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Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

Abstract: A new subspecies of Blind Cave Fish of the genus Garra (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Wadi Al Wurayah pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates is described. This subspecies is distinguished from the other three subspecies of Garra barreimiae living in Bahrain, Oman and United Arab Emirates, by its distinctive body colouration and the small size. It is morphologically and geographically distinct from the other subspecies. The new subspecies was named Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009.

During a field trip to Wadi Al Wurayah, the U.A.E.‟s first mountain protected area, located in Al Hajar Mountains, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates, on Friday the 26th June 2009, accompanied with my wife Ola and my daughter Nora, I inspected Wadi Al Wurayah pools and waterfall, and saw many blind cave fish (Garra barreimiae Fowler and Steinitz, 1956) swimming in the pool waters. These fish were observed, examined and measured.

Description and Distinctive Features: After examining Garra barreimiae at the pools of Wadi Al Wurayah, I began comparing between the different Arabian Blind Cave Fish subspecies. There are three Garra barreimiae subspecies living in the Arabian Peninsula: The two Omani Blind Cave Fish subspecies Garra barreimiae barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, from Al Buraimi Oasis; and Garra barreimiae gallagheri Krupp, 1988, from Seeq and Wadi Bani Khalid north of Muqal; and the Emirati Blind Cave Fish subspecies Garra barreimiae shawkahensis Banister and Clarke, 1977, from Wadi Shawkah, Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah.

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Garra barreimiae, named after the Al Buraimi Oasis, Oman, is by far the most common native freshwater fish species found in the United Arab Emirates. In many wadis Garra barreimiae is the only fish present. The Wadi Al Wurayah subspecies Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009, have a small size. Young specimens are 1-4 centimeters, and adults are 4.5–7 centimeters. They are mottled brown in colour, typically dark but varying somewhat with the surroundings. Larger adults sometimes show more colourful red, white or blue markings, probably related to breeding status.

Two Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009) swimming in a pool near Wadi Al Wurayah waterfall. Photo: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, 26.06.2009.

Distribution: Garra barreimiae is endemic to Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and northern Oman. Separate subspecies have been recognized on the east and west flanks of the Hajar Mountains, respectively, but these cannot be distinguished by field observation alone. The subspecies Garra barreimiae wurayahi is endemic to Wadi Al Wurayah, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. The genus Garra is known from East Africa to South Asia and several other Garra species are endemic to the mountains of south-western

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Arabia, but the closest relatives of Garra barreimiae is thought to be the newly discovered Omani Garra smarti, and the Irani Garra persica, which is widespread in southern Iran.

Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa standing in front of Wadi Al Wurayah, Dibba, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Photo: Ola Mostafa Khalaf, 26.06.2009.

Natural History and Habitat: Garra barreimiae has a behavioural tendency to explore upstream, which probably facilitates dispersal when the wadis flow. Smaller adults have been observed to climb several meters up waterfalls, using the wet surface of the splash zone adjacent to the main flow of water, sometimes wriggling, sometimes jetting forward, resting periodically with pectoral fins spread, the mouth plate engaged for suction, and the tail twisted and pressed flat against the rock. They feed on detritus and algae and have a specialized mouth plate that functions as a suction device. They resemble aquarium catfish as they nuzzle their way over gravel and rock surfaces, but they dart about frantically when approached in shallow pools where they are vulnerable to terrestrial and avian predators.

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Little is known about the life history of G. barreimiae in the wild. Several anecdotal reports exist of the release of eggs and sperm during transport of specimens, provoking

Bathers enjoying their time at Wadi Al Wurayah Waterfall and Pool. Photo: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, 26.06.2009. Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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speculation that spawning may be triggered by turbulence, mimicking that of a wadi in spate. G. barreimiae will cannibalize its own eggs if conditions permit. Experiments have shown that G. barreimiae can tolerate water temperatures up to ca. 40ºC (104ºF) and salinity up to one-third that of sea water, but they usually live in water temperature between 18°C - 24°C, and pH range: 6.5 - 7.5; and dH range: 10 – 20. Garra and Locals: Garra barreimiae is caught and eaten by human residents of the Hajar Mountains, even today. The normal technique employs a V-shaped stone dam to channel the fish onto a portable sieve-like platform made from palm ribs, wire mesh or nylon netting. This can be very effective, eliminating all but the very smallest fish in the area, but only G. barreimiae is taken for food, even when other species are present. Status: Vulnerable (IUCN).

Wadi Al Wurayah shallow pool, near the waterfall; the habitat of the Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009). Photo: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, 26.06.2009.

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Conclusion: After examining the Garra barreimiae at Wadi Al Wurayah shallow pools, and comparing the different Arabian Blind Cave Fish subspecies, and referring to many zoological references, and searching the Internet, I came finally to a conclusion that we are in front of a new subspecies of the Blind Cave Fish from Wadi Al Wurayah pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. I gave it the scientific name Garra barreimiae wurayahi, new subspecies. The subspecies name “wurayahi” is Latin for Wadi Al Wurayah.

Garra barreimiae wurayahi, new subspecies: Scientific trinomial name: Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009. Common Name: Emirati Blind Cave Fish, Wadi Al Wurayah Blind Cave Fish. Location: Wadi Al Wurayah pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Date of capture: 26th June, 2009.

The Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009). Photo by the author. Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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Acknowledgments: A Special thanks is due to my wife Ola Mostafa Khalaf, who assisted me with the preparation of the photos for this scientific article; and to both my wife and daughter Nora Norman Ali Khalaf, who shared with me the field trip to Wadi Al Wurayah, and gave me the opportunity to discover a new Emirati Blind Cave Fish Subspecies.

A group of seven Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009) swimming together in Wadi Al Wurayah shallow pool. Photo by the author, 26.06.2009.

References and Internet Websites: AquaNet - Lexikon - Hajar-Höhlensaugbarbe. AquaNet - Das Portal für Aquarianer. www.aquanet.de/content/lexikon/a108cd1d-063b-4226-8c1b-8f2703321c25?t=1 AquaNet - Lexikon - Hajar-Höhlenschmerle. AquaNet - Das Portal für Aquarianer. http://aquanet.de/content/lexikon/a108cd1d-063b-4226-8c1b-8f2703321c25?t=1 Arkive. Omani Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae). www.arkive.org/omani-blindcave-fish/garra-barreimiae/ Banister, K.E. (1984). A subterranean population of Garra barreimiae (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Oman, with comments on the concept of regressive evolution. Journal of Natural History, Volume 18, Number 6, November-December 1984 , pp. 927-938(12).

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Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd. www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/tnah/1984/00000018/00000006/art00010 Berra, T.M. (1981). An Atlas of Distribution of the Freshwater Fish Families of the World, Univ. of Nebraska Press. Feulner, G.R. (1998). Wadi Fish of the U.A.E., Tribulus no. 8.2, pp. 16-22. Feulner , Gary R. and Peter L. Cunningham. The freshwater goby (Awaous aeneofuscus) in the Wadi Hatta watershed (U.A.E./Oman). www.enhg.org/trib/trib07.htm FRESHWATER FISHES. www.uaeinteract.com/uaeint_misc/teanh/022fwfi.pd Fujairah Wadi becomes first protected mountain habitat in the UAE. www.uaeyearbook.com/docs/Fujairah_Wadi_becomes_first_protected_mountain_habi tat_in_the_UAE/25725.htm Garra barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956, Omani Blind Cave Fish. Aldemaro Romero Home Page. www.clt.astate.edu/aromero/new_page_101.htm Garra barreimiae barreimiae Fowler & Steinitz, 1956. http://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?genusname=Garra&species name=barreimiae+barreimiae Garra barreimiae shawkahensis Banister & Clarke, 1977. www.fishbase.gr/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=27885&lang=German Garra Hamilton, 1822. www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/pisces/actinopterygii/cypriniformes/cyprinoidea/cy prinidae/cyprininae/garra/index.html Garra smarti new species of Arabian freshwater fish discovered in Oman. www.eyeofdubai.com/v1/news/newsdetail-31342.htm IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Garra barreimiae. www.iucnredlist.org/details/8916/0/full Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‟t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits of Fishes). AlBiology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 7.6.1981, 5. Sha'ban 1401. pp. 54-55. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1982). Samak Al-Coelacanth (The Coelacanth Fish). AlBiology Magazine. Number 2. February 1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 14-15. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (Translator) (1982). Al-Miah Al-Mulawatha Tohaded Al-Asmak Bi‟ilinqiraad (Water Pollution threatens the Fish Fauna with Extinction). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (Translation from German into Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). Al-Samaka Al-„Auljumiyah Al-Naqaqa fi Al-Khaleej AlArabi [The Toad Fish (Batrachus grunniens) in the Arabian Gulf]. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 3, 23 November 1983. pp. 10-11. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-Awal li-Samaket Kozat Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn) min Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn), A First Live Record from the Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4, 7.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 1-13. Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1986). The Fish Fauna in Van Mildert Pond, Durham City, North East England. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 14-20. Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv. Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) in the Science and Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 15. Fifth Year. July 1987. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Germany. pp. 1-8. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). On a Collection of Devon Period Animal Fossils from the Saarland, in the Geologische Museum Saarberg in Saarbrücken, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 15, Fifth Year, Thul Qi‟dah 1407 AH, July 1987 AD. pp. 9-10. Khalaf, Norman Ali B. (1987). The Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the State of Kuwait, Arabian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 16. Fifth Year. Safar 1408 AH. September 1987 AD. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1-7. Khalaf, Norman Ali (1989). Qa‟ema li-ba‟d Asmak Al-Kuwait fi Al-Mathaf Al-„Ilmi BiDawlat Al-Kuwait (A List of some Kuwaiti Fishes from the Science & Natural History Museum, State of Kuwait). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 19. Seventh Year. December 1989. Bonn 2-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 3. (in Arabic and English). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part One). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 23, Ninth Year, July 1991. pp. 1-12. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Two). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 24, Ninth Year, August 1991. pp. 110. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Gulf War and its effect on the Arabian Ecosystem (Part Three). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 25, Ninth Year, September 1991. pp. Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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1-7. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Notes on the Biological Ecology of the Marshes in Southern Iraq. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 29, Tenth Year, September 1992. pp. 1-9. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). The United Nations Ecological Report confirms: The Regime of Saddam is destroying the Marshes (Al-Ahwar) Ecosystem. Sawt Al-Kuwait International Newspaper. Saturday 17 October 1992, 21 Rabi‟e Al-Thani 1412. pp. 15. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma‟eyah wa Al-Bi‟eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita‟ Ghaza Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu‟ min Al-Sharq AlAwsat) [The Water and the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‟q Al-Nouma‟n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae‟q Al-Nouma‟n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische von Palaestina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year. December 1995. Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Ali Bassam (1997). Amir Al-Bahar Al-Arabi (The Arabian Sea Prince) Shihab AlDeen Ahmad Bin Majed. Magazin der Akademie. Nummer 1. Zu Elke‟da 1417 H, Maerz 1997. Koenig Fahad Akademie – Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. pp. 23-24. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2001). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Wale und Delphine. Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Wale_und_Delphine/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palaestinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. Erste Auflage, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage, August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gazelle_Bulletin.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Komoren-Quastenflosser (Latimeria chalumnae) und der Manado-Quastenflosser (Latimeria menadoensis). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 38. Twenty Third Year. February 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/quastenflosser.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa (Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 14-15. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 15. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twentythird Year, February 2005. pp. 16. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or the OrangeSpotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine (Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 1-6. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twentythird Year, March 2005. pp. 8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabian_Freshwater_Fish.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (Gründer) (seit Juni 2005). Der Quastenflosser: Coelacanth Latimeria Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Quastenflosser/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Koran Angelfish (Pomacanthus semicirculatus, Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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Cuvier, 1831). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 44. Twenty-third Year. August 2005. Jamada Alakhira 1426. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Koran_Angelfish.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palaestina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005: 376 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Aquatica_Arabica.html Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persoenlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palaestina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Zum 1. Todestag : Eine Persoenlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palaestina / The First Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palaestinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 62, Februar 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. Seite 11. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Palaestina. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit August 2007). Haie – Sharks Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Haie_Sharks/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (Gründer) (seit September 2007). Yahoo! Deutschland Group: Fauna Arabica. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twenty-fifth Year, September 2007 CE, Sha‟ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7 %D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) caught off the Kuwaiti Coast: The Second Record from the State of Kuwait, Arabian / Persian Gulf. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Whale_Shark_Kuwait.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Rhiniodon typus Smith, 1828 or Rhincodon typus Smith, 1829: The Story of a Scientific Name. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Rhiniodon_Rhincodon.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: A Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) rescued near the Tantura Beach, Carmel Coast, North Palestine: The First Record from the Palestinian Mediterranean Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 22-23. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Whale_Shark_Palestine.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Whale Sharks in Palestinian Waters: Whale Sharks (Rhincodon typus, Smith 1828) near Um Al-Rashrash (Eilat) Beach, Gulf of Aqaba, South Palestine: First Records from the Palestinian Red Sea Coast. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 71, November 2007. pp. 2326. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Whale_Shark_Palestine.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). An Ocean Sunfish or Common Mola (Mola mola, Linnaeus 1758) caught off the coast of Gaza: The First Record from Palestine, East Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 72, December 2007, pp. 1-16. (Abstracts in English and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Ocean_Sunfish.html Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2008). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Khalaf_References.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). A Longcomb Sawfish (Pristis zijsron Bleeker, 1851) caught off the coast of Dibba, United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 88, April 2009, Rabi‟e Al Thani 1430 AH. pp. 1-14. http://dibba-sawfish.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr.Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 90, June 2009, Jumada Al-Akhera 1430 AH. pp. 1-15. http://emirati-blind-cave-fish.webs.com/ Krupp, F. (1983). Freshwater Fishes of Saudi Arabia and Adjacent Regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Fauna of Saudi Arabia, v. 5, pp. 568-636. New Garra discovered in Oman. www.newstin.co.uk/rel/uk/en-010-014596370 PISC_TYP. www.nmb.bs.ch/typenkatalog_pisces_internetversion.xls Wadi Wurayah becomes the UAE‟s first protected mountain area. www.surfbirds.com/sbirdsnews/archives/2009/04/wadi_wurayah_be.html Wadi Wurayah becomes UAE‟s first mountain protected area. www.uaeinteract.com/docs/Wadi_Wurayah_becomes_UAE%E2%80%99s_first_mount ain_protected_area_/35448.htm Wadi Wurayah becomes the UAE‟s first mountain protected area. www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/wadi-Wurayah.html#cr Wikipedia. Wadi Wurayah. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wadi_Wurayah Wikipedia. Garra barreimiae. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garra_barreimiae

The Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009) Photo by the author. Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


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Two Emirati Blind Cave Fish (Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009) swimming in a pool near Wadi Al Wurayah waterfall. Photo: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, 26.06.2009.

The Omani or Al Buraimi Oasis Blind Cave Fish Garra barreimiae Fowler and Steinitz, 1956. www.uaeinteract.com/uaeint_misc/teanh/022fwfi.pdf

Gazelle – Number 90 – June 2009


Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009: A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies, Wadi Al Wurayah Pools  

Garra barreimiae wurayahi Khalaf, 2009 : A New Blind Cave Fish Subspecies from Wadi Al Wurayah Pools, Emirate of Fujairah, United Arab Emira...

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