Protein Producers Winter 2017

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PROTEIN producers

Winter 2017


Enrof lox® 100

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Noromycin® 300 LA (oxytetracycline 300 mg/mL)

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 Unique For full prescribing information, including important safety information, warnings and contraindications, see the product insert available at Read product insert carefully prior to use. The Norbrook logos, Enroflox, Hexasol, Norfenicol and Noromycin are registered trademarks of Norbrook Laboratories Limited. Nuflor is a registered trademark of Merck Animal Health. Baytril is a registered trademark of Bayer Animal Health. Liquamycin is a registered trademark of Zoetis, Inc. Bio-Mycin is a registered trademark of Boehringer Ingelheim.

Combination of oxytetracycline and f lunixin

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PROTEIN producers


2017 Volume 5 Issue 4

Editor: Kelly Terrell Associate Editor: Lisa Taylor Editorial Assistant: Brandi Bain

Dr. Wade Taylor Technology identification and deployment Dr. Tom Noffsinger Animal handling, staff development Dr. Doug Ford Reproduction, lameness Dr. Corbin Stevens Diagnostics and clinical evaluation Dr. Nels Lindberg Leadership development, field research Dr. Kip Lukasiewicz Animal handling, field research, facility design Dr. Jim Lowe System design and management, team education Dr. Shane Terrell Feedlot lameness, field research Dr. Kev Sullivan International veterinarian Animal handling, heat stress management

To subscribe to Protein Producers visit and click on our Subscribe link!

Dr. Dan Thomson Field research, team education Dr. Tom Edwards Associate member Ultrasound technology, feedlot lameness Dr. Matt Fruge Associate member Ted Howard Animal stewardship, horsemanship Jose Valles Bilingual education & training, research monitoring Garrett Taylor Information management Kelly Terrell Marketing and communications Lisa Taylor Business and data analysis Brandi Bain Marketing and business administration

Follow us on Twitter @PACVets

We want to showcase unique photographs from our readers here! Please submit your photographs to Kelly Terrell at

McMillan Shorthorn Ranch Lewistown, MT Owner: Tom McMillan Photo credit: Dean McMillan

Contents 9. Welcome Dr. Dan Thomson 14. Chuckles from Down Under

Animal Stewardship 13. Starting Your Day

15. Parable: Billy Dale


19. Newest PAC Member

17. Robots on the Farm

27. Chuckles from Down Under 39. Cartoon by Doug Gaswick 42. PAC 2017 Snapshot 43. Calendar

Facility design 20. Cattle Transport Leaders Putting Cattle Welfare First

Photography by Doug Keiser

Winter 2017 - 2018 Research 25. Understanding Bovine Viral Diarrhea

Leadership 28. The Easiest Way Not to Fire is Not to Hire

Bilingual Training 34. Entendimiento de la Diarrea Viral Bovina

36. La Forma Mas Facil de No Despedir es No Contratar 37. Comenzando Su Dia

The pot roast 40. Skilletini


Treat bovine respiratory disease (BRD) the right way with DRAXXIN® (tulathromycin) Injectable Solution. DRAXXIN demonstrated 50% fewer re-treats and 50% fewer dead or chronic animals1 versus competitive products in several large pen studies.2 Which means your cattle stay healthier, and that helps keep your bottom line healthier, too.


Get the numbers on DRAXXIN at IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: DRAXXIN has a pre-slaughter withdrawal time of 18 days in cattle. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Do not use in animals known to be hypersensitive to the product. See Brief Summary of Prescribing Information on adjacent page and full Prescribing Information at 1

Data on file, Study Report Nos. 1133R-60-05-491, A131R-US-12-028, 2132T-60-01-050, 1133R-60-02-376, 2132T-60-01-063, 1133R-60-03-388 and 11RGDRA01, Zoetis Services LLC.


Data on file, Study Report Nos. 1133R-60-05-491, 1133R-60-05-492, 1133R-60-05-493, A131R-US-12-028, 2132T-60-01-050, 1133R-60-02-376, 2132T-60-01-063 and 1133R-60-03-388, Zoetis Services LLC.

All trademarks are the property of Zoetis Services LLC or a related company or a licensor unless otherwise noted. © 2016 Zoetis Services LLC. All rights reserved. DRX-00120

Welcome Welcome to Protein Producers! The end of one year and the beginning of another allows us to reflect on our happenings but also look towards the start of a new chapter in the beef industry. As we look forward to 2018, we also want to remember the loved ones lost and count the many blessings granted to us in 2017. This magazine is about being a part of a special family dedicated to producing food for mankind. Raising animals for food is a privilege afforded to very few people in this world today. We at Production Animal Consultation consider it a humbling honor to work with you in this journey. This year the industry had strong focus on antibiotics in beef cattle production. It was the first year that we were required to have Veterinary Feed Directives for the use of feed grade antibiotics. The industry and the veterinary profession worked very hard together to make this a smooth transition. While some have questioned the initiation of the VFD program, we at PAC consider this to be another positive step forward in a long story of advancements in responsible antibiotic use. From the 1980s when the HACCP-based Beef Quality Assurance program was launched to prevent antibiotic residues in finished cattle, to the industry’s voluntary ban on the use of gentamicin, to the development of an extra-label drug use plan, the VFD is another step forward in helping preserve technology for the health and well-being of cattle. PAC veterinarians have spent numerous hours and thousands of dollars to help develop a database that tracks antibiotic usage and the efficacy of these antibiotics in feedlot cattle. In partnership with our clients and others involved in beef cattle production from the pasture to the plate, PAC is dedicated to continuing to use antibiotics in a responsible manner while not only preventing antibiotic residues but also preventing antibiotic resistance. Sustainability has been a term used loosely by many different people surrounding the beef industry. The first question one must ask is, “What do you want to sustain?” The dictionary says sustainability is the ability to be sustained, supported, upheld or confirmed. It is mostly tied back to ecology, the planet’s health and environmental indicators. However, it means different things to different people depending on where you sit. Is it the sustainability of humankind? Is it the sustainability of the people in your country? Your individual commodity industry? Is it your corporation’s sustainability? How about the sustainability of your household spendable income? Do you practice in your personal life what you represent in your professional life? Sustainability of livestock production has individual, operation, local, state, national and international definitions and for every complex problem there is a simple answer and it is wrong. “Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance you must keep moving,” said Albert Einstein. Sustainability is a balance. It never sits still and it is complex. Economics, food safety, food security, environmental responsibility, animal health, human health and so much more must be measured constantly and kept in balance. The more I read about sustainability, globalization and climate change, the more I am certain that environmental changes will have more impact on the production of livestock than livestock production will have on environmental change. Poverty in this country is determined by tripling the inflation-adjusted cost of minimum food diet in 1963. It is adjusted for the number of people and the age of the household occupants. Removal or discontinued use of technology, antibiotics, management, or housing without evidence-based or outcome-based decisions will have lasting effects on society. If food prices go up with no changes in incomes, poverty increases. Reliance on food stamps increases. The value of our tax dollar decreases. This is not just an agriculture sustainability issue; it is a societal sustainability issue. The rich can afford to err on the side of safety and drive misinformed legislation by funding movements to save the planet. The poor just need to eat. Retailers must have patience and use sustainability modeling prudently. Getting this right is so important. Most people literally can not afford for us to get it wrong. PAC is working with groups to help get this right through animal health, food safety and other beef cattle production research projects. Our globe’s climate is going to change. Water availability is going to change. We will be able to grow crops in different areas of the world, maybe in another world. New disease outbreaks will occur. Population centers are going to change. People’s tastes are going to change. Therefore, where and how food is produced is going to change over time. We are all in this together to preserve our beef industry heritage while constantly looking for future improvements to keep beef in the middle of the dinner plate and assure future generations can continue our traditions. Here’s to kicking off 2018 and wishing you all the very best. - Dan Thomson, PhD, DVM




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Contributors Thank you to all those contributing multiple stories and insights to Protein Producers.

Jacob Mayer

The Pot Roast

Jacob Mayer is a Project Engineer for Settje Agri-Services & Engineering (www.settje. com) located near Raymond, NE. He is a licensed Professional Engineer and has a B.S. in Agricultural Engineering from Iowa State University and M.S. in Biological Engineering from Mississippi State University. He resides in rural Weston, NE with his wife, Katie, daughter, Kirkland, and son, Hatten. He does not wear a pocket protector and does not know how to use a slide rule.

We want to showcase the talented chefs that read our magazine. In this issue we are featuring Arturo and Wrenn Pacheco who run cattle in the Flint Hills of Kansas while also maintaining a fun and unique cooking blog which can be found at cookingwiththe If you have a recipe that you would like to feature in The Pot Roast section of the magazine, please email us at Our goal is to continue discovering recipes from agriculture’s finest.

Cover Photo Credits


Thank you to Dean McMillan for the cover pictures that were taken in Montana. More of Dean’s pictures can be found on the website and he can be reached via email at

Thank you to all sponsors for supporting PAC & Protein Producers. Alltech

Midwest NetPro

American Animal Health

Newport Laboratories

Animal Health International




Boehringer Ingelheim


Chr. Hansen

Micro Technologies

Daniels Manufacturing Co.

SSG Fusion

Diamond V




Animal Stewardship

Starting Your Day By: Ted Howard Production Animal Consultation

Ever get up on the wrong side of the bed? Do you find that everything you attempt is met with frustration and upset? Normally these types of days could be prevented with a little foresight and preparation. Having a consistent routine and a plan for your day helps alleviate the “wrong side of the bed” situations.

Photography by Darcy Howard 13

The same concept of a consistent routine and plan holds true for how your horse needs to start his work day. Entering your horse’s pen quietly and in a non-aggressive manner is very important. Your horse needs to know you are his partner and deserves a moment to accept you into his area. When he stands quietly for you to halter, this is his way to communicate his willingness to start another work day with you. However, if your horse is difficult to catch or turns and walks to the back of the pen, he is trying to tell you something. He is indicating that he doesn’t feel good about starting the day. This could be due to him being tired or burned out. It is important that our horses get frequent time off. I normally see feedyard horses ridden every third day. It is very important to rest your horse during difficult feedyard conditions, like muddy pens or deep snow. His unwillingness to be haltered may also indicate he is hurting somewhere and should be evaluated closely. Building trust between ourselves and our horse allows us to be more sensitive to what his is trying to tell us. Once we have a willing horse haltered, we need to make sure he has time to eat prior to being ridden. Much like us, he needs something in his stomach before he starts working. It is very important that he eat a consistent diet. If he leaves part of his feed, he may not be feeling well and should be watched closely. Horses that tilt their heads while they chew may need their teeth floated or looked at. A horse with a sore mouth doesn’t respond well to having a bit in his mouth. While our horse is eating we can start to brush and curry him off. The purpose of brushing a horse is to rid his coat of any mud, hay, or burrs. Anything that is stuck on his coat can cause soreness. It is very important to keep his legs rinsed off during muddy times. Dried mud can cause soreness and a horse to lose its hair. It is important to notice if your horse flinches at anytime while you are brushing him. He will indicate when you run over a tender area. We need to pay close attention to his withers. Normally when a saddle does not fit properly the withers will be the first area to show soreness. The white hair you see on a horse’s withers is a sign of previous saddle sores. To help our saddle fit our horse we must use the correct pads. If trying different types of saddle pads doesn’t help the fit of the saddle, we need to change saddles. When fitting a saddle to our horse, we need to recognize the diagonals of our horse. You measure from the point of the left shoulder to the point of the right hip bone. You then measure from the point of the right shoulder to the point of the left hip bone. Where these two lines intersect is where you need to be seated for proper balance for your horse. Therefore you need to be aware of where your saddle sits on your horse’s back.

Tack needs to be adjusted properly as you use it on different horses. It sometimes needs adjusted for your horse if he loses or gains weight. Having your headstall fit properly is very important. I like to see one wrinkle at the side of my horse’s mouth when the headstall is properly fit. The headstall fitting too tight is very uncomfortable for your horse and puts too much pressure on his mouth. This causes him to toss his head or show frustration in other ways. You should never create a sore in the corner of your horse’s mouth. When we start our work day off in a consistent manner, we set the stage for a productive enjoyable day. We are better able to care for our cattle as well as create a positive environment for our equine partner, so that no one gets started on the wrong side of the bed…or stall.

Chuckles From Down Under By: Jane Sullivan, Bell Veterinary Services And Now For Something A Little Less Serious:

A man in Denver calls his son in Chicago the day before Christmas Eve and says: “I hate to ruin your day, but I have to tell you that your Mother and I are divorcing; 45 years of misery is enough!” “Dad, what are you talking about?” The son screams. “We can’t stand the sight of each other any longer,” the father says. “We’re sick of each other, so you call your sister in Los Angeles and tell her.” Frantic, the son calls his sister, who explodes on the phone. “I’ll take care of this,” she says. She calls Denver immediately and screams at her father: “You are not getting divorced! Don’t do a single thing until I get there. I’m calling my brother back and we’ll both be there tomorrow. Until then, don’t do a thing, do you hear me?” And hangs up. The old man hangs up his phone and turns to his wife. “It’s OK,” he says, “They’re coming for Christmas and paying their own way.”


Billy Dale By: Dr. Greg Quakenbush, Geissler Corp., & Dr. Doug Ford, Production Animal Consultation My dad grew up in a small rural town in southeastern Colorado. His parents farmed, ran a handyman business, and owned the local telephone company. Dad was one in a class of twelve, when he chose to show up for school. Electrical circuits and hand ringer phones were his love, not tractors. He only attended school to remain eligible for basketball, football and track. His disdain for school did not correlate with his amazing IQ, as he was one of the most intelligent, handy, successful, hard working men I ever knew. He ultimately became a Vice President with U S West and knew the telephone business from the ground up. When World War II broke out he couldn’t wait to serve. His heart was set on aviation. At his first opportunity he enlisted, did basic training and moved to pilot training on B29s. His biggest obstacle to success wasn’t his courage, intelligence, or self-motivation; it was his name. His parents didn’t go so far as naming him Sue, but Billy Dale seemed almost as bad. His name worked well in a small redneck town, but what self-respecting B29 pilot could be taken seriously on a bombing mission with a name like Billy Dale? On enlistment, he took steps to change his name to William Dale. When I was born, they chose the name William Douglas, I think after General McArthur. A name is very important. What is the lesson? I remember very distinctly an incident on the first day of first grade. Our teacher went around the class for introductions. When she came to me, I stood proudly and proclaimed my name is Dale Ford, knowing that was far from the truth. Mrs. Guinsberg looked at the register and said, “You mean Doug, don’t you?” “No! It’s Dale, Dale Ford!” After a five-minute standoff she gathered me up for a trip to the Dean’s office. Thinking back I made the Dean’s list on the first day of first grade; the only problem was the Dean had two lists. Oh well! Being a naive first grader, I had no idea that the system was about to take me down. The next thing I knew my mom showed up at school and she was far from delighted. Convinced my new identity was Dale, I even argued with my mother. She ultimately ended the dispute by saying, “Wait ‘til your father gets home.” That always meant trouble. I’m sure dealing with me was just what he wanted to do after a hard day.

That evening Dad managed to convince me my real name was Doug and Doug was grounded for one week for being disrespectful and untruthful. As I look back, I realize my dad wasn’t mad or disappointed. Deep down he was grinning from ear to ear thinking, “That’s my child.” He was proud that I wanted to be called by his name and nobody was going to talk me out of it. With further reflection on this memory, I realize that there is a heavenly parallel to this earthly story. I was so proud of my dad and his name that I wanted to make it my own. I was even willing to take a whipping (and almost did) if that was the price to be paid to be identified as Dale. Just like I know my dad was proud and honored that I wanted to be identified with him, our heavenly Father takes even more pleasure when we desire to be identified with Him and His name. As I attempt to contemplate exactly who God is and the extent of His grace, power and wisdom, I’m humbled beyond words to be called “His”. To be continued….

Digging a bit deeper… Proverbs 22:1: A good name is to be more desired than great wealth, favor is better than silver and gold. Romans 10:9: … if you confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. Psalm 20:7: Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we trust in the name of the Lord our God. Proverbs 30:4: Who has ascended to heaven and come down? Who has gathered the wind in his fists? Who has wrapped up the waters in a garment? Who has established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name? Surely you know! 15


Robots on the farm By: Jacob Mayer, Project Engineer, Settje Agri-Services & Engineering

Robots programed to milk cows might seem like science fiction; however, this technology is a reality for today’s dairy farmer. Robotic milking, first developed in Europe 25 years ago, has only recently taken off in the United States. The robot(s) (about the size of a hydraulic squeeze chute) is strategically placed in the free stall barn to foster efficient cattle movement. 17

Each cow voluntarily comes to the robot for an energy and protein dense pelleted feed and opens the entry gate with her unique electronic collar. Once inside the box, a robotic arm (think robotic welder in a manufacturing plant) equipped with scanning lasers sanitizes her udder, attaches the suction tubes to each teat, and away we go. Each robot is designed to milk about 60 cows two to three times per day. Over the past two years I’ve had the opportunity and privilege to work with three progressive Nebraska dairymen to help deHistory at Design and build the first robotic dairy farms merath Farms. in the state. The common threads for these Nebraska’s projects: young producers (40ish) taking over first cow to be decision making on their family operation, milked by a roa desire to expand the business, dilapidated bot in February existing facilities in need of major repairs or of 2017. demolition, and a labor force with high turnover. “This (robotic milking) is going to be the new normal,” says Brett Beavers of Fillmore County, whose five robot farm went online in May. It is no surprise that this low-stress method of milking (for animals and humans) is growing in popularity. Bill Demerath, Antelope County, shares “I can take better care of my animals because I’m not milking 8 hours per day.” And boy has it ever paid off. “In our old parlor we averaged around 65 lbs. of milk per cow per day. Today we are at 85 and we haven’t hit the ceiling yet. I never imagined that my cows were this good. The potential Steel erection for was always there; we just couldn’t capture it the new robotic before we installed robots.” freestall barn at Technology in agriculture is truly amazing. Larson Farms this The facet of robotic milking that impresses summer. me the most is it enables the farmer to customize management for singular animals. “I can’t wait to get started and get access to individual cow data. Changing from pen management to soon being able to make decisions for one cow based on the data is what intrigues me the most,” said Bob Larson of Platte County. His dairy is currently under construction and will be operational in early 2018. I believe that the future of protein production lies in precision livestock management and in turn more robots. Until next time, God Bless.

The robot prepares this cow’s udder for milking.

Robot boxes set in place during construction. The L-shape configuration allows the farmer to sort cows with the robot for breeding or disease treatment.

Content cows greeted over 1,000 visitors at the open house for Demerath Farms in June.

Newest PAC Member Nora Sage Mahon

Parents: Jeremy Mahon and Dr. Audry Wieman-Mahon

Cattle transport leaders Putting Cattle Welfare First By: Dr. Tom Noffsinger and Dr. Dan Thomson Production Animal Consultation

“This is an excellent example of the industry working together to solve problems. These transporters pioneered an important initiative they recognized in the interest of cattle well-being and food quality and demanded changes from manufacturers.”

Facility Design 21

In 2001, Ward Carpenter of W&J Carpenter Trucking (Arapahoe, Nebraska) and Rick Yost of V-Y Truck Lines (Sterling, Colorado) recognized cattle welfare and carcass bruising challenges due to finished cattle trailer designs. Feeding more Holstein steers and some of our traditional beef breed steers to out weights of 1500 pounds and heavier meant that cattle were not only heavier but also taller. Carpenter and Yost in their respective cattle hauling companies noticed cattle hitting their backs during loading and unloading when shipping cattle to slaughter in Nebraska and Colorado. They began working with Merritt and Wilson trailer designs, respectively, over a decade ago to adjust the trailers to account for this increase in size and height. Driven by the same recognition of the increase in bruising on beef carcasses in slaughter plants, researchers at Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine recently published two case studies in cooperation with Cargill Fresh Meats. Both studies were conducted to observe the prevalence of bruising in cattle hauled to slaughter. Bruising severity, bruising location and other variables were measured in addition to the bruising prevalence in cattle carcasses. Both studies found that bruising prevalence was 55 to 68% in the thousands of carcasses evaluated. Both studies also found that most bruising occurred on the dorsal midline or back of the cattle (figure 1). While watching cattle load and unload during the studies, it was obvious that cattle size or height, speed of entry into or unloading from the belly of the trailers and trailer types impacted cattle hitting their back loading into or unloading from the belly. Cattle jumping into the belly causes animals to hit their back towards their rump. Cattle jumping out of the belly during unloading causes animals to scrape their withers.

In the first study conducted by Youngers et al. (2017), carcasses of feedlot cattle (n = 4,287) were observed for bruising severity and location at a packing plant in southwest Kansas. Researchers observed that 55.2% of the carcasses had bruises with 25% of the bruises being severe, 36% of the bruises being moderate, and the rest of the bruises observed being minor. Most of the bruises (61.8%) occurred on the dorsal midline of the carcasses. The bruising prevalence was highest in the center region of the back (60.5%) followed by bruising on the caudal third of the carcass at 21.8% and bruising on the anterior region of the carcass at 17.6%. Lee et al. (2017) evaluated bruising prevalence on beef carcasses relative to cattle hitting their backs during unloading at packing plants. Also, the study was conducted to see if breed type, sex or trailer type had an impact on cattle hitting their backs at unloading or an impact on carcass bruising prevalence. The average percent of cattle hitting their backs at unloading was 20.4% while carcass bruise prevalence by lot was 68.2%. Holstein cattle had increased back scrapes during unloading on combination trailers than on fat trailers. Beef steers scraped their backs during unloading at the same rate regardless of trailer type. Carcass bruising was more prevalent in Holstein cattle than in cattle which were predominantly beef breeds. The prevalence of cattle hitting their back during unloading was not associated with prevalence of carcass bruising. The lack of association between traumatic events at unloading and carcass bruising indicates that bruising does not only occur during unloading and traumatic events during loading may be more important to understand than events at unloading. To address bruising concerns, Ward Carpenter and his team went to work to redesign Merritt trailers to haul finished cattle. Their trailer modifications include hinging the Figure 2: Ramp stored under the top deck reduces clearance for cattle entering and exiting the belly

Figure 1: Bruising on dorsal midline of carcass

ramp to the upper deck to the side wall rather than having the ramp be stored under the top deck where cattle could hit their backs when descending into the belly (figures 2, 3). Next, Ward and his team lowered the trailer floor by three inches and extended the ramp down into the lower deck, providing cattle more clearance and preventing cattle from jumping into the lower deck. Lastly, Carpenter’s group extended the nose roof to the front of the trailer, which extends the floor of the upper deck, and moved the entry gate to the right side of the compartment (figure 4). Innovations guided by Rick Yost led to similar changes in Wilson trailers. Design changes include hinging the upper deck ramp along the trailer wall, moving the upper deck floor forward nine inches, extending the ramp into the belly, creating a level upper deck in the nose for fat cattle, increasing trailer height three inches, raising the top floor deck two inches, and raising the rear “dog house” floor three inches. These improvements have led to more clearance for cattle going into the lower deck of the trailer while providing adequate room in the upper deck for finished cattle. Dr. Tom Noffsinger said, “This is an excellent example of the industry working together to solve problems. These transporters pioneered an important initiative they recognized in the interest of cattle well-being and food quality and demanded changes from manufacturers.” Working together, cattle transporters, trailer manufacturers, cattle feeders, veterinarians and beef packers along with folks from the land grant system at Kansas State observed an issue, diagnosed the problem, conducted research and implemented changes to prevent the issue from happening. All parties must work together and keep open lines of communication to help our industry continue to get a little better each day. Thanks to people like Rick Yost and Ward Carpenter, cattle have a more comfortable ride in their trailers. Figure 3: Hinged ramp on left side wall, extended ramp into belly and lower floor in lower deck

Figure 4: Extended roof to the front of the trailer with extended upper deck floor and entry gate on right side of the compartment

References T. L. Lee, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, C. I. Vahl, M. Siemens and D. U. Thomson. 2017. Assessment of risk factors contributing to carcass bruising in fed cattle at commercial slaughter facilities. Translational Animal Science M. E. Youngers, D. U. Thomson, E. F. Schwandt, J. C. Simroth, S. J. Bartle, M. G. Siemens, and C. D. Reinhardt. 2017. Prevalence of horns and bruising in feedlot cattle at slaughter. Professional Animal Scientist; 33:135-139. 23


Clinical Case Review

Understanding Bovine Viral Diarrhea By: Dr. Dan Thomson, Production Animal Consultation

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVD) is a pestivirus that causes abortion in cows, birth defects in calves and immune suppression in all types of cattle. This virus is closely related to viruses that cause hog cholera in swine and border disease in sheep. BVD is a reproductive disease that is passed numerous ways (mainly nose to nose contact) in beef herds. There are two genotypes of BVD virus: BVD I and BVD II. Within each genotype, there are two biotypes: cytopathic and noncytopathic. “Cyto” means cell and “pathic” means death. 25

Therefore, cytopathic BVD kills the cells that it infects and noncytopathic is not lethal to the animal’s cells. Regardless of the genotype or biotype, BVD virus causes some major issues in the health and well-being of our cow herd. There are two types of infections in which cattle can succumb to BVD virus. Transient infections (TI) are infections that a calf or cow gets which they fight off, recover and rid the virus from their body. Persistent infections (PI) are infections in which the animal never rids the body of the virus and constantly sheds the organism in the environment. The TI cattle shed BVD virus in the environment but only for about 14 to 21 days until they clear the viral infection. How do cattle become TI or PI animals? Cattle that are transiently infected do so through nose to nose contact or contact with body secretions from a BVD infected animal. A PI calf however, must be infected as a fetus in utero prior to the fetal immune system being activated which occurs around 120 days gestation. The fetal immune system takes an inventory of cells and proteins when it is activated for the first time. If a fetal calf has BVD virus in its body at the time the immune system takes inventory, the immune system thinks that BVD virus is actually a part of the calf ’s body similar to heart cells, hair follicles, etc. Therefore, the calf never forms an immune reaction against BVD virus because it recognizes BVD as self. A persistently infected calf will have BVD virus in every cell in its body for the entirety of its life. How common is BVD virus in the United States? It is estimated that 1% of calves born in the United States are persistently infected with BVD. On the ranch, research has shown that about half of BVD PI calves die prior to weaning. Therefore, the prevalence of BVD PI calves at arrival to the feedyard ranges from 0.3 to 0.5% based on published literature. Maybe more importantly, one out of four pens of calves contains a BVD PI calf in our commercial feedlots. It is estimated that 50% of the BVD PI calves will die or be railed during the cattle finishing phase. So, only 25% of BVD PI calves survive to reach the packing plant. Along the way, these PI calves cause many herd health problems in all segments of the beef industry including immunosuppression of calves reducing their ability to recover from BRD, abortions in cows, pinkeye in calves secondary to immunosuppression and much more. Control of BVD virus in our beef production system is dependent on the cow-calf segment of the industry using proper vaccination programs and biosecurity to prevent birth of BVD PI calves. Receiving calves in the fall presents many challenges as a beef producer. Some large issues can be magnified if BVD PI calves are in these groups. It is well documented that BVD virus can cause severe immunosuppression in cattle. Cattle exposed to Type II BVD in a controlled setting have

diminished white blood cell counts leaving them very vulnerable to BRD infections (figure 1). Recently, we have been called to consult BRD cases due to higher than expected death loss. In one case, there were Type I and Type II BVD PI calves in a group that led to over a 60% death loss of nearly 200 head of cattle. Figure 1: BVD vaccination prevents immunosuppression in cattle and subsequent decrease in white blood cell count after BVD II exposure.

Veterinarians have differing opinions on how to control BVD PI calves in the feedlot setting. The first line of defense is the vaccination of all cattle with a modified live BVD Type I and BVD Type II vaccine at arrival to help non-BVD PI calves develop immunity against exposure to the virus. Veterinarians debate on testing on arrival for BVD PI calves (figures 2,3). Figure 2: Ear notch samples are used in BVD PI testing.

Figure 3: It is not possible to determine which cattle are BVD PI visually; testing must be used. Below are two pictures of BVD PI calves.

blood samples of the cattle in the pen and conduct serology which will expose elevated BVD titers if BVD PI animals were the culprit. Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a complex problem that can have crippling economical and biological effects on our beef herds in the United States. Many countries have developed eradication programs for this virus. Working with your veterinarian to develop a herd control program through baseline diagnostics, proper vaccine program design and biosecurity steps is key to controlling this disease in your herd.

Chuckles From Down Under By: Jane Sullivan, Bell Veterinary Services Entering Heaven Three men died on Christmas Eve and were met by Saint Peter at the pearly gates. “In honour of this holy season,” Saint Peter said, “you must each possess something that symbolizes Christmas to get in to Heaven.”

Here are some rules of thumb to think about when working with your veterinarian on a program. First, lightweight cattle have a higher chance of being BVD PI positive because there is a higher likelihood the BVD PI calf is still alive. Second, if you are going to institute a BVD PI testing program, you must test every animal on your facility to make this work. If you test random pens, the likelihood of having a BVD PI calf get in the system and become commingled in the hospital pen with tested cattle could defeat your purpose. Also, research shows that BVD PI cattle can cause issues in cattle housed with nose to nose contact in adjacent pens. Lastly, you have to develop a plan for what to do with the BVD PI cattle once they are identified. Quarantine, salvage slaughter and selling these animals are all options. Please remember the ethics of selling damaged property to others, and a BVD PI animal for sale is unethical if it is not properly represented. If you wind up with a high morbidity, high mortality episode in cattle, it is too late to try and find the BVD PI animal as it has probably already died. Working with your veterinarian, you can take

The first man fumbled through his pockets and pulled out a lighter. He flicked it on. “It represents a candle,” he said. “You may pass through the pearly gates,” Saint Peter said. The second man reached into his pocket and pulled out a set of keys. He shook them and said, “They’re bells.” Saint Peter said, “You may pass through the pearly gates.” The third man started searching desperately through his pockets and finally pulled out a pair of women’s glasses. Saint Peter looked at the man with a raised eyebrow and asked, “And just what do those symbolize?” The man replied, “They’re Carol’s.” 27

The Easiest Way Not to Fire is Not to Hire By: Dr. Nels Lindberg, Production Animal Consultation

“As we look to hire, we look to hire based on three basic characteristics of a person: humble, hungry, and smart. We also look to hire on character, competency, and chemistry. We try to identify these characteristics through the interview process and through some excellent interview questions. In the end, it is up to us because a great person attracts great people and knows how to hold them together.”

Leadership 29

We have all heard the analogy or the story about how we must get the right people on the bus, or taking it a step further, we must get the right people in the right seat on the bus. But all too often, in virtually all small business settings, not just in the agriculture space, we fail at that basic principle and smash down on the gas pedal of that bus before we even have people in the right seat of the bus. We may even have the wrong people on the bus to begin with. In the agriculture space, we often are just flat short on help and we hire the first living, breathing, upright human being we can. We place them in a $250,000 piece of machinery on the first day, or we ask them to look over $7,000,000 worth of cattle on a daily basis. And to further complicate matters, we often do so without setting forth explicit, crystal clear daily expectations that will enable them to succeed at what they do. This creates massive failure that we have all likely seen more of than we would like to admit. As we think about our failures in hiring, we think about all the “cancers”, gossips, and drama kings and queens we may have had, or the lazy deadbeats who have no passion or hunger for much of anything. Perhaps there is the go-getter that seems to have no patience and expects to receive the world and run the show in two years, or maybe in six months. As we think about all those failed hires, we reflect and ask ourselves how we can avoid making those same mistakes again. The key point is it is easier to not hire than it is to fire. The quicker we hire, the greater the chance we may have to fire or they quit sooner than expected. The #1 key to the whole process is to take more time! It seems there is never enough time, but we can all think of a number of folks we wished we would have taken more time to hire. We always wait just long enough to make the hire that we often needed them not a week ago but six months ago! In the hiring process we must execute several “to-do list” items. Most importantly, we must conduct multiple interviews, and if the position is at any leadership level, we must also conduct spousal interviews. The last thing we need is a crazy spouse involved in our business! A crazy spouse may not be physically present at work, but we all know they are present and somehow creating indirect drama. If we go on a dinner interview, our own spouse can often identify “crazy”, which is the goal! Secondly, we want the prospective employee to come work with us for a few days at least, so we can “undress them and they can undress us”. Next, make sure to do your homework. Check this person out on Facebook, call all references, and ask others on the team if they know them and what they know about them. The power of social media today can allow us to find out just about as much as we want from a person’s Facebook page. Lastly, as we look for potential hires, pay your current team members if they recommend someone and they are a good hire. At Animal Medical Center, we currently pay our

people $250 for a hire. Referrals are a great method because if your culture is good, your team will not want to bring in crazy, drama or drunk. As we look to hire, we look to hire based on three basic characteristics of a person: humble, hungry, and smart. We also look to hire on character, competency, and chemistry. We try to identify these characteristics through the interview process and through some excellent interview questions. In the end, it is up to us because a great person attracts great people and knows how to hold them together. If we hire for talent and not team, we will lose more. We want to identify rockstars and get them on our team. We want to be a magnet for people better than us. People are not your most important asset; the right people are your most important asset. It takes extreme discipline and stoic resolve to get the right people on the bus and in the right seat on the bus before you smash that pedal down and drive it. Next time, we can visit on ways to get people in the door to interview since we often struggle with just having enough labor!

On the next page Dr. Nels included a “Hiring Process” guideline document for your reference.

Hiring Process By Dr. Nels Lindberg

The easiest way to not fire is to not hire. Be selective in who you are hiring! • • •

Do multiple interviews with each candidate. Conduct spousal interviews. Never look past the references. Contact all of their references.

Characteristics to hire: • • • • • •

Humble Hungry Smart Integrity Chemistry Competency

We are looking for: • • • •

Emotionally Wholesome Mentally Wholesome No Egos No Needy People

Key Interview Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What's your story? What have you been doing in life? Where have you been? Where don't you want to be and why? Tell me about the worst bosses you’ve ever had. What is a common misconception about you and why? What are 3 words your friends would use to describe you? a. What 1 word would you use to describe yourself? 6. What skills/behaviors are essential for success in your position? 7. What's a time in your life when you were totally broken and how did you get through it? 8. Use the Humble, Hungry, Smart technique. What are their strengths and weaknesses? Ask them what other people would say about them. 9. What excites you? What sets your soul on fire? What are you personally working on in your life? 10. What are your personal financial goals? 11. What are the three biggest mistakes you’ve made in life? 12. What is the bravest thing you could do today? 13. Ask them questions more than once. What's important to you? What's the best you want for yourself and others? What drives you? What motivates you? What makes you super excited? Where do you see yourself in 5, 10 years? What sets your soul on fire?

Bilingual Training

The following articles have been translated into Spanish:

Entendimiento de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Bovine Diarrhea Virus in Cattle La Forma Mas Facil de No Despedir es No Contratar The Easiest Way Not to Fire is Not to Hire Comenzando Su Dia Starting Your Day

Translation provided by Jose Valles, Production Animal Consultation 33

Entendimiento de la Diarrea Viral Bovina El Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (DVB, por sus siglas en español) es un pestivirus que causa aborto en las vacas, anomalías congénitas en terneros y supresión inmune en todo tipo de ganado. Este virus está estrechamente relacionado con virus que causan cólera en cerdos y enfermedad de la frontera en ovejas. La diarrea viral bovina es una enfermedad reproductiva que se transmite de muchas maneras (principalmente a través de contacto de nariz a nariz) en hatos de ganado de carne. Existen dos genotipos del virus de la diarrea viral bovina: DVB I y DVB II. Dentro de cada genotipo, existen dos biotipos: citopático y no-citopático. “Cito” significa célula y “pático” significa muerte. Por lo tanto, la DVB citopática mata a las células que infecta y la no-citopática no es letal para las células del animal. Independientemente del genotipo o biotipo, el virus de la DVB causa algunos grandes problemas en la salud y el bienestar de nuestro hato de vacas. Existen dos tipos de infecciones en las cuales el ganado puede sucumbir al virus de la DVB. Las infecciones transitorias (TI, por sus siglas en Ingles) son infecciones que un becerro o una vaca contrae las cuales combaten, se recuperan y eliminan el virus de su cuerpo. Las infecciones persistentes (PI, por sus siglas en Ingles) son infecciones en las cuales el animal nunca liberal el cuerpo del virus y constantemente propagan el organismo en el medio ambiente. El ganado TI propaga el virus de la DVB en el medio ambiente, pero solo durante aproximadamente de 14 a 21 días hasta que elimina la infección viral. ¿Como se convierte el ganado en animales TI o PI? El ganado que es transitoriamente infectado lo hace a través del contacto de nariz a nariz o el contacto con secreciones corporales de animales infectados con DVB. Sin embargo, un becerro PI debe ser infectado como un feto en el útero antes de que el sistema inmune fetal sea activado, que ocurre alrededor de los 120 días de gestación. El sistema inmune fetal realiza un inventario de células y proteínas cuando se activa por primera vez. Si un becerro fetal tiene el virus de la DVB en su cuerpo en el momento en el que el sistema inmune realiza el inventario, el sistema inmune cree que el virus de la DVB es en realidad una parte del cuerpo del becerro similar a las células cardiacas, folículos pilosos, etc. Por lo tanto, el becerro nunca forma una reacción inmune contra el virus de la DVB porque reconoce a la DVB como parte de sí mismo. Un becerro persistentemente infectado tendrá el virus de la DVB en cada célula de su cuerpo por la totalidad de su vida.

¿Que tan común es el virus de la DVB en los Estados Unidos? Se estima que el 1% de los becerros nacidos en los Estados Unidos son persistentemente infectados con DVB. En el rancho, las investigaciones han demostrado que aproximadamente la mitad de los becerros PI con DVB mueren antes del destete. Por lo tanto, la prevalencia de becerros PI con DVB al arribo al corral de engorda oscila entre 0.3 y 0.5% en base a literatura publicada. Quizás aún más importante, uno de cada cuatro corrales de becerros contiene a un becerro PI con DVB en nuestros corrales de engorda comerciales. Se estima que el 50% de los becerros PI con DVB morirán o serán desechados durante la fase de finalización del ganado. Por lo que solo el 25% de los becerros PI con DVB sobreviven para llegar a la planta empacadora. Sobre la marcha, estos becerros PI causan muchos problemas de salud en hatos en todos los segmentos de la industria de la carne incluyendo inmunosupresión de becerros que reduce su capacidad de recuperación de enfermedad respiratoria bovina (ERB, por sus siglas en español), abortos en vacas, conjuntivitis en becerros secundaria a inmunosupresión y mucho más. El control del virus de la DVB en nuestro sistema de producción de carne es dependiente del segmento de vaca-becerro de la industria que utiliza programas adecuados de vacunación y bioseguridad para prevenir el nacimiento de becerros PI con DVB. La recepción de becerros en el otoño presenta muchos desafíos como productor de ganado de carne. Algunos de los grandes problemas se pueden ampliar si los becerros PI con DVB están en estos grupos. Está bien documentado que el virus de la DVB puede causar inmunosupresión severa en el ganado. El ganado expuesto a la DVB Tipo II en un entorno controlado tiene un conteo disminuido de glóbFigura 1: La vacunación contra la DVB previene la inmunosupresión en el ganado y la subsiguiente disminución del recuento de glóbulos blancos después de la exposición a la DVB tipo II.

ulos blancos dejándolos muy vulnerables a las infecciones por ERB (figura 1). Recientemente, hemos sido llamados para consultar casos de ERB debido a pérdidas por muerte mayores a las esperadas. En un caso, hubo becerros PI con DVB Tipo I y Tipo II en un grupo que condujo a más del 60% de perdida por muerte de casi 200 cabezas de ganado. Los veterinarios tienen opiniones diferentes sobre cómo controlar los becerros PI con DVB en un entorno de corrales de engorda. La primera línea de defensa es la vacunación de todo el ganado con una vacuna viva modificada contra la DVB Tipo I y Tipo II al arribo para ayudar a los becerros que no están PI con DVB a desarrollar inmunidad contra la exposición al virus. Los veterinarios debaten sobre el examen de detección de becerros PI con DVB al arribo (figuras 2, 3). Aquí están algunas reglas generales para tomar en cuenta cuando trabaje con su veterinario en un programa. En primer lugar, el ganado liviano tiene una mayor probabilidad de ser positivo en examen de infección persistente de DVB porque hay una mayor probabilidad de que el becerro PI con DVB aun siga vivo. En segundo lugar, si va a establecer un programa de prueba de infección persistente de DVB, usted debe poner a prueba cada animal en su instalación para que esto funcione. Si prueba corrales al azar, la probabilidad de que un becerro PI con DVB se meta al sistema y se mezcle en el corral de hospital con ganado probado podría anular su propósito. Además, las investigaciones muestran que el ganado PI con DVB puede causar problemas en el ganado alojado a través del contacto de nariz a nariz en corrales adyacentes. Por último, usted debe desarrollar un plan sobre qué hacer con el ganado PI con DVB una vez que es identificado. La cuarentena, el sacrificio de desecho y la venta de estos animales son opciones. Por favor recuerde la ética de vender propiedad dañada a otros, y un animal PI con DVB en venta no es ético si no es representado adecuadamente. Si termina con un episodio alto en morbilidad y mortalidad en ganado, es demasiado tarde para tratar de encontrar el animal PI con DVB ya que probablemente se haya muerto. Trabajando con su veterinario usted puede tomar muestras de sangre del ganado en el corral y realizar una serología la cual expondrá títulos elevados de DVB si los animales PI con DVB fueron los culpables. El virus de la diarrea viral bovina es un problema complejo que puede tener efectos económicos y biológicos perjudiciales en nuestros hatos de carne en los Estados Unidos. Muchos países han desarrollado programas de erradicación para este virus. Trabajar con su veterinario para desarrollar un programa de control de hato a través de diagnósticos de referencia, el diseño del programa adecuado de vacunación y los pasos de bioseguridad es clave para controlar esta enfermedad en su hato.

Figura 2: Las muestras de muesca de la oreja se utilizan en la prueba de infección persistente de DVB.

Figura 3: No es posible determinar cuál ganado es PI con BVD visualmente; la prueba debe utilizarse. A continuación se muestran dos imágenes de becerros PI con DVB 35

La Forma Mas Facil de No Despedir es No Contratar Todos hemos escuchado la analogía o la historia sobre cómo debemos obtener a las personas adecuadas en el autobús, o vayamos más allá, debemos colocar a las personas adecuadas en el asiento correcto en el autobús. Con demasiada frecuencia, virtualmente en todos los entornos de las pequeñas empresas, no solo en el espacio de la agricultura, fallamos en ese principio básico y pisamos el acelerador del autobús incluso antes de tener a las personas en el asiento correcto del autobús. Incluso podemos tener a las personas equivocadas en el autobús para comenzar. En el espacio de la agricultura, a menudo estamos cortos de ayuda y contratamos al primer ser humano viviente que podemos. Los ponemos en una pieza de maquinaria de $250,000 el primer día, o les pedimos que revisen diariamente el valor de $7,000,000 en ganado. Y para complicar aún más las cosas, a menudo lo hacemos sin establecer expectativas diarias explicitas y claras que les permitirá tener éxito en lo que hacen. Esto crea una enorme falla que probablemente todos hemos visto más de lo que nos gustaría admitir. Al pensar en nuestras fallas de contratación, pensamos en todos los “canceres”, chismes, y personas dramáticas que pudimos haber tenido, la gente perezosa que no tiene pasión o hambre por mucho de nada. Tal vez exista la persona ambiciosa que parece no tener paciencia y espera recibir el mundo y dirigir el espectáculo en dos años, o a lo mejor en seis meses. Mientras pensamos en todas esas contrataciones fallidas, reflexionamos y nos preguntamos cómo podemos evitar hacer estos mismos errores otra vez. El punto clave es que es más fácil no contratar que despedir. Entre más rápido contratamos, mayor es la probabilidad de que tengamos que despedir o que renuncien antes de lo esperado. La clave #1 para todo el proceso es tomar más tiempo! Parece que nunca hay tiempo suficiente, pero todos podemos pensar en una cantidad de personas en las que desearíamos haber tomado más tiempo para contratar. ¡Siempre esperamos el tiempo suficiente para hacer la contratación que a menudo necesitábamos hacer no hace una semana sino desde hace seis meses! En el proceso de contratación debemos ejecutar varios elementos de la “lista de tareas pendientes”. Lo más importante, debemos realizar múltiples entrevistas, y si la posición se encuentra en algun nivel de liderazgo, también debemos realizar entrevistas conyugales. ¡Lo último que necesitamos es un cónyuge loco involucrado en nuestro negocio! Un cónyuge loco puede no estar físicamente presente en el trabajo, pero todos sabemos que está presente y de alguna manera creando drama indirecto. ¡Si vamos a una entrevista de cena, nuestro propio cónyuge con

frecuencia puede identificar “loco”, lo cual es el objetivo! En segundo lugar, queremos que el posible empleado venga a trabajar con nosotros por lo menos durante unos días, para poder “conocerlos y que nos conozcan”. Luego, asegúrese de hacer su tarea. Busque a esta persona en Facebook, llame a todas sus referencias, y pregúntele a personas de su equipo si conocen a esta persona y que saben de ella. El poder de las redes sociales hoy en día nos permite encontrar casi todo lo que deseamos saber de la página de Facebook de una persona. Por último, mientras buscamos posibles contrataciones, compense a sus actuales miembros de equipo si recomiendan a alguien y es una buena contratación. En Animal Medical Center, actualmente le pagamos a nuestra gente $250 por una contratación. Las referencias son un gran método porque si su cultura es buena, su equipo no querrá traer algún loco, dramático o borracho. Cuando buscamos contratar, buscamos contratar basado en tres características básicas de una persona: humilde, deseosa e inteligente. También buscamos contratar en base de carácter, competencia y química. Tratamos de identificar estas características a través del proceso de entrevista y a través de algunas excelentes preguntas de entrevista. Al final, depende de nosotros porque una gran persona atrae grandes personas y sabe cómo mantenerlas unidas. Si contratamos por talento y no por equipo, perderemos más. Queremos identificar estrellas y ponerlas en nuestro equipo. Queremos ser un imán para personas mejores que nosotros. Las personas no son su activo más importante; las personas correctas son su activo más importante. Se necesita una disciplina extrema y una determinación estoica para obtener a las personas correctas en el autobús y en el asiento correcto del autobús antes de pisar el acelerador fuertemente y manejarlo. ¡La próxima vez, podemos platicar sobre formas de cómo conseguir que personas lleguen a la puerta para una entrevista ya que con frecuencia tenemos dificultad para tener suficiente mano de obra!

Comenzando Su Dia ¿Alguna vez se ha levantado en el lado equivocado de la cama? ¿Encuentra que todo lo que intenta se afronta con frustración y molestia? Normalmente, este tipo de días podrían evitarse con un poco de previsión y preparación. Tener una rutina consistente y un plan para su día ayuda a aliviar las situaciones de “el lado equivocado de la cama”. El mismo concepto de una rutina consistente y un plan es válido para la forma como su caballo necesita comenzar su día de trabajo. Entrar al corral de su caballo de manera silenciosa y no agresiva es muy importante. Su caballo necesita saber que usted es su compañero y merece un momento para aceptarlo en su área. Cuando él se para en silencio para que usted le pongas el cabestro, esta es su forma de comunicar su voluntad para comenzar otro día de trabajo con usted. Sin embargo, si su caballo es difícil de atrapar o se voltea y camina hacia la parte trasera del corral, él está tratando de decirle algo. El está indicando que no se siente bien en comenzar el día. Esto podría ser debido a que está cansado o agotado. Es importante que nuestros caballos tengan tiempo libre frecuentemente. Normalmente veo caballos de trabajo de corral de engorda ser montados cada tercer día. Es muy importante descansar su caballo durante las condiciones difíciles del corral de engorda, como corrales lodosos o nieve profunda. Su falta de voluntad para ponerle el cabestro también puede indicar que tiene algún dolor y debe ser evaluado de cerca. Crear confianza entre nosotros y nuestro caballo nos permite ser más sensibles a lo que el trata de decirnos. Una vez que tenemos un caballo dispuesto con el cabestro puesto, debemos asegurarnos de que tenga tiempo para comer antes de ser montado. Igual que nosotros, el necesita algo en su estómago antes de comenzar a trabajar. Es muy importante que el coma una dieta consistente. Si deja parte de su alimento, es posible que no se sienta bien y deba ser vigilado de cerca. Los caballos que inclinan la cabeza mientras mastican pueden necesitar que les floten los dientes o que los revisen. Un caballo con dolor en la boca no responde bien al tener un bocado en la boca. Mientras nuestro caballo está comiendo, podemos comenzar a cepillarlo y almohazarlo. El propósito de cepillar un caballo es para quitarle de su pelaje cualquier lodo, heno o rebaba. Cualquier cosa que este pegada a su pelaje puede causar dolor. Es muy importante mantener sus patas enjuagadas durante los tiempos lodosos. El lodo seco puede causar dolor y hacer que el caballo pierda su pelo. Es importante notar si su caballo se estremece por dolor en cualquier momento mientras lo cepilla. Él le indicara cuando pase por un área sensible. Debemos prestar mucha atención a su cruz. Normalmente, cuando una montura no queda adecuadamente, la cruz será la primera área en

mostrar dolor. El pelo blanco que usted ve en la cruz de un caballo es una señal de heridas previas debido a la montura. Para ayudar a que nuestra montura le quede a nuestro caballo, debemos utilizar los sudaderos correctos. Si probar diferentes tipos de sudaderos para montura no ayuda al ajuste de la montura, necesitamos cambiar de montura. Al ajustar una montura a nuestro caballo, debemos reconocer las diagonales de nuestro caballo. Se mide del punto del hombro izquierdo al punto del hueso de la cadera derecha. Luego se mide del punto del hombro derecho al punto del hueso de la cadera izquierda. Donde se cruzan estas dos líneas es donde necesita estar sentado para estar un equilibrio adecuado para su caballo. Por lo tanto, debe estar al tanto de donde la montura queda en la espalda de su caballo. Los arreos se deben ajustar adecuadamente al utilizarlos en diferentes caballos. A veces necesitan ajustarse si su caballo pierde o gana peso. Es muy importante que su cabezada quede adecuadamente. Me gusta ver una arruga al lado de la boca de mi caballo cuando la cabezada queda adecuadamente. El ajuste demasiado apretado de la cabezada es muy incómodo para su caballo y ejerce demasiada presión en su boca. Esto hace que mueva la cabeza o muestre frustración de otras formas. Nunca debe crear una ulcera en la esquina de la boca de su caballo. Cuando comenzamos nuestro día de trabajo de manera consistente, establecemos las bases para un día productivo y agradable. Estamos en mejores condiciones para cuidar nuestro ganado, así como también crear un ambiente positivo para nuestro compañero equino, pare que nadie comience en el lado equivocado de la cama… o caballeriza. 37

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The Pot Roast

Skilletini Photography by Wrenn Pacheco

Ingredients 1 lb. Italian sausage links 1 yellow bell pepper 1 red bell pepper 1 onion 1 clove of garlic, minced 1/2 cup cry red wine 1/4 cup tomato paste 1 14 oz can diced tomatoes 1/4 cup pesto 1 lb. penne pasta


Begin by browning your sausage. Place your sausage in a 12-inch skillet with water about a 1/4 of the way up the sausage and a drizzle of olive oil. Cook on medium until water evaporates and the sausage links brown on each side.


Remove sausage from skillet and set aside. While the sausage cooks, slice the peppers and onions into strips about the size of the penne pasta.


Slice your sausage and put back in skillet with the sauce, add the cooked pasta and toss to combine. Enjoy with shaved Parmesan over the top and some good crusty bread!


As you are working on the sauce, cook your pasta to al dente. In the same skillet the sausage was in, sauté your peppers, onions and garlic, using the moisture from the vegetables to begin deglazing the pan. Cook the vegetables until they begin to soften, but try to keep them a little crisp or “al dente”.


Stir in the tomato paste and cook out about a minute. Add the wine and deglaze the pan further if needed. Add in your tomatoes and pesto. Bring to a simmer and allow to thicken slightly into a nice sauce.

Thank you to Arturo and Wrenn Pacheco for sharing your recipe and pictures. Arturo and Wrenn are custom grazers located in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Their grazing operation consists of grazing double stock steers and custom heifer development for their clients. Arturo has his PhD in ruminant nutrition and owns and operates his own nutrition consulting business, Pacheco Cattle Services. Wrenn is a professional photographer and operates Wrenn Bird Photography. Together they have two little cowboys, Leo and Ross. You can find more of their recipes at 41

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Feedlot Shade Sytems that deliver: • Cost-effective shade solutions • Design flexibility • Spans to keep pens clear of posts • Uniquely designed canopy material

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Midwest NetPro Gary Kreikemeier Phone: 402-563-4712 Fax: 402-527-5594 Email: • Even distribution of rainfall • 10-year pro-rata UV warranty Website: • Easy maintenance

Calendar December


3rd - 5th Nebraska LEAD Seminar, Lincoln, NE, Dr. Shane attending

31st - 9th Nebraska LEAD National Travel Seminar, Washington, D.C., Jose attending

14th - 15th Executive Veterinary Program Beef, Olathe, KS, Drs. Jim, Dan, Kip and Wade attending

31st - 3rd National Cattlemen’s Beef Association Convention, Pheonix, AZ, PAC members attending


21st - 22nd Form-A-Feed Professional Beef Conference, Larchwood, IA, Dr. Kip presenting

6th - 21st Nebraska LEAD International Travel Seminar, South America, Dr. Shane attending

Easy on cattle and your bottom line. 1

Titanium® vaccines have no impact on feed intake and result in little to no post-treatment side effects, so you can keep your cattle on track with health management solutions that don’t interrupt your day-to-day operations or affect your bottom line.1,2 It’s BRD protection that doesn’t impact performance, so you can be confident in every dose.


A DOSE OF CONFIDENCE The label contains complete use information, including cautions and warnings. Always read, understand and follow the label and use directions. As measured by body temperature, feed intake, injection-site reaction or white blood cell count. 2Terhaar, B. 2001. Evaluating the effects of vaccine-induced stress on productivity. Study No. TR-13. Published by Agri Laboratories Ltd. Do not vaccinate within 21 days of slaughter. Elanco, Titanium® and the diagonal bar are trademarks owned or licensed by Eli Lilly and Company, its subsidiaries or affiliates. © 2015 Elanco Animal Health FYDH 35192 USBBUTIT00069


Production Animal Consultation PO Box 41 Oakley, KS 67748

Mark Your Calendars! PAC Beef Summit Meetings Tuesday, April 3rd, 2018 Kearney, NE Wednesday, July 11th, 2018 Oberlin, KS

More details coming soon

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