heads to decorate the capitals. Each capital was decorated with four elephant heads. Several of these massive column capitals are located in the museum in the center of Petra, Jordan. https://nabataea.net/explore/history/the-elephant-and-thenabataeans/#images-1

The Mesopotamian Elephant “Abul-Abbas” “Abul-Abbas” was an Asian elephant (possibly albino – literally a white elephant) brought back to Carolingian emperor Charlemagne by his diplomat Isaac the Jew. The gift was from the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid and symbolizes the beginning of Abbasid–Carolingian relations. The elephant's name and events from his life are recorded in the Carolingian Annales regni Francorum, and he is mentioned in Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni. However, no references to the gift or to interactions with Charlemagne have been found in Abbasid records (Wikipedia). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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The Mesopotamian Elephant “Abul-Abbas”, which was a gift from the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid to the Carolingian Emperor Charlemagne in 802 AD. http://wunderkammertales.blogspot.com/2015/02/an-emperor-and-his-elephantcharlemagne.html

It was a long journey for “Abul-Abbas” from Baghdad, to the Egyptian coast into Ifriqiya (modern Algeria and Tunisia). Possibly with the help of the Emir of the Aghlabids in Ifriqiya Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab, Isaac set sail with “Abul-Abbas” from the city of Kairouan and traveled the remaining miles to Europe via the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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They landed in Genoa in October 801. The two spent the winter in Vercelli, and in the spring they started the march over the Alps to the Emperor's residence in Aachen, arriving on 1 July, 802. “Abul-Abbas” was exhibited on various occasions when the court was assembled, and was eventually housed in Augsburg in what is now southern Bavaria (Wikipedia). In the year 810, Charlemagne left his palace and mounted a campaign intending to engage with King Godofrid of Denmark and his fleet that invaded and plundered Friesland. Charlemagne had crossed the Rhine River and tarried at a place called "Lippeham" (Wesel) awaiting troops for three days, when his elephant suddenly died. On the tacit assumption that the “Abul-Abbas” was with Charlemagne when he died, some modern commentators venture that the beast had been brought to serve as a war elephant (Wikipedia). A colossal bone unearthed from the area, in the possession of the Niederrheinmuseum Wesel (Preußen-Museum Wesel), was plausibly a part of the remains of the elephant “Abul-Abbas”. Another gigantic bone was found in the Lippe River among a catch of fish in the Herrschaft of Gartrop in early 1750, and it too was claimed to be a piece of “Abul-Abbas” (Wikipedia).

The War Elephants at the battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. https://novoscriptorium.com/2020/03/11/antiochus-iii-the-great-vs-ptolemy-iv-philopatorthe-struggle-for-coele-syria-the-battle-of-raphia-217-b-c/ & https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10158545501349831&set=pcb.10158545502569831 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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The author Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf beside his wife Ola Khalaf and daughter Nora Khalaf, posing with an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) at the Global Village in Dubai ... 03.03.2016. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10153901169419831 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Elephant humerus and pelvis fragment during excavation at Qaṭna (Tell Al-Mishrifeh), Homs Governorate, Syria. © Qaṭna Project, University of Tübingen. https://journals.openedition.org/syria/5002?lang=en Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Brandt, A. L., Ishida, Y, Georgiadis, N. J. and Roca, A. L. (2012). Forest elephant mitochondrial genomes reveal that elephantid diversification in Africa tracked climate transitions. Molecular Ecology, 21(5): 1175–1189. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05461.x Breasted, J. H. (1906–07). Ancient Records of Egypt. Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Brentjes, B. (1961). Der Elefant im Alten Orient. Klio-Beiträge zur Alten Geschichte 39: 8–30. Bruins, H.J. (1976). The Origin, Nature and Stratigraphy of Paleosols in the Loessial Deposits of the NW-Negev (Netivot, Israel). Unpublished M.A. Dissertation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. Buitenhuis, H. (1988). Archeozoölogisch Onderzoek langs de Midden-Eufraat: Onderzoek van het Faunamateriaal uit zes Nederzettingen in Zuidoost-Turkuije en Noord-Syrië daterend van ca. 10.000 BP tot 1400 AD. PhD. Groningen University. Çakirlar, C., Gourichon, L., Birch, S. P., Berthon, R., Akar, M., and Yener, K. A. (2014). Provisioning an urban centre under foreign occupation: zooarchaeological insights into the Hittite presence in late fourteenth-century BCE Alalakh. Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 2(4): 259–76. doi: 10.5325/jeasmedarcherstu.2.4.0259. Çakırlar, Canan; Ikram, Salima (2016-05-03). When elephants battle, the grass suffers.' Power, ivory and the Syrian elephant. Levant. 48 (2): 167–183. doi:10.1080/00758914.2016.1198068. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00758914.2016.1198068 Caubet, A. (2013). Working ivory in Syria and Anatolia during the Late Bronze–Iron Age. In, Yener, A. (ed.), Across the Border: Late Bronze–Iron Age Relations between Syria and Anatolia. Proceedings of a Symposium held at the Research Center of Anatolian Studies, Koç University, Istanbul. May 31–June 1, 2010: 449–63. Ancient Near Eastern Studies Supplement 42. Leuven: Peeters. Caubet, A. and Poplin, F. (2010). Réflexions sur la question de l’éléphant syrien. In, Kühne, H. (ed.), Dur-Katlimmu 2008 and Beyond: 1–10. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Charles, Michael B. (2016). Elephant Size in Antiquity: DNA Evidence and the Battle of Raphia. Historia 65(1): 53-65. Choi, Charles Q. (February 22, 2012). Fossil Footprints Reveal Oldest Elephant Herd. https://www.livescience.com/18581-fossil-footprints-oldest-elephant-herd.html Choudhury, A.; Lahiri Choudhury, D.K.; Desai, A.; Duckworth, J.W.; Easa, P.S.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Fernando, P.; Hedges, S.; Gunawardena, M.; Kurt, F.; Karanth, U, Lister, A, Menon, V, Riddle, H, Rübel, A and Wikramanayake, E. (2008). Elephas maximus, Asian Elephant. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T7140A12828813. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T7140A12828813.en Christiansen, P. (2004). Body size in proboscideans, with notes on elephant metabolism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140, 523-549. Clark, J.D. (1977). Bone tools on the Earlier Pleistocene. In: Arensburg, B., Bar-Yosef, O. (Eds.), 1977. Moshe Stekelis, Memorial Volume, Eretz-Israel, vol 13, pp. 23-37. Clark, J.D., Haynes Jr., V.C. (1970). An elephant butchery site at Mwanganda’s Village, Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Elephant scapula during excavation at Qaṭna (Tell Al-Mishrifeh), Homs Governorate, Syria. © Qatna Project, University of Tübingen. https://journals.openedition.org/syria/5002?lang=en Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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December 17, 1995, p. 57. Elia, Serge (19.02.2018). Was Hannibal's elephant truly from Syria or was it a nickname? Quora. https://www.quora.com/Was-Hannibals-elephant-truly-from-Syria-or-was-ita-nickname Feldman, M. H. (2014). Communities of Style: Portable Luxury Arts, Identity and Collective Memory in the Iron Age Levant. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ferguson, Walter W. (2002). The Mammals of Israel. Written and Illustrated by: Walter W. Ferguson, and Edited by: Susan Menache. Gefen Publishing House, Jerusalem and New York. pps 160. Fernando, P, Pfrender, M, Encalada, S and Lande, R (2000). Mitochondrial DNA variation, phylogeography and population structure of the Asian elephant. Heredity, 84: 362–372. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2540.2000.00674.x Fernando, P, Vidya, T N C, Payne, J, Stuewe, M, Davison, G, Alfred, R J, Andau, P, Bosi, E, Kilbourn, A and Melnick, D J (2003). DNA Analysis Indicates That Asian Elephants Are Native to Borneo and Are Therefore a High Priority for Conservation. PLOS Biology, 1(1): e6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0000006

Elephant tusks found at Tell Açana (Tell Atchana) / Alalakh, the late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province (from Woolley, 1955). https://journals.openedition.org/syria/5002?lang=en Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Ferretti, Marco P.; Lorenzo Rook and Danilo Torre (2003). Stegotetrabelodon (Proboscidea, Elephantidae) from the Late Miocene of Southern Italy. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology 23(3): 659-666. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1671/2353?journalCode=vrpa Ferretti, M.P., D. Torre and L. Rook (2001). The Stegotetrabelodon remains from Cessaniti (Calabria, Southern Italy) and their bearing on Late Miocene biogeography of the genus. In: The World of Elephants – First International Congress. Rome. pp.633-636. Finné, M, Holmgren, K, Sundqvist, H S, Weiberg, E and Lindblom, M (2011). Climate in the eastern Mediterranean, and adjacent regions, during the past 6000 years – A review. Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(12): 3153–3173. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.05.007 Fischer, E. (2007). Ägyptische und ägyptisierende Elfenbeine aus Megiddo und Lachisch : Inschriftenfunde, Flaschen, Löffel. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag. Fossil Elephants. www.adiasuae.com/fossils/Con1995/Summary.html#anchor911767 Fossils of elephants that lived 8 million years ago found in Western Abu Dhabi. posted on 29/03/2006. nwww.uaeinteract.com/docs/Fossils_of_elephants_that_lived_8_million_years_ago_fo und_in_Western_Abu_Dhabi/20256.htm Francis, G. D. and Vickers, M. (1983). Ivory tusks from Al Mina. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 2: 249–51. Fritz, Jean-Paul (31 July 2018). Hannibal et ses éléphants n'ont pas encore livré tous leurs secrets (in French). L'Obs. Garrard, A., Conolly, J., Moloney, N. and Wright, K. (1996). The early prehistory of the Sakçagözü region, North Levantine Rift Valley: report on 1995 survey season. Anatolian Studies. 46: 53–81. doi: 10.2307/3642999 Gaziry, A. W. (1987). Remains of Proboscidea from the Early Pliocene of Sahabi, Libya; pp. 183–203 in N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz (eds.), Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi. A. R. Liss, New York. Gaziry, A. W. (1997). Die Mastodonten (Proboscidea, Mammalia) aus Dorn-Dürkheim 1 (Rheinhessen). Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 197:73–115. Geraads, D. (1989). Vertebres fossiles du Miocène supérior du Djebel Krechem El Artsouma (Tunisie centrale). Géobios 22:777–801. Ghose, Tia (21.01.2014). Elephant Mystery at Ancient Syrian Battle Solved. LiveScience. https://www.livescience.com/42672-elephant-mystery-solved-at-ancient-syrianbattle.html Giant elephant tusk found in desert: find thought to be eight million years old. (1 6 . 0 1 . 2 0 03). www.skullsite.co.uk/prints/palaeontological/stegotet/stegotet.htm Girdland-Flink, Linus; Albayrak, Ebru; Lister, Adrian M. (2018). Genetic Insight into an Extinct Population of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in the Near East. Open Quaternary. https://www.openquaternary.com/articles/10.5334/oq.36/?fbclid=IwAR3zuO3SAZZ S08o3cU1iWKMWrwn68--_Ted0hClyfSZJuv_c0ME93tkurF4 Göhlich, U. B. (1999). Order Proboscidea. pp. 157–168 in G. Rössner and K. Heissig (eds.), The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. Verlag F. Pfeil, München. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Göhlich, U. B. (2000). On a pelvis of the straight-tusked elephant Elephas antiquus (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from Binsfeld near Speyer (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 74 (1/2), 205-214. Goren-Inbar, N., Lister, A., Werker, E., Chech, M. (1994). A butchered elephant skull and associated artifacts from the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov, Israel. Paléorient 20, 99-112. https://www.persee.fr/doc/paleo_01539345_1994_num_20_1_4604?fbclid=IwAR3FYOIlnAy7ca5TSyO4IhCmHcEEtD07v27bp7mJ48XzB20V3eynC0rNcc Gray, J. E. (1821). On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Repository 15:88296–310. Gowers, William (1948). African Elephants and Ancient Authors. African Affairs. 47 (188): 173–180. Gündem, C. (2010). Animal based subsistence economy of Emar during the Bronze Age. In, Finkbeiner, U. and Sakal, F. (eds), Emar after the Closure of the Tabqa Dam. The Syrian-German Excavations 1996–2002. Volume I: Late Roman and Medieval cemeteries and environmental studies: 125–76. Subartu XXV. Brepols: Turnhout. Gündem, C. and Uerpmann, H.-P. (2003). Erste beobachtungen an den tierknochenfunden aus Emar (Syrien) — Grabungen bis 2002. Baghdader Mitteilungen 34: 119–28. Guérin, C.; Eisenmann, V.; Faure, M. (1993). Les grands mammifères du gisement Pléistocène Moyen de Latamné (Valle de l’Oronte, Syrie). In: Sanlaville, P., Bensacon, J., Copeland, L., Muhesen, S. (Eds.), Le Paléolithic de la Valée Moyennede l’Oronte (Syrie). British Archaeological Series Reports. International Series, Oxford, pp. 169-178. Guldemond, R. and Aaarde, R. (2008). A meta-analysis of the impact of African elephants on savanna vegetation. Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(4): 892–99. doi: 10.2193/2007-072 Gulf News (23.02.2012). When Mammoth elephants walked freely in Abu Dhabi. www. Gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/general/when-mammoth-elephants-walked-freely-inabu-dhabi Gvirtzman, G., Wieder, M., Marder, O., Khalaily, H., Rabinovich, R., Ron, H. (1999). Geological and pedological aspects of an Early Paleolithic site: Revadim, central coastal plain, Israel. Geoarchaeology 14, 101-127. Hafeez, Abdul; Izhar Hafeez and Mark Beech (2005). Constructing the scale model of Stegotetrabelodon syrticus. in: Edited by Mark Beech and Peter Hellyer. Abu Dhabi – 8 Million Years Ago: Late Miocene Fossils from the Western Region. www.markbeech.com/pdf/Beech-and-Hellyer-2005-Abu-Dhabi-8mya.pdf Harrison, David L. (1981). Mammals of the Arabian Gulf. George Allen & Unwin, London. pps. 92. Harrison, David L. and Bates, P.J. (1991). The Mammals of Arabia. Second edition. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, Kent. xvi + 354. Harrison, T. P. (2009). Lifting the veil on a ‘dark age’: Ta'yinat and the North Orontes Valley during the Early Iron Age. In, Schloen, J. D. (ed.), Exploring the Longue Durée: Essays in Honor of Lawrence E. Stager: 171–84. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. Hatough-Bouran, A. and A.M. Disi (1991). History, Distribution, and Conservation of Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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large Mammals and their habitats in Jordan. Environ. Conserv., 18: 19-44. Hatt, R. T. (1959). The Mammals of Iraq. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 106. Ann Harbor: Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. Haynes, G. (2001). Elephant landscapes: human foragers in the world of mammoths, mastodonts, and elephants. In: Cavarretta, G., Gioia, P., Mussi, M., Palombo, M.R. (Eds.), The World of Elephants - Proceedings of the 1st International Congress. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome, pp. 571-576. Higgs, Will (16.01.20 03). Giant elephant tusk found in desert: find thought to be eight million years old. Quelle: alphagalileo. www.innovationsreport.de/html/berichte/geowissenschaften/bericht-15811.html Higgs, Will (2005). The Fossil Trackway at Mleisa. in: Edited by Mark Beech and Peter Hellyer. Abu Dhabi – 8 Million Years Ago: Late Miocene Fossils from the Western Region. www.markbeech.com/pdf/Beech-and-Hellyer-2005-Abu-Dhabi-8mya.pdf Higgs, W.; A. Gardner and M. Beech (2005). A Fossil Proboscidean Trackway at Mleisa, Western Region of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In: P. Hellyer and M. Ziolkowski (eds.), Emirates Heritage Vol. 1 - Proceedings of the 1st Annual Symposium on Recent Palaeontological and Archaeological Discoveries in the Emirates, Al Ain. Zayed Centre for Heritage and History, Al Ain. pp.21-27. ISBN 9948-06-130-6. Higgs, W.; A. Kirkham, G. Evans and D. Hull (2003). A Late Miocene Proboscidean Trackway from Mleisa, Western Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Tribulus (Journal of the Emirates Natural History Group) 13.2: 3-8. www.adiasuae.com/publications/higgsetal03.pdf Hildebrandt, T. B., Göritz, F., Hermes, R., Reid, C., Dehnhard, M. and Brown, J. L. (2006). Aspects of the reproductive biology and breeding management of Asian and African elephants Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana. International Zoo Yearbook 40(1): 20–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2006.00020.x. Hoare, R. E. and Du Toit, J. (1999). Coexistence between people and elephants in African savannas. Conservation Biology. 13(3): 633–39. doi: 10.1046/j.15231739.1999.98035.x Hooijer, D.A. (1960). A Stegodon from Israel. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel G8, 104-107. Hooijer, D.A. (1961). Middle Pleistocene mammal from Latamne, Orontes Valley, Syria. Annals of the Archaeology of Syrie 11, 117e132. Hooijer, D. A. (1978). The Indian elephant at Bronze Age Ras Shamra-Ugarit. In, Schaeffer, C. (ed.), Ugaritica VII: 187–89. Leiden: Brill. Hopwood, A. T. (1935). Fossil Proboscidea from China. Paleontologia Sinica, series C 9:31–108. Horowitz, A. (2002). Elephant, horses, humans, and others; paleoenvironments of the Levantine land bridge. Israel Journal of Earth-Sciences 51 (3-4), 203-209. Horwitz, L.K., Tchernov, E., (1989). The Late Acheulian Fauna from Oumm Zinat. Mitekufat Haeven. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 22, 7-14. Illiger, C. (1811). Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium. vol. 8, Berolini, 301 pp. Islamic Cultural Centre of Russia (13.01.2013). MAMMAL'S SKULL, TEL RAFAH: This Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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skull of a large mammal was unearthed by archaeologists in Tel Rafah. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/IslamiCCR/photos/a.296359617134091/296359817134071 /?type=3 Kalb, E. J. and A. Mebrate (1993). Fossil elephantoids from the hominid-bearing Awash Group, Middle Awash Valley, Afar Depression, Ethiopia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 83:11–114. Kalb, E. J. and A. Mebrate (1994). Interrelationships of Late Neogene Elephantoids: New evidence from the middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia. Géobios 28:727–736. Kaniewski, D., Paulissen, E., Van Campo, E., Weiss, H., Otto, T., Bretschneider, J., and Van Lerberghe, K. (2010). Late second–early first millennium BC abrupt climate changes in coastal Syria and their possible significance for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Research 74(2): 207–15. doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2010.07.010 Kaniewski, D., Van Campo, E., Guiot, J., Le Burel, S., Otto, T. and Baeteman, C. (2013). Environmental roots of the Late Bronze Age crisis. Plos One 8(8): e71004. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071004 Kantor, H. J. (1956). Syro-Palestinian ivories. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 15: 153– 174. doi: 10.1086/371332 Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1982). A’maar Al-Haywanat (Animal Ages). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/& eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59405994/book-gazelle-thepalestinian-biological-bulletin-a-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europebetween-1983-2004-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2004 Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Mammals in Dubai Zoo, Dubai City, United Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Volume 23, Number 45, September 2005, Sha’ban 1426. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39.in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. CoAuthor: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext

The author, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa, posing infront of a 15,000 year-old Siberian Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) fossil, standing tall at four metres and weighing one tonne, which was discovered in the late 1990’s on the banks of the Irtysh River in Siberia, and is considered one of the largest and most complete fossils to have ever been discovered. The behaviour of these legendary creatures, which mainly resided in Asia, Europe and North Africa, resembled that of modern elephants. Despite their large size – a fully grown Mammoth can weigh between up to eight tonnes, equivalent to the weight of a double-decker bus – they are known to be gentle creatures that mostly enjoyed grazing on fresh grass. Their coats varied in colour between light and dark and were covered in fur, with an outer covering of long hairs and a shorter undercoat. They had short ears and tails to minimize frostbite. Little is known about the species’ extinction, but it is thought to have likely been due to climate change, human hunting or a combination of the two. This Siberian Woolly Mammoth fossil is displayed at Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi, UAE. https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10154799847514831&set=pcb.10154799849319831

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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://web.archive.org/web/20080315233525/http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/M ammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) & http://web.archive.org/web/20090403201333/http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/M ammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. In: Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2006. pp. 239-285. Self-Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mjzf_I_b8wTX_BHd1RsuU4ykhJlIKW2/view?usp=sharing Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli (July) 2007, 300 pp. SelfPublisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). Doctoral Dissertation. Ashwood University, USA. Doctor of Science Degree in Zoology (Summa Cumm Laude) on 26.09.2007. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm & Doctoral Dissertation eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59397999/doctorate-dissertationfelidae-arabica-by-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-doctor-of-science-ashwood-universityusa-2007 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, September 2007, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7 %D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/59498633/fauna-palaestina-1-bookby-dr-norman-ali-khalaf-2009 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). † Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010: A New Fossil Four-Tusked Elephant Subspecies from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 28, Number 98, February 2010, Safar 1431 AH. pp. 1-60. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://issuu.com/drnormanalibassamkhalaf/docs/stegotetrabelodon_syrticus_emiratus_khalaf_2010__a & https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342865142_Stegotetrabelodon_syrticus_em iratus_Khalaf_2010_A_New_Fossil_FourTusked_Elephant_subspecies_from_the_Emirate_of_Abu_Dhabi_United_Arab_Emirate s_stjwttrablwdwn_syrtykws_amyratws_khlf_2010_ahafyr_lnuy_j Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/59546804/fauna-emiratuspart-1-zoological-studies-in-the-united-arab-emirates-between-2004-2009-by-drnorman-ali-bassam-khalaf-von-jaffa-2010 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011). Taxon Profile: Subspecies: Arabian Four-Tusked Elephant Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. The Biological Library (BioLib.cz). https://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id890499/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011). Profil Taxonu (Taxon Profile in Czech): Poddruh (Subspecies): Arabian Four-Tusked Elephant Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. The Biological Library (BioLib.cz). https://www.biolib.cz/cz/taxon/id890499/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012/ Fauna Palaestina – Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition: July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 Seiten/Pages (English/German Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/62740914/fauna-palaestina-part-3year-2013-by-dr-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-von-jaffa-isbn-978-9950-383-35-7 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016/ Fauna Palaestina – Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ & eBook (Google Drive): https://drive.google.com/file/d/1C9Vo6oBn4AAYB7XnpeIGgEXgOBZFzar6/view?us p=sharing Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) ‫ حيوانات فلسطين‬. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 34, Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (02.01.2017). Studying the Siberian Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Skeleton of Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10154799849319831 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (28.04.2017). Woolly Mammoth Skeleton of Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi 24.04.2017. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7BSJQgjmUM Khalaf, Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad (Abu Nora) (2018). The Family of Sharif Hajji Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf (Abu Othman). A Pictorial History Book of a Palestinian Family from Jaffa in the Twentieth Century. ISBN 978-9950-974-40-1. First Edition, October 2018, Safar 1440 Hijri. 120 pp. In Arabic. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Norman Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. https://family-taherkhalaf.webs.com/ & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/62242473/book-family-taher-khalaf2018 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2020). Khalaf, Norman A. B. 2010. Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010: A New Fossil Four-Tusked Elephant Subspecies from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. References. ZooBank. http://zoobank.org/References/e6448dde-a699-4dd3-9073-7020dbd0074b Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2020). Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. Nomenclatural Acts. ZooBank. http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/720d89c9-3228-40e0-8670-c3af66d00a3f Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (17.08.2020). Photo: Visiting Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi and seeing the Siberian Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Skeleton. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10158491026889831 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (03.09.2020). Photo: A Lower jaw with several teeth Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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belonging to the extinct Carthaginian Elephant or North African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) was excavated from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, Palestine. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10158533830089831&set=p.101585338300 89831&type=3 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (08.09.2020). A Lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct War Elephant, the Carthaginian Elephant or North African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) was excavated from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, Palestine. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10158545502569831 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (22.09.2020). The Extinct Syrian Elephant, Assyrian Elephant or Western Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950). Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10158578313039831 Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad (2022a). A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 40, Number 209, May 2022. pp. 1-30. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://elephants-1.webs.com/warelephant-rafah & https://issuu.com/dr-norman-ali-khalaf/docs/rafah_elephant_gaza Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad (2022b). The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 40, Number 210, June 2022. pp. 1-49. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://elephants-1.webs.com/syrianelephant & https://issuu.com/dr-norman-ali-khalaf/docs/syrian_elephant Klähn, H. (1922). Die badischen Mastodonten und ihre süddeutchen Verwandten. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 134 pp. Klähn, H. (1931). Rheinhessischen Pliozän besonders Unter Pliozän in Rahmen des Mitteleuropäischen Pliozän. Gelogische und Paläontologische Abhandlungen 18:279– 340. Kotsakis, T., G. Barisone, and L. Rook (1997). Mammalian biochronology in an insular domain: the Italian Tertiary faunas. Mémoires et Traveaux de l’ Institut de Montpellier de l’École Pratique des Hautes Études 21:431–441. Kroll, W., 1991. Der Waldelefant von Crumstadt. Ein Beitrag zur Osteologie des Waldelefanten, Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus Falconer and Cautley (1847). Ph.D thesis, Tierärztliche Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München. Krzyszkowska, O. H. (1988). Ivory in the Aegean Bronze Age: elephant tusk or hippopotamus ivory? The Annual of the British School at Athens. 83: 209–34. doi: Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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10.1017/S0068245400020736. Kürschner, H. (2008). Hölzer und holzkohlen der grabung Tall Seh Hamad und ihre bedeutung für die rekonstruktion der umweltbedingungen in Nordost-Syrien. In, Kühne, H. (ed.), Umwelt und Subsitenz der Assyrischen Stadt Dur-Katlimmu am Unteren Habur BATSH 8: 149–54. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.

Elephant skull (1. Top view, 2. Ventral view) from the Acheulian site of Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Gesher Benot Ya’aqov), northern Jordan Valley, Palestine (GorenInbar, Lister, Werker, and Chech, 1994). https://www.persee.fr/doc/paleo_01539345_1994_num_20_1_4604?fbclid=IwAR3FYOIlnAy7ca5TSyO4IhCmHcEEtD07v27bp7mJ48XzB20V3eynC0rNcc

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An Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus) at the Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Berlin Zoological Garden), Berlin, Germany. Foto: Ola Mostafa Khalaf, 14. July 2011. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/25290300 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Biological Sciences, 276(1658): 893–902. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1494 Vila, E. (2014). The ‘Syrian Elephant’ revisited — preliminary analysis of the elephant bones at Michrife/Qatna in Late Bronze Age Syria. In, Pfälzner, P. (ed.), Qatna and the Networks of Bronze Age Globalism. Qatna Studien 2: 37–46. Stuttgart: Harrasowitz Verlag. Vine, P.J. and I. Al Abed (eds.) (1996). Natural Emirates – Wildlife and Environment of the United Arab Emirates. Trident Press, London. ISBN: 1-900724-02-2. (especially Chapter 3, “The Fossil Record” by P.J. Whybrow, A. Smith and A. Hill, pages 42-50). Vogler, U. (1997). Faunenhistorische Untersuchungen am Sirkeli Höyük, Adana, Turkei. PhD. Ludwig-Maximilians-Üniversität, München. von den Driesch, A. (1996). Faunenhistorische untersuchungen am prähistorischen tierknochenmaterial vom Sirkeli Höyük, Adana-Türkei. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 46: 27– 39. Weiner, S., Bar-Yosef, O. (1990). States of preservation of bones from prehistoric sites in the Near East: a survey. Journal of Archeological Science 17, 187-196. Weissengruber, G.E., Egger, G.F., Hutchinson, J.R., Groenewald, H.B., Elsässer, L., Famini, D., Forstenpointner, G. (2006). The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Anatomy 209, 781-792. Wenban-Smith, F.F., Allen, P., Bates, M.R., Parfitt, S.A., Preece, R.C., Steward, J.R., Turner, C., Whitaker, J.E. (2006). The Clactonian elephant butchery site at Southfleet Road, Ebbsfleet, UK. Journal of Quaternary Science 21 (5), 471-483. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.28-38. Whybrow, P. and D. Clements. (1999). Arabian Tertiary Fauna, Flora and Localities. Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Chapter 33 in P.J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp. 460-474. Whybrow, P.J. and A. Hill (eds.) (1999). Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia: With Emphasis on the Late Miocene Faunas, Geology and Palaeoenvironments of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. xxv + 523 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. ISBN: 0-300-07183-3. $125. [This book is the full scientific publication of all the fossils discovered during the 1990’s expeditions conducted by the Natural History Museum and Yale University. It includes detailed chapters on geology, palaeomagnetic dating, fossil mollusca, fishes, turtles, crocodiles, insectivores and rodents, monkeys, carnivores, elephants, horses, pigs, hippos and pecorans. It discusses the reconstruction of the environment of that time between 6-8 million years ago, and places it in the wider context of regional fossil fauna and flora from the Sultanate of Oman, Republic of Yemen, Africa and Asia]. Whybrow, P.J. and A. Hill. (1999). Introduction to Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Chapter 1 in P.J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.3-6. Wicke, D. (2013). Elfenbeinschnitzereien in der Eisenzeit. In, Orthmann, W., Matthiae, P. and al-Maqdisi, M. (eds), Archéologie et Histoire de la Syrie I La Syrie de l’Époque Néolithique à l’âge du fer: 549–70. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag. Wieder, M., Gvirtzman, G. (1999). Micromorphological indications on the nature of the Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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late Quaternary Paleosols in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Catena 35,219-237. Wikipedia. Abul-Abbas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abul-Abbas Wikipedia. African bush elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_bush_elephant Wikipedia. Battle of Raphia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raphia Wikipedia. North African elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_elephant Wikipedia. Persian war elephants. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_war_elephants Wikipedia. Syrian elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_elephant

A 4th century A.D. Roman mosaic unearthed in Lod, Palestine, in 1996, showing a Syrian Elephant with various animals. https://www.syr-res.com/article/3044.html Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Elephant tooth from El-Qarya El-‘Arabiya and Wadi en Nada (Holon), south-east of Jaffa, Central Coastal Plain, Palestine. Lower Palaeolithic. Length: 21 cm; Width: 9.5 cm; Height: 18 cm. Israel Antiquities Authority. Collection of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. https://www.imj.org.il/en/collections/355050

Elephant tooth from Jisr Benat Ya'kub (Daughters of Jacob Bridge), northern Jordan Valley, Palestine. Lower Palaeolithic. Length: 37 cm; Width: 32 cm; Height: 23 cm. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Collection of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem. https://www.imj.org.il/en/collections/395854

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Elephant molar, cf. Elephas hysudricus, from Evron Quarry, Western Galilee, Palestine. A: occlusal view, B: lateral view. Credit: Liora Kolska Horwitz. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/245032005_New_fossil_remains_of_Elephas_from_ the_southern_Levant_Implications_for_the_evolutionary_history_of_the_Asian_elephant/figur es?lo=1 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Stamp from Djibouti (1990). Mammal Fossil: Elephant Elephas recki. https://colnect.com/en/stamps/stamp/162169-Elephant_fossils-Djibouti

Wikipedia. Syrian Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars Wikipedia. War elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_elephant Wikipedia. ‫ فيل سوري‬. https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%8A%D9%84_%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%B1 %D9%8A WildFact. The Syrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus). https://wildfact.com/forum/topic-the-syrian-elephant-elephas-maximus-asurus Wilford, John Noble (September 18, 1984). The Mystery of Hannibal's Elephants. New York Times. Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (eds.). (1993). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., xviii + 1206 pp. ISBN 1-56098-217-9. Winter, I. (1973). North Syria in the Early First Millennium B.C., with Special Reference to Ivory Carving. PhD. Columbia University. Winter, I. (1976). Carved ivory furniture panels from Nimrud: a coherent subgroup of the North Syrian style. Metropolitan Museum Journal 11: 25–54. doi: 10.2307/1512683 Woolley (1955). Alalakh. An account of the excavations at Tell Atchana in the Hatay 1937-1949. https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/term/BIB8882 Wylie. Elephants as War Machines. Elephants. Shoshani ed., 147. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022


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Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. (1986). Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia. 6. Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Tubulidentata, Sirenia, and Cetacea, Italian J. Zool., Suppl., n.s., 21: 31-103. Yar, N M, Parenti, F, Albayrak, E and Köysu, C. (2016). The elephant remains from Gavur Lake (South-eastern Turkey). Origini, 39: 243–263. Yravedra, J., Dominguez-Rodrigo, M., Santonja, M., Perz-Gonzalez, A., Panera, J., Rubio-Jara, S., Baquedano, E. (2010). Cut marks on the Middle Pleistocene elephant carcass of Aridos 2 (Madrid, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science37, 2469. Zhang, L., and Wang, N. (2003). An initial study on habitat conservation of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), with a focus on human elephant conflict in Simao, China. Biological Conservation 112(3): 453–59. Zeder, M. A. (2012). Pathways to animal domestication. In, Gepts, P., Famula, T. R., Bettinger, R. L., Brush, S. B., Damania, A. B., McGuire, P. E. and Qualset, C. O. (eds), Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution and Sustainability: 227–58. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zeuner, F. (1963). A History of Domesticated Animals. London: Hutchinson Press. . ‫ هل تعلم إن سوريا كانت موطنا ً لنوع ُمنقرض من الفيلة يُسمى علميا ً بالفيل السوري ؟‬: ‫ الفيل السوري‬. ‫الباحثون السوريون‬ https://www.syr-res.com/article/3044.html https://www.infosalam.com/syria/syria-. ‫ األفيال في سوريا‬.)05.03.2019( ‫بيت السالم‬ articles/elephants-in-syria

Mammuthus stamp from Yemen (1990). https://depositphotos.com/stock-photos/postagestamp-prehistoric.html

‫والحم ُد هللِ رب العالمين‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 210 – June 2022

Profile for Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf

The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950)  

The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950). By : Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Al...

The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950)  

The Extinct Syrian Elephant or Assyrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus Deraniyagala, 1950). By : Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Al...

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