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Flora and Fauna in Palestine

‫الحياة النباتية و الحيوانية في فلسطين‬ By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa

A Stunning Variety: Packed into Palestine's small area are snow-covered mountains, parched deserts, fertile fields, lush woodlands and long stretches of sand dunes. No less than four different geographical zones are included in Palestine, and the country's climate ranges from semi-arid to temperate to subtropical. All of this makes Palestine home to a stunning variety of plants and animals. Some 47,000 living species have been identified in Palestine, with another 4,000 assumed to exist. There are 116 species of mammals native to Palestine, 511 kinds of birds, 97 types of reptiles and nine types of amphibians. Some 2,780 types of plants grow countrywide, from Alpine flowers on northern mountain slopes to bright red coral peonies and desert papyrus reeds in the south.

Flora in Palestine: "A land of wheat and barley and vines and fig-trees and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey." (The Bible). Much has since been added to this Biblical description of what grows in Palestine. Bananas, oranges and other citrus fruits dominate the coastal plain. Deciduous fruit trees grow all over the country, but particularly well in the cool hills. Dates, bananas, avocado, guava and mango flourish in the hot Jordan valley. The basic grains rub shoulders with vegetables and tobacco, cotton, groundnuts and sugar beets. Palestine's landscape of flowers and plants changes abruptly with its different geographical regions. Natural woodlands of Palestine oaks (Quercus calliprinos) cover the upper Galilee, Mount Carmel and other hilly regions. In spring, rockrose Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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(Helianthemum nummularium) and thorny broom (Calycotome infesta) turn the hillsides pink, white and yellow. There are hyacinth, crocus and narcissus in the mountains as early as December, followed by anemones, tulips, cyclamen, iris and daisies. Honeysuckle creeps over the bushes, and large plane trees provide shade along the freshwater streams of Al Jaleel (Galilee).

The Palestine Oak Quercus calliprinos Webb. www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id77325/?taxonid=506673 The country's woodlands and forests were ravaged during centuries of warfare and neglect, but much has been done to reforest the countryside. Today, there are over 200 million trees in Palestine - forests of pine, tamarisk, carob and eucalyptus. Wildflowers and medicinal plants grow in profusion. Fruit trees bloom from January to April. In the south, acacia trees and the prickly Indian fig cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) suck moisture from the desert. In Al Naqab (Negev) highlands, massive Atlantic pistachios (Pistacia atlantica) strike a dramatic note among the dry riverbeds, and date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) grow wherever there is sufficient underground water.

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Many of the country's cultivated flowers - among them, the iris, madonna lily (Lilium candidum), tulip and hyacinth - have relatives among wild flowers. Soon after the first winter rains fall in October/November, a green carpet grows, covering the country until the next dry season. Pink and white cyclamen and red, white and purple anemones bloom from December to March, followed by the blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and yellow corn marigold (Chrysanthemum segetum). Many native plants, such as the crocus and squill, are geophytes, storing nourishment in their bulbs and tubers and blooming at the end of the summer. Picking wildflowers used to be a popular pastime, with some even sold commercially. In the mid-1960s, however, the Nature Reserves Authorities in Palestine and Israel, with the help of the Palestine Wildlife Society and the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, published a list of protected wildflowers and launched a vigorous education campaign. The public was urged: "Don't pick! Don't uproot! Don't buy! And don't sell!" The effort saved Palestine's wildflowers, and four decades later it is considered the most successful nature protection campaign conducted in the country.

The Palestine Iris Iris Palaestina. http://image08.webshots.com/8/9/23/11/116692311gcVnWR_fs.jpg Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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Botanists today divide the country's flora into seven distinct groups:       

Mediterranean Irano-Turanian, which is also found on the Asian steppes of the Syrian desert, in Iran, Anatolia and the Gobi Desert Saharo-Arabian, which is also found in the Sahara, Sinai and Arabian deserts Sudano-Zambesian, typical of Africa's subtropical savannas Euro-Siberian Plants that grow in more than one of these regions Species from the Americas, Australia and South Africa that have started growing in Palestine without human assistance.

Four major features have shaped this floral diversity: the country's location and topography; its rock and soil formations; its climate; and the impact of man. The human influence has been so powerful that it has actually changed some landscapes: during the countless years that man has roamed this area, he has collected and cultivated plants for food, cleared land for agriculture, domesticated grazing animals, selected and deified holy trees, and brought new plants into the country. The Israeli occupation forces destroyed and uprooted countless Palestinian trees, plants and farmlands. Israel is destroying Palestinian territories through deforestation and the expropriation and erosion of agricultural lands, as well as by seizing lands, harvests and livestock. Today Palestine has 19 principal plant communities. They are: 1. Maquis (areas containing small trees and shrubs) and Forests: Located in the mountains of Judea, the Carmel and Galilee, these were the main woodlands. In most of the area today, the wild trees have been replaced by cultivated plants and domesticated trees, such as the olive and almond, or have been reforested with the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). Where cultivated land is abandoned, low herbaceous Mediterranean semi-shrubs grow. 2. Oak Woodlands: On the volcanic rock of the occupied Golan Heights, maquis dominated by the common oak (Quercus robur) grows in areas higher than 500 meters above sea level. Botanists believe that the woodland ranges here have decreased substantially during the past century. 3. Winter Deciduous (Montane) Forests: On Mount Hermon, between 1,300 and 1,800 meters above sea level, winter deciduous trees and shrubs that can withstand the cold and wind flourish.

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4. Mount Tabor Oak (Quercus ithaburensis) Woodlands: This Mediterranean tree grows in Palestine's drier and warmer coastal areas, although much of these woodlands have been converted into olive groves. 5. Carob and Terebinth Woodlands: These forests cover the limestone hills at the foot of the central mountain range. 6. Lotus and Herbaceous Vegetation: These shrubs are scattered over the hilly southeastern Galilee, making it look like a park without trees. 7. Savanna Mediterranean: In areas too warm and too dry for Mediterranean trees, the quasi-tropical jujube and spiny trees of Sudanese origin grow. 8. Semi-Steppe: Where Palestine‟s Mediterranean region meets the desert, the vegetation changes to semi-shrubs. 9. Cushion-Plants: Mount Hermon plants that grow beyond 1,900 meters above sea level must survive three to five months covered by snow each year and another four to five months of drought. The dominant vegetation here is small, spiny, rounded, dense shrubs known as cushion-plants. 10. Steppe: Semi-shrubs cover the slopes and hills of areas of the country that receive 80 to 250 mm. of rain a year. This vegetation formation is often referred to as steppe. 11. Atlantic Terebinth Steppe: On rocky terrain higher than 800 meters, the Atlantic terebinth (Pistacia atlantica) grows. 12. Desert: Steppe vegetation gradually gives way to Saharo-Arabian plant species as the climate becomes drier. 13. Sand: Each of Palestine's three sandy areas has a different climate and sand of different origin. Each, therefore, has different kinds of vegetation. 14. Oases: The warmest parts of Palestine are the Araba (Arava), the Dead Sea and the Jordan valley. Run-off and underground water accumulate here, enabling trees of Sudanese origin to grow in the oases, and salt-resistant date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) to flourish around desert springs. 15. Desert Savanna: In the Rift Valley, rainfall gradually increases northward from an annual 30 mm. around Aila (Eilat) to 150 mm. north of Areeha (Jericho). Sudanese trees with long roots take advantage of the high water table in this area of poor rainfall; making parts of it resemble the East African savannas.

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16. Araba (Arava) Woodland: The deep sands of the Wadi Araba (Arava Valley) are covered with sparse woodland of trees growing up to 4 meters in height. 17. Swamps and Reed Thickets: Water-logged soils on river banks support dense vegetation. 18. Wet Saline: Salty water moistens the soil throughout the year along the Jordan, the Dead Sea, the Wadi Araba (Arava valley) and on the Mediterranean shore near Akka (Akko). 19. In areas of intense human activity: Vegetation in such areas is easily differentiated.

The Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis Dinsm. http://image03.webshots.com/3/1/31/56/73313156QdzCPm_ph.jpg

Plants Unique to Palestine: Among about 165 vascular plant species known solely from Palestine are the Palestine Iris Iris Palaestina, the Dark-purple Iris Iris atropurpurea, the Mount Gilboa Iris Iris haynei, Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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the Sharon Plain Sedge Cyperus sharonensis, the Palestine Bedstraw Galium philistaeum, the Israel Orchid Anacamptis israelitica, the Tel Aviv Stork's Bill Erodium telavivense, a sorrel Rumex aeroplaniformis, the Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis, the Har Ramon Buffonia Bufonia ramonensis, the Naqab Alkanet Hormuzakia negevensis, the Danin Fennel Ferula daninii, the Naqab Onion Allium negevense, and Allium tardiflorum. Mosheovia is sometimes considered an endemic genus distinct from the widespread Scrophularia. Palestine and Israel are included in the Mediterranean Basin biodiversity hotspot. Important terrestrial ecoregions include the Eastern Mediterranean Conifersclerophyllous-broadleaf Forests (WWF) and the Southern Anatolian Montane Conifer and Deciduous Forests (WWF).

Fauna in Palestine: As in many Western countries, a growing population and increasing industrial development in Palestine and Israel are destroying natural habitats, propelling biodiversity into a decline. Palestine and Israel have responded by pronouncing a fifth of the land area as nature reserves. The history of animal life in Palestine stretches back some 60 million years, when the sea covering the area finally retreated. It was during the Pleistocene era, however, a million years ago, that an influx of creatures especially decisive for the development of animal life in this part of the world arrived. Animals which are now characteristic of the East African savannas moved into the area: hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), rhinoceros, warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) and various species of gazelle. They were later joined by animals migrating from western and central Asia - wild horses (Equus ferus), wild asses, wolves (Canis lupus) and badgers. Changes in climate, destruction of forests and hunting have resulted in the extermination of many of these species. The introduction of firearms at the end of the 19th century along with the tradition of hunting, for example, resulted in the rapid disappearance of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), Syrian onagers (Equus hemionus), Syrian bears (Ursus arctos syriacus), cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Hunting is still permitted in Palestine and Israel, although the Palestinian Environment Law no. 7 of 1999, and the Israeli Wildlife Protection Law of 1955 restricts the hunting season and hunting areas, as well as prohibiting certain methods of hunting (traps, explosives, poisoning). Hare, wild boar (Sus scrofa), partridge and some duck species may be hunted, but in limited numbers and only with a permit.

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Mammals: Today, the largest Mammals are Palestinian mountain gazelles or Edmi (Gazella gazella gazella), Palestine wild boar (Sus scrofa libycus), foxes like the Palestinian red fox (Vulpes vulpes palaestina), Palestinian jungle cats (Felis chaus furax), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) and the rarely seen Arabian leopard or Nimr (Panthera pardus nimr), Arabian caracal lynx (Felis caracal schmitzi), Syrian striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena syriaca), Palestinian golden jackals (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008), Arabian wolves (Canis lupus arabs), Persian honey badgers or ratel (Mellivora capensis wilsoni), Persian common badgers (Meles meles canescens) and Persian common river otters (Lutra lutra seistanica).

The Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008). www.flickr.com/photos/ilanphoto/3262583818/ Palestine is home to a large variety of smaller mammals; from bats (over 30 species), hedgehogs, the Syrian hare (Lepus capensis syriacus), the Syrian rock hyrax or coney (Procavia capensis syriaca), the Syrian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus syriacus), the Indian Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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crested porcupine (Hystrix indica), Palestine's largest rodent; to the exotic sounding Palestine short-tailed bandicoot rat (Nesokia indica bacheri), Cairo spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), the Palestine golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus harrisoni Atallah, 1970), the Gaza or Palestine house mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007), desert jerboas like the Palestine or Jaffa lesser jerboa (Jaculus jaculus schlueteri), gerbils, jirds like the Palestine or Naqab (Negev) jird (Meriones sacramenti), the Palestine fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus terraesanctae), to the more mundane sounding brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), Palestine or Jaffa mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus ehrenbergi), dormice, Syrian grey hamsters (Cricetulus migratorius cinerascens), Syrian or golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), the GĂźnther's social vole (Microtus socialis guentheri), the Palestine lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens portali) and the nutria or coypu (Myocastor coypus).

The Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/mus_musculus_gazaensis_khalaf_2007_gaza_palestine_h ouse_mouse.jpg In all, there are 116 different species of Mammals in Palestine, compared with 140 in the whole of Europe, which is 300 times larger. This is an impressive figure for a small country, but the numbers of animals within each species is shrinking. Since the 1960s, the Israeli Nature Reserves Authority has been reintroducing populations of animals which were native to the area in biblical times, under a program known as Hai-Bar. Breeding centers for Mediterranean animals (in the Carmel) and desert animals (at Yotvata in the Wadi Araba) have been set up, and five species selected for the first stage: ostriches, roe deer, Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) and white oryx (Oryx leucoryx). All except the roe deer are globally endangered. The founder animals for each species came from both zoos and the wild, around the world. Successful reintroductions into the wild have already been implemented for the Asiatic wild ass (starting in 1982), the fallow deer (since 1996) and the white oryx (since 1997).

Birds: Palestine's location on the migration route from Europe and Western Asia to Africa is responsible for the very large number of bird species in the country. The volume of avian travelers is so massive, in fact that their migration routes are carefully monitored, and aircraft are forbidden to fly in these paths. Honey buzzards (Pernis apivorus) and pelicans are among the larger migrants that fill the skies in March and October. Coots and starlings spend winters here feasting on food provided by Palestine's fish farms and farmland. The Palestine Sunbird or Northern Orange-tufted Sunbird (Cinnyris oseus), bulbul (Pycnonotidae) and songbirds such as sylvia warblers and goldcrests (Regulus regulus) nest here year round. A number of raptor species - among them imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) and spotted eagles (Aquila clanga), falcons, hawks, sparrowhawks, kestrels and long-legged buzzards (Buteo rufinus) - make their home in Palestine.

The Palestinian National Bird: The Palestine Sunbird (Cinnyris oseus). www.birdfinders.co.uk/images/palestine-sunbird-male-israel-spring-2009.jpg Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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Raptors of today are, however, only a fraction of the large population that lived in the country as recently as the 19th century. Hunting, poisoning and drastically fewer animal carcasses left lying in open fields have all taken their toll, and it is now planned to bolster endangered raptor species and reintroduce those that are extinct. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), lappet-faced or Nubian vultures (Torgos tracheliotos), lanner falcons (Falco biarmicus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) and lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) are being bred in captivity; feeding stations are provided in the wild, and their nesting sites are protected.

Reptiles: There are 97 different native reptile species. They include two chameleon subspecies, the Mediterranean chameleon (chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista), found in central and northern Palestine, and the Sinai chameleon chamaeleo chamaeleon musae, found in southern desert regions. Many lizards like the Lebanon lizard (lacerta laevis), the roughtail rock agama (laudakia stellio stellio), desert monitors (Varanus griseus), Egyptian dabb or mastigure or spiny-tailed lizard (uromastyx aegyptius), skinks, geckos like the Mediterranean gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) are all living in Palestine. Palestine is home to a broad selection of turtles representing several different orders: pond turtles, land turtles, softshell turtles, sea turtles and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Palestine has two species of land tortoises: the Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera), the most common turtle in Palestine and the much rarer Egyptian tortoise (Testudo kleinmanni), a desert species. The temperate Mediterranean tortoise was one of the first creatures in Palestine to be declared a protected species because its popularity as a pet, and in some Mediterranean countries, as a delicacy. In fact in many parts of its range it is now extinct or endangered. In Palestine though you can still come across the tortoise in many areas, local parks and gardens, especially during the spring. Another easily seen turtle is the Caspian turtle or Striped-neck terrapin (Mauremys caspica), which is found in ponds, drainage ditches, lakes, sewage ditches and wetland areas. While the highly endangered African softshell turtle (Trionyx triunguis) is on the verge of extinction in this country, due to the pollution of Palestine's coastal rivers, the Caspian turtle thrives in polluted water, with particularly high concentrations found in sewage runoff and sewage treatment pools. While Caspian turtles can be found all over central and northern Palestine, the Hula nature reserve in northern Palestine is a particularly good place to see them, as wooden boardwalks allow you to walk over the marsh and lake and see the turtles up close. They enjoy sunning themselves on rocks and logs by the water, often stacked on top of each other in piles as many as seven turtles high.

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Marine turtles are much less easy to spot, and sadly, are highly endangered. As in many Mediterranean countries, the development of Palestine's coastal cities and beaches has dealt a harsh blow to sea turtles, which lay their eggs on Palestine's beaches. Conservation efforts are underway in Palestine and Israel to protect this species, with protected beaches on both the Mediterranean and Red Sea coast (Aila or Eilat). There are about 40 species of snake in Palestine from tiny, pink, worm-like blind worm snakes (Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus) which live underground to impressive specimens such as the desert dwelling Persian horned viper (Pseudocerastes persicus), one of the few poisonous Palestinian species. The great majority of Palestine's snakes are harmless to humans, performing a public service by eating rodents and invertebrates.

The Palestine Viper (Vipera palaestinae). http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/faunainpalestine.htm Many biblical verses appear to describe types of snake found in Palestine to this day. Snakes mentioned by name include desert species such as the black desert cobra (Walterinnesia aegyptia), Persian horned viper and the Palestine saw-scaled viper (Echis coloratus), as well as the Palestinian viper (Vipera palaestinae) found in temperate parts of the country.

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Amphibians: Nine amphibian species have been recorded in Palestine: One newt species, one salamander species and seven species of frogs and toads. Amphibians in Palestine belong to two orders; (i) Caudata; (ii) Salientia or Anura; six families: (i) Salamandridae; (ii) Bufonidae; (iii) Hylidae, (iv) Ranidae, (v) Pelobatidae, (vi) Discoglossidae; and seven genera, five of which are important wetland species.

The extinct Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog (Discoglossus nigriventer). http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Amphibien_Amphibia/ The most commonly seen in Palestine is the European Green Toad (Bufo viridis). The other species are: The Syrian or Eastern Spadefoot Toad (Pelobates syriacus), the Anatolian or Savigny's Tree Frog (Hyla savignyi), the newly discovered Jerusalem or Judean Hills tree frog (Hyla heinzsteinitzi), the Marsh or Lake Frog (Rana ridibunda), the Edible or Water Frog (Rana esculenta), and the extinct Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog (Discoglossus nigriventer) (Khalaf-von Jaffa, February 2007). The two other amphibians are: The endangered Near Eastern Fire Salamander (Salamandra maculosa infraimmaculata) and the rare Southern Banded Newt or Triton (Triturus vittatus) (Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, December 2008). Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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Invertebrates: Because invertebrates were decimated by human activity less than higher classes were, they are the best example of the country's position as a meeting ground for creatures of extremely divergent geographic origin. The number of insects, spiders, crustaceans and other invertebrates reaches an estimated 30,000 species, and there is an incredible variety of forms and colours. In addition to countrywide species, many are restricted to limited areas. Richest in invertebrate fauna are regions which abound in warmth, water and vegetation, such as the Hula Valley, the valleys around the Sea of Tiberias, and some of the northern parts of the Coastal Plain. The use of insecticides and biological warfare against crop pests or plagues succeeds in reducing the attacked species greatly, but only rarely makes it disappear. The introduction of new farming crops also brings the appearance of new pests, previously unknown; cotton growing, since the beginning of the 1950s, caused the spreading of the Egyptian cotton bollworm (Earias insulana). The introduction of groundnuts brought other species; citrus growers must wage constant war against the Mediterranean fruit fly or medfly (Ceratitis capitata). Of creatures harmful to man, best known are scorpions, among them the common black scorpion (Nebo hierichonticus) and the more dangerous yellow scorpion (Buthus quinquestriatus). The bite of a large spider, the black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), may cause considerable trouble (Khalaf, 2001, in “Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin” Website).

The newly discovered Palestinian arctiid moth (Olepa schleini Witt et al., 2005). www.zsm.mwn.de/lep/e/israel.htm Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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Animals Unique to Palestine: Mammals found only in this region include four chromosomal species of the Palestine blind mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi) and the Naqab or Negev Shrew (Crocidura ramona). Other unique Palestinian species include the newly discovered Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008), the Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007), the Palestine Sunbird (Cinnyris oseus) and the Palestine or Yellow-vented or White-eyed Bulbul (Pycnonotus xanthopygos). The Be‟er Al-Sabae‟ (Be'er Sheva) Fringe-fingered Lizard Acanthodactylus beershebensis is a critically endangered endemic reptile. Endemic amphibians include the recently discovered Jerusalem or Judean Hills tree frog Hyla heinzsteinitzi and the extinct Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog Discoglossus nigriventer, last collected in 1955. Freshwater fish species unique to the area include the Tiberias or Kinneret Bleak Acanthobrama terraesanctae, the Al-Auja (Yarqon) or Tel Aviv Bleak Acanthobrama telavivensis, the extinct Hula bleak Acanthobrama hulensis, and the possibly extinct Longjaw Tristram Tilapia Tristramella sacra. The Ben-Tuvia‟s Goby Didogobius bentuvii is apparently known only from the type collected in the Mediterranean off the mouth of the Rubin River.

The Jaffa Marine Amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis) from Jaffa, Palestine. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Jaffa_Amphipod.html

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The most distinctive endemic invertebrate is the Ayalon Cave blind scorpion Akrav israchanani known only from Ayalon Cave and the sole member of the family Akravidae. Endemic insects include the Naqab jewel beetle Xantheremia freidbergi, the northern Palestine longhorned beetle Agapanthia orbachi, the Israeli leaf beetle Gonioctena israelita, and the Palestinian grasshopper Sphingonotus angulatus. Other endemic invertebrates include the Ayalon Cave blind prawn Typhlocaris ayyaloni, the Palestinian jumping spider Salticus amitaii, the Israeli scorpion Birulatus israelensis, the Jerusalem or Judean Hills centipede Cryptops pori, and the Jaffa marine amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis Bellan-Santini & Kaim-Malka, 1977) from Jaffa, Palestine (Khalaf-von Jaffa, July 2005).

The Palestinian grasshopper Sphingonotus angulatus. http://albums.timg.co.il/userFolders/9/113868/11386820069720339.jpg

Aila's Coral Reef: The coral reef of Aila (Eilat) is regarded as a national treasure, and its corals, sponges and shellfish have been protected since 1956. The reef ecosystem is one of the most diverse in the world: 1,270 different species of fish, belonging to 157 families, make their home there, along with hundreds of species of coral and 1,120 species of mollusk. The Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


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region's rich fauna attracts frequent visits of large vertebrates, such as whale sharks (Rhincodon typus), dugongs (Dugong dugon), and dolphins, and the beach area is a nesting site for hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricate). The waters above the coral reef are a popular feeding ground and a vital resting place for some 280 species of birds that overfly this area in fall and spring, en route to Africa from Europe in the fall and vice versa in the spring.

Safeguarding Palestine's Flora and Fauna: Israel ratified the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in August 1995; and the Palestinian Authority is also committed to the Convention. Long committed to protecting the flora and fauna, national parks and nature reserves, Palestine and Israel have formulated specific targets. These include:     

developing a comprehensive plan for preserving biodiversity establishing a network of protected areas for preserving ecosystems and species rehabilitating damaged ecosystems advancing public awareness and promoting knowledge and expertise through formal and informal education Coordinating national action with international and regional plans.

Classification of Living Species in Palestine: Taxon

Number of Species

Prokaryota thereof:

Species assumed to exist

5,100 Archea Eubacteria

100 5,000

Protoctista

1,800

900

Algae

2,000

100

Fungi TOTAL LOWER KINGDOMS Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009

800 9,700

1000


18

Bryophyta

260

30

Lichens

235

?

Ferns - wild

25

?

Ferns - cultivated

70

?

Spermatophya - wild

2,780

110

Spermatophyta - cultivated

2,750

?

TOTAL PLANTAE

6,120

140

Sponges

160

10-20

Cnidarians

870

30-50

25

?

Worms - flat, round, annelids

1,280

100

Total mollusks

2,200

30-50

65

?

3,400

500

20,500

2000

160

?

28,660

2,720

100

?

30

?

1,728

150-200

Comb-jellies

thereof: Inland and terrestrial mollusks Mediterranean mollusks

229

850

Red Sea mollusks 1,120 Bryozoans Arthropoda (except insects) Arthropoda (insects) Echinoderms Total Invertebrates Sea squirts Hemichordates Fish

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thereof: Freshwater fish wild

36

Freshwater fish cultivated

12

Mediterranean fish Red Sea fish

410

1,270

Amphibians

9

Reptiles

97

1-3

Birds

511

40-50

Mammals

116

1-2

2,591

255

TOTAL ANIMALIA

31,251

2,975

TOTAL SPECIES

47,071

4,115

Total Vertebrates

The estimated number of species assumed to exist is based on unidentified material already collected but not yet described, as well as species that should be found in Israel, according to taxonomists specializing in the different groups of flora and fauna.

References and Internet Websites: Abd Rabou, Dr. Abdel Fattah N. (2009). On the occurrence of some carnivores in the Gaza Strip, Palestine (Mammalia: Carnivora). Zoology in the Middle East, Volume 46 – 2009. Short Communications, pps. 109-112. Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Animals and Plants Unique to Israel and Palestine. Living National Treasures: Israel and Palestine. http://lntreasures.com/ip.html BBC. Unknown creatures found in cave. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5036618.stm Be‟er Al-Sabae‟ (Be'er Sheva) Fringe-fingered Lizard Acanthodactylus beershebensis. Photo. www.igooglemymother.com/?catid=%7B52A99194-6210-4878-9D18-3E608B9503CC%7D Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


20 BioLib. Palestine Oak Quercus calliprinos Webb. www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id77325/?taxonid=506673 Crocidura Ramona. www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=13700189 Elbaum, Leiah (2005). Israeli reptiles. www.geocities.com/jelbaum/creatures.html Elbaum, Leiah (2005). Small Israeli mammals. www.geocities.com/jelbaum/smallmammals.html Elliman, Wendy. Flora and Fauna in Israel. Based on reports submitted by Dr. Reuven Ortal, Nature Reserves Authority. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2001/9/Flora%20and%20Fauna%20in%20Isr ael Fauna in Israel. www.israelinphotos.com/gallery21.htm Flickr. Palestine Golden Jackal (Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008). Photo. www.flickr.com/photos/ilanphoto/3262583818/ Flora of Israel Online. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Senecio joppensis Dinsm. http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?lang=en&action=specie&specie=SENJOP Flora of Israel Online. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Galium philistaeum Boiss. http://flora.huji.ac.il/browse.asp?action=specie&specie=GALPHI Flowers in Israel. www.flowersinisrael.com/index.html Gaza or Palestine House Mouse (Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007). Photo. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/mus_musculus_gazaensis_khalaf_2007_gaza_palestine_house_m ouse.jpg Grasshopper Sphingonotus angulatus. http://albums.timg.co.il/userFolders/9/113868/11386820069720339.jpg Honey Plants of Palestine. http://home-andgarden.webshots.com/album/19539462EHchrYJJQZ Hyla heinzsteinitzi. http://amphibiaweb.org/cgi-bin/amphib_query?query_src=aw_maps_geomide&table=amphib&special=one_record&where-genus=Hyla&where-species=heinzsteinitzi Insects of Israel. www.zsm.mwn.de/lep/e/israel.htm Israel Insect World. www.nature-of-oz.com/ Israel: new invertebrate animal species found in cave. http://dearkitty.blogsome.com/2006/05/30/israel-new-invertebrate-animal-species-found-incave/ Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1980). Tabie‟t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401 AH. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1981). Fawa'ed Alasmak. (The Benefits of Fishes). Al-Biology Magazine, Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. Number 1. Sunday 07.06.1981, 05. Sha'ban 1401 AH. pp. 54-55. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1982). A‟maar Al-Haywanat (Animal Ages). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 06.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (Translator) (1982). Al-Miah Al-Mulawatha Tohaded Al-Asmak Bi‟ilinqiraad (Water Pollution threatens the Fish Fauna with Extinction). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 18, Third Year, First Semester, Saturday 6.11.1982. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 7. (Translation from German into Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1983). Haywan Al-Ghurair / Al-Gharir fi Falestin wa Shibeh Al-Jazeera AlArabia (The Badger in Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


21 Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 2. February 1983. pp. 12 -13. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1983). Ta‟qib „Ala Maqal „Ilmi: Haywan Al-Ghurair / Al-Gharir (A Scientific Comment: The Badger). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp. 20. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman (1983). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Al-Khalisah Bulletin. The National Palestinian Assemblage. Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year. Number 3. April 1983. pp. 18 -19. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1983). Order Lagomorpha in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 1-9. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (1983). The Pine Bunting in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. First Year. Number 1. July 1983. pp. 10-13. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1983). The Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) in the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. First Year. Number 2. August 1983. pp. 1-30. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1983). The Brown Bear in Palestine and the rest of the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. First Year. Number 3. November 1983. pp. 1-6. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (Translator) (1983). Al-Tasjeel Al-Hay Al-Awal li-Samaket Kozat Al-Snobar (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn) min Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar [The Pinecone Fish (Monocentris japonicus, Houttuyn), A First Live Record from the Red Sea] by: Chaim Kropach. Bulletin of the Biological Studies Club, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. First Year, Number 4, 07.12.1983. pp. 6-8. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Fennec: The Desert Fox (Fennecus zerda). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 4. April 1984. pp. 1-12. Al Salimiah, State of Kuwait. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) in the Arabian Peninsula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 1-18. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984). The Palestine Bulbul. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Second Year. Number 5. May 1984. pp. 19-20. Hanweiler, Saarland, Federal Republic of Germany. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1984-1985). The Weasel Project: Scientific Research on captive weasels (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in the Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, England, during the Academic Year 1984-1985. Supervisor: Dr. Nigel Dunstone. Unpublished scientific research and data & scientific diary. Research Notebook. pp. 1-52. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1985). The Arabian Ostrich. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Department of Zoology, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom. Volume 3. Number 6. April 1985. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali B.(1986). The Schooling of Fishes. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 9. Fourth Year. Ramadan 1406. May 1986. Durham, United Kingdom. pp. 113. Khalaf, N.A.B. (1986). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Dissertation, Master of Science in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. pps. 59 + iv. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). The Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Saarbrücken Zoo, Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


22 Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11, Jamadi Alaula 1407 AH, January 1987 AD. pp. 1-10. Khalaf, Norman (1987). Al-Numour Fi Falestin (Leopards in Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 11, Jamadi Alaula 1407 AH, January 1987 AD. pp. 12-13. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). The Sinai Leopard (Panthera pardus jarvisi) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year. Number 12. Jamadi Alakhera 1407 AH, February 1987 AD. pp.1-9. Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1987). A Trip to Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Fifth Year, Number 13, Ramadan 1407 AH, April 1987 AD. pp. 1-5. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Palästina, Norman Ali Bassam (1988). The Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 17, Sixth Year, Ramadan 1408 AH, Mai 1988 AD. pp. 1-8. Khalaf-von Palästina, Norman Ali Bassam (1988). The Honey Badger in Kuwait Zoo, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 18, Sixth Year, Rabie‟ Alakher 1409 AH, November 1988 AD. pp. 1-2. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (1989). Notes on the Caracal Lynx Caracal caracal. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 19, Seventh Year, December 1989. pp. 1-2. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1990). The Wolf (Canis lupus) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn- Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 20, Eighth Year, December 1990. pp. 1-11. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). A Trip to Zoo Budapest, Hungary. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 21, Ninth Year, January 1991. pp. 1-4. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1991). The Otter (Lutra lutra) in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 22, Ninth Year, February 1991. pp. 1-4. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). Die Dinosaurier Ausstellung im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 27, Tenth Year, April 1992. pp. 1-8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B. (1993). Al-Mushkilatan Al-Ma‟eyah wa Al-Bi‟eyah fi Al-Dafah Al-Gharbiyah wa Qita‟ Ghaza Al-Muhtalain (Ka-Juzu‟ min Al-Sharq Al-Awsat) [The Water and the Ecological Problems in the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip (As Part of the Middle East)]. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 31. Eleventh Year. December 1993. Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany. pp. 1- 29. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine. Shqae‟q Al-Nouma‟n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (in Arabic). Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


23 Acquaintance Card: Majallet Al-Ghazzal (Gazelle Magazine): The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn, Germany. Shqae‟q Al-Nouma‟n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 51-52. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali B.(1995). Alasmak fi Filistin (Die Fische von Palästina / The Fishes of Palestine). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 33. Thirteenth Year. December 1995. Bonn, Germany. pp.1-35. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Ali (1997). Fennec. Magazin der Akademie. Editor: Ali Khalaf. Nummer 1. Zu Elkeda 1417 H, März 1997. König Fahad Akademie – Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Deutschland. (in Englisch). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2001). Foxes of Palestine. www.geocities.com/ali_porsche2000/fox.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). A Palestinian Zoologist: Dr. Sana Issa Atallah. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Environmental Affairs 2 and Dinosaurs. http://gazelle.8m.net/custom3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Indigenous Animals. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Website. www.gazelle.8m.net/photo4.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Khalaf (2001). Invertebrate Land Animals. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Website. www.gazelle.8m.net/custom.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Extinct and Endangered Animals in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Threatened Mammals. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Home Page. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Syrian Bear. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Mesopotamian or Persian Fallow Deer. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Wild Cats in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. / Gazelle: Das Palaestinensische Biologische Bulletin Webseite. (ISSN 01786288). http://gazelle.8m.net/contact.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). Leopards in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. http://gazelle.8m.net/whats_new.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Mustelids of Palestine. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. Mammals in Palestine and the Book “Mammalia Arabica”. http://gazelle.8m.net/catalog.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (2001). The Common Weasel. In: Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin Homepage. Extinct and Endangered Animals and Reintroduction. http://gazelle.8m.net/photo3.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Gründer) (seit Juli 2001). Dinosaurier Club Yahoo Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Dinosaurier_Club/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2004: 452 Seiten. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


24 Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gazelle_Bulletin.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). The Reptiles in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre in the Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 34, 22nd Year, August 2004. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Die Wal Sonderausstellung "Delphinidae Delphionidae" und "Kleinwale in Nord- und Ostsee" im Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 35, Twenty-second Year, September 2004. pp. 1. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Yunus (Jonah) and the Whale. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 9-13. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Story of Prophet Musa (Moses) and the Fish. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 14-15. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Moses Perch (Lutjanus russelli, Bleeker 1849). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 15. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Fish of Musa (Samak Musa). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 38, Twenty-third Year, February 2005. pp. 16. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Samak Al-Luchs (Al-Hamoor) or the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in Palestine (Mediterranean Sea) and the United Arab Emirates (Arabian Gulf). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twentythird Year, March 2005. pp. 1-6. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Jaffa (Yaffa): The History of an Old Palestinian Arab City on the Mediterranean Sea. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 7-8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Andromeda Sea Monster of Jaffa. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 8. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) / Der Riesenzackenbarsch oder Judenfisch (Epinephelus itajara). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 39, Twenty-third Year, March 2005. pp. 9-12. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Freshwater Fishes in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 40, Twenty-third Year, April 2005. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabian_Freshwater_Fish.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Leopards of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 41, Twenty-third Year, May 2005. pp. 1-9. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Leopard.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Der Arabische Leopard, Panthera pardus nimr. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 42. Twenty-third Year. June 2005. pp. 1-8. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabischer_Leopard.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Jaffa Amphipod (Ampelisca jaffaensis, Bellan-Santini & Kaim-Malka, 1977) from Jaffa, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 43. Twenty Third Year. July 2005. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 1-5. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Jaffa_Amphipod.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


25 Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005 / Aquatica Arabica. Eine Aquatische Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage (First Edition), August 2005: 376 Seiten. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Aquatica_Arabica.html Khalaf, N.A.B. (2005). The Schooling of Sumatra Barbs (Barbus tetrazona tetrazona) and Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). [M.Sc. Dissertation in Ecology, Departments of Zoology and Botany, University of Durham, England. September 1986. pps. 59 + iv]. In: Aquatica Arabica. An Aquatic Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980 - 2005. Erste Auflage, August 2005. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 28-93. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Mammals in Dubai Zoo, Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological bulletin. Number 45, Twenty-third Year, September 2005, Sha‟ban 1426. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Rafah Zoo in the Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip, Palestine : A Story of Destruction by the Israeli Occupation Army. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 46, Twenty-third Year, October 2005, Ramadan 1426 AH. pp. 1-11. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (2005). The Qalqilia Zoo and the Natural History Museum in the City of Qalqilia, West Bank, Occupied Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twenty-third Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426 AH. pp. 1-10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Member of PALESTA) (2005). Palestinian Scientists and Technologists Abroad (PALESTA). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 47, Twentythird Year, November 2005, Shawal 1426 AH. pp. 11-12. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2005). The Arabian Carnivores in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre, Sharjah Desert Park, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 48, Twenty-third Year, December 2005, Thu Alqi‟da 1426 AH. pp. 1-9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). Khalaf, Norman Ali (2005, 2006). Chapter 3: Geography, Flora and Fauna. Pages 32-39. In: Palestine: A Guide. By Mariam Shahin, Photography by George Azar. Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Publishing Group, 2005, 2006. xi + 471 pages. Appendices to page 500. Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Persische Löwe (Panthera leo persica). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 49, Twentyfourth Year, January 2006, Thu Alhijja 1426. pp. 1-5. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Loewe.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). The Sumpters (Animals) of the Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Number 51, Twenty-fourth Year, March 2006, Rabie‟ Alawal 1427. pp. 1-4. (in Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Felidae Palaestina: The Wild Cats of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 52, Twenty-fourth Year, April 2006, Rabie‟ Althani 1427. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Palaestina.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Der Asiatische oder Iranische Gepard (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 53, Twenty-fourth Year, May 2006, Rabie‟ Althani 1427. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatischer_Gepard.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Die Rohrkatze (Felis chaus). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 54, Twenty-fourth Year, June 2006, Jumada Al-Ulla 1427. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Rohrkatze.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Mammalia Palaestina: The Mammals of Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


26 Palestine. / Die Säugetiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 55, Twenty-fourth Year, July 2006, Jumada Al-Thania 1427. pp. 1-46. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina1.html (Part 1) & www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina2.html (Part 2) & www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Palaestina3.html (References). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2006). Mammalia Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2006. / Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2006, 484 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mammalia_Arabica.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica) in Palestine. In: Mammalia Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2006. Erste Auflage, Juli 2006. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland und Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. pp. 147-149. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Lion_Palestine.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ornithomimid Dinosaur Tracks from Beit Zeit, West of Jerusalem, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twentyfourth Year, August 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Dinosaur_Palestine.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine: Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 56, Twenty-fourth Year, August 2006. pp. 8-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Common Weasel (Mustela nivalis, Linnaeus 1766) in Palestine and the East Mediterranean Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 57, Twenty-fourth Year, September 2006. pp. 1-7. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Weasel_Palestine.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Asiatic or Persian Lion (Panthera leo persica, Meyer 1826) in Palestine and the Arabian and Islamic Region. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 58, October 2006, Ramadan 1427 H. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Asiatic_Lion.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). Ein Besuch im Neunkircher Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Deutschland / A Visit to Neunkirchen Zoo, Neunkirchen, Saarland, Germany. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 59, November 2006. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabisch / Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_85658724_59480041_deutsch.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2006). The Mustelids of Palestine. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Mustelid.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Behavioural Observations on the Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus nimr, Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1833) in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 61, January 2007, Thu Al-Hijja 1427 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; References in English and German). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_12069970_59480041_deutsch.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Extinction of the Palestinian or Hula Painted Frog (Discoglossus nigriventer, Mendelssohn and Steinitz 1943): The Result of Israeli Drainage of the Lake Hula. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 62, February 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Hula_Painted_Frog.html Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


27 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Palestinian Frogs and Toads. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 62, February 2007, Muharram 1428. pp. 9. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Frogs_Toads.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The Arabian Amphibians in the Arabia‟s Wildlife Centre, Desert Park, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 62, February 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. pp. 10. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Arabian_Amphibians.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Zum 1. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The First Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 62, Februar 2007, Muharram 1428 AH. Seite 11. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (Group-Gründer ) (seit Februar 2007). Amphibien Amphibia. Yahoo Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Amphibien_Amphibia/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Das Aussterben der Palästinensischer Scheibenzüngler oder Hulesee-Scheibenzüngler (Discoglossus nigriventer, Mendelssohn und Steinitz 1943): Das Resultat der Israelischen Trockenlegung des Hulesees. Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 63, März 2007, Safar 1428 AH. Seiten 1-7. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Hulesee_Scheibenzuengler.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). A Recent Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Kuwaiti Desert, State of Kuwait. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi‟e Al-Awal 1428 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic; Abstract in English, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://khalaf.homepage24.de/text_88839638_13318445_59480041_deutsch.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Sahrawi (Desert Cat or Sand Cat). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 64, April 2007, Rabi'e Al-Awal 1428 AH. p. 21. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%88% D9%8A Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). The First Sight Record of the Arabian Sand Cat (Felis margarita harrisoni, Hemmer, Grubb and Groves 1976) from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 65, May 2007, Rabi‟e Al-Akher 1428 AH. pp. 1-19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Article in English; Abstract in English and Arabic, Kurzfassung in Deutsch; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Sand_Cat.html Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Group-Gründer) (seit Juni 2007). Fauna Palaestina Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Palaestina/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Die Sandkatze oder Wüstenkatze (Felis margarita, Loche 1858). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 66, Juni 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. Seiten 1-13. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Sandkatze.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Mus musculus gazaensis Khalaf, 2007: A New House Mouse Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 66, June 2007, Jamada Al-Ulla 1428 AH. pp. 14-24. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English). Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


28 http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_House_Mouse.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Der Karakal oder Wüstenluchs (Caracal caracal, von Schreber 1776). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 67, Juli 2007, Jamada Al-Akhera 1428 AH. Seiten 1-12. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. (Article in German; References in English, German and Arabic). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Karakal.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Um Rishat (Caracal or Desert Lynx). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D9%85_%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%AA Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Fa‟r Ghaza Al-Manzeli (Gaza House Mouse or Palestine House Mouse). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 68, August 2007, Rajab 1428 AH. p. 1. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D8%A3%D8%B1_%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9_%D8%A7 %D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B2%D9%84%D9%8A Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. 2007. http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_ %D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Felidae Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1980-2007 / Felidae Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1980-2007. Erste Auflage (First Edition), Juli 2007, 300 pp. Norman Ali Khalaf, Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Deutschland & Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic, German and English). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Felidae_Arabica.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Fa‟r Ghaza Al-Manzeli (Gaza House Mouse or Palestine House Mouse). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 68, August 2007, Rajab 1428 AH. p. 1. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D8%A3%D8%B1_%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9_%D8%A7 %D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B2%D9%84%D9%8A Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, September 2007, Sha‟ban 1428 AH. pp. 1-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%AA_ %D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (Group-Gründer) (seit September 2007). Fauna Arabica Yahoo! Deutschland Group. http://de.groups.yahoo.com/group/Fauna_Arabica/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Sanuriyat (Family Felidae). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 70, October 2007. pp. 1-2. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%B3%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Nimer A‟rabi (The Arabian Leopard). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 70, October 2007. pp. 3-4. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%86%D9%85%D8%B1_%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Fahed A‟rabi (Arabian Cheetah). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


29 Biological Bulletin. Number 70, October 2007. pp. 5-6. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%81%D9%87%D8%AF_%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Qit Al-Adghal (Jungle Cat). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 70, October 2007. pp. 7. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%82%D8%B7_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%AF%D8%BA% D8%A7%D9%84 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Um Rishat (Caracal or Desert Lynx). In: Wikipedia-Arabic, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 70, October 2007. pp. 8. (Article in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D9%85_%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%AA Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Story of Sabrina, the Gaza Zoo Lioness. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 73, January 2008. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Gaza_Lioness_Sabrina.html Khalaf, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Zum 2. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The Second Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 74, Februar 2008, Muharram 1429 AH. Seite 15. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). The Persian or Iranian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor, Pocock 1927). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 77, May 2008. pp. 1-15. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Persian_Leopard.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008: A New Golden Jackal Subspecies from the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha‟ban 1429 AH. pp. 1-13. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. (Abstract in English). http://www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Palestine_Golden_Jackal.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Taxon Profile: Subspecies: Palestine Golden Jackal Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008. http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id540278/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Taxon Profile: Subspecies: Palestine Golden Jackal Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha‟ban 1429 AH. pp. 19. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Profil Taxonu: Poddruh: Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008. http://www.biolib.cz/cz/taxon/id540278/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Profil Taxonu: Poddruh: Canis aureus palaestina Khalaf, 2008. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 80, August 2008, Rajab / Sha‟ban 1429 AH. pp. 20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Arabica. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 2005-2008. / Carnivora Arabica. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 2005-2008. First Edition, September 2008, Ramadan 1429 AH. 396 pps. Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. ISBN 978-9948-03-459-9. (In Arabic, English and German). www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Carnivora_Arabica.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Carnivora Palaestina: The Carnivores of Palestine / Die Raubtiere Palästinas. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 82, October 2008, Shawal 1429 AH. pp. 1-25. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


30 www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Carnivora_Palaestina.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Cetacea Palaestina: The Whales and Dolphins in Palestinian Waters. Cetacean Species Guide for Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 83, November 2008, Thu Al-Qi‟ada 1429 AH. pp. 1-14. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Cetacea_Palaestina.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2008). Amphibia Palaestina: The Amphibians of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 84, December 2008, Thu Al-Hijja 1429 AH. pp. 1-18. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Amphibia_Palaestina.html Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Zoologist, Ecologist and Geologist : The Scientific References (1980-2009). http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-references.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). The Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus, Hermann 1779) in Palestinian, Mediterranean and Atlantic Waters. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 85, January 2009, Muharram 1430 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Mediterranean_Monk_Seal.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Rodentia Palaestina: The Rodents of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 86, February 2009, Safar 1430 AH. pp. 1-20. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Rodentia_Palaestina.html Khalaf, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Zum 3. Todestag : Eine Persönlichkeit aus Jaffa, Palästina / The Third Death Anniversary : A Personality from Jaffa, Palestine : Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf (Abu Ali) (1938-2006). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Nummer 86, Februar 2009, Safar 1430 AH. Seite 21. Sharjah, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate. www.geocities.com/jaffacity/Bassam_Khalaf.html Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Israel uses the Eland Antelope (Taurotragus oryx) as a new front line force to protect the Israeli-Lebanese border. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 87, March 2009, Rabi‟e Al awal 1430 AH, pp. 1-8. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://eland-antelope-israel.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 131. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina (Part 1). A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983-2006 / Fauna Palaestina (Teil 1). Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983-2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8 (Book in preparation, Summer 2009). Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa; Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Federal Republic of Germany. http://fauna-palaestina-part-1.webs.com/ LAND UND LEUTE - Die Natur. www.mfa.gov.il/MFADE/Facts%20About%20Israel/LAND%20UND%20LEUTE-%20Die%20Natur McGarvey, J.W. Lands of the Bible. www.dabar.org/McGarvey/Lands/P1_C02.htm Natural Palestine: The Plant Cover. Palestine Wildlife Society. (in Arabic). www.wildlifepal.org/BiodivAra2.htm Palestine Iris Iris palaestina. Photo. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2221/2219347270_d057e9bc4a.jpg?v=0 Palestine Iris Iris palaestina. Photo. http://i.pbase.com/o6/24/687524/1/92610561.9kcigW5j.ON8Y1725pb.jpg Palestine Iris Iris palaestina. Photo. www.flowersinisrael.com/picts/wfp%20Iris%20palaestina%20%20IMG_0265.jpg Palestine Iris Iris palaestina. Photo. http://image08.webshots.com/8/9/23/11/116692311gcVnWR_fs.jpg Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


31 Palestine Sunbird Photo. www.birdfinders.co.uk/images/palestine-sunbird-male-israel-spring2009.jpg Palestinian viper Vipera palaestinae. POISONOUS SNAKES OF AFRICA AND ASIA. www.aircav.com/survival/appe/asappe18.html Quercus calliprinos, Kermes Oak, Palestine oak. www.flowersinisrael.com/Flowgallery/Quercus_calliprinos_flower2.jpg Salticus amitaii Proszynski, 2000. http://salticidae.org/salticid/diagnost/salticus/amitai-n.htm Skorpione. www.skorpione.de/forum/search.php SPECIATION + GENET. DIVERSITY AMONG MOLE RATS OF ISRAEL. www.schmotzeragrartechnic.com/praveen/NEW/research_3.htm The Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis Dinsm. Photo. http://image03.webshots.com/3/1/33/65/73313365sUtLPy_ph.jpg The Jaffa Groundsel Senecio joppensis. Photo. http://image03.webshots.com/3/1/31/56/73313156QdzCPm_ph.jpg United Nations Information Service. ISRAEL STILL DESTROYING OCCUPIED TERRITORIES. SECOND COMMITTEE DELEGATES SAY AT CONCLUSION OF DEBATE ON ARAB SOVEREIGNTY. www.unis.unvienna.org/unis/pressrels/2003/gaef3064.html West Bank or Judea and Samaria. (in Arabic). www.elaphblog.com/posts.aspx?u=1124&A=8651 Wikipedia. Acanthobrama hulensis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthobrama_hulensis Wikipedia. Acanthobrama terraesanctae. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acanthobrama_terraesanctae Wikipedia. Palestine Sunbird. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palestine_Sunbird Wikipedia. Pflanzen in der Bibel. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pflanzen_in_der_Bibel Wikipedia. Quercus calliprinos. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercus_calliprinos Wikipedia. Senecio glaucus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senecio_glaucus Wikipedia. Tristramella sacra. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tristramella_sacra WWF. Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests (PA1207). www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa1207_full.html WWF. Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests (PA1220). www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/pa/pa1220_full.html Zisling, Yael. So How Exactly Does a Sabra Look? www.gemsinisrael.com/e_article000012014.htm

The Be‟er Al-Sabae‟ (Be'er Sheva) Fringe-fingered Lizard Acanthodactylus beershebensis. www.igooglemymother.com/?catid=%7B52A99194-6210-4878-9D18-3E608B9503CC%7D

Gazelle – Number 91 – July 2009


Flora and Fauna in Palestine  

Flora and Fauna in Palestine. By: Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa. A Stunning Variety: Packed into Palestine...

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