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WIREVOXELS // INTERLACE

Research Cluster 4, 2015-2016 M.Arch Architectural Design

UCL, The Bartlett School of Architecture


RESEARCH CLUSTER 4, GILLES RETSIN, MANUEL JIMENEZ WIREVOXELS: MEIZI LI, ONYEE WONG, DONGHWI KIM, SUPAKIJ HOMTHONG


CONTENTS 00 INTRODUCTION

07

00.01 RESEARCH STRAND

08

00.02 MATERIALITY

10

00.03 PRECEDENT STUDIES

12

00.04 DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION

14

01 INITIAL DESIGN

19

01.01 INITIAL DESIGN : TILE

22

01.02 CHAIR VOXELISATION AND TOPOLOGY STUDY

24

02 INITIAL FABRICATION

27

02.01 MATERIAL TEST

28

02.02 CASTING AND ASSEMBLY

30

02.03 FABRICATED CHAIR

32

03 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1

35

03.01 INITIAL CURVES DEVELOPMENT

36

03.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

38

04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

41

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXEL 01

42

04.02 TEST CASE : FREI OTTO COLUMN

52

05 INITIAL METAL WIRE AND BENDING RESEARCH

55

05.01 BENDING AND WELDING RESEARCH

56

05.02 BENDING MACHINE RESEARCH

58


06 ROBOTIC ASSEMBLY

65

05.02 FABRICATION WORKFLOW

66

07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3

71

07.01 DESIGN SKETCHES

72

07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

78

07.03 TEST CASE : TABLE

88

07.02 TEST CASE : COLUMN

90

08 WIREVOXELS DESIGN STRATEGY

95

08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

96

08.02 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB

104

08.03 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB AND COLUMN

112

09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT

117

09.01 METAL WIRE RESEARCH

118

09.02 CUSTOMIZED ROBOTIC BENDING

120

09.03 BENDING VOXELS : 1ST SKETCH VOXELS

124

09.04 BENDING VOXELS : SIMPLIFIED VOXELS

126

09.05 WELDING PROCESS

128

09.06 ASSEMBLING PROCESS

130

10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

133

10.01 ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 01

134

10.02 ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 02

144

10.03 CONSTRUCTION STRATEGY

150

11 PHYSICAL FLOOR SLAB

153

11.01 ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION STRATEGY

154

11.02 INSTALLATION

158


RESEARCH STRAND

INTRODUCTION

00.01 RESEARCH STRAND 00.02 MATERIALITY 00.03 PRECEDENT STUDIES 00.03 DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION DESIGN RESEARCH INITIAL DESIGN 01.01 INITIAL DESIGN : VOXEL 01.02 INITIAL DESIGN : TILE 01.03 CHAIR VOXELISATION AND TOPOLOGY STUDY

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 03.01 INITIAL CURVES DEVELOPMENT 03.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR 04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXEL 01 04.02 TEST CASE : FREI OTTO COLUMN 07.01 DESIGN SKETCHES 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR 07.03 TEST CASE : TABLE 07.02 TEST CASE : COLUMN


ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION 10.01 ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 01 10.02 ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 02 10.03 CONSTRUCTION STRATEGY

COMNPUTATIONAL PROCESS

MATERIAL RESEARCH

FABRICATION RESEARCH INITIAL FABRICATION

INITIAL RESEARCH 02.01 MATERIAL TEST

02.02 CASTING AND ASSEMBLY

09.01 METAL WIRE RESEARCH

02.03 FABRICATED CHAIR FABRICATION DEVLOPMENT

WIREVOXELS DESIGN STRATEGY 08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION 08.02 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB VOXELIZATION

08.03 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB AND COLUMN

09.02 CUSTOMIZED ROBOTIC BENDING 09.03 BENDING VOXELS : 1ST SKETCH VOXELS 09.04 BENDING VOXELS : SIMPLIFIED VOXELS 09.05 WELDING PROCESS 09.06 ASSEMBLING PROCESS


00 INTRODUCTION


00 INTRODUCTION

00.01 RESEARCH STRAND

MEIZI LI // SUPAKIJ HOMTHONG // DONGHWI KIM // ONYEE WONG //

WireVoxels proposes to fabricate building blocks out of robotically bent steel tubes. These blocks are composed of a limited number of serialised steel elements and share the same connection system, YJKEJCNNQYUHQTGHÆ’EKGPVCUUGODN[ The combination of the topology or body-plan of each building block can change in response to its local structural condition. This results in continuously differentiated, yet highly optimised structures, both in terms of structural performance and fabrication logistics.

08


This research challenges the limitation of “SPACE FRAMEâ€? in architectural design and fabrication methodology with computational design and robotic production. When it comes to computational design, the project performs based on “Voxelsâ€? and “B.E.S.O.â€? (Bidirectional Evolutionar y Structural Optimization). In terms of robotic production, it works with robots, bending and assembling metal wires. Voxel is a computer-based modelling medium representing a value on a regular grid in thre -dimensional space. Each voxel contains a unique 3D datum, and when the method to combine this data is provided, the overall voxel space is read as one structure. B.E.S.O. (Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization) is the structural optimization to produce the DGUVQTOQUVCRRTQRTKCVGFGUKIPCEEQTFKPIVQVJGQDLGEVKXGHQTVJGUVTWEVWTG6JKUEQWNFOGCPĆ’PFKPIVJG optimum material, shape, size, thickness, temperature or weight for the structure, under the expected condition. #UCEQPUGSWGPEGVJKURTQLGEVKUCVVGORVKPICVĆ’TUVVQRTGUGPVVJGFGXGNQROGPVUQHĹŤ52#%'(4#/'ĹŹKP CTEJKVGEVWTCNĆ’GNFUPQYCFC[UCPFVQFGĆ’PGVJGOGTKVUCPFFGOGTKVUQHVJGOGVCNYKTGTGNCVGFVQVJGURCEG frame in recent architectural design. Furthermore, it deals with how we can develop the space frame by metal wires especially when it comes to the computational design and fabrication in the methodology of contemporary design.

09


00 INTRODUCTION 00.02 MATERIALITY

3D Printed Architecture

I n re c e n t yea r s , 3 D r a p i d p ro to t y p e m a c h i n e s h ave b e c o m e mainstream. Par ticularly, 3D Printers have been in the spotl i g h t , n o t o n l y f o r b u s i n e s s u s e s b u t a l s o f o r i n d i v i d u a l h o bbies and D. I.Y at home. However, 3D printers that use plast i c e x t r u s i o n e x p o s e a n u m b e r o f l i m i t a t i o n s . T h i s i s d u e to t h e m a c h i n e o n l y b e i n g a b l e to m a ke l ayer s o f t h i n l i n e s , a n d during the process, when it makes a line in midair, this condition is not suitable for making a straight line. The plastic m a t e r i a l o f t h e 3 D p r i n t e r i s to o w e a k to m a ke a s i n g l e l i n e i n the air. Moreover, in reality, since it takes time for the line to s o l i d i f y a n d d u e to t h e g r avi t y, t h e e x t r u d e d s i n g l e l i n e c a n n o t b e a s t r a i g h t l i n e . I t c a n b e b e n t a n d b ro ke n e a s i l y. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e m a c h i n e s req u i re s u p p o r t i n g b a s e w h e n p r i n t i n g t h e o b j e c t w h i c h c o u l d l e a d to w a s t i n g a l a rg e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l , w h i l s t o n to p o f t h a t , s l o w i n g d o w n t h e p ro c e s s a s w e l l .

Limitation of Plastic Exturding

10


Metal Wire Frame

W h e n w e c o n s i d e r t h e s e p ro b l e m s a t h a n d , w e s e a rc h f o r a b e t t e r o p t i o n a n d i f w e c a n m a ke a s t ro n g s i n g l e l i n e i n s p a c e rather than vo lumes, we can also imagine a new kind of printing method which can compensate the defects of 3D printers. As a result, when we use metal wires, we can solve the problems simply. This is because the metal wires are strong e n o u g h to m a ke a s i n g l e t h i n l i n e i n a s p a c e . M o reove r, t h a n k s to a d va n c e d ro b o t i c t e c h n o l o g i e s o r p ro g r a m s , w e a re a b l e to calculate ever y bend points of the metal wires to make a spec i f i c g e o m e t r y to m a t c h w h a t d e s i g n e r w a n t s , a n d t h i s a l l o w s t h e c re a t i o n o f i n t e res t i n g c o m p o n e n t s , voxel s o r m o d u l e s ver y r a p i d l y a n d p re c i s e l y.

Fu r thermore, when it comes to the Architectural industr y, this c a n g i ve a s e n s a t i o n a l i m p a c t o n , n o t o n l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d b u t a l s o d e s i g n m e t h o d o l o g i e s w h i c h a re b a s e d o n t h e m o d u l a r s y s t e m . D u e to t h e p ro j e c t a i m i n g to d e a l w i t h l i n e s m o re t h a n m a s s e s , red u c i n g w e i g h t a n d vo l u m e o f g e o m e t r y by t r y i n g to c re a t e a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e i n s i d e a u n i t ( voxe l ) w a s focused on, avoiding either fabricating or casting heavy mater i a l s . N o t o n l y t h i s a i m , b u t t h e p ro j e c t a l s o e n v i s i o n e d i d e a s to t h e n e x t s t e p i n c re a t i n g m e t a l w i re b e n d i n g t h a t c o u l d g i ve t h e p ro j e c t m o re b e n e f i t s c o m p a re to c a s t i n g o r p l a s t i c extruding which may have some erro rs, problems of structural reinforcement in larger scale and cannot be reused and recycled. T h e re f o re , t h i s res e a rc h a i m s to e x p l o re t h e j o u r n ey o f f a b r i c a t i o n f ro m c o n t i n u o u s to d i s c ret e a n d h o w e f f i c i e n t i t c a n b e i f w e u s e ro b o t s n o t o n l y i n t h e f a b r i c a t i o n b u t a l s o i n t h e a s s e m b l i n g p ro c e s s c o m p a re d w i t h m a n u a l a s s e m b l i n g a s w e l l a s to s e a rc h h o w to a p p l y to t h e a rc h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . Wire Frame Architecture

11


00 INTRODUCTION

00.03 PRECEDENT STUDIES

Roof Construction for Aircraft Hangar, Konrad Wachsmann, 1951-1953

Heydar Aliyev Center, Zaha Hadid, 2007

Clouds of Venice, Supermanoeuver, 2015 12


In fact, the metal wire work is not new thing in the architect u r a l f i e l d . I n t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y, m a n y m e t a l w i r e b u i l d i n g s had not only demonstrated beauty but also the successful p ro f i t o f t h e m e t a l w i re, e x a m p l e d by a m a z i n g a rc h i t e c t s w h o p u r s u e d ‘ H i g h - t e c h A rc h i t e c t u re’ . M a n y p e o p l e h ave s u p p o r te d t h e m e t a l w i re s t y l e i n a rc h i t e c t u re f i e l d s b e c a u s e o f i t s beautiful of appearance but also its prosperous economics for the construction and maintenance. A space frame by Buckminster fuller, an excellent pioneer, is e c o n o m i c a l l y fea s i b l e a n d h a s a h i g h d u r a b i l i t y a n d p ro d u c t i v i t y. H o w ever, i t h a s t e n d e d to s h o w h o w h o m o g e n e o u s t h e p a t t e r n a n d s h a p e a s d e s i g n o u t p u t s c a n b e , w h i c h m ay n o t b e t h e M o d e r n i s t s ’ o n e . T h e b u i l d i n g s by Z a h a H a d i d , t h a t s h o w a n o t h e r l evel o f t h e u s e o f s p a c e f r a m e s h o w h e t e rog e n e o u s s h a p e s . N ever th e l e s s , s i n c e t h e eve r y b e a m i s d i f feren t , i t t a kes a l o n g e r a m o u n t o f t i m e a n d e x p e n d i t u re i n f a b r i c a t i o n a n d a s s e m b l i n g . Fu r th e r m o re , t h e p ro j e c t ‘ C l o u d o f Ven i c e’ w h e re t h e m o s t a d va n c e d t e c h n i q u e s w a s a p p l i e d i n t e r m s o f w i re f a b r i c a t i o n , a t t e m p t e d ever y c o m p o n e n t s to u n i t i z a t i o n . H o w ever, i t d i d n o t ove rc o m e t h e rep e t i t i ve , h o mogeneous shape like Buckminster fuller ’s one. This image c o m p a re s a n d s h o w t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e re c e n t s p a c e f r a m e structure. T h u s , t h i s res e a rc h a i m s i n a c h i evi n g t h e m e t h o d to m a ke i t p o s s i b l e i n b u i l d i n g a h e t e ro g e n e o u s f o r m s t r u c t u re a s Z a h a H a d i d h a s i n h e r a rc h i t e c t u re w h i l s t f a b r i c a t i n g m e t a l w i re efficiently like Buckminster fuller at the same time. This is the reason why this research uses the metal wires and comb i n a to r i a l voxel s .

13


00 INTRODUCTION

00.04 DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION

Combinatorics Voxel

Data

Combination of Voxels

14


3 D Voxel s w o r k i n s a m e w ay i n t h a t e a c h voxel c o n t a i n s u n i q e 3 D d a t a , w h e n t h e m e t h o d to c o m b i n e t h i s d a t a i s p rovi d e d , ove r a l l voxe l s p a c e i s rea d a s o n s t r u c t u re . T h e s e i m g a g e s s h o w t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f voxel s c a n m a ke d i f fe re n t a g g re g a t i o n s a n d p a t t e r n s w h e n t h ey c o n n e c t w i t h each other. This project is not only concerned about continuo u s p r i n t a b i l i t y, b u t a l s o i n t e res t e d i n c o n t i n u o u s b e n d i n g , a ss e m b l a g e a n d rever s i b i l i t y. To a c h i eve t h e m e t a l w i re b e n d i n g p ro c e s s , t h i s p ro j e c t e x a m i n e s a n d i n ves t i g a t e s o n s e a rc h i n g a n d g e n e r a t i n g a l g o r i t h m s , a s w e l l to f i n d s u i t a b l e res u l t s i n design optimization.

15


00 INTRODUCTION

00.04 DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION

STRUCTURAL OPIMIZATION

W h e n w e t h i n k n o t o n l y a b o u t t h e i n t e res t o f m a k i n g t h e s h a p e a n d f o r m s b u t a l s o i n t e r m s o f a rc h i t e c t u r a l s p e c t r u m , w e c a n m a ke s o m e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e a p p ro p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e decision of the structural shape and form. Simply speaking, h o w w e c a n m a ke a h e t e ro g e n e o u s s t r u c t u re . N o t o n l y j u s t f o c u s i n g o n h e t e ro g e n e o u s s h a p e s f o r t h e h e t e ro g e n e i t y, b u t f o r h av i n g t h e n a t u r a l a p p ro p r i a t e n e s s w h e n w e d e s i g n t h e c o l u m n s , s l a b s a n d s o o n . M o reove r, i f w e c a n c re a t e a n a t u r a l hetero geneous structure by the structural analysis or interp re t a t i o n w i t h o u t a n y i n t e n t i o n , i t p rovi d e s a n a t u r a l s t r u ct u re s o l u t i o n , a n d c a n b e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l o g i c a n d a d va ntages what the voxel have, for example, economics, simplicity a n d r a t i o n a l i t y. T h e re f o re , a m o n g m a n y m e t h o d s o f s t r u c t u re o p t i m i z a t i o n , the B.E.S.O. (Bidirectional Evolutionar y Structural Optimizat i o n ) i s t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n f o r m e t a l w i re s t r u c t u re . T h e w i re f r a m e i s m o s t a p p ro p r i a t e a n d a l s o i t i s t h e p ro p e r parametric design material which can be changeable under t h e va r i a b l e c o n d i t i o n . L e f t a l s o s h o w s a c a n t i l ever a f t e r a pplying the “BESO for Beams”-component on it. The algorithm w o r k s o n b e a m a n d t r u s s e l e m e n t s o n l y.

Cantilever with initially regular mesh after application of the ”BESO for Beams”-component


SUPPORT

MANAGEMENT OF B.E.S.O.

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17


01 INITIAL DESIGN


01 INITIAL DESIGN

01.01 INITIAL DESIGN : TILE

(TQOQWTGZRGTKOGPVUKPÆ’PFKPIRQUUUKDNGEQORQPGPVUCPF voxel, we have tried to create many different types in terms of design, components can be lines, surfaces, masses and so on which can express the discreteness, heterogeneity, combinatorics mereology as well as has some possibilities to be assembled easily.

Searching possible geometries

Connections

20


Sample aggregation

Proposal connectors

21


01 INITIAL DESIGN

01.02 CHAIR VOXELIZATION & TOPOLOGY STUDY

Chair prototype

Voxelized chair

Stress analysis

Fabricatd chair

22


Aggregation of the chair

23


02 INITIAL FABRICATION


02 INITIAL FABRICATION 02.01 MATERIAL TEST

Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. In the casting process, we tried plastic, plaster, wax and silicone as materials. For mould material, we used silicone and 3D printed mould.

- cheap - high strength - heavy - time consuming plaster

- light weight

The advantage of casting is that it can achieve very high precision and some materials take a very short time to solidify. The problem is due to it is solid, so sometimes weight problems cannot be solved.

- fragile $%6ͤODPHQW

- flexible - high cost - none-recyclable silicone

- cheap - easy to cast - fragile - easy to melt wax

- solidify quickly - high strength - high cost plastic

- high strength - translucent - heavy - high cost acrylic

26


Wax

Plaster

Silicone

Plastic

27


02 INITIAL FABRICATION 02.02 CASTING & ASSEMBLY

01

02

03

04

05

06


01

02

03

Aggregations

29


02 INITIAL FABRICATION 02.03 FABRICATED CHAIR

30


31


03 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1


03 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1

03.0 INITIAL CURVES DEVELOPMENT

5QNKFRNCUVGTXQZGNUCTGKPGHÆ’EKGPVVQHCDTKECVG6JKUKUDGECWUGVJCV plaster are very heavy and it takes too much time to solidify, therefore we try to use the solid voxel as an invisible container which can contain curves inside.

Solid

Container

Curves in container

Plaster Bricks

Tranformation

34


HOW TO PRINT WITH CONTINUITY : Graph theory

In mathematics graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of vertices, nodes, or points which are connected by edges, arcs, or lines.

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Printability

35


03 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1 03.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

Low density chair

Medium density chair

High density chair

36


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXELS 01

04.01.01 2D COMBINATORICS LOGIC

The project started from creating a solid and unique geometry and then aim to reduce weight and volume of it by turning the solid unit to be a mere container, and tried to create a continuous line inside, to avoid either fabricating or casting heavy materials. With the ͤUVW GHYHORSHG LGHD WKDW ZH FKDQJHG IURP SODVWHU casting to plastic extruding. Consequently, the result reflected more interesting and reasonable, and on top of that the project can be solved the overweight problem. Not only this discovery but the project also be envisioned to the next step that is creating PHWDO ZLUH EHQGLQJ WKDW FRXOG JLYH XV PRUH EHQHͤW compare to plastic extruding which may have some errors, problem of structural reinforcement in larger scale and cannot be reused and recycled. Integrating a continuos line into a voxel is our basic idea to acheive the basic concept of both continuity and discreteness, then the project is developed these concept under possibilities of both continuous bending and assembling which involving with welding process. These diagrams show the initial idea that how can we analyse the possibilities of growth in the basic voxel. And also shows the methods we chose to start and optimise our design to acheive our goal as explained.

40


Voxels logic

Multi-scale

Using point

Using lines

Using lines combination

41


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXELS 01

04.01.02 2D COMPUTATIONAL PATTERN RESEARCH


04.01.03 3D COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC

6

3

2

1

4

Connecting point

5

Connecting line

Rotations

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

43


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXELS 01

04.01.04 3D COMBINATORICS LOGIC

41 Connections continuity closed loop overlapping

44


04.01.05 PATTERN RESEARCH

Flower

Insect

Star

Butterfly

Alien

Gundam

45


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXELS 01

04.01.06 DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF LINES

Version 1

Version 2

Version 4

Version 3

Top view

Front view

2L

2L

2L

Perspective view

1 control point / same con.length

1 control point / increase 1 length

1 control point / increase 2 length

3 control points / same con.length

46


04.01.07 DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF LINES AND CHAIRS

Version 1

Version 2

2L

1 control point / same con.length

1 control point / increase 1 length

Version 3

2L

Version 4

2L

1 control point / increase 2 length

3 control points / same con.length

47


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.01 METAL WIRE BENDING VOXELS 01

04.01.08 OVERLAPING LOGIC

Low Stress

High Stress

Highest Stress

Original line

Double lines

Triple lines

Chair voxelisation & Stress Analysis

48


49


04 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2

04.02 TEST CASE : FREI OTTO’S COLUMN

Our anticipation in architectural scale is inpired by columns in The Stuttgart train station which is designed by a famous architect Frei Otto. It is said that “The structure and the “lighting cones“ connect the platform level with the square and park above. Varied and broad views along with the elegance of the supporting structure give the station its unmistakable identity. The form of the modular shell supports is based on the reversed-suspension model” (Architect : Frei Otto, 2009-2019)


05 INITIAL METAL WIRE & BENDING RESEARCH


05 INITIAL METAL WIRE & BENDING RESEARCH 05.01 BENDING & WELDING RESEARCH

05.01.01 BENDING FACTORS

8QGHUVWDQGLQJ6SULQJEDFN

)DFWRUVWKDWFRQWURORULQÍĽXHQFHWKHVXFFHVVRIDEHQGLQJRSHUDWLRQ Thickness

Actual Radius

Bending Angle

- Thickness The thicker the material, the less the springback.

- Tolerance

Bent Angle

Bending Radius

When metal is thicker or thinner, it is squeezed less or more in the bending operation, respectively.

- Size The size of the inside bend radius also affects the amount of springback. The larger the bend radius, the more the springback.

6SHHG The speed at which the bending takes place also affects springback. Generally, faster forming speeds reduce the amount of springback.

*UDLQGLUHFWLRQ The grain direction is established during the metal rolling process. Bending with the grain gives a different result than bending against it.

The two reasons of Springback

- Friction

l. displacement of molecules within the material ll. stress and strain.

During bending, the metal is forced between the lower die section and the forming punch. If the clearance between these two sections is less than the metal thickness (as it usually is), intense friction is created.

Tensile Stresses

Compressive Stresses

0

Neutral Axis

As the material is bent, the inner region of the bend is compressed while the outer region is stretched, so the molecular density is greater on the inside of the bend than on the outer surface. The compressive forces are less than the tensile forces on the outside of the bend, and this causes the material to try to return to its flat position

54


05.01.02 WELDING METHODS

*0$:RU*DV0HWDO$UF:HOGLQJ More commonly called MIG welding this welding type is the most widely used and perhaps the most easily mastered type of welding for industry and home use. The GMAW process is suitable for fusing mild steel, stainless-steel as well as aluminium.

0,*:HOGLQJO$GYDQWDJHV - Most widely used - Easily mastered type

6XLWDEOHPDWHULDOV - Mild steel - Stainless steel - Aluminium

*7$:RU7XQJVWHQ,QHUW*DV TIG welding is comparable to oxy acetylene gas welding and needs a lot more expertise from the operator. Employed for carrying out high-quality ZRUNZKHQDVXSHULRUVWDQGDUGRIͤQLVKLVQHHGHGZLWKRXWPDNLQJXVHRIH[FHVVLYHFOHDQXSE\VDQGLQJRUJULQGLQJ

7,*:HOGLQJO$GYDQWDJHV - Need a lot more expertise to operate - High-quality of work

6XLWDEOHPDWHULDOV - Mild steel - Stainless steel - Aluminium

$UF:HOGLQJRU60$: Generally known as stick or arc welding. Arc welding is the most basic of all welding types, is easy to master in a home welding situation. Stick welding can be used for manufacturing, construction and repairs, very much well suited for heavy metal size 4 millimetres upwards. Thinner sheet metals and alloys are usually more suited to the mig welding types.

6WLFNRU$UF:HOGLQJO$GYDQWDJHV - Most basic of all types - Easily mastered type - Suited for heavy metal size 4 mm. upwards.

6XLWDEOHPDWHULDOV - Mild steel - Stainless steel - Aluminium

*DVRU2[\$FHW\OHQH:HOGLQJ Not used as widely for general welding of mild steel. Consists of mixing oxygen and acetylene gas to greate a flame capable of melting steels. Mostly used today for maintenance work and gas metal cutting. Also common for brazing softer metals such as copper and bronze. Can also be used for welding delicate aluminium parts such as refrigeration pipes.

*DVRU2[\$FHW\OHQH:HOGLQJO$GYDQWDJHV - Not widely used - Mostly used for maintenance

6XLWDEOHPDWHULDOV - Copper - Bronze - Aluminium

55


05 INITIAL METAL WIRE & BENDING RESEARCH 05.02 BENDING MACHINE RESEARCH

05.02.01 BENDING MACHINES STUDIES

#DQWVVJGDGPFKPIRCTVQHVJKUOCEJKPGKUKFGCNHQTFKHÆ’EWNVLQDUKVWCVKQPUCPFHCVKIWGVJCPMUVQKVUQPGDNQEM body and excellent mechanical characteristics. The bending disk can be rotated in two ways - clockwise and anti-clockwise. It comes with all the essential characteristics needed for normal bendings. The excellent design of the machine and the modern technology embedded in it promises optimal performance while utilizing low power. Here are some of the accessories used with this machine - tool set for stirrup bending speed variator, double foot pedal, selector panel and special tooling for spirals

Initial design sketches

Industrial Bending Machine

56


05.02.02 CUSTOMIZED MANUAL BENDING MACHINE

Working Process

57


05 INITIAL METAL WIRE & BENDING RESEARCH 05.02 BENDING MACHINE RESEARCH

05.02.03 CUSTOMIZED ELECTRONIC BENDING MACHINES

Z AXIS ROTATING WIRE HOLDER EXTRUDER WHEEL BENDER WIRE HOLDER BEARING BEARING

MOVEMENT

STEPPER MOTOR

STEEL ROD

SOLENOID BENDER WHEEL

STEPPER MOTOR

SUPPORT SUPPORT

STEEL ROD

DRIVER

ARDUINO BOARD

BREAD BOARD STEPPER MOTOR 23

58


TOP VIEW BENDING

EXTRUDING

ROTATING

ELEVATION


05 INITIAL METAL WIRE & BENDING RESEARCH 05.02 BENDING MACHINE RESEARCH

ELECTRONIC BENDING MACHINE


06 ROBOTIC ASSEMBLY


06 ROBOTIC ASSEMBLY

06.01 FABRICATION WORKFLOW

06.01.01 ROBOTIC SUPPORTED EXTRUSION

Our developed supported extrusion method gives a new and creativity way to explore a new method of wire bending. This methods allows, thanks to the high flexibility but strong enough material, to bend different scale which also is a selfsupport structure based pieces. This wire created in the idea of using copper cored wire and the logic of spatial printing, the process of bending the wire is similar to the method of spatial 3D printing. Once the pieces was bent, it will put it on the base which is custom make for the KUKA ABB robot. The robot will start to assemble thought the 3/2 pneumatic UQNGPQKFXCNXGYKVJVYQĆ’PIGTRCTCNNGNITKRRGT6JGTGUWNVQH this, is an innovative piece of architecture with structural performance, and translucent effect achieved.

64


06.01.02 TOOLS DESIGN : PARALLEL GRIPPER

The pneumatic solenoids are controlled by a PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) which energizes said devices to open or close a valves connected to piping systems. The PLC has been programmed by Grasshopper order to send power to the Solenoid when cer tain variables are met (temperature, pressure,flow rate, etc.).

Attachment with Robot

These variables are themselves fed back by wire to the PLC from Transmitters in the field (Temperature Transmitters or TT, Pressure Transmitters, Flow Transmitters).

Connector

3/2 way Pneumatic Solenoid Valve

6YQĆ’PIGT2CTCNNGN)TKRRGT

Maximum Open Distance: 4mm

66


06 ROBOTIC ASSEMBLY

06.01 FABRICATION WORKFLOW

06.01.03 ASSEMBLY PROCESS

step 1

step 16

step 31

step 4

step 19

step 34

step 7

step 22

step 37

step 10

step 25

step 40

step 13

step 28

step 41


06.01.04 WORKING AREA

Maximum Working Area

Base

06.01.05 CHAIR ASSEMBLY

001

002

003

004

005


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.01 DESIGN SKETCHES

07.01.01 2D PATTERN STUDY

,QLWLDOGHVLJQVNHWFKHV We try to understand how can we design the simple discrete lines which can establish the interesting patterns. Also, the lines we created will have possibilities to generate different densities or directions. Our ambition is to acheive high quality of design outcomes which can be integrated with effectively simple metal wire bending processes.

,QLWLDOSDWWHUQVWXG\ Alignment and parallel spacing = Arrangement Turning angle = Changing directions

135’

135’

135’

70


6WDUWHGIURPOLQH

'HͤQHVVRPH'GHVLJQODQJXDJHV

L- shape

Linear

Diagonal

71


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.01 DESIGN SKETCHES

07.01.02 Tranlates initial sketch into voxels

L- shape

Linear

Diagonal

72


07.01.03 Pattening and Stabilizing

L- shape

Linear

Diagonal

Compression Tension

73


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.001DESIGN SKETCHES

07.01.04 CONNECTIONS

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 1 - Type 1

Type 1 - Type 2

Type 1 - Type 3

Type 2 - Type 2

Type 2 - Type 3

Type 3 - Type 3 74


07.01.05 AGGREGATIONS

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

75


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

07.02.01 REFERENCES OF METAL WIRE CHAIR

'LDPRQG&KDLU +DUU\%HUWRLD

Pylon Chair (Tom Dixon, 1992)

Parabola Chair ( Carlo Aeillo, 2013)

The structure of the “Diamond Chairâ€? clearly separates the different functions of the chair: the transparent wire shell is bent out of a quadratic lattice into an organically shaped diamond like a net frozen in space, and the base of round iron embraces it like a polished diamond. Bertoia considered his furniture to resemble his sculptures and explained: “In sculpture I am primarily interested in the relationship between form and space and the characteristics of the metal. In chairs many functional problems JCXG VQ DG UQNXGF Ć’TUV DWV DCUKECNN[ EJCKTU are also studies in space, form and metal. On close inspection it becomes clear that they are mostly made up of air‌. Space flows right through them.â€?

Tom Dixon’s “Pylonâ€? chair is constructed of thin steel rods which, when welded together, give VJG UVTWEVWTG UWHĆ’EKGPV UVTGPIVJ VQ UWRRQTV even large people. It is essentially a desk or dining chair, though can be used for occasional purpose too.

2CTCDQNCU YGTG ƒTUV KORNGOGPVGF KP architectural and product design in the 1950s (see Le Corbusier’s Philips Pavilion or anything by the engineer Pier Luigi Nervi), when designers were free to move past the Platonic, rectilinear, and by then historicized high Modernism of the ŧU #KGNNQŨU WUG QH EJTQOG ƒPKUJGU FTCYU QP the Modernist chairs, but it also nods to diner design and Ford T-birds.

Pylon chair is manufactured entirely by hand.

76


07.02.02 VOXELIZED CHAIR

160 mm

28 Voxels

Stress analysis

Voxelisation

77


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

07.02.03 DEFINED DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

ALIGNMENT

BRACING

OVERLAPPING

ELONGATION

78


07.02.04 VOXEL CATALOG

A1

A6

B1

B5

A2

A7

B2

B6

B3

B7

A3

A4

A8

B4

A5

79


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

07.02.05 ASSEMBLY STRATEGY

80


A0

B0

A0

B1 A1

A3

B4

A5 B1

A2 A3

A4 A3

B0 B1 A6

81


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR

82


83


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.02 TEST CASE : CHAIR


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.03 TEST CASE : TABLE

Geometry

Stress analysis

Voxelisation

86


87


07 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 3 07.04 TEST CASE: COLUMN

Geometry

Stress analysis

Voxelisation


08 WIREVOXELS DESIGN STRATEGY


08 WIREVOELS DESIGN STRATEGY 08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

08.01.01 BESO & CROSS-SECTION OPTIMISATION METHOD

When it comes to the structural optimization process (B.E.S.O.) , at first, we should d e c i d e t h e s i ze o f s l a b a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f l o a d s a n d s u p p o r t s . I n t h i s res e a rc h , w e s e t 4 m x 4 m t h e s i ze o f s l a b . A f t e r t h a t , w e s e t a p ro p e r s p a n o f g r i d to d e a l w i t h t h e va riation of elements come from the structure analysis. In other word , the designe r s c a n s e t t h e s i ze o f t h e g r i d a c c o rd i n g to t h e s i ze o f voxel t h ey w a n t to m a ke. T h e n e x t s t e p i s t h e s t a n d a rd i z a t i o n o f t h e ve c to r s i n e a c h g r i d t h a t c o m e f ro m a f t e r t h e s t r u c t u re a n a l y s i s ( B . E . S . O ) . S i n c e B . E . S . O. c a n p rovi d e m u l t i p l e d i re c t i o n o f ve c to r s i n e a c h g r i d , t h e d e s i g n e r n e e d to k n o w t h e ave r a g e val u e o f t h e ve c to r s i n e a c h g r i d to s i m p l i f y a n d rep l a c e t h e ve c to r w i t h h i s voxel s . O f c o u r s e , t h e voxel t h e d e s i g n e r w a n t s to u s e s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to ref l e c t t h e d i re c t i o n o f ve c to r s . H o w ever, n o m a t t e r B . E . S . O. p rovi d e s c o m p l e x m u l t i p l e a n d c o m p l i c a t e d ve c to r s , c a l c u l a t i n g ave r a g e va l u e o f ve c to r s i n a g r i d i s s i m p l e a n d e a s y to g e t w h e n t h e d e s g i n e r u s e c o m p u t a t i o n a l p ro g r a m , t h e n t h e ve c to r s c a n b e rever t to voxe l e a s i l y. A n o t h e r a d va n t a g e o f B E S O i s t h a t s i n c e t h e o u t p u t s h o u l d b e d a t a f i c a t i o n i n t h e c o m p u t e r p ro g r a m , i t i s a p p ro p r i a t e to u s e f o r c o m p u t a t i o n a l l o g i c a s w e l l F i n a l l y, b a s e d o n t h e B . E . S . O. d a t a , t h e s t r u c t u re c a n b e g e n e r a t e d a u to m a t i c a l l y by c o mp u t a t i o n a l p ro c e s s .

Cantilever with initially regular mesh after application of the ”BESO for Beams”-component.

96


08.01.02 INITIAL FLOOR SLAB TOPOLOGY OPTIMISATION

2.80 m.

2.80 m.

01 : Floor plate

03 : Draws grids for strctural optimisation

load

load

support

load

02 : Voxelized floor plate (20 cm.x20 cm.)

04 : Sets initially support and load conditions

97


08 WIREVOELS DESIGN STRATEGY 08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

08.01.03 POSSIBLY STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

*ULGW\SH

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

VWUXFWXUH

98


08.01.04 OPTIMISING CATALOG

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

30%

50%

75%

99


08 WIREVOELS DESIGN STRATEGY 08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

08.01.05 GRID TYPE 1 PATTERNS FROM DIFFERENT LOAD CASES

support

support

support

30%

50%

75%


08.01.06 OPTIMISED COMPONENTS

Series of 2D line

135’ 135’

Creating 3D voxels by adding bracing lines

1

Inside

To neighbours

Voxel + bracing lines

2

3

4

101


08 WIREVOELS DESIGN STRATEGY 08.01 STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION

08.01.07 GENERATIVE STRATEGY

Voxelized floor slab

Evaluating the vectors (Zoom-in 1x)

Evaluating the vectors (Zoom-in 2x)

Mapping with voxels (Zoom-in 2x)

Series of line inside the voxel


An example mapping in 3D

103


08 WIREVOXEL DESIGN STRATEGY 08.02 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB

08.02.01 COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC

support

Selected load case 75%

Voxelized pattern

9HFWRUͤHOG


105


08 WIREVOXEL DESIGN STRATEGY 08.02 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB

08.02.02 MAPPING DIFFERENT TYPES OF VOXELS

1

2

3

4


107


08 WIREVOXEL DESIGN STRATEGY 08.02 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB

08.02.03 ADDING DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

Overlaping

Bracing

Elongation


109


08 WIREVOXEL DESIGN STRATEGY 08.03 TEST CASE : FLOOR SLAB & COLUMN

08.03.01 COMPUTATIONAL LOGIC

support

BESO structure analysis

Voxelized the pattern

9HFWRUͤHOG


08.00.00 AAA

frame 01

frame 26

frame 51

frame 76

frame 101

frame 126

frame 151

frame 176

frame 201

frame 226

frame 251

frame 276

frame 301

frame 326

frame 351

frame 376

frame 401

frame 426

frame 451

frame 476


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT 09.01 METAL WIRE MATETIAL RESEARCH

Excellent

Very cheap

11.40 / KG.

Mild Steel

Very cheap

Stainless Steel

Very cheap

Very expensive

37.00 / KG.

Gavanised Steel

18.80 / KG.

Very expensive

Copper Coated Mild Steel

18.80 / KG.

Expensive

38.00 / KG.

Bronze

15.70 / KG.

Cost

Aluminium

Good

Good

Fair

Good

Good

Fair

Good

Fair

Good

Excellent

210 GPA Heavy

7500-8000

Heavy

Good

200 GPA

Good

Heavy

8000

Heavy

860 MPA

760 MPA

760 MPA Good

210 GPA

120-210 GPA Heavy

8000

Weight

2500 KG./CU.M.

Light

Good

7500-9000

Stress/Strian

70 GPA

<RXQJ̵V0RGXOXV

Fair

120 GPA

Poor

7500-8000

250 MPA

Strength

110 MPA

Poor

220-760 MPA

(DVLO\)RUPHG

118


M ATERI AL T h e m a t e r i a l a l s o i s o n e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t p a r t s o f t h e res e a rc h . Due to the first experiment we used 1.6 mm cooper wire for the bending material, although the outcome looks nice w i t h t h e l i g h t w e i g h t s t r u c t u re b u t t h e s t ren g t h i s n o t s t ro n g e n o u g h f o r t h e s u p p o r t i n g a s a c h a i r f o r p e o p l e to s i t . At t h e s e c o n d t r i a l , I t u s e d t h e 6 m m m i l d s t e e l ro d b a r w h i c h still maintain the lightweight outlook and not only stable as a c h a i r b u t a l s o s t ro n g e n o u g h f o r s u p p o r t i n g i t s e l f a s a c o l u m n , c e i l i n g , a n d p l a t f o r m . A c c o rd i n g to t h e w e i g h t o f a 2 3 voxels chair is still not that heavy. However, using 6mm mild s t e e l h a s a p ro b l e m w h i c h i s t h e p ro b l e m o f s p r i n g b a c k . E a c h steel has its stress and strain. Besides, the displacement of m o l e c u l e s w i t h i n t h e m a t e r i a l a l s o w i l l a f fe c t t h e f i n a l res u l t a f t e r b e n d i n g t h e s t e e l ro d . Thickness, grain direction and size of the material, to lerance, b e n d i n g s p e e d a n d f r i c t i o n , t h e s e f a c to r s a l s o w i l l a f fe c t t h e c o n t ro l o r i n f l u e n c e t h e s u c c e s s o f a b e n d i n g o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e t h e m a t e r i a l i s b e n t , w h i l e t h e i n t e r n a l a re a o f t h e ro d i s c o m p res s e d , t h e e x t e r n a l a re a w i l l b e p u l l e d , s o t h a t t h e m o l e c u l a r d e n s i t y o f t h e i n n e r p a r t i s l a rg e r t h a n t h e o u t e r sur face. The compression force is less than the outer of bending tensile force, which causes the material back to the origin position as its flat. A s s t e e l ro d b e n d i n g s t u d y ( f i g u re ) , w e f o u n d o u t t h a t t h e spring back effect from the range of 5 to 10 degrees. Theref o re , w e a l s o h ave to a d d t h e g re a t e r d e g re e m o re t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l o n e a f t e r e x p o r t i n g t h e d a t a to b e n d t h e s t e e l ro d . Preventing the spring-back effect, make sure the outcome is l e s s to l e r a n c e h a p p e n .

119


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT 09.02 CUSTOMIZED ROBOTIC BENDING

09.02.01 TOOLS DESIGN

In the robotic bending process,we focus on how to fabricate metal wires precisely so we paid much attention to the design of the whole bending machine system. To avoid the bar getting away from the bending axis, we set a linear bearing connected to the gripper for feeding and rotating. Moreover, the design of the bending pin can reduce a lot of friction because during the bending process, the two cylinders for bending can always rotate freely. Finally, we achieve mass production, in three hours, we bent 150 pieces.

Feeding gripper Bending table & Bending gripper


)HHGLQJJULSSHU

%HQGLQJWDEOH %HQGLQJJULSSHU Mounting Plate Ball Bearing 698Z Roller Shaft

Hex Head M3 Bolt (15mm) Collar Roller Shaft Ball Bearing 698Z

Hex Head M3 Bolt (15mm) Table

Hex Head M3 Bolt (30mm)

Table

121


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT 09.02 CUSTOMIZED ROBOTIC BENDING

09.02.02 TOOLS MAKING

Rotating bender

Preparation of robotic bending 7RVQPQYVJGRTQLGEVJCFDGGPKPXGUVGFVYQUGOGUVGTUCUCVQVCNQHĆ&#x2019;XGOQPVJU used a multi-use KUKA KR6 machine with 6-axis robot arm and the seat of 2 axis positioner table. The CNC bending device is used to customize the program for bending the 6mm mild steel rods of a three-dimensional shape. Different purposes of the project require a separate attachment. In Wirevoxel used two grippers plus a bending device. One gripper is for extruding and rotating. And the other one is for holding the steel rod when it is bending. The preparatory work of this kind of precision attachment cannot be completed in a short time. Before the bending project starts, it also spent at least two weeks for material research and made good use of the machine design to apply to the bending device design. The production process of the bender is also very time-consuming. From the FGUKIPGZRQTVVJGĆ&#x2019;NGVQYCVGTLGVHQTEWVVKPIVJGUJGGVUVGGNRNCVGCUHGYRKGEGUCPF then welding, every step can not be taken lightly. It is because each tool design is extremely delicate and is only available in 6mm of steel rod bar. Slightest error occurs, such as gripper cannot be clamped the rod very precisely. If such a situation occurs which means the attachment is no longer applicable with the robot arm that is to be re-do it again for this project.

Gripper holder

Bending tools

122


Feeding part

Bending part

123


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT

09.03 BENDING VOXELS : 1ST SKETCH VOXEL

09.03.01 SERIES OF LINE

Type 1B x 2 Type 1A Type 1C x 2 1A Type

Line type 1

2 1B x Type 1C Type

1C-m Type 2 1D x Type

Type 1D x 2

Voxel type 01 Type 2D Type 2C Type 2B x 3

Line type 2

2A Type

x3

2B Type

x3

2C Type

x1

2D Type

x1

Type 2A x 3

Voxel type 02 Type 2G Type 2H Type 2F x 4

Line type 2 2E Type

x2

4 2F x Type

2G Type 2H Type 2J Type

Type 2J

Voxel type 03

Type 2E x 2


09.03.02 SERIES OF FABRICATED VOXEL


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT

09.04 BENDING VOXELS : SIMPLIFIED LINES

09.04.01 SERIES OF LINE

Line type 1

Line type 2

Line type 3

Line type 4

126


09.04.02 SERIES OF FABRICATED VOXEL AND CHUNKS


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT 09.05 WELDING PROCESS

07

09

06 10 08 01 11 03 04

02 06

05

12

01.2D bracing lines template 02.3D bracing lines template 03. Clamp 04. Wire cutter 0 5 . Ta p e 06. Metal bent wire (6mm.) 07. Welding mask 0 8 . We l d i n g g u n 09. Air suction switch 10. Mig welding machine 11. Welding ro d 12. Gas 128


Welding As the voxel design which created a few simple discrete lines which can establish the interesting patterns. These voxel line design including the coding design which KUKA need it to control its behavior to solve the ability to transcend traditional CNC tool, very accurate manufacturing claim. The code was developed to analyze wirevoxels geometry, and digital data is converted into a series of benders and robot operation. The code will be dividing as a line and arc angle as geometry and recording data, such as length and orientation of each segment of the line. Exporting the data as a series of KUKA Code for the robot and bender respectively. These commands are arranged to reconstruct the original digital geometry of the steel rod and bending movements of the robot. The bent components will be masked and transported to the site where starts to be manually assembled and welded. Each voxel will have around 7-9 discrete lines will be welding it together. The custom made welding jig made by 6mm and 3mm MDF board will be used it once all the components ready for positioning. As part of this self-index component, each element against the member for precisely at the same time directing the subsequent positioning. Once in position, the lever instead of manual welding.

2D bracing lines welding

3D bracing lines welding 129


09 FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT 09.06 ASSEMBLING PROCESS

09.06.01 CONNECTORS

I n a d d i t i o n , a n o t h e r b i g i s s u e i n m e t a l w i re voxel i s a c o n n e c t i o n p ro b l e m w h i c h c a n b e t h e rel a t e d to d i s c ret e n e s s . To s e c u re o f d i s c ret e n e s s i n t h e p ro j e c t , t h i s res e a rc h s h o u l d f i n d t h e w ay h o w to c o n n e c t voxel s to e a c h o t h e r. Wel d i n g c o u l d b e a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n b u t i t i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r ro b o t i c in terms of an efficiency. (Beorkrem, 2012) Above all, when i t c o m e s to t h e d i s c ret e d e s i g n , w e s h o u l d t h i n k a b o u t t h e u s e f u l n e s s a n d a d va n t a g e o f t h e d i s c ret e d e s i g n . T h e re f o re , a c o n n e c to r s s u c h a s a c l a m p , a j o i n t a n d a s t a i n l e s s ro p e c a n be a solution in terms of connection. Of course, it allows easy a s s e m b l i n g a n d d i s a s s e m b l i n g p ro c e s s w h e n w e l d i n g c a n n o t . I t i s a p o s i t i ve o p t i o n f o r t h e d i s c ret e d e s i g n a s w e l l . T h i s image is the test of the connection by a stainless steel rope.

Wire Connectors

130


I n t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t , w e s h o u l d t h i n k a b o u t w h y t h e d i sc re t e n e s s i m p o r t a n t i n ro b o t i c f a b r i c a t i o n ? F i r s t o f a l l , i n t h i s res e a rc h , w e u s e t h e c o m b i n a to r i a l voxel a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r. S i n c e voxel s s h o u l d b e c h a n g e d a n d s u b s t i t u t e d w h e n t h e re i s n e e d f o r d e s i g n a n d f a b r i c a t i o n , t h e voxel s s h o u l d b e flexible and reversible. (Iwamoto , 2009) Despite of continuity i n a w h o l e w i re f r a m e s t r u c t u re , e a c h d i s c ret e voxe l i n t h e s t r u c t u re s h o u l d b e f l e x i b l e a n d e a s y to a s s e m b l e to m a ke hetero geneous shapes. In truth, discrete voxels allow this perf o r m a n c e ver y w e l l . S e c o n d l y, f o r ro b o t i c f a b r i c a t i o n a n d a s s e m b l i n g , t h e ro b o t c a n f a b r i c a t e p ro d u c t s a u to m a t i c a l l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y w h e n t h ey h ave a s p e c i f i c m o d u l e s y s t e m . A voxel c a n b e a k i n d o f d i s c ret e m o d u l e w h i c h c a n b e f a b r i c a t e d by t h e ro b o t . I t c a n a l s o b e g r a b b e d o r h o l d o n to a p ro p e r s i ze by ro b o t i c g r i p p e r. A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , d i s c ret e voxel s n a t u r a l l y o f fe r t h e s e m a n a g e m e n t s i n r i g h t w ay. I n o t h e r w o rd s , o u r a m b i t i o n i s to a c h i eve t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y a n d c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e c o m b i n a to r i a l voxel s a n d m a k i n g t h e h e t e ro g e n e o u s s h a p e after all.

Stainless Steel Rope Connection

Assembling process

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10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.01 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 01

Load & Support

Voxelize

Tension

Compression

Multi-scale

Mapping


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.01 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 01


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.01 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 01


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.02 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 02


In conclusion, as mentioned earlier, from space frame to the recent robotic metal wire has limitation in terms of homoIGPGKV[CPFGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPE[6QQXGTEQOGVJGNKOKVCVKQPYGJCXG researched about the contemporary design paradigm and explore the recent design tendencies in terms of metal wire fabrication. The challenge was how we can develop the simple voxel but not be heterogeneous after all when they are aggregated each other. Therefore, we used metal components based on the combinatorial voxel and B.E.S.O. with the computational design methodology and robotic fabrication. As a result, this project demonstrates the possibility of not only developments of the traditional space frame but also inventing architectural system that can generate space by the computational design and robotic bending and assembling. This methodology could apply to the architectural situation in the near future.

145


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.00 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 02


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION

10.00 WIREVOXELS ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE 02


10 ARCHITECTURAL SPECULATION 10.03 CONSTRUCTION STRATEGY

The use of digital design and digital fabrication systems are growing, even more than the gantry positioning system or cartesian coordinate robot, because they have the advantage which is the size and flexibility. It is coinciding with the changeover, cartesian coordinate robot absence of adaptability and agility, single-function, constraint workspace and high maintenance costs. Because of the emergence of new tools, the old operating system will be abandoned. It is coinciding with the changeover, cartesian coordinate robot absence of adaptability and agility, single-function, constraint workspace and high maintenance costs. Because of the emergence of new tools, the old operating system will be abandoned. The architectural speculation approves the strategy to the large scale as a building. The strategy will fabricate kit-off parts off site (similarly to prefabrication). The in-house fabrication will be used the technique of robotic assembly and robotic welding at the same time for a few pieces of voxels. 6JGOCUUQHVJGRTQFWEVKQPECPDGĆ&#x2019;PKUJGFKPCUJQTVVKOG6JGPUJKRVJG parts of voxels with a container as a positioning jig. No matter assembly D[TQDQVQTJWOCPYJKEJCNUQECPDGOQTGEQPXGPKGPVCPFGHĆ&#x2019;EKGPV6JG whole workflow is providing a strong argument for the future development of robotics platform of digital manufacturing. The robotic assembly and robotic welding can be worked at the same time. It does not restrict with each other. In the experiment, robotic assembly is used as a case study in industrial-based traditions that can be augmented using contemporary robotic technologies. After having developed viable robotic workflows for free-form welding and assemble, we would like to incorporate into the parametric design, export the location data input, and visual user feedback to allow for more collaborative approaches to robotic assembly. Building collaborations in robotic would allow for more robust systems to support truly collaborative work in high-skill domains. Like the diagram of the future generation of fabrication criteria.

150


Prefabricarion - Robotic assembly and welding at the same time

Transport the voxel pieces to the construction site

On Site Assembly

151


11 PHYSICAL FLOOR SLAB


11 PHYSICAL FLOOR SLAB

11.01 ASSEMMBLY AND INSTALLATION STRATEGY

3.90

LOAD

LOAD

3.90

SUPPORT

LOAD

LOAD

01 FLOOR SLAB DIMENSION

03 VOXELIZED PATTERN BIG : 30 CM. SMALL : 15 CM.

02 OPTIMISED PATTERN

04 GENERATED PATTERN WIRES THICKNESS : 6 MM.

154


BIG VOXELS

SMALL VOXELS B-40-a Up - Dn

UPPER LAYER

B-40-b Up - Dn

B-40-c

B-40-d

Up - Dn

Up - Dn

LOWER LAYER

07 CODING STRATEGY

05 SPLIT LEVEL FOR OVERLAPED CONNECTION GAP : 6 MM.

A

1.50

2.40

B

C

D

1.50

0.90

E

1.50

2.40

0.90

1.50

1.50

1.50

06 PARTS & HANGING POINTS

08 CODED & REMOVED EMPTY VOXELS

155


11 PHYSICAL FLOOR SLAB

11.01 ASSEMMBLY AND INSTALLATION STRATEGY

A

1.50

2.40

B

C

D

1.50

0.90

1.50

2.40

0.90

1.50

1.50

E

1.50

B

A

E

C

D

156


Information Venue : Bpro show 2016 Slab size : 3.90x3.90 m. Number of big voxels (30 cm.) : 71 Voxels Number of small voxels (15 cm.) : 235 Voxels Hanging points : 5 points

157


11 PHYSICAL FLOOR SLAB 11.02 INSTALLATION

158


WireVoxels MEIZI LI, ONYEE WONG, DONGHWI KIM, SUPAKIJ HOMTHONG TUTOR : GILLES RETSIN, MANUEL JIMENEZ



WireVoxels | Rc4 | Portfolio | 2015-2016