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‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

ISSN 0178-6288 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Norman_KhalafPrinz_Sakerfalke_Von_Jaffa/publications https://palestine.academia.edu/NormanKhalaf https://issuu.com/dr-norman-ali-khalaf/docs

================================ ‫ النشرة الفلسطينية لعلم األحياء‬: ‫الغزال‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Gazelle : Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin

================================ Monthly Bulletin – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022 Published by Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and Media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine

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Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine

ُ ‫تسجيل تاريخ لفيل قرطاج‬ ، ‫المنقرض من تل رفح األثري‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ دولة فلسطي‬، ‫جنوب قطاع غزة‬ By : Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa

A lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) measuring 40x20 cm was excavated from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, Palestine. https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10158545500994831&set=pcb.10158545502569831

Abstract A 40x20 cm lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) was found in Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine, during excavation work done by the Palestinian Ministry of Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Tourism and Antiquities in Gaza in the years 2010-2012. It belongs probably to one of the War Elephants which participated in the Battle of Rafah (Raphia) between the armies of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt and the Seleucid Empire in 217 BC. The Carthaginian elephant subspecies was described in 1948 from a specimen from Faiyum in Egypt. Originally, its natural range probably extended across North Africa and down to the Sudanese and Eritrean coasts.

‫ُملخص‬ ‫ في تل رفح األثري في ُجنوب‬، ‫ سم‬20 ‫ سم وعرض‬40 ‫سفلي مع عدة أسنان بطول‬ ُ ‫تم العثور على فك‬ ‫ وذلك خالل أعمال تنقيب قامت بها وزارة السياحة واآلثار الفلسطينية في‬، ‫ دولة فلسطين‬، ‫قطاع غزة‬ ‫سفلي يعود على‬ ُ ‫ وقد تبين لنا بعد الدراسة ال ُمستفيضة أن الفك ال‬. 2012-2010 ‫غزة في السنوات‬ ‫ والذي كان أحد فيلة الحرب التي شاركت في معركة‬، ‫األرجح إلى فيل قرطاج الشمال أفريقي ال ُمنقرض‬ ‫ لقد تم‬. ‫ قبل الميالد‬217 ‫رفح بين قوات مملكة البطالمة المصرية واإلمبراطورية السلوقية في العام‬ ‫ فقد أمتد‬، ‫ وعلى األرجح‬. ‫ من عينة من الفيوم في مصر‬1948 ‫ساللة الفيلة القرطاجية في عام‬ ُ ‫وصف‬ . ‫تواجدها ال ُجغرافي الطبيعي عبر شمال أفريقيا وصوالً إلى السواحل السودانية واإلريترية‬

A Carthaginian coin found in Valls, Catalonia, Spain, depicting Hannibal and an African Elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surus#/media/File:Pièce_Hannibal.jpg

A 40x20 cm lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) was found in Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine, during excavation work done by the Palestinian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities in Gaza in the years 2010-2012. It belongs probably to one of the War Elephants which participated in the Battle of Rafah (Raphia) between the armies of the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt and the Seleucid Empire in 217 BC. The Carthaginian elephant subspecies was described in 1948 from a specimen from Faiyum in Egypt. Originally, its natural range probably extended across North Africa and down to the Sudanese and Eritrean coasts. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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The Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) was a subspecies of the African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), or possibly a separate elephant species, that existed in North Africa, north of the Sahara, until becoming extinct in Roman times (Prof. Dan B., 2019). These were the famous war elephants used by Carthage in the Punic Wars, their conflict with the Roman Republic (Wikipedia; Dinopedia; Ben, 2010). It is believed that Hannibal used 37 of these elephants to cross the Pyrenees and the Alps when he invaded Italy in the Second Punic War from 218 to 201 BC (Bob, 2016). Although the subspecies has been formally described by the Sri Lankan paleontologist and zoologist Paulus Edward Pieris Deraniyagala (1900–1976) in 1948 from a specimen from Faiyum in Egypt, it has not been widely recognized by taxonomists. Other names for this animal include the North African Elephant, North African Forest Elephant, Libyan Elephant and Atlas Elephant. Originally, its natural range probably extended across North Africa and down to the Sudanese and Eritrean coasts (Alchetron; Dinopedia; Wikipedia; Ben, 2010). Its habitat was semi-desert/scrub (Prof. Dan B., 2019). Carthaginian frescoes and coins minted by whoever controlled North Africa at various times show very small elephants, perhaps 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in) at the shoulder, with the large ears and concave back typical of modern African elephants (Loxodonta). The Carthaginian or North African elephant was smaller than the modern African bush elephant (L. a. africana), probably similar in size to the modern African forest elephant (L. cyclotis). It is also possible that it was more docile and tamer than the African bush elephant, which is generally untamable, allowing the Punics (Carthaginians) to tame it as a war elephant by a method now lost to history (Wikipedia; Dinopedia; Ben, 2010).

Tetradrachm of Seleucus I – the horned horse, the elephant and the anchor all served as symbols of the Seleucid monarchy of the Seleucid Empire. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucid_Empire#/media/File:201209071746a_Berlin_Pergamo nmuseum,_Tetradrachme_Seleukos'_I,_Silber,_Pergamon,_281-280_v.u.Z.jpg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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After they conquered Sicily in 242 BC, the Romans wanted to capture some elepahant specimens that had been left behind in the middle of the island by the Carthaginians, but failed in the endeavor. The elephants with which Hannibal crossed the Pyrenees and the Alps in order to invade Italy during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) belonged to this group, with the exception of Hannibal's personal animal, Surus (meaning "the Syrian," or possibly "One-Tusker"). This individual, according to his documented name and large size, may have been a Syrian Elephant (Elephas maximus asurus), which was possibly a subspecies of the extant Asian elephant that became extinct shortly after Hannibal invaded Italy, but before the extinction of the North African elephant (Wikipedia). The Carthaginian or North African elephant was also trained and used by the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. Writing in the 2nd century BC, the Greek Historian Polybius (The Histories; 5.84) described their inferiority in battle against the larger Indian elephants used by the Seleucid king in the Battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. A surviving Ptolemaic inscription enumerates three types of war elephant, the "Troglodytic" (probably Libyan), the "Ethiopian", and the "Indian". The Ptolemaic king prides himself with being the first to tame the Ethiopian elephants, a stock which could be identical to one of the two extant African species (Wikipedia). Records indicate that in Venatio games sponsored by Caesar Augustus (63 BC–14 AD), games involving the hunting and killing of wild animals in Roman amphitheaters, 3,500 elephants were killed (Bob, 2016). The Carthaginian Elephant became extinct circa 100 AD (Wikipedia; Dinopedia). Taxonomic uncertainty: Given the relatively recent date of its disappearance, the status of this population can probably be resolved through ancient DNA sequence analyses, if specimens of definite North African origin can be located and examined (Wikipedia; Dinopedia). No specimens of true North African Elephant's exist today (Ben, 2010).

Mosaic with an elephant. Part of Statio 14 (for Sabratha office) of the Piazzale delle Corporazioni, Ostia Antica, Latium, Italy. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_elephant#/media/File:14_Piazzale_delle_Corp orazioni_Ostia_Antica_2006-09-08.jpg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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A description of the use of elephants in the Roman Empire notes that about 20 elephants were killed in 55 BC when the Roman General Pompey dedicated his theater. The Roman Statesman and Historian Cassius Dio noted that the elephants "were pitied by the people when, after being wounded and ceasing to fight, they walked about with their trunks raised toward heaven, lamenting so bitterly as to give rise to the report that they did so not by mere chance, but were crying out against the oaths in which they had trusted when they crossed over from Africa, and were calling upon Heaven to avenge them." It was the Romans, and their need for animals for blood sport, that caused the extinction of the Atlas Elephant (Bob, 2016).

The War Elephants at the battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/526358275197946975/ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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The War Elephants at the battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. https://novoscriptorium.com/2020/03/11/antiochus-iii-the-great-vs-ptolemy-iv-philopatorthe-struggle-for-coele-syria-the-battle-of-raphia-217-b-c/ & https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10158545501349831&set=pcb.10158545502569831

The Battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC The Battle of Rafah (Raphia), also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC near modern Rafah, south of Gaza Strip, Palestine, between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king and pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire during the Syrian Wars. It was one of the largest battles of the Hellenistic kingdoms and was one of the largest battles of the ancient world. The battle was waged to determine the sovereignty of Coele-Syria (Wikipedia). According to the Greek Historian Polybius (200 BC-118 BC), Ptolemy had 70,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 73 war elephants and Antiochus 62,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and 102 elephants (Wikipedia). After five days of skirmishing, the two kings decided to array their troops for battle. Both placed their Phalangites in the center. Next to them they fielded the lightly armed and the mercenaries in front of which they placed their elephants and even further in the wings their cavalry. They spoke to their soldiers, took their places in the lines — Ptolemy in his left and Antiochus in his right wing — and the battle commenced. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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In the beginning of the battle, the elephant contingents on the wings of both armies moved to charge. Ptolemy's diminutive African elephants retreated in panic before the impact with the larger Indians and ran through the lines of friendly infantry arrayed behind them, causing disorder in their ranks. At the same time, Antiochus had led his cavalry to the right, rode past the left wing of the Ptolemaic elephants charging the enemy horse. The Ptolemaic and Seleucid phalanxes then engaged. However, while Antiochus had the Argyraspides, Ptolemy's Macedonians were bolstered by the Egyptian phalanx. At the same time, the right wing of Ptolemy was retreating and wheeling to protect itself from the panicked elephants. Ptolemy rode to the center encouraging his phalanx to attack, Polybius tells us "with alacrity and spirit". The Ptolemaic and Seleucid phalanxes engaged in a stiff and chaotic fight. On the Ptolemaic far right, Ptolemy's cavalry was routing their opponents (Wikipedia). At the end, Ptolemy's army was victorious and secured the province of Coele-Syria for Egypt. According to Polybius, the Seleucids suffered a little under 10,000 infantry dead, about 300 horses, and 5 elephants, and 4,000 men were taken prisoner. The Ptolemaic losses were 1,500 infantry, 700 horses, and 16 elephants. Most of the Seleucids' elephants were taken by the Ptolemies (Wikipedia).

The War Elephants at the battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. https://alchetron.com/Battle-ofRaphia#battle-of-raphia-1f9aa806-5e27-402d-827b-12c299cc229-resize-750.jpeg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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The War Elephants at the battle of Rafah (Raphia) in 217 BC. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/567664728036617802/

Rafah War Elephants This is the only known battle in which African and Asian elephants were used against each other. Due to Polybius' descriptions of Antiochus' Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus), brought from India, as being larger and stronger than Ptolemy's African elephants, it had once been theorized that Ptolemy's elephants were in fact the African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), a close relative to the African Bush Elephant (Loxodonta africana) – a typical African bush elephant would tower over an Asian one, meaning that the smaller forest elephant would be a better fit with Polybius' descriptions. However recent DNA research (Brandt, et al., 2013) has revealed that most likely, Ptolemy's elephants were in fact Loxodonta africana, albeit culled from a population of more diminutive African bush elephants still found in Eritrea today. Another possibility is that Ptolemy utilized the now extinct Carthaginian or North African Elephants (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis). Much smaller than their Indian or Bush cousins, members of this subspecies were typically around 8 foot high at the shoulder. Regardless of origin, according to Polybius, Ptolemy's African elephants could not bear the smell, sound, and sight of their Indian counterparts. The Indian's greater size and strength easily routed the Africans (Wikipedia). North African Forest Elephants were inferior to the Indian Elephants that were being deployed by Seleucid kings at the time (Ben, 2010). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Roman bronze statue of a war elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_elephant#/media/File:Roman_bronze_elephan t_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_SL_50_2.jpg

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pp. 183–203 in N. T. Boaz, A. El-Arnauti, A. W. Gaziry, J. de Heinzelin, and D. D. Boaz (eds.), Neogene Paleontology and Geology of Sahabi. A. R. Liss, New York. Gaziry, A. W. (1997). Die Mastodonten (Proboscidea, Mammalia) aus Dorn-Dürkheim 1 (Rheinhessen). Courier Forschungs-Institut Senckenberg 197:73–115. Geraads, D. (1989). Vertebres fossiles du Miocène supérior du Djebel Krechem El Artsouma (Tunisie centrale). Géobios 22:777–801. Giant Elephants in the UAE. www.adias-uae.com/press/gulftimes-23-feb-04.jpg Giant elephant tusk found in desert: find thought to be eight million years old. (1 6 . 0 1 . 2 0 03). www.skullsite.co.uk/prints/palaeontological/stegotet/stegotet.htm Göhlich, U. B. (1999). Order Proboscidea;. pp. 157–168 in G. Rössner and K. Heissig (eds.), The Miocene Land Mammals of Europe. Verlag F. Pfeil, München. Gray, J. E. (1821). On the natural arrangement of vertebrose animals. London Medical Repository 15:88296–310. Gowers, William (1948). African Elephants and Ancient Authors. African Affairs. 47 (188): 173–180. Gulf News (23.02.2012). When Mammoth elephants walked freely in Abu Dhabi. www. Gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/general/when-mammoth-elephants-walked-freely-inabu-dhabi Hafeez, Abdul; Izhar Hafeez and Mark Beech (2005). Constructing the scale model of Stegotetrabelodon syrticus. in : Edited by Mark Beech and Peter Hellyer. Abu Dhabi – 8 Million Years Ago: Late Miocene Fossils from the Western Region. www.markbeech.com/pdf/Beech-and-Hellyer-2005-Abu-Dhabi-8mya.pdf Hailwood, E.A. and P.J. Whybrow (1999). Paleomagnetic Correlation and Dating of the Baynunah and Shuwaihat Formations, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Chapter 8 in P.J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.76-87. Harrison, David L. (1981). Mammals of the Arabian Gulf. George Allen & Unwin, London. pps. 92. Harrison, David L. and Bates, P.J. (1991). The Mammals of Arabia. Second edition. Harrison Zoological Museum, Sevenoaks, Kent. xvi + 354. Hatough-Bouran, A. and A.M. Disi (1991). History, Distribution, and Conservation of large Mammals and their habitats in Jordan. Environ. Conserv., 18: 19-44. Higgs, Will (16.01.20 03). Giant elephant tusk found in desert: find thought to be eight million years old. Quelle: alphagalileo. www.innovationsreport.de/html/berichte/geowissenschaften/bericht-15811.html Higgs, Will (2005). The Fossil Trackway at Mleisa. in : Edited by Mark Beech and Peter Hellyer. Abu Dhabi – 8 Million Years Ago: Late Miocene Fossils from the Western Region. www.markbeech.com/pdf/Beech-and-Hellyer-2005-Abu-Dhabi-8mya.pdf Higgs, W.; A. Gardner and M. Beech (2005). A Fossil Proboscidean Trackway at Mleisa, Western Region of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In: P. Hellyer and M. Ziolkowski (eds.), Emirates Heritage Vol. 1 - Proceedings of the 1st Annual Symposium on Recent Palaeontological and Archaeological Discoveries in the Emirates, Al Ain. Zayed Centre for Heritage and History, Al Ain. pp.21-27. ISBN 9948-06-130-6. Higgs, W.; A. Kirkham, G. Evans and D. Hull (2003). A Late Miocene Proboscidean Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Trackway from Mleisa, Western Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Tribulus (Journal of the Emirates Natural History Group) 13.2: 3-8. www.adiasuae.com/publications/higgsetal03.pdf Hopwood, A. T. (1935). Fossil Proboscidea from China. Paleontologia Sinica, series C 9:31–108. Illiger, C. (1811). Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium. vol. 8, Berolini, 301 pp. Islamic Cultural Centre of Russia (13.01.2013). MAMMAL'S SKULL, TEL RAFAH: This skull of a large mammal was unearthed by archaeologists in Tel Rafah. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/IslamiCCR/photos/a.296359617134091/296359817134071 /?type=3 Kalb, E. J. and A. Mebrate (1993). Fossil elephantoids from the hominid-bearing Awash Group, Middle Awash Valley, Afar Depression, Ethiopia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 83:11–114. Kalb, E. J. and A. Mebrate (1994). Interrelationships of Late Neogene Elephantoids: New evidence from the middle Awash Valley, Afar, Ethiopia. Géobios 28:727–736.

Two Asiatic Elephants (Elephas maximus) are seen behind the author and his wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf at Zoo Neunkirchen, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Photo by our daughter: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf, 10. July 2011. http://www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/25293367

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1982). A’maar Al-Haywanat (Animal Ages). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004 / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-014121-9. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/& eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59405994/book-gazelle-thepalestinian-biological-bulletin-a-scientific-journey-in-palestine-arabia-and-europebetween-1983-2004-by-norman-ali-khalaf-von-jaffa-2004 Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Mammals in Dubai Zoo, Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178-6288. Volume 23, Number 45, September 2005, Sha’ban 1426. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (In Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006, 2007). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39.in: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. CoAuthor: Norman Ali Khalaf. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006, 2007. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. http://ipsnewsite.mysite4now.com/journals.aspx?id=7323&jid=1&href=fulltext Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://web.archive.org/web/20080315233525/http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/M ammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) & http://web.archive.org/web/20090403201333/http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/M ammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Palestine / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. In: Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006 / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. ISBN 3-00-017294-7. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2006. pp. 239-285. Self-Publisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mjzf_I_b8wTX_BHd1RsuU4ykhJlIKW2/view?usp=sharing Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. ISBN 978-3-00-019568-6. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli (July) 2007, 300 pp. SelfPublisher: Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). Doctoral Dissertation. Ashwood University, USA. Doctor of Science Degree in Zoology (Summa Cumm Laude) on 26.09.2007. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/felidaearabica.htm & Doctoral Dissertation eBook : https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/59397999/doctorate-dissertationfelidae-arabica-by-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-doctor-of-science-ashwood-universityusa-2007 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, September 2007, Sha’ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7 %D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/59498633/fauna-palaestina-1-bookby-dr-norman-ali-khalaf-2009 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). † Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010 : A New Fossil Four-Tusked Elephant Subspecies from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 28, Number 98, February 2010, Safar 1431 AH. pp. 1-60. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. https://issuu.com/drnormanalibassamkhalaf/docs/stegotetrabelodon_syrticus_emiratus_khalaf_2010__a & https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342865142_Stegotetrabelodon_syrticus_em iratus_Khalaf_2010_A_New_Fossil_FourTusked_Elephant_subspecies_from_the_Emirate_of_Abu_Dhabi_United_Arab_Emirate s_stjwttrablwdwn_syrtykws_amyratws_khlf_2010_ahafyr_lnuy_j Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus - Part Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/59546804/fauna-emiratuspart-1-zoological-studies-in-the-united-arab-emirates-between-2004-2009-by-drnorman-ali-bassam-khalaf-von-jaffa-2010 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011). Taxon Profile: Subspecies: Arabian Four-Tusked Elephant Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. The Biological Library (BioLib.cz). https://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id890499/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2011). Profil Taxonu (Taxon Profile in Czech): Poddruh (Subspecies): Arabian Four-Tusked Elephant Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. The Biological Library (BioLib.cz). https://www.biolib.cz/cz/taxon/id890499/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012/ Fauna Palaestina – Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 Seiten/Pages (English/German Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/62740914/fauna-palaestina-part-3year-2013-by-dr-norman-ali-bassam-khalaf-von-jaffa-isbn-978-9950-383-35-7 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2015). Plants and Animals unique to Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 125, May 2015. pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine-2.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2015). Fauna Palaestina – Part Five. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2016/ Fauna Palaestina – Teil Fünf. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2016. ISBN 978-9950-383-92-0. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2015, Ramadan 1436 H. 448 pp. (English Part 304 Pages and the Arabic Part 144 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Al-Quds (Jerusalem), State of Palestine. http://fauna-palaestina-books.webs.com/ & eBook (Google Drive): https://drive.google.com/file/d/1C9Vo6oBn4AAYB7XnpeIGgEXgOBZFzar6/view?us p=sharing Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2016). Haywanat Falastin (Fauna of Palestine) ‫ حيوانات فلسطين‬. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 34, Number 144, December 2016, pp. 1-18. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (In Arabic). http://animals-of-palestine2.webs.com/fauna-of-palestine-arabic Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (02.01.2017). Studying the Siberian Woolly Mammoth Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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(Mammuthus primigenius) Skeleton of Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10154799849319831 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (28.04.2017). Woolly Mammoth Skeleton of Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi 24.04.2017. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i7BSJQgjmUM Khalaf, Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad (Abu Nora) (2018). The Family of Sharif Hajji Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Khalaf (Abu Othman). A Pictorial History Book of a Palestinian Family from Jaffa in the Twentieth Century. ISBN 978-9950-974-40-1. First Edition, October 2018, Safar 1440 Hijri. 120 pp. In Arabic. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Norman Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. https://family-taherkhalaf.webs.com/ & eBook: https://www.yumpu.com/xx/document/view/62242473/book-family-taher-khalaf2018 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2020). Khalaf, Norman A. B. 2010. Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010 : A New Fossil Four-Tusked Elephant Subspecies from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. References. ZooBank. http://zoobank.org/References/e6448dde-a699-4dd3-9073-7020dbd0074b Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2020). Stegotetrabelodon syrticus emiratus Khalaf, 2010. Nomenclatural Acts. ZooBank. http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/720d89c9-3228-40e0-8670-c3af66d00a3f Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (17.08.2020). Photo: Visiting Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi and seeing the Siberian Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Skeleton. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10158491026889831

Size comparison between the Northern African Elephant and the African Elephant. https://dinopedia.fandom.com/wiki/North_African_Elephant?file=Northern_african_elephan t_by_sameerprehistorica-dalpzgf.jpg Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (03.09.2020). Photo: A Lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct Carthaginian Elephant or North African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) was excavated from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, Palestine. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10158533830089831&set=p.101585338300 89831&type=3 Khalaf, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali (08.09.2020). A Lower jaw with several teeth belonging to the extinct War Elephant, the Carthaginian Elephant or North African Forest Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) was excavated from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, Palestine. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/dr.norman.ali.khalaf/posts/10158545502569831 Khalaf-Prinz Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Sharif Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Mohammad Ahmad Ahmad Mostafa Abdallah Mohammad (2022). A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Volume 40, Number 209, May 2022. pp. 1-30. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf Department for Environmental Research and media, National Research Center, University of Palestine, Gaza, State of Palestine. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). https://elephants-1.webs.com/war-elephant-rafah & https://issuu.com/dr-norman-ali-khalaf/docs/rafah_elephant_gaza Klähn, H. (1922). Die badischen Mastodonten und ihre süddeutchen Verwandten. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, 134 pp. Klähn, H. (1931). Rheinhessischen Pliozän besonders Unter Pliozän in Rahmen des Mitteleuropäischen Pliozän. Gelogische und Paläontologische Abhandlungen 18:279– 340. Kotsakis, T., G. Barisone, and L. Rook (1997). Mammalian biochronology in an insular domain: the Italian Tertiary faunas. Mémoires et Traveaux de l’ Institut de Montpellier de l’École Pratique des Hautes Études 21:431–441. Lankester, E.R. (1905). Extinct Animals. Archibald Constable: London. LeBlanc, J. (2000) and (2002). A Guide to Macrofossil Localities of Libya, Africa. Diplomats International. Website: www.diplomatsinternational.com Leinders, J. (1973). Hoplitomerycidae fam. nov. (Ruminantia, Mammalia) from Neogene fissure fillings in Gargano (Italy). Part. I. Scripta Geologica 70:1–51. Libya before the Sahara. http://issuu.com/icsm/docs/libyabeforesahara-online Liu, H., Y. J. Tang, and Y. Z. You (1973). A new species of Stegodon from Upper Pliocene of Yuanmou, Yunnan. Vertebrata Palasiatica 11:192–200. Live Science Staff (February 22, 2012). Album: Finding Elephant Tracks in the Desert. https://www.livescience.com/18584-earliest-elephant-tracks-photos.html Mackaye, H. T. (2000). Les proboscidiens du Mio-Plio-Pleistocene du Tchad: biodiversite–biochronologie–paleoenvironnement. Abstracts 5th European Workshop on Vertebrate Paleontology, Karlsruhe, 1:49. Maglio, V. J. (1970). Four new species of Elephantidae from the Plio-Pleistocene of northwestern Kenya. Breviora 342:1–43. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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North African elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) figure used for the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War - mostly at the Battle of Zama 202 BC. https://www.facebook.com/H.Balck/posts/north-african-elephant-loxodonta-africanapharaohensis-figure-used-for-the-carth/1161049497411509/

Maglio, V. J. (1973). Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 63:31–144. Maglio, V. J. and A. B. Ricca (1977). Dental and skeletal morphology of the earliest elephants. Verhandlungen Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 29:1–51. Making a model of Stegotetrabelodon syrticus. www.adias-uae.com/themodel.html Mazza, P. and M. Rustioni (1996). The Turolian fossil artiodactyls from Scontrone (Abruzzi, central Italy). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 35:93–106. Mendelssohn H. & Y. Yom-Tov (1987). Eds. Vol 7: Mammals. Plants and Animals of the Land of Israel. Ministry of Defence/The Publishing House, Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel. Mendelssohn H. & Y. Yom-Tov (1999). Fauna Palaestina: Mammalia of Israel. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem. Montcharmont Zei, M. and U. Montcharmont (1987). Metaxytherium medium nelle arenarie tortoniane di Santa Domenica di Ricadi (Catanzaro). Memorie di Scienze Geologiche 29:285–341. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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The Year of the Elephant (570 or 571 A.D.). It was in this year that Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) was born. The name is derived from an event said to have occurred at Mecca, Arabia: Abraha, the Abyssinian, Christian ruler of Yemen, which was subject to the Kingdom of Aksum of Ethiopia, marched upon the Ka‘bah in Mecca with a large army, which included war elephants, intending to demolish it. However, the lead elephant, known as 'Mahmud', is said to have stopped at the boundary around Mecca, and refused to enter. When the army reached near the Ka'bah, an army of Allah appeared from the western side. A dark cloud of small birds (known in Arabic as Ababil) overshadowed the entire army of Abraha. Each bird had three pebbles: two in its claws and one in its beak. A rain of the pebbles poured down from the birds, and in a few minutes, the whole army was destroyed. Abraha himself was seriously wounded; he fled towards Yemen but died on the way. Another theory mentions that it was an epidemic, perhaps caused by smallpox, could have caused such a failed invasion of Mecca. The year came to be known as the Year of the Elephant, beginning a trend for reckoning the years in the Arabian Peninsula. This reckoning was used until it was replaced with the Islamic calendar during the times of Khalifa (Caliph) Omar Bin Al Khattab. http://arabic.bayynat.org.lb/ArticlePage.aspx?id=4392

Ognev, S.I. (1931). Mammals of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Volume 2. Carnivora, Fissipedia. Moscow. Ogniben, L. (1973). Schema geologico della Calabria in base ai dati odierni. Geologica Romana 12:243–585. Opening of Exhibition of Ancient Elephant Fossils - Transports you back to Abu Dhabi 8 million years ago: A land of fertile plains & rivers. November 26, 2005. www.ead.ae/en/news/opening.of.exhibiti.aspx Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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An Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus) at the Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Berlin Zoological Garden), Berlin, Germany. Foto: Ola Mostafa Khalaf, 14. July 2011. www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/25290300 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Osgood, W. H. (1943). The Mammals of Chile. Field Museum of Natural History, Zoology Series, 30:1-268. Papazzoni, C. A. and A. Sirotti (1999). Heterostegina papyracea Seguenza, 1880 from the upper Miocene of Cessaniti (Vibo Valentia, Calabria, southern Italy). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana 38:15–21. Petrocchi, C. (1941). Il giacimento fossilifero di Sahabi. Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana 60(1):107–114. Petrocchi, C. (1943). Sahabi, eine neue Seite in der Geschichte der Erde. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Stuttgart 1943-B: 1-9. Petrocchi, C. (1943). Il giacimento fossilifero di Sahabi. Collezione Scientifica e Documentaria a cura del Ministero dell’Africa Italiana 12:1–162. Petrocchi, C. (1951). Nota preliminare allo studio di alcuni resti fossili del giacimento di es-Sahabi, riferibili a Proboscidati e a Bovidi. Petrocchi, C. (1951). Note sulla fauna terziaria de Sahabi. Relazioni della Società Italiana per il Progresso delle Scienze, Rome 42 (1): 479-481. Petrocchi, C. (1954). Paleontologia di Sahabi (Cirenaica). I proboscidati di Sahabi. Rendiconti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei XL 4:/5. 1–66. Petrocchi, C. (1954). I proboscidati di Sahabi. Rendi. dell'Acad. Naz. dei XL 4 (19531954): 1-66. Pickford, M., B. Senut, and D. Hadoto. (1993). Geology and paleobiology of the Albertine rift valley, Uganda-Zaire, Vol. 1, Geology. CIFEG Publication Occasionelle Number 24. Centre International pour la Formation et les Echanges Géologiques, Orléans, 190 pp. Polybius; Frank W. Walbank, Ian Scott-Kilvert (1979). The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044362-2. Proboscidian (Elephant Family). Stegotetrabelodon syrticus. www.skullsite.co.uk/prints/palaeontological/stegotet/stegotet.htm Prof. Dan B. (20.06.2019). Showcase: North African Elephant. Deviant Art. https://www.deviantart.com/profdanb/art/ZT2-Showcase-North-African-Elephant802384606 Qumsiyeh, Mazin B. (1996). Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press. pps. 389. Rance, P. (2009). Hannibal, Elephants and Turrets in Suda Θ 438 [Polybius Fr. 162B] – An Unidentified Fragment of Diodorus. Classical Quarterly 59(1): 91-111. REPAD. The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database. Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948. https://www.recentlyextinctspecies.com/database/52-proboscideans/1502-loxodontaafricana-pharaohensis Rögl, F. (1999). Mediterranean and parathetys paleogeography during the Oligocene and Miocene;. pp. 8–22 in J. Agustí, L. Rook, and P. Andrews (eds.), The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Rook, L., L. Abbazzi, and B. Engesser (1999). An overview on the Italian Miocene land mammal faunas;. pp. 191–204 in J. Agustí, L. Rook and P. Andrews (eds), The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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The author, Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa, posing infront of a 15,000 year-old Siberian Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) fossil, standing tall at four metres and weighing one tonne, which was discovered in the late 1990’s on the banks of the Irtysh River in Siberia, and is considered one of the largest and most complete fossils to have ever been discovered. The behaviour of these legendary creatures, which mainly resided in Asia, Europe and North Africa, resembled that of modern elephants. Despite their large size – a fully grown Mammoth can weigh between up to eight tonnes, equivalent to the weight of a double-decker bus – they are known to be gentle creatures that mostly enjoyed grazing on fresh grass. Their coats varied in colour between light and dark and were covered in fur, with an outer covering of long hairs and a shorter undercoat. They had short ears and tails to minimize frostbite. Little is known about the species’ extinction, but it is thought to have likely been due to climate change, human hunting or a combination of the two. This Siberian Woolly Mammoth fossil is displayed at Marina Mall in Abu Dhabi, UAE. https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10154799847514831&set=pcb.10154799849319831

Sanders, W.J. (1990). Fossil Proboscidea from the Pliocene Lusso Beds of the Western Rift, Zaire. Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir. 1: 171-187. Sanders, W. J. (1997). Fossil Proboscidea from the Wembere-Manonga Formation, Manonga Valley, Tanzania;. pp. 265–310 in T. Harrison (ed.), Neogene Paleontology of Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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the Manonga Valley, Tanzania. Topics in Geobiology, Number 14. Plenum Press, New York. Sarwar, M. (1977). Taxonomy and distribution of the Siwalik Proboscidea. Bulletin of the Department of Zoology, University of Punjab 10:1–172. Schlesinger, G. (1917). Die Mastodonten des K.K. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. Denkschriftes der K.K. Naturhistorishen Hofmuseum, Geologie-Paläontologie 1:1–230. Schrenk, L.v. (1859). Reisen und Forschungen im Amur-Lande. 1:43. St. Petersburg. Scullard, H. H. (1953). Ennius, Cato, and Surus. The Classical Review 3(3/4): 140-142. See Hear Say Learn (25.08.2019). North African elephant. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xzDuec-WwFc Shoshani, J. and P. Tassy (eds.). (1996). The Proboscidea: Evolution and Palaeoecology of Elephants and Their Relatives. Oxford University Press: Oxford. Sinclair, Mehded Maryam (2010). Miraculous Happenings in the Year of the Elephant. Publisher: Hijaz, ISBN-13: 978-0860374916. Stealing Elephant Tusks in Philippines. http://article.wn.com/view/2010/03/03/Wildlife_officer_suspected_of_stealing_elep hant_tusks_in_Phi/ † Stegotetrabelodon syrticus Petrocchi 1941 (elephant). http://paleodb.org/cgibin/bridge.pl?a=basicTaxonInfo&taxon_no=159433 Stewart, Dr. John R. (2005). Miocene Geology and Fossils of Abu Dhabi. in : Edited by Mark Beech and Peter Hellyer. Abu Dhabi – 8 Million Years Ago: Late Miocene Fossils from the Western Region. www.markbeech.com/pdf/Beech-and-Hellyer-2005-AbuDhabi-8mya.pdf Tassy, P. (1985). La place des mastodontes miocènes de l’ancien Monde dans la Phylogènie des Proboscidea (Mammalia): hypothèses et conjectures. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University P. and M. Curie, Paris, 862 pp. Tassy, P. (1986). Nouveaux Elephantoidea (Mammalia) dans le Miocène du Kenya. Cahiers de Paléontologie Est-africaine. Éditions Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. Tassy, P. (1987). A Hypothesis on the Homology of Proboscidean Tusks Based on Paleontological Data. American Museum Novitates. 2895: 1-18. Tassy, P. (1990). Phylogenie et classification des Proboscidea (Mammalia): Historique et actualité. Annales de Paléontologie (Vertebrates-Invertebrates) 76:3159–224. Tassy, P. (1995). Les Proboscidiens (Mammalia) fossiles du Rift Occidental, Ouganda;. pp. 215–255 in B. Senut and M. Pickford (eds.), Geology and Paleobiology of the Albertine Rift Valley, Uganda-Zaire. Vol. 2, Paleobiology. CIFEG Publication Occasionelle, Number 29. Centre International pour la Formation et les Echanges Géologiques, Orléans. Tassy, P. (1999). Miocene elephantids (Mammalia) from the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: palaeobiogeographic implications;. pp. 209–233. Chapter 18 in P. J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. Tassy, P. (2001). Elephantoidea from Lothagam. In: M.G. Leakey and J. M. Harris (eds.), Lothagam: the Dawn of Humanity in Eastern Africa. Columbia University Press: New Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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York. pp.331-358. Tassy, Pascal (Université P & M Curie, France). FOSSIL ELEPHANTS. CONFERENCE ON THE FOSSIL VERTEBRATES OF ARABIA, ABU DHABI, MARCH 1995. www.adias-uae.com/fossils/Con1995/Summary.html Tassy, P. and P. Darlu (1986). Analyse cladistique numérique et analyse de parcimonie; l’exemple des Elephantidae. Géobios 19:587–600. The Animal Life of Terrestrial Habitat (01.12.2018). North African Elephant. Posted by Isharib. https://animalgeography.wordpress.com/2018/12/01/north-africanelephant/ The Sixth Extinction Forum. Loxodonta pharaohensis North African Elephant. https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7670/loxodonta-pharaoensis-northafrican-elephant Tobien, H. (1973). On the evolution of Mastodonts (Proboscidea, Mammalia). Part 1: The bunodont trilophodont Groups. Notizblatt des Hessischen Landesamtes für Bodenforschung zu Wiesbaden 101:202–276. Tobien, H. (1978). On the evolution of Mastodonts (Proboscidea, Mammalia). Part 2: The bunodont tetralophodont Groups. Geologische Jahrbuch, Hessen 196:159–208. Tobien, H., G. Chen, and Y. Li (1988). Mastodonts (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from the Late Neogene and Early Pleistocene of the People’s Republic of China. Part 2: the genera Tetralophodon, Anancus, Stegotetrabelodon, Zygolophodon, Mammut, Stegolophodon; some generalities on the Chinese mastodonts. Mainzner Geowissenschaften Mitteilungen 17:95–220. Todorova, Vesela. Abu Dhabi 8 million years ago: fossils help paint ancient portrait. www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100116/NATIONAL/701159766 Tracking the Ancient Elephant. www.brad.ac.uk/admin/pr/march2004/elephant.php Tristram, H.B. (1866). Report on the Mammals of Palestine. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1866: 84-93. Tristram, H.B. (1884). The Survey of Western Palestine. The Fauna and Flora of Palestine. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, London. 455 pp. (Mammals on pp 1-30). Turning Points of the Ancient World (31.10.2019). Formidable Fighters: the North African Elephant. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/BattlesoftheAncients/photos/formidable-fighters-thenorth-african-elephantthe-north-african-elephant-was-a-c/2416792568540630/ Next page (page 26): Formidable Fighters: the North African Elephant. The North African Elephant was a common sight in Carthaginian, Ptolemaic and (sometimes) Roman armies. Their smell and size terrified enemy horse and man alike. But if faced by an enemy that held their nerve against these beasts, they were usually pretty easy to take down. The North African elephant was smaller and less powerful than the Indian elephant, and this was proved at the Battles of Rafah (Raphia) (217 BC) and Magnesia (190 BC). It became extinct in Roman times. Artwork by © Johnny Shumate. https://www.facebook.com/BattlesoftheAncients/photos/formidable-fighters-the-northafrican-elephantthe-north-african-elephant-was-a-c/2416792568540630/ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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Mosaic of a North African Elephant being loaded onto a ship bound for Rome. From Piazza Armerina, Sicily, c. 300 CE. Submitted by Toldinstone. https://www.reddit.com/r/ArtefactPorn/comments/crldn3/mosaic_of_a_north_african_elep hant_being_loaded/

Vacek, M. (1877). Über Österreichische Mastodonten und ihre Beziehungen zu den Mastodonarten Europas. Abhandlungen der K.K. Reichsmuseum 7:1–45. Vine, P.J. and I. Al Abed (eds.) (1996). Natural Emirates – Wildlife and Environment of the United Arab Emirates. Trident Press, London. ISBN: 1-900724-02-2. (especially Chapter 3, “The Fossil Record” by P.J. Whybrow, A. Smith and A. Hill, pages 42-50). Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.28-38. Whybrow, P. and D. Clements. (1999). Arabian Tertiary Fauna, Flora and Localities. Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Chapter 33 in P.J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.460-474. Whybrow, P.J. and A. Hill (eds.) (1999). Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia: With Emphasis on the Late Miocene Faunas, Geology and Palaeoenvironments of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. xxv + 523 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. ISBN: 0-300-07183-3. $125. [This book is the full scientific publication of all the fossils discovered during the 1990’s expeditions conducted by the Natural History Museum Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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and Yale University. It includes detailed chapters on geology, palaeomagnetic dating, fossil mollusca, fishes, turtles, crocodiles, insectivores and rodents, monkeys, carnivores, elephants, horses, pigs, hippos and pecorans. It discusses the reconstruction of the environment of that time between 6-8 million years ago, and places it in the wider context of regional fossil fauna and flora from the Sultanate of Oman, Republic of Yemen, Africa and Asia]. Whybrow, P.J. and A. Hill. (1999). Introduction to Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Chapter 1 in P.J. Whybrow and A. Hill (eds.), Fossil Vertebrates of Arabia. Yale University Press: New Haven, CT. pp.3-6. Wikipedia. African bush elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_bush_elephant Wikipedia. Battle of Raphia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Raphia Wikipedia. North African elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_elephant Wikipedia. Syrian Wars. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Wars Wikipedia. War elephant. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_elephant Wilford, John Noble (September 18, 1984). The Mystery of Hannibal's Elephants. New York Times. Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder (eds.). (1993). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd Edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., xviii + 1206 pp. ISBN 1-56098-217-9.

Tell Rafah, south of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine, where the Carthaginian Elephant jaw was found. https://www.al-ayyam.ps/ar_page.php?id=11901b79y294656889Y11901b79 Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022


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North African Elephant petroglyph from the Ksour Mountain Range, westernmost range of the Saharan Atlas, Algeria. https://www.facebook.com/chellala.tv/photos/a.571190016259705/1573751182670245/

Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. (1986). Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia. 6. Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Tubulidentata, Sirenia, and Cetacea, Italian J. Zool., Suppl., n.s., 21: 31-103. . ‫ معلم أثري وسياحي كبير ينتظر الخروج من دائرة التهميش‬.. ‫ تل رفح‬.)25.10.2016( ‫األيام‬ HTTPS://WWW.AL-AYYAM.PS/AR_PAGE.PHP?ID=11901B79Y294656889Y11901B79 . ‫ موقع الشاللة في الفيسبوك‬. ‫ فيل شمال أفريقيا‬.)22.06.2017( ‫الشاللة‬ https://www.facebook.com/chellala.tv/photos/a.571190016259705/1573751182670245 / . ‫ السياحة واآلثار تستعرض آخر مكتشفات مشروع تنقيب تل رفح األثري‬.)18.07.2012( ‫صحيفة الرأي‬ https://alray.ps/ar/post/99604/-‫رفح‬-‫تل‬-‫تنقيب‬-‫مشروع‬-‫مكتشفات‬-‫آخر‬-‫تستعرض‬-‫واآلثار‬-‫السياحة‬ ‫?األثري‬fbclid=IwAR3yhpPRhNiTI-zZWw5NHrrGphVYvePFGcWnecjaAdhvOfRAuRa1XGxTgs

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Mosaic of the Atlas Elephant in the house of Orpheus in Volubilis, near the town of Moulay Idris in Morocco. http://cannundrum.blogspot.com/2016/04/north-african-elephant.html

‫والحم ُد هللِ رب العالمين‬

Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – ISSN 0178-6288 – Volume 40 – Number 209 – May 2022

Profile for Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf

Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) from Gaza  

A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza...

Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis) from Gaza  

A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza...

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