Page 1

Tiki Tiki FINE

ART


In this issue L'art Hawaiien divers et complexe Na Hana Noeau Susan Cardenas (peinture florale) Couture Hawaiienne Fondation Nationale pour la culture et l'art d'Hawaii (HSFCA) The art of Herb Kawainui Kane - (peintre et historien) Heidi Malott - Watercolors and Oils Tropical Matchbox


DjF du Marais

HaWaii

MIX


George Carter’s Death of Captain James Cook, painted only a few years after Cook’s death from sketches at the scene

L'art hawaiien divers et complexe

La

beauté

hawaiiennes

des a

îles

la création de certaines des plus précieuses œuvres du monde. Les amateurs d'arts en visite à Hawaii pourront que

photographies de surf, des

melting-pot

pacifique

tissages de noix de coco, des

travaillent sur divers média

leis, des bijoux souvenirs,

pour

des peintures, l'art à Hawaii a

créer

du

des

œuvres

spéciales.

de quoi plaire à tout le monde

inspirée

d'innombrables artistes pour

découvrir

De nombreux artistes de ce

le

milieu

et inspirer les cœurs et les L'art d'Hawaii est divers et complexe,

avec

un

esprits de ses spectateurs.

large

éventail de styles qui plaira aux connaisseurs de tout âge. Des jolies dessins sur bois de koa, des

artistique local est unique et très riche. Bishop Museum Haaiian Hall


Hawaii Diamond Head by Joyce Girgenti

un point de vue artistique

Na Hana Noeau

unique. la beauté au service de l'utile

Ils

croyaient

que

chaque tâche était un test de soi-même

et

de

leur

Beaucoup des œuvres d’arts

dévouement à la culture et la

créées sur les îles aujourd'hui

religion hawaiienne. Par des

prennent leurs racines dans

études rigoureuses et une

l'ancienne

attention soutenue, un artisan

culture

pouvait exploiter le mana

hawaiienne. Les

anciens

hawaiiens

étaient

artistes

(pouvoir ou esprit) des dieux

des

et, en retour, les apaiser et

artisans talentueux avec un standard de travail élevé et

créer de la vertu.

by Olga Shevchenko


Ginger Sandell - Coffee Shack

Na

hana

"travaux

noeau

signifie

pertinents

Hawaii

comprenaient

du

et

kapa, un matériel polyvalent

recherchés" et représentent

coloré, du lauhala, feuilles de

les œuvres artistiques des

hala tressées ayant divers

anciens, qui étaient belles

usages, du bois de koa,

autant

fonctionnelles.

découpés selon les besoins,

Les hawaiiens appliquaient

et du hulu mano, œuvres en

des principes esthétiques à la

plumes,

création d'objets usuels, car

signe de distinction et de

chacune de ces créations

décoration.

que

utilisées

comme

devait refléter le mana qu'elle était sensée posséder. Les na hana noeau de l'ancienne

Patricia Carroll's Art Cards Hawaii


Leroy Neiman Diamond Head Hawaii Painting

Le kapa est un matériau créé

avait

à partir du bois du Wauke

l'ensemble était à nouveau

(Murier à Papier). Le tronc

trempé puis pressé. L'écorce

d'un

était

de

ces

soigneusement

arbres,

ensuite

collectées,

laissée

à

se

fermenter et ramollir sous des

voyait retirer de son écorce

feuilles de bananes. L'écorce

couche

Les

adoucie était ensuite pétrie,

couches intérieures étaient

battue au maillet, remouillée,

trempées dans l'eau de mer,

puis

laissée à fermenter puis battu

recommencé deux ou trois

sur de la roche avant d'être

fois. Le "tap, tap, tap" du

séchées au soleil. Quand une

kapa

quantité d'écorce suffisante

reconnaissable entre tous et

par

choisi,

été

couche.

le

processus

battue

était

était

pouvait être entendu à des kilomètres à la ronde.


Naik Michel Photography Hawaii

Les bandes obtenues étaient

filets

cousues

pour

couvertures, les lava lavas

célèbre artiste Puanani Van

former un tissu de la surface

(habits), les voiles de canoë

Dorpe qui travaille plus de 8

voulue. Si le matériau était

et

destiné

seulement

ensemble

à

devenir

une

de

les

pêches.

Les

heures par jour à faire des

quelques

unes

répliques des anciens motifs

morceaux de bambou ou de

faite du kapa. Bien que cette

ohia

méthode

un

le

sont

des utilisations qui étaient

dans

comme

muumuus

couverture ou un habit, des

plongés

aujourd'hui,

de du

fabrication kapa

sur kapa.

à

colorant naturel servaient à

partir

ait

peindre des motifs complexes

virtuellement

et répétés sur le tissu. Mais le

quelques

matériau pouvait aussi être

passionnées continuent de

tressé en cordes pour des

faire vivre cette tradition

disparue, artistes

Aloha Hawaii postcard By Kerne Erickson


Susan Cardenas Born in Okinawa and living in Kaneohe most of her life, Susan Cardenas took for granted the beauty that surrounded her, as she struggled to fill that void that only God can fill. After becoming a born again believer, she began discovering the fantastic array of color that Hawaii offers so abundantly. The painting process

has

provided

healing

from

lifelong

depression and as she captures the beauty of God’s creation, she hopes to convey the calm and peace now present in her life. Susan’s art career started in 1979 as a jewelry artist, painting miniatures.

In 1981, she took oil painting

classes with local artist Stan Yamauchi.

After

earning a graphic arts degree in 1984 she worked at a newspaper, the MidWeek.

In 1998, she decided

to follow her passion to become a fineart artist and has been painting water colors ever since.

Susan Cardenas – Banana flower

Les lauhala (les feuilles de

Le hulu manu, la création

ceux

hala)

avec des plumes, était utilisé

répondaient aux besoins du

aujourd'hui pour la fabrication

pour

beaux

projet en cours. Des capes

de nombreux produits, des

ornements

colorés

à

en plumes appelées ahuula,

chapeaux

destination

des

chefs

des étendards en plumes

feuilles sont séchées puis

hawaiiens de haut-rang (les

appelées kahili, des hochets

mouillées pour donner une

alii).

en plumes nommés les uli uli

texture finement tissée pour

d'oiseaux,

manu,

et des bracelets, les kupee,

donner diverses formes. Les

étudiaient soigneusement les

étaient quelques uns des

lauhala peuvent être finement

comportements de ces bêtes,

objets

tissées en une surface rigide

en particulier les iiwi, les oo,

plumes. Les capes les plus

ou plus relâchées pour des

les mamo, les apapane, les

longues nécessitaient le plus

structures plus souples.

nae et les ahuula, et pistaient

d'attention, étaient les plus

est

encore

aux

pratiqué

tapis.

Les

faire

Des les

de

chasseurs kia

dont

les

réalisés

plumes

avec

des


Most of her techniques are self-taught, using library materials and watercolor magazines. Later, she took classes and workshops from island artists Gay Jefferson,

Susan

Rogers Aregger,

and

Roger

Whitlock.

Although watercolor is still her main

medium, Susan has been using hand-dyed tissue papers to create beautitul collages, utilizing the unique textures and colors that the tissues provide. She also does miniatures, paintings that are postage stamp size.

Susan teaches watercolor classes in Kailua and Honolulu,

“I feel it my obligation to pass on the knowledge and joy

I

have

experienced

so

that

others

may

experience the same healing and peacefulness that I was given when I started painting.”

Susan Cardenas 2005 - Serenity

colorées et avaient les plus

Le roi des arbres hawaiiens,

provenant des oiseaux les

le

plus rares; en conséquence

construire

elles étaient réservés aux

choses, des canoës de mer

chefs les plus importants.

géants, des petites balles,

koa,

était

utilisé

toute

sorte

pour de

des oo (pelles), des tikis, des calebasses,...La

décoration

était faite à l'aide d'un koi ou d'un adze, et les artisans devaient passer des années d'apprentissage maîtriser cet art difficile.

pour

Le koa est encore largement utilisé aujourd'hui, mais dans une moindre mesure.


Susan Cardenas 2005 - Joy

Couture hawaiienne La couture, bien qu'elle ait commencé

à

être

motifs inspirés par la beauté

designs naturels, des motifs

des îles et le mana des

de

ancêtres.

d'autres

Kapa

désigne

pratiquée récemment, a ses racines dans l'ancien

une

apana méthode

hawaiienne de couture dans laquelle trois couches sont

art du tissage de kapa.

accollées,

Influencé par la manière

supérieure de décoration, la

de

couche du milieu faite de

coudre

des

missionnaires d'Hawaii, la couture indigène prit son essor et incorpora des

fibres

et

inférieure.

la

couche

une

couche

Vous

pouvez

trouver une large variété de

feuilles,

symboliques.

de

fleurs

et

représentations


Susan Cardenas 2005 - Plumeria blues and yellow

Les

images

peuvent

prospérité.

Beaucoup

de

les tisserands d'aujourd'hui

également représentées des

gens croient que les tissus

incorporent

endroits

des

hawaiiens contiennent l'esprit

traditionnels à côté de ceux

des

de

plus

spéciaux,

généalogies

royales,

évènements

historiques

des

pensées

et

leur

créateur

transmettre

et

l'aloha.

abstraites.

Auparavant, un tissu pouvait

Chaque maille contient des

être enterré en même temps

significations

des

que l'artiste qui en était à

intentions nombreuses. Un

l'origine pour que son esprit

tissu représentant un ulu, le

reste intègre. Bien que la

fruit

plupart

à

pain,

et

symbolise

des

l'alimentation et est supposé

anciens

tissus

apporter à son créateur la

aient été perdus,

motifs

des

hawaiiens

des

dessins

contemporains

conserver

cette

pour

pratique

culturelle bien vivante.


Susan Cardenas 2005 - Hibiscus red

Les

images

peuvent

prospérité.

Beaucoup

de

les tisserands d'aujourd'hui

également représentées des

gens croient que les tissus

incorporent

endroits

des

hawaiiens contiennent l'esprit

traditionnels à côté de ceux

des

de

plus

spéciaux,

généalogies

royales,

évènements

historiques

des

pensées

et

leur

créateur

transmettre

et

l'aloha.

abstraites.

Auparavant, un tissu pouvait

Chaque maille contient des

être enterré en même temps

significations

des

que l'artiste qui en était à

intentions nombreuses. Un

l'origine pour que son esprit

tissu représentant un ulu, le

reste intègre. Bien que la

fruit

plupart

à

pain,

et

symbolise

des

l'alimentation et est supposé

anciens

tissus

apporter à son créateur la

aient été perdus,

motifs

des

hawaiiens

des

dessins

contemporains

conserver

cette

pour

pratique

culturelle bien vivante.


Susan Cardenas 2005 - Birds

La Fondation Nationale pour la culture et l'art d'Hawaii (HSFCA)

à

poursuivre

sa

mission

national mettant en contact

d'accroître l'intérêt pour sa

les étudiants et des artistes

vision de l'art. Des moyens

professionnels.

d'éducation ont été mis en place, comme la Loi sur l'Art

Mis en place par l'Etat

dans les Bâtiments Publics

d'Hawaii

la

qui initia le programme visant

HSFCA est destinée à

à amener l'art sur les places

préserver, promouvoir et

publics, ou le programme

perpétuer

en

les

1965,

arts

à

Hawaii. Des subventions fédérales aident la HSFCA

pour les artistes dans les écoles de 1970, le premier programme à dimension


On n'a pas besoin de visiter

monuments historiques, les

un musée ou une galerie

bâtiments

d'œuvres d'art pour trouver

bibliothèques,

des

commerciaux, les aéroports,

profondément

Quand on explore les îles

les parcs et les plages. Des

et

hawaiiennes, il est presque

statues de bronze géantes ou

symbolisme.

impossible de manquer les

lei de coquillages ou de

omniprésentes

plumes

œuvres

hawaiiennes.

artistiques ornant les

touches

publics, les

les centres

L'art

à

Hawaii

empreint

est

spirituel de


HERB KAWAINUI KANE COMPILED by DjF du MARAIS


KAH-ney Daughters of the Sea

"

If my work contributes to our Shark Strikes

comprehension of Hawai'i's past, that will ultimately become the greatest reward. Herb Kawainui Kane

LIttle Mermaid

"


HERB KAWAINUI KANE HERB KAWAINUI KANE (pronounced KAH-ney) is an artist-historian and author with special interest in Hawai'i and the South Pacific. Born in 1928, he was raised in Waipi'o Valley and Hilo, Hawai'i, and Wisconsin. After Navy service, he studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (master's degree 1953) and at the University of Chicago. He resides in rural South Kona on the island of Hawaii.

Known as ulu, or uru in Polynesia, the breadfruit tree (Moraceae) originated in Asia and was brought to the Pacific islands of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia by early sailing canoes. The fruit was cooked as food, the light wood was used for canoes, the bark served for some types of barkcloth, and the milky sap was rendered in fire to make a glue for caulking seams and cracks in canoes. The tree has been under cultivation for so long that most varieties cannot grow from seed, but must be grown from shoots. Injuring near-surface roots causes shoots to spring up, which are then cut away and transplanted, a process so difficult from yard to yard, that it testifies to the skill of ancient voyagers who kept such saplings alive over thousands of miles of deadly sea water.

A Hawaiian legend tells of the chief Kaha'i who brought breadfruit saplings from Tahiti long ago, sailing not less than 2,800 miles each way. The famous mutiny on the British ship Bounty resulted from the first attempt by William Bligh to bring young breadfruit shoots from Tahiti to the British West Indies where the trees might serve as a labor-free source of food for slaves.


Artist historian and author Career experience has included advertising art, publishing art, architectural design, painting, writing, and sculpture. Clients include many private collectors, the Hawaii State Foundation on Culture and the Arts, the National Park Service, National Geographic, and major publishers of books and periodicals. His art has appeared on seven postage stamps for the U.S. Postal Service, as well as stamps for the Republic of the Hula Holoku In this elegant dance the dancer wears a holoku, a formal 19th century dress with a train -- but is traditionally barefooted. The painting suggests the flowing, graceful movement of the dance by superimposing several images of the dancer as she moves from side to side and slowly forward. When missionaries arrived in Hawaii they were shocked by the scanty costumes of Hawaiian ladies, and quickly promoted the wearing of the mu'umu'u, a loose sack-like dress. Eager to acquire EuropeanAmerican ways, Hawaiian women adopted the mu'umu'u quickly. The more formal holoku was worn on special occasions. It remains a tradition among local ladies, and annual holoku balls are held in which prizes are awarded for the winning designs. The model was Kona dancer Michelle Amaral.

Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and French Polynesia.


with special interest As a design consultant, he has worked on resorts in Hawaii and the South Pacific and a cultural center in Fiji. Books now in print are Pele, Goddess of Hawaii's Volcanoes (1987, revised 1995), and Voyagers (1991, reprinted 2006) which includes 140 of his works in color. Another illustrated book, Ancient Hawaii August 1998, describes the arts, skills, society and world-view of the Polynesians who discovered and flourished in what became the Hawaiian Islands.

Pink Pareu


in Hawai'i and the South Pacific Research on Polynesian canoes and voyaging led to his participation as general designer and builder of the sailing canoe Hokule'a, which he served as its first captain in 1975. Hokule'a has now made several Hawaii-Tahiti voyages, and voyages Hamoa Beach

to New Zealand, Easter Island, Tonga, the Marquesas Islands, the Cook Islands, Micronesia and Japan, of which more than 110,000 miles were navigated without modern instruments.

Tubuai Lagoon


Polynesian canoes He is well known for paintings that expertly depict the many types of Polynesian and Micronesian sailing canoes. In 1984 he was elected a Living Treasure of Hawaii. In the 1987 Year of the Hawaiian Celebration, he was one of sixteen persons chosen as Honaunau bay

Po'okela(Champion). From 1988 to 1992 he served as a founding trustee of the Native Hawaiian Culture & Arts Program,

a

Federal

program

at

Bishop Museum. The tongiaki was the double-hulled voyaging canoe used during the period of Tongan expansion in the 16th, 17, and 18th centuries when Tongan "vikings" dominated much of Samoa and the eastern Fiji Islands and ventured northward into Micronesia and westward into Melanesia. In 1619 the first contact between a European ship and a Polynesian canoe at sea occurred when the Dutch explorer Schouten met -- and fired on -- a tongiaki. He wrote: "The rig of these vessels is so excellent and they go so well under sail that few ships in Holland could overhaul them." The elegant hulls were made by carving a "keel" hull from a log, then building up the sides with planks carved to the curvature, lashed edge to edge, and caulked with breadfruit gum.

Tongiaki of Tonga The painting is based on a plan drawn by the Cook Expedition; but during Cook’s visits the tongiakiwas being replaced by the swift kalia.


Now restored as a National Park, The ‘Pu‘uhonua o Honaunau (Sanctuary of Honaunau) was a place of safety for persons in trouble. Here, in the reconstructed thatched mortuary Hale o Keawe, the mana (power) believed to be retained in the bones of ancient kings protected the area within the “great wall”—a wall up to fourteen feet thick of rocks fitted without mortar, some of amazing size. Anyone entering that area to do harm risked retribution from the spirits of those kings. The idea was the same as the sanctuary offered by a medieval European cathedral under the spiritual protection of a holy relic of a saint kept within its walls.


Voyagers from the Marquesas or the leeward

The custom of a sternpiece higher than the bow

Tahitian Islands discover the white summit of Mauna

survived in the Marquesas, Tahitian Islands, Austral

Kea rising above a cloud bank. Applying the age-

Islands, Cook Islands, and New Zealand. The sail,

distribution theory, which assumes that cultural

sternpiece and bowpiece are also found in a

features found most widely distributed must be the

petroglyph on Easter Island.

most ancient, the painting depicts features of sail and hull design which survived local changes in the Marquesas, Hawai'i, the Cook Islands, and New Zealand.

In 1998, he was awarded Bishop Museum's Charles Reed Bishop Medal. In 2002, he received an award for excellence from The Hawaii Book Publishers Association. He is a 2008 recipient of an honorary doctorate awarded by the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Behold Hawaii

Herb's new Hawaii commemorative stamp for the U.S. Postal Service, celebrating 50 years of statehood, was released in August 2009.

50th anniversary of Hawai‘i’s


The typical Micronesian canoe is an “outrigger”, a

Bow has become stern, stern has become bow, and

single canoe with a stabilizing float always rigged out

the canoe sails off in the opposite direction with the

on the windward side. It is also a “double-ender,”

outrigged float still upwind of the canoe.

meaning the same at both ends, with the ends

When viewed from the end, the hull —or body—of

interchangeable.

most Micronesian canoes appears asymmetrical—

While most sailing vessels change direction by

the leeward or down-wind side of the hull of the

turning to take the wind on their opposite side, the

canoe showing less curvature than the outrigger

double-ender turns in a way that always keeps wind

side. This flatness increases the canoe’s sideways

on the same side where its weight helps prevent a

pressure against the water, reducing the amount of

capsize.

drift away from the wind and increasing both the

In this maneuver, the canoe is turned into the wind,

vessel’s sailing speed and its ability to sail at an

diminishing wind pressure on the sail.

angle into the wind.

The spar to which the sail is attached is released

In the 18th century the concept was picked up by

from one end of the hull, and the entire sail-and-spar

Polynesians, most likely by Tongan adventurers

assembly is carried aft and fastened to the other end

raiding northward into Micronesia and applying what

of the canoe.

they learned to canoes they built in Fiji and Samoa;

The mast pivots in the same direction, supporting the weight. The wind also helps move the entire assembly from one end to the other.

but more about the “Tongan Empire” later.


A Canoe of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia

Canoes have always been the principal objects of

To change sailing direction, the canoe is first turned

Micronesian culture. Within the

Caroline Islands,

into the wind. This collapses the sail, which is

canoes are built and used for fishing and voyaging

attached to a spar. The spar is released from the

as they have been for many centuries. In 1969 an

bow of the canoe and carried to the other end, which

ancient route between the Carolines and the

then becomes the bow. The weight is largely

Marianas Islands five hundred miles to the north was

supported by a mast which is stepped half-way

reopened by local navigators.

between the ends of the hull and tilts in the same direction. The wind also helps push the entire rig

The Micronesian canoe is an “outrigger”—a single

from one end to the other. The spar is fastened to

canoe connected to an outrigged float for stability.

the other end of the hull, the sail is drawn in to catch

When sailing, the float is always kept to windward.

the wind, and the canoe sails off in the opposite direction. Bow and stern have been reversed. Early

The hull (body of the canoe) is identical at both ends,

European explorers, impressed by the speed of

but with less curvature on the side away from the

these vessels, called them “flying proa.”

outrigger. This flatness on the lee (downwind) side increases the hull’s sideways pressure against the

Painting in the collection of Stephen and Diane

water, adding speed to the canoe regardless of

Heiman

which direction it is sailing.


NAVIGATOR


Kahuna Kilo Hoku A navigator of ancient Hawai‘i aboard a sailing canoe. He wears a pendant of polished pearl shell—a metaphor for “star”

because of its luster— suspended by a

necklace of strands of finely braided hair of ancestors, treasured for its mana. Over an underwrap of tapa (bark cloth) he wears a fine mat, fastened around his waist with braided sennit (coconut fiber). As protection against the chill of the coming night he may use an overwrap of waterproofed and dyed tapa , now slung over his shoulder and fastened about his waist with sennit. His tattoos—waves, birds, and star—are symbolic of his profession—dominant wave patterns, the flight paths of migrating birds, and stars are direction indicators at sea.

The secondary element in the painting’s design is a voyaging canoe under sail. A third element is a ki‘i aumakua (ancestral spirit image) holding a pearl shell, symbolizing a navigator holding fast to a guiding star. Such images were not portraits, but physical resting places for benevolent ancestral spirits whose invisible presence and helpful power could be invoked by chants and solicited by acts of respect.

It is believed that surfing by board and canoe was invented in Hawai‘i, for in all of their travels around the world and throughout the Pacific the 18th century expedition under Captain James Cook saw nothing like it until they reached these islands.


Hawaii Island Captain Cook's Expedition Entering Kealakekua Bay, Hawai'i we were jaded & very heartily tired, with Cruising off these Islands for near two months, the Weather was often more boist'rous than we could have imagin'd in this Latitude, & almost a Constant & heavy Swell or Sea when off the NE side of the Island; our old ropes & Sails were daily giving way."

The King of Hawai'i, Kalaniopu'u, had met Cook off the coast of Maui and invited "I HAVE NO WHERE IN THIS SEA seen such a number of people assembled at one place," wrote Captain James Cook"... besides those in the Canoes all the Shore of the bay was covered with people and hundreds were swimming about the Ships like shoals of fish."

him to visit Hawai'i. Cook arrived at Kealakekua, the island's only natural harbor, after a six week's circuit of the island. The king arrived with his canoe fleet nine days later.

Lieutenant James King estimated, "... there could not be less than 15 hundred [canoes] about both Ships ... we should not exaggerate, in saying we saw at this time 10000 of the Inhabitants. ... They expressed the greatest joy and satisfaction ... nor was the Pleasure less on our side;


Hawaii Island King Kalaniopu'u Welcoming Cook to Kealakekua Bay Hawaiian hospitality was lavish. Cook was

honored

with

the

title

"Rono,"

described by his men as the same title held by an important local chief. The king may have hoped Cook would reciprocate in an alliance against his enemies -- an idea

frequently

chiefs,

but

one

advanced Cook

by

would

island have

rejected.

Repaired and reprovisioned, the ships sailed, but Resolution's foremast broke in a gale, forcing Cook back to the bay for repairs. The king was apprehensive at Cook's return. Commoners began to steal Nine days after the Cook expedition anchored at Kealakekua Bay, the

from the ships, and tempers flared on

king arrived from Maui with his war fleet. Captain Cook was surprised to

both sides.

find that it was the same elderly chief he had met at sea off Maui almost two months earlier.

Cook and four marines were killed on

The next morning, the king cleared the bay of all canoes, then came out

February 14 while attempting to take the

with three large canoes. The first carried the king and many chiefs, and

king as a hostage to force the return of a

was laden with brilliant feather capes.

stolen boat. Captain Charles Clerke of

The second carried priests and large feather-covered spirit images, and

the Discovery took command of the

the third was heavily loaded with provisions. A stately procession was

expedition.

made around Cook's ships, perhaps the most impressive spectacle the

tuberculosis, Lieutenant John Gore took

British had seen in the entire Pacific.

the expedition home.

After

Clerke's

death

of


Hawaii Island The Death of Cook

This work also includes the first depiction of Hawaiian battle mats, described in British journals as worn in the same manner as the feather capes. In combat the cape was carried over the left shoulder and held forward by the left hand to take the impact of a sling stone or to snag the point of a spear or dagger, leaving the right arm free to wield a weapon.

This is a more accurate reconstruction of the moment than depicted in earlier paintings. It is based on the eye witness account of Marine Lt. Molesworth Phillips, a study of the weapons and dress of both sides, and estimates by scientists of the physical setting. Cook was not in breeches and hose, but wearing canvas trousers. He was not on a sandy beach, but was struck down while striding toward the water across a broad lava rock, his spent musket in his right hand.

Geologists believe this coastline has subsided 28 inches in the last 200 years. The rock from which Cook fell is now submerged, but can be located. The waterline on the rock is the result of computer work with moon phases which produced an estimate of the tide at 8:00 AM.


Hawaii Island The Death of Cook Cook had abandoned his attempt to take the king

the most eminent of Cook scholars, believed Cook was

hostage against the return of a stolen boat. At a

waving to the boats to come closer to shore. Like so

threatening gesture by one of the king's guards, he fired

many mariners of his day, he could not swim. A Portrait

both barrels of his musket, then ordered the marines to

of Pele: "This work began with many unsuccessful

fire. Instead of dispersing, the Hawaiians charged.

attempts

Phillips heard Cook shout, "Take to the boats!" Phillips

personality. The idea had been bothering me for some

was struck down and stabbed in the shoulder, but raised

time, and over a period of several months, I made many

himself and fired at his assailant before escaping. A man

sketches in pencil. All were failures. None said, 'I am

with a crude club struck Cook behind the head, while a

Pele.'

chief in a feather cape, known to the British as Nua,

"I contemplated the probability that I had set myself upon

rushed around a parked double canoe and stabbed him

a fool's errand. After all, why cast her in a human

with one of the iron daggers the ship's blacksmiths had

likeness when no better portrait of Pele could be desired

been forging as trade items. Surgeon's Mate Samwell

than the fiery eruptions, and the unique lava and fern

described Nua as a of "... great consequence ... tall and

jungle landscape of her domain? Also, Pele has no single

stout and one who united in his figure the two qualities of

likeness, but changes her features and age to suit her

strength and agility in a greater degree, than I ever

moods.

remembered to have seen before in any other man."

"One morning I arrived in my studio and again started a

Cook fell face down in the water and was stabbed many

sketch - and another - and another. The day's scheduled

times.

work was forgotten. I disconnected the phone. A

At the far left, the old king is being escorted to safety.

scattering of unsatisfactory sketches began to litter the

Marine corporal, James Thomas, waist deep in the

floor.

to

express

my

interpretation

of

Pele's

water, receives a mortal wound from a dagger thrust. Resolution is shown with the foremast removed for

"Then I began perspiring. It was one of those all too rare

repair. Cook's hand was raised toward the boats -- a

moments when the pencil or brush seems to move itself.

gesture now widely interpreted as a signal to cease

The face I had been looking for suddenly appeared. I

firing. However, J.C. Beaglehole,

whispered, 'There you are!'


Ancient Hawaii Kamehameha at Kamakahonu

The wars were over and the Kingdom of Hawai'i

firmly

established.

At

Kamakahonu, his estate at Kailua Village in Kona, Kamehameha devoted his last years

to

ruling

benevolent encouraging

and

his

kingdom just

prosperity,

as

a

monarch, conducting

business with foreigners, and educating his son, Liholiho, as his successor.

The painting depicts him wearing a simple kapagarment in conversation with Liholiho. Beside him stands his prime minister, Kalanimoku. The prince's attendant wearing a short yellow cape, is John Papa I'i, who later became an important historian. The fish in the foreground represent the gifts of food brought daily to the court.

Two ladies of the court are seated at left. Kamehameha's residence was a complex of thatched structures around a tranquil cove at Kailua Bay. Across the cove stands his private temple, Ahu'ena. The original painting is displayed at the King Kamehameha Hotel in Kona, Hawaii.


Night Fishing in Old Hawai'i

As the evening sky darkened, men prowled the shallow waters of bays and lagoons

with

torches

and

spears.

Candles used for lighting homes were made by stringing dried nutmeats of oily kukui nuts on thin bamboo skewers. As each nut burned, it ignited the nut below.

Clusters of these candles were carried in a hollow bamboo to make a torch. Spears were hardwood shafts, six to seven feet long, the tips tapered to a point and fire-hardened.


Gods & Turtle Mermaid Kauila

In a time of storms a supernatural sea turtle laid a single egg in the black sand beach of Punalu'u, on the southern shore of the Island of Hawai'i. Scooping up sand to cover it, she created a large fresh-water pond behind the beach.

From the egg, a baby turtle hatched. The people named her Kauila because her shell was the dark brown color of kauila wood. As a mo'o (water spirit), she could turn herself into a little girl and come ashore to play with the children; but when sleepy, she would turn into a little turtle and retreat into the pond for a nap.

As she grew she would appear as a beautiful maiden, but whenever a young man made advances she would escape into the dark pond. Today, as you walk along the pond's edge, you may see bubbles rising -- a sign that she is still asleep.


Goddesses Pele-honua-mea

She is Pele-honua-mea, Pele of the sacred land. She is Pele-'ai-honua, Pele the eater of land, when she devours the land with her flames.

She rules the volcanoes of Hawai'i, and Mankind has no power to resist her. When Pele is heard from, her word is the final word.

In folklore she may appear as a tall, beautiful young woman, or as an old woman, wrinkled and bent with age, sometimes accompanied by a white dog. When enraged she may appear as a woman all aflame or as pure flame. her sacred name as a spirit is Ka-'ula-o-keahi, the redness of fire.


Pele-honua-mea "I quickly traced it down on a canvas that had been intended for another painting, washed an underpainting A Portrait of Pele: "This work began with many

over the surface, and began to develop that face.

unsuccessful attempts to express my interpretation of Pele's personality. The idea had been bothering me for

"She hung around my studio for just a few weeks before

some time, and over a period of several months, I made

a friend tore her away from me. He had dropped by to

many sketches in pencil. All were failures. None said, 'I

tell me about a new lady love, and here he found

am Pele.'

another.

"I contemplated the probability that I had set myself upon

"Months later Ranger Jon Erickson called from Hawai'i

a fool's errand. After all, why cast her in a human

Volcanoes National Park, asking me to participate with

likeness when no better portrait of Pele could be desired

their designers on a new museum about Hawai'i's

than the fiery eruptions, and the unique lava and fern

volcanoes. It had been conceived as a scientific

jungle landscape of her domain? Also, Pele has no

museum, but something seemed missing; science alone

single likeness, but changes her features and age to suit

could not express the human experience of the

her moods.

volcanoes.

"One morning I arrived in my studio and again started a

"Pele personified that experience. I worked with the

sketch - and another - and another. The day's scheduled

designers to integrate the Hawaiian volcano myths with

work was forgotten. I disconnected the phone. A

scientific presentations.

scattering of unsatisfactory sketches began to litter the floor.

"For further depictions of Pele I thought I should look for a model. At breakfast one morning at the Hotel Hana

"Then I began perspiring. It was one of those all too rare

Maui I thought I saw the features I was looking for in the

moments when the pencil or brush seems to move itself.

face of our waitress. When I introduced myself, she said,

The face I had been looking for suddenly appeared. I

'Yes, I know who you are. I'm Mona Ling, the daughter of

whispered, 'There you are!'

Sam Kalalau who sailed with you on Hokule'a.'


Pele-honua-mea

A Pantheon of Volcano Spirits Left to right: Kamapua'a, the hog god; a mischievous spirit of rain,

"She modeled for me in a photo session that afternoon. Later I developed some of the poses into several

moisture and plant life. He was Pele's lover, but in all ways her opposite. Theirs was a stormy relationship.

studies, and further refined one of the studies into a painting. But when I did the paintings of Pele for the new Thomas A. Jaggar Museum, I found that none of the photos of Mona worked for me. Although she could not convert her features into a portrait that would say 'I am Pele.' So all my paintings and sculpture of Pele have been done, like the first, not from a human model, but

Poliahu, goddess of snowy Mauna Kea -- a sister and a jealous rival to Pele locked in an eternal ice and fire enmity. Pele's sisters, Kapo and Laka, two personalities of the same spirit -- one a spirit of fertility and sorcery, the other a spirit of the dance.

from the vision in my mind's eye. I can only believe that it was because Mona's features were just too vulnerably

Hi'iaka, a spirit of the dance, was Pele's favorite sister.

human. Pele, appearing as a beautiful young woman and as an "After the museum paintings were done and I was

old hag.

putting away my research, it occurred to me that here was material that might be molded into a little book (Pele, Goddess of Hawai'i's Volcanoes"

by Herb Kawainui Kane.

Ka-moho-ali'i, respected elder brother and keeper of the water of life. As a great shark he led Pele to Hawaii.

Lonomakua, keeper of the sacred fire sticks, made volcanic fires at Pele's command.

Ka-poho-i-kahi-ola, spirit of explosions. Ke-ua-a-ke-po, spirit of the rain of fire. Kane-hekili, spirit of thunder. Ke-o-ahi-kama-kaua, spirit of lava fountains.


Pacific People Pa'u Riders of old Hawai'i

Disdaining

the

"side-saddle"

riding

position, Hawaiian women wore long riding skirts (pa'u) that enabled them to straddle their horses. Their elders might prefer carriages, but high-spirited young women rode out on horseback, singing as they ambled along, often making a dramatic arrival at a party at full gallop.

The tradition of decorating both horse and rider with lei of flowers, ferns and On the Veranda

berries, and wearing the riding pa'u may still be seen at parades and celebrations throughout Hawai'i.


Pacific People Ready to Party

Told to me as a true story. -Herb

It was "party time."

Aunty

had

dutifully

cared

for

her

housebound husband through his long terminal illness; but after he was called to his ancestors, it was party time - time to get out of the house and see people. She visited relatives, and looked up old friends - "girls" she had known at Kamehameha Schools sixty years ago.

And

wherever

she

went

parties

blossomed out like flowers after a long rain. After she had visited everyone she wanted to see on 'Oahu, she ventured out to the neighbor islands. She went to Kauai, then to Molokai, then to Hawai'i.


Pacific People

It had been a long time since she had seen her relatives in Hawai'i's Kona district. On the whole the visit was "good fun," but she was not pleased about all the changes. Kona seemed so busy now, so many cars and people. She missed the faces of relatives who had died, and the others now looked much older than she had remembered them. There were new great-grandchildren to enjoy, but little Keoki,

the

grandson

she

had

remembered as such a darling baby, was

On the Lanai Femme des iles Sandwich

now a big wild-looking kid who she once saw sneaking a puff on a funny-smelling, hand-rolled cigarette. She guessed what that was.

Maui was next on her itinerary. When the family took her to the airport in a parade of cars, Keoki hauled her bags in a truck with over-size tires and a boom box you could hear a mile away.


Pacific People

As he carried her bags to the airline ticket counter, he whispered, "Tutu, I put a little surprise from Kona in your suitcase." But her attention was taken by other relatives surrounding her with words of aloha as they bedecked her with flower leis. The sun had set when the plane landed on Maui. She looked around out in front of the terminal, but the friend who had offered to meet her was not there. She Hawaiian Reverie

waited until dark; then, remembering her bags, walked to the baggage claim rack.

Before the Dance


Pacific People

She found her two suitcases, the only bags remaining on the rack. But when she put her hands on them, two very large,

young,

uniformed

policemen

suddenly appeared, one on each side of her. "We'll have to ask you to open those bags, Lady, if you don't mind," one said. "For what?" She replied, "And yes, I do mind!

Everything

in

those

bags

is

personal." "I'm sorry, but we must insist on inspecting your luggage." the other said.

Serenade


Pacific People

She was not much above five feet tall, but she could develop a towering temper. "You don't look into my personal stuff 'less you got one damn good reason." The two policemen glanced at each other. "I'm sorry," one said, "but we must have a look in your bags" "You're not going to look in my bags, but I tell you what you are going to do," she ordered. "You get on your radio and you call Lieutenant Kawaiaina, and you tell him to get right down here. Right now!" The policemen were taken aback. One said, "I'm sorry but I think he's off duty now. You know him?"

"Know him? I gave birth to him. You call my son right now and tell him to get over here." Performers


Pacific People

"I think he's watching the Monday night football."

"I don't care what he's doing. You call my boy and tell him to turn off his TV and come down here right this minute." One of the men made the call.

When her son arrived minutes later, he said, "Mama, you didn't tell me you when you were coming or I would have been here." "I no like bother you, Baby. Anyway,

my

classmate

Napua

was

meeting me, but I think she forgot. But what's all this pilikia?"

"You have to open the bags, Mama. Why won't you?"

Bernice Pauahi Bishop

"Because then these boys will see all my underwears! That's not their business."


Pacific People

"Let me explain, Mama. At the Kona airport they got one dog trained to smell drugs. This dog sniffs all the bags that are checked in, and if it gets excited they take down the description of the bag and where it's going. Then they phone ahead to the police at that airport. They watch the bags and catch whoever picks them up."

"Drugs? In my bags?" Still indignant, Aunty was now also incredulous. "Mama, they said that the dog sniffed that brown suitcase, and went crazy." "Oh, so that's it!" In sudden fright she remembered her grandson's remark at the Kona airport. "That wild kid of Julia's! He said he put something in my bag. Well, you can open it, Baby, but tell those other boys to stand Anna Perry Fiske on horse

back."


Pacific People

Her son opened the brown suitcase. From among Aunty's personal things he extracted

a

paper-wrapped

package,

which he opened. Laughing, he called to the other policemen, "Hey, boys, you like taste the evidence? It's the real Kona gold - dried opelu!"

In the package was five pounds of wonderfully fragrant dried fish.

Plaiter of Mats


Pacific People Puanani making Kapa

The making of barkcloth from the white inner bark of the paper mulberry tree has been

an

art

practiced

throughout

Polynesia, Micronesia and Melanesia, The art was brought to it's highest form in Hawai'i, both in the process of preparing the bark fibers and in the variety of decoration.

Puanani Van Dorpe, depicted here at work in her studio, has patiently gathered accounts by early observers of the processes involved in the making and decorating of traditional Hawaiian bark cloth (kapa) and has put them to test, carefully recording and evaluating the results of each experiment. Through arduous practice she has also developed her skill in the uniquely Hawaiian process of felting, beating, watermarking and decorating, and she has become the only person in the world who is now able to produce kapa identical to kapa two centuries old.

She has shared her discoveries with her daughter

Kapuailohia

and

others. A

growing interest from art collectors has added stimulus to the rebirth of this traditional art form.


Pacific People The New Quilt

In this painting the tradition of Hawaiian quilt-making,

distinctive in style and

technique from other quilts, is passed down

from

a

grandmother

to

her

granddaughter.

This image was featured on a poster for the 2000 Census, distributed by the U.S. Postal Service to post offices throughout the nation. The headline on the poster was, "Generations are counting on you."


Pacific People Kahai


TIME IN LIFE Island

As they have for generations, swimmers festoon the large rock that stands just off shore at Waimea, O'ahu. Some oldtimers call it "Wowo Rock." Wowo means bellow or roar, and it is said the rock makes such sounds when pounded by high surf. The title "Island" expresses the thought that the rock covered with humanity is, in microcosm, not unlike the burgeoning population of the Island of O'ahu; or, for that matter, our island in space, Earth.

Let's hope we can all get along as well as these kids.


TIME IN LIFE Hamoa Beach, Maui

A secluded sandy swimming beach near Hana, Maui. Hamoa is the name of the bay, the village in that area, and the ahupua'a (land division) rising up the mountain from the sea.

It is thought that the name comes from Ha'amoa or Hamoa, the ancient name for Samoa. (in the evolution of the Samoan dialect, H became S).

But what does Samoa mean?

A Samoan scholar told me it means "The Sacred Center."


TIME IN LIFE Cloud


TIME IN LIFE Kids at Kahalu‘u


With their colorful “boogie boards” they were playing in the shallows at Kahalu‘u Beach Park, clustering

together

in

an

ever-changing

kaleidoscope of colors and patterns. In my mind’s eye I thought it would make an interesting painting


The Hawaii statehood stamp, created by artist and historian Herb Kawainui Kane, was dedicated on Aug. 21 by U.S. Postal Service Honolulu District Manager Daryl Ishizaki and Hawaii Gov. Linda Lingle.

The U.S. Postal Service® commemorated the 50th anniversary of Hawai‘i’s statehood with the release of this 2009 stamp. Artist and historian Herb Kawainui Kane of Captain Cook, Hawai‘i, who has dedicated much of his life to studying Hawaiian culture and history, created the painting on the stamp. In the art, a surfer rides a wave on a longboard, a popular choice among surfers for centuries. Next to him, two people paddle an outrigger canoe to shore

The Hawaii statehood stamp


The commemorative for 25 years of Hawaii statehood was another assignment. I also did approximately 32 stamps for the Republic of the Marshall Islands when

th

50 anniversary of Hawai‘i’s

they became involved in the business of philatelics. And there were four for French Polynesia, but there was no charge for this service in gratitude for the tremendous hospitality that was given to Hawaii’s voyaging canoe Hokule‘a upon

How many stamps have you designed?

its first round-trip voyage between Hawai‘i and Tahiti in This is my 9th for the U.S. Postal Service, the first being

1976.

one of the Historic Preservation series in which one artist of each state was engaged to do a 30″ x 30″ painting of

I have not done any stamps for the Cook Islands, but the

a project of historic preservation in that state. The

stamp concessionaire to the Cooks, Finbar Kenny, a

collection became a traveling exhibit throughout the U.S.

buddy of Cook Islands Premier Sir Albert Henry,

The list includes stamps for the U.S.

produced several with very crude knockoffs of some of my

paintings

of

Polynesian

canoes,

without

my

became

authorization. My protests were ignored with the excuse

independent republics in free association with the United

that the Cook Islands had not signed on to international

States.

copyright

Micronesian

Trust

Territories

as

each

agreements.

The

story

was

eventually

published by the American journalist Galal Kernahan in These include Palau, Marshall Islands, Guam, the

Pacific Islands

Northern Marianas, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Here I worked with Art Director Howard

Monthly, under the title, “The Stamp of Disapproval.”

Paine, a friend and a great coach who I had worked with

Finbar Kenny sued the magazine for defamation of

earlier when he was art director for the National

character, but dropped the suit when his solicitors

Geographic Society.

learned that he had given Premier Henry several hundred thousand dollars to fly Cook Islanders residing New Zealand back home to vote for Henry in an election. As a U.S. citizen Kenny was tried and fined in Federal Court for bribing an official of a foreign nation, and instructed to stand trial in the Cook Islands also. Queen Elizabeth revoked Albert Henry’s knighthood and he died several months later.


Why did you suggest the theme of surfing—among other themes?

th

50 anniversary of Hawai‘i’s

It’s part of the indigenous culture of Hawai‘i. Surfing today is world wide, but it was invented in Hawaii – both board surfing and canoe surfing. When the British Expedition under Capt.James Cook arrived in 1778 on

How long does it take to do a stamp design?

the 3rd voyage of Pacific exploration, they witnessed surfing for the first time. But I’ve not included any

Anywhere from a few days of working time up to two

recognizable land form such as Diamond Head because

years of submitting a wide variety of ideas and

surfing was done throughout the islands. However, there

preliminary sketches if it is a U.S. commemorative. The

is a picture of Diamond Head already on the “cachet”

Postal Service art director sifts out the best which are

you can order from your Hawai‘i Post Offices that

then reviewed by a committee.

contains a “cover” showing the new stamp cancelled to the first day of issue. That is a detail from another of my

Those sketches selected are then more carefully

paintings, one depicting Prince Kuhio surfing with five

rendered in paint as “comprehensive sketches”. A

paddlers aboard his personal racing canoe with Diamond

finished painting with the typography indicated is then

Head in the background. The setting is off what is now

presented to a state committee usually composed of

called the Kuhio Beach area of Waikiki.

elected representatives appointed by the governor for final approval. It was a great pleasure to work on this

What’s the most challenging part of stamp design?

commemorative with Art Director Phil Jordan. The need for simplicity. Because of the small size of the finished product, one must reduce the subject to its essence in a very simple graphic statement, yet in a way that is visually pleasing. This can be difficult, but it’s a necessary exercise. To get down to that essence the designer must strip away all that is really unimportant and extraneous, no matter how much one might wish to include it. It’s good exercise and it clears the mind. Then, perhaps at four AM, or perhaps while shaving, the idea presents itself to your mind’s eye, fully shaped, in one of those rare “eureka” moments.


Sassie Hulla Dancer


Canoe Surfing at Waikiki

"

My versatility has enabled me to survive

over my half century as an artist. Whereas most artists stay with a style that reflects their inner personality, I believe an artist should be like actors who can play many roles, and who subjugate themselves to the role at hand, letting it tell them how to play it.

As a Chinese artist said to me, 'to paint a flower you must be a flower; to paint a tiger you must be a tiger.'

- Herb Kane

"


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L'art Hawaiien divers et complexe Na Hana Noeau Susan Cardenas (peinture florale) Couture Hawaiienne Fondation Nationale pour la culture et...

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