ÂŽ Fall 2019
A Fresh Cup of Tea:
What The Nutcracker Can Teach Us about Inclusion Photo by Beau Pearson, courtesy of Ballet West
Inside this issue Resilient D&I: How We Have to Revise, Rethink, and Realign Our Work MicroDeceptions & the Halo Effect 6 Make or Break DEI Decisions The Inclusion Habit The Mother Bias Accelerating Innovation through Strategic Diversity Management MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture Where Are They Now?
16th Annual Innovations in Diversity Awards
A celebration of leadership, vision, and commitment
The path to better health At CVS Health, we share a clear purpose: helping people on their path to better health. Through our health services, plans and community pharmacies, weâ€™re pioneering a bold new approach to total health. Making it simple, accessible, and more affordable, to not only help people get well, but help them stay well in body, mind and spirit. At CVS Health, we are committed to building an environment of inclusion and acceptance that values diversity across all areas of our business. Learn more at cvshealth.com.
PUBLISHER'S COLUMN All Things Diversity & Inclusion FOUNDER/CEO/PUBLISHER
James R. Rector VP OF OPERATIONS
James Gorman DESIGNER
Stephen A. Toth ASSOCIATE EDITOR
Teresa Fausey EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT
Elena Rector WEBMASTER
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
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Profiles in Diversity Journal® is a quarterly magazine dedicated to promoting and advancing diversity and inclusion in the corporate, government, nonprofit, higher education, and military sectors. For more than 22 years, we have helped to stimulate organizational change by showcasing the visionary leadership, innovative programs, and committed individuals that are making it happen. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and may or may not represent the views of the publisher. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission is prohibited. Registered in U.S. Patent Office
In the ongoing war for “eyes,” our editorial staff and production team endeavor to provide original and unique content not readily available elsewhere. It is a challenge we embrace and the commitment we make to our partners and readership. We honor this commitment each and every issue. The 2019 fall issue before you is a testament to our ability to “pull this off.” As I gaze out the window on this sunless rainy day, I am immediately nostalgic for the sunny and warm days of summer. And I know that, like this change of seasons, the diversity initiatives we’re working on now will probably not be the initiatives we will be reporting on in the near future. Why? Because change is all around us and the challenges we face tomorrow will require new ideas and innovative solutions. This is how we recruit contributors to provide original and innovative content for each issue. While at times we revisit ideas that have been discussed before, we encourage our authors to contribute new, refreshing, and innovative ideas that will smooth out the edges of current and developing D&I programs, and stimulate original thinking. This is how we join the conversation and how we stay relevant. In this issue, we bring together a host of professionals who have invested their time and energy to share their best thinking with you, our reader. We want to recognize Michael Stuber, who contributed the bulk of the content for this issue. Michael is a dedicated and prolific diversity engineer, committed to serious thinking and analysis of all that is Diversity and Inclusion. As you delve into the articles he and his team have authored, you will quickly grasp the depth and clarity of his thinking. Phil Chan’s article, “A Fresh Cup of Tea,” points out how unconscious bias has allowed Asian stereotypes to persist in contemporary ballet performances. We thank Ballet West for the exciting dance photo that graces our cover. CVS Health and Union Bank update their diversity initiatives and profile several of their key executives in this issue. Consultants Janet and Gary Smith, Barbara Hockfield, and Stephen Young, contributed their thoughtful and helpful experiences. And rounding out our eclectic offerings is an article by Crystal Brown that talks about “The Mother Bias.” Last, but equally important, is an extremely high five to our editorial and production teams for a really “cool” issue. Happy Holidays. Jim
James R. Rector Founder & Publisher Since 1999
IN THIS ISSUE
01 | 05 | 08 | 12 | 40 | 76 |
PUBLISHER’S COLUMN EDITOR’S COLUMN 2019 INNOVATIONS IN DIVERSITY AWARDS RESILIENT D&I A FRESH CUP OF TEA CORPORATE INDEX
52 PAGE 8
2019 Innovations in Diversity Awards PDJ is proud to recognize 15 companies who are taking the next step in D&I by creating and implementing innovative initiatives. One of these programs may be just what your company is looking for.
Resilient D&I 2019 PDJ columnist, Michael Stuber shares 15 articles that touch on various aspects of D&I and explains why workplaces need to revise, rethink, and realign their D&I efforts.
WHERE YOU BELONG Idaho National Laboratory promotes a vibrant culture of inclusive diversity that fuels growth and drives innovation.
A Fresh Cup of Tea: What the Nutcracker Can Teach Us about Inclusion Contributor Phil Chan talks about how western prejudices have tainted depictions of Asians in ballet, why it’s important to leave these “traditional” depictions (read “caricatures”) behind, and the exciting changes that dance companies are making.
6 Make or Break DEI Decisions Gary and Janet Smith explain how just six pivotal decisions your organization makes regarding diversity, equity, and inclusion can lead to success or failure.
MicroDeceptions & the Halo Effect Contributors Stephen Young and Barbara Hockfield explain how microdeceptions (what the boss doesn’t hear from employees) can also sabotage the success of your D&I efforts.
The Inclusion Habit Author Amanda J. Felkey makes the case for changing behavior and helping individuals become more inclusive by embracing six habit-building attitudes and actions.
EDITORS'S COLUMN “If the only prayer you ever say in your entire life is thank you, it will be enough. ” –Meister Eckhart Another Thanksgiving has passed and it started me thinking about being thankful and what we have to be thankful for. There are many things most of us could name—family, friends, jobs, plenty to eat, and so on. We here at PDJ are truly thankful for our contributors, our advertisers, and especially our readers. But the thing I think we should all be most thankful for is something different—something each of us has the power to do. We can choose, day by day, moment by moment:
• • • • • • • •
To be fair and just To treat everyone with respect To remember that we’re all in this together To see our shared humanity in everyone we meet To understand that we are more alike than different To know that people are people To be genuine and open To remember that we can never know what someone else is going through • To give everyone the benefit of the doubt • To help whenever we can • To always be kind
So, knowing that we have the ability to choose to follow our better nature is what I’m thankful for—and what makes me think we can, and perhaps will, do better. I hope all of you had a wonderful Thanksgiving, and that you will have a happy holiday season and an exciting 2020. As always, thanks for reading. Teresa Fausey Associate Editor, PDJ
The Mother Bias: A Reality for Many Women Who Work and Have Children Crystal M. Brown discusses how the “real and demoralizing biases against working mothers that continue to be prevalent in our society” affect them—and why they choose to stay and fight.
Accelerating Innovation through Strategic Diversity Management David L. Casey explains why it’s important for organizations to take a strategic approach to weaving the various aspects of diversity into the fabric of their business if they want to drive meaningful change and realize the competitive advantage of an inclusive workforce.
MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture MUFG shows readers how this financial giant created and implemented a set of Culture Principles across the organization—Client Centric, People Focused, Listen Up. Speak Up., Innovate & Simplify, Own & Execute—and launched a winning culture.
Where Are They Now? Take a look at what some of PDJ’s past Women Worth Watching® honorees are doing now. They have continued to grow and contribute in important ways— and they’re still worth watching.
Championing the singular power of diversity Dechert is a global law firm that achieves dynamic results by embracing diversity and innovation. At the core of our firm’s culture is a dedication to seeking and nurturing diverse viewpoints and experiences to develop the highest caliber of talent, leadership and service. To recognize the role models at our firm who exemplify Dechert’s open, inclusive culture, we launched the Diversity Champions Award. Honorees are nominated by their Dechert peers and selected by firm leadership. We are proud of our achievements in diversity this past year, and especially of this year’s champions: Samantha Ramlakhan, Christina Sarchio and Michelle Wong. dechert.com/diversity
Diversity and Inclusion
Innovations in Diversity Awards Innovation is the intersection where aspiration and inspiration meet commitment and hard work, turning powerful ideas into exciting realities. Innovations in diversity and inclusion show all of us new possibilities and transform cultural and social landscapes across the globe. Innovative thinking challenges us, as individuals and organizations, to embrace a new and better future. Profiles in Diversity Journal is proud to share this year’s ambitious and tranformational innovations in diversity from 15 of the world’s leading companies—programs and initiatives that are taking diversity and inclusion to a new level. Please explore and enjoy the creative ideas on the following pages. One of these exceptional and exciting innovations in diversity may be your company’s best next step.
Profiles in Diversity Journal’s
Top Ten Innovations in Diversity for 2019 (in alphabetical order)
Dechert LLP: Diversity Champions Awards
Launched: 2019 In brief: Created by Satra Sampson-Arokium, Dechert’s director of diversity and inclusion, the Diversity Champions Awards recognize key advocates for diversity at the firm, whatever their job title or seniority. The establishment of an award honoring diversity advocates is in line with Dechert’s wider commitments to establish an inclusive and open culture within the firm. Nominated by their peers and selected by firm leadership, honorees each receive a bonus of $10,000 and, perhaps even more important, the recognition of their peers. This year, in the inaugural round, the firm received more than 130 nominations.
FordHarrison LLP: Women Leaders Forum
Launched: 2019 In brief: The Women Leaders Forum is a unique invitation-only diversity effort, which connects female in-house counsel and HR executives throughout the country with FordHarrison’s female partners. Would-be attendees are nominated, vetted, selected, and invited to participate in deep, raw conversations about workplace and personal dilemmas only experienced by women in the highest level of their organizations. An exceptional resource and safe space for executive women leaders to cultivate relationships with peers, receive affirmation and advice, and grow and develop as leaders, the Forum has produced positive impacts for attendees, the teams they lead, their organizations, and the firm’s bottom line. 8
Innovations in Diversity Awards
HP Inc.: HP Spectrum Success Program
Launched: 2019 In brief: The innovative HP Spectrum Success Program, aimed at expanding the company’s diverse recruiting pipeline, focuses on top talent on the autism spectrum. The program lets candidates showcase their talent in a way that works best for them, rather than relying on phone screens or one-time interviews. The goal is to ensure that participants benefit from practical experience and coaching, regardless of where they eventually apply and interview. The Program has increased awareness of HP career opportunities among candidates on the autism spectrum, provided a platform that enables these candidates to showcase their talent, and expanded the company’s diverse recruiting pipeline.
KPMG LLP: KPMG Leadership Essentials Series
Launched: 2011 In brief: KPMG Leadership Essentials Series (LES) is a two-day experience for business resource group (BRG) members and their allies. LES focuses on skills training, mentoring opportunities, business unit breakout sessions, sessions for diversity chapter leaders and champions, and engagement with clients and nonprofit organizations. Although the LES concept was first launched in 2011 as pride@KPMG’s Pride Conference, it has since been adapted to suit the needs of several KPMG BRGs. This year’s LES was a retention initiative, focusing on the intersection of diversity and talent development. More than 750 people attended the FY19 conference, with 65 percent as first-time participants.
Lincoln Financial Group: Pitch U
Launched: 2018 In brief: PitchU, a program designed exclusively for members of Lincoln’s seven BRGs, is a multipart workshop that guides employees in creating, developing, packaging, and pitching themselves as leaders. More than 235 employees participated in all webinars, three found new positions with increased responsibility and corporate visibility, and one was invited to the Officer Readiness Program, a Lincoln training program for future leaders. All participants were added to the internal recruiting systems for consideration for upcoming internal opportunities. Going forward, Pitch U will be used as an avenue to fill open positions across the company with diverse, engaged, and talented employees.
New York Life: Planning BOLDly: Wealth Building Series
Launched: 2019 In brief: The Black Organization for Leadership and Development (BOLD) Employee Resource Group (ERG) at New York Life launched Planning BOLDly: Wealth Building, a series of four sessions presented throughout the year to educate employees regarding wealth management and financial literacy. The series was created after BOLD members indicated that they wanted to learn more about retirement, estate planning, and other financial matters. The sessions were attended by over 700 employees, more than half of whom were not BOLD members, and BOLD membership has since increased by 26 percent.
Innovations in Diversity Awards Sandia National Laboratories: Inclusive Leadership and Transformative Change
Launched: 2014 In brief: Over the past five years, Sandia National Laboratories has focused its diversity and inclusion efforts on unconscious bias and engaging its majority white male population in creating a more diverse workforce. In FY19, Sandia announced a bold initiative: the top two levels of management were asked to attend multi-day immersion training sessions focused on bringing about transformative change in the behaviors of Sandia’s majority white male population. Leaders who attended the training report a change in attitude and behaviors, while Sandia has experienced a 2.5 percent increase in women and minority management populations since FY17.
Talent Path: The “Last Mile” to Tech Diversity
Launched: 2018 In brief: Talent Path offers diverse candidates opportunities in information technology (IT) that otherwise would be unavailable to them. Qualified candidates, who are selected from an extremely diverse talent pool at universities around the United States, join the program as full-time, paid employees with benefits. They learn the in-demand skills and technologies, as well as power skills, needed to launch successful IT careers. The goal is to address IT’s widening talent gap, while improving diversity. Currently, 37 percent of Talent Path enrollment is female (national average, 17 percent) and 72 percent of enrollees are people of color (national average, 28 percent).
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS): goIT
Launched: 2009 In brief: TCS’s STEM education program, goIT, is an experiential, immersive program that couples digital innovation with a holistic view of technology. Free of cost, goIT offers in-person, industry-led mentorship, alongside an engaging, hands-on curriculum that provides middle and high school students from underrepresented communities a kind of learning they might not otherwise have access to. Since its 2009 launch, the program has reached more than 25,000 students, expanded into 77 cities, and become the largest industry-led computer science program in North America. Forty-five percent of participants are female, and 67 percent identify as minorities.
Thermo Fisher Scientific: Neurodiversity Hiring Initiative
Launched: 2019 In brief: Thermo Fisher Scientific launched its first Neurodiversity Hiring pilot in 2019. It focused on eliminating barriers job candidates on the Autism spectrum might face during the interview process. The company changed the traditional one-on-one discussion-based interview process to a teambased project in which candidates could showcase their technical skills. During the onboarding period, the new hires were also provided a job coach and a peer mentor. The goal was to hire four candidates for data science roles. However, the company was able to surpass its goal—hiring six of the eight candidates who applied.
Innovations in Diversity Awards of Excellence (in alphabetical order)
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD): Belonging & Inclusion
Launched: 2017 In brief: “Belonging” takes “Inclusion” a step further by helping employees find common ground with their teammates and AMD, not just acknowledging what differentiates them. The program aims to increase a sense of belonging through Employee Resource Group (ERG) involvement and create a workplace where everyone feels psychologically safe and engaged. The ERGs host Lunch and Learns and bring ERGs together to co-sponsor events. Since more employees have learned about the various ERGs and worked together as co-sponsors, the number of ERGs has doubled and the number of employees joining ERG leadership teams has increased.
Biogen: Addressing Health Equity in Underserved Patient Populations
Launched: 2018 In brief: This industry-leading program addresses important health care needs of underserved communities and patient populations. The goal is to identify various decision-making points in the drug-development lifecycle and design mitigation strategies and tactics that interrupt the systemic and structural bias in modern health care that results in the exclusion of entire populations. Outcomes are already gratifying: Employees and leaders are highly engaged by this purpose-driven work; the work is driving growth in the reach and diversity of patient populations who have access to treatment; and trust among previously underserved patients is increasing.
Moss Adams: Shaping a Diverse Culture of Inclusion (The Racial Equity BRG)
Launched: 2018 In brief: The Racial Equity Business Resource Group’s (BRG) mission is to shape a diverse culture of inclusion. The BRG collaborates with affinity groups and holds regional events that create a space in which employees can talk about race, without putting any one minority group on the spot. Since launching in July 2018, Racial Equity BRG programs have included a keynote speaker on racial equity, an unconscious bias workshop, a book club, and heritage month newsletters. After each program, the BRG sends an anonymous survey to gather feedback and suggestions to keep future events and content relevant. To date, survey feedback has been overwhelmingly positive.
Nelson Mullins Riley & Scarborough LLP: M&A Externship Program
Launched: 2018 In brief: This M&A Externship Program is an exclusive partnership between the University of Georgia School of Law and the Nelson Mullins law firm. Of the law school’s 18 externships, the M&A Externship is unique in providing students with work experience at a law firm, rather than with companies, where students explore the practice of law as in-house counsel. The corporate externship program provides a diverse group of law students with work experience in mergers and acquisitions for academic credit and exposes them to an area of law that diverse and female law students may not have considered. PDJ
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Resilient D&I: How We Have to Revise, Rethink, and Realign Our Work As D&I experts, we have always advocated change, based on a thorough look at hidden dynamics and taking into account changing contexts. While we see many signs of progress and real success, a number of worrying
Michael Stuber, the European D&I Engineer, a PDJ columnist for 2019
Photo: Anja Viering
and even threatening elements have become part of reality. Public assaults, aggression, marginalization, and fundamental questioning, including denying narratives, show that D&I has not become as established and
â€˜normalâ€™ as, for example, safety. Hence, we must question some of the assumptions and routines, and we must consider big structural changes in our approach in order to be impactful, including outside of our filter bubbles.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber If we take an honest look at the development of D&I over decades, our field has created some of its own routines, values, and further along, underlying assumptions— just like the routines and invisible norms corporate cultures tend to create. As we recommend that businesses critically reflect unwritten rules and all too obvious beliefs, in light of fundamental changes in context, it is up to us to do this for our own frameworks and approaches. There has been more than enough backlash to make the need for reforms obvious—and superficial successes should not distract us from this insight.
A framework to reform D&I In order to practice what we preach, we should be aware that our analysis, as well as the creation of solutions, will require us to step out of our comfort zones. Instead of turning to peers from within our filter bubbles (conferences, councils, corporate networks), we need to involve people with different perspectives. And we need to consult empirical research more rigorously to find evidence that backs up our strategies and not just the headlines of our campaigns. This will also help us avoid being sucked into the polarized discourse of populist campaigns, where emotional argument tries to override facts.
Insight-based, international and innovative input This special section presents and discusses research findings and practical cases in a way that provokes reflection and points toward new developments. It is written from a European perspective and hence offers an outside
view for many readers of this journal. As an industrial engineer, I can offer some different interpretations than what most readers might expect. And finally, my more than 20 years of experience working internationally with admired D&I leaders is embedded in the analyses presented.
Taking a tour of (success-) critical topics Initially, we look at the flip side of the once more proven excellence of diverse teams. New research shows that those individuals who add valuable perspectives to a team are less likely to benefit from the team’s diversity. While this study looked at different dimensions of diversity, both demographic and work-related, another article presents findings about disclosure of diversity data by European blue chip firms. The focus on reporting representation leads to a reflection about the future of D&I success measurement. “What gets measured gets done,” has become D&I dogma. A new study confirms practical experience: A robust sense-making, enabling a positive perception of D&I, is required in the first place. How easily D&I-related communication can go wrong is illustrated by an analysis of the media discourse following an attack on a Polish politician. While hostility and stereotypes can be addressed by exposing ourselves to difference, a new study found that this is not necessarily the case (e.g., in expat communities). What people really think versus what they say in surveys is key to D&I work. A new study has quantified the hidden bias against women in management and cautions against mixing our perception
of survey results with empirical research. Once in a management position, women are believed to have a positive impact on gender equality. A new study shows that, in some aspects, this is actually not the case. More hope for more equality was generated regarding online tools, software, and AI. Unfortunately, we must be wary: A new analysis confirms the findings of previous studies that show online mechanisms include, reproduce, and sometimes, foster bias. Over the years, it has become appropriate and sometimes fashionable for celebrities, iconic managers, or prestigious organizations to stand up and take a stance on diversity. In the cases of Heidi Klum and BlackRock’s Larry Fink, neither the messages nor the perceptions were particularly positive, and there are reasons that explain this that we can learn from. A different, business-based reaction to (anti-) diversity matters was provided by Transport for London, related to anti-gay legislation in Brunei, which marks potential for more traction on the topic. Surprisingly, the market(ing) side of D&I has always been underrepresented in research, discourse, and practice. Twenty-five years after our own first analysis, a new global survey draws a market-related picture that provides a lot of hope for a business world that makes the most of differences. The section is wrapped up by a practical and more detailed look at what happens when D&I practices are placed at the very core of business: How some retail businesses have made their stores more welcoming to customers with autism. More insight-based, international, and innovative articles can be found on this engineering D&I blog: http://en.diversitymine.eu. www.diversityjournal.com
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Diverse Teams Are Great— but not Equally for All The latest academic study about team diversity adds some depth to existing insight. Yes, diverse teams create superior results. However, this sometimes happens on the backs of those who aided the benefit. A study by Michigan State University and University of Michigan researchers shows that individuals (!) on teams of diverse people working together can achieve better outcomes than those on teams with similar individuals. They also found that the very individuals who add diversity to their science teams surprisingly do not experience the same level of positive outcomes. A thorough research framework Researchers examined diversity in two categories that reflect above and below the waterline dimensions of the diversity iceberg: personal demographics (race, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, and nationality) and job-related or scientific criteria (career stage, academic discipline, and tenure on the team). A sample of 266 participants from 105 National Science Foundation-funded environmental science teams completed questionnaires about • individual and team diversity, • their satisfaction with their teams and authorship practices, and • perceptions of the frequency of data sharing.
They also disclosed perceptions of their team climate, including • team collaboration, • inclusion, and • procedural justice, which focused on influencing team policies related to research. Climate of diverse teams is more positive, but less so for underrepresented groups Across the study, individuals on diverse teams perceived their climate more positively than individuals on more homogeneous teams. However, participants with more underrepresented demographic characteristics were more likely to view the expectations and the attitude of their team negatively. This applied, for example, to black women or gay men and was associated with lower team satisfaction and more negative perceptions of authorship and data sharing on their teams. Evidence-based recommendations on collaboration and inclusion The study adds more concrete elements to the broadly acknowledged need to effectively combine team members from a variety of backgrounds. As diverse teams can struggle with allocation of credit, differences in perspectives, or unequal power dynamics, the authors, based on their findings, recommended the teams focus on achieving improved outcomes in
procedural justice, collaboration, and inclusion (as separate elements). They also stated that team policies must be clear and openly discussed, and transparent policies and procedures must be followed to alleviate power imbalances. In cultural terms, teams must be mindful of the experiences of all members, especially those who contribute to demographic diversity. An element of Inclusive Leadership It would have been a surprise if the study had not also highlighted the particular role of team leader. The research recommends that team leaders create norms that support the contributions of all members. This may involve creating policies and practices collaboratively and allowing for respectful conflict. These conclusions echo a number of earlier findings related to team culture or open corporate cultures. The research also reminds us of the need to do the following: • Get beyond the one token minority person who could easily experience stress or social isolation if they bring a unique characteristic to the group • Make sure that a corporate D&I framework balances and integrates personal demographics and work-related dimensions, which may not always be so obvious, considering insights about corporate D&I reporting as described in the following article.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Reporting D&I Mostly Equals Representation Numbers
Annual reports provide opportunities to talk about D&I progress and success. While large corporations do so regarding their D&I commitment and activities, they have been—for more than ten years—more modest when it comes to publishing D&I numbers. Benchmarking, transparency, peer pressure, or employer branding—there appear to be many reasons to communicate D&I and, more specifically, concrete numbers. The latest edition of a series of content analysis looks precisely at this topic: Over 12 years, European Diversity Research & Consult-
ing has analyzed the corporate communication of European blue chip companies on a bi-annual basis. One report focused on metrics: Which D&I numbers do multinational corporations choose to publish in annual or CSR reports? Which dimensions, and for which populations?
Reporting is easy—too easy? The overall result of the content analysis shows that all 50 companies listed in the EuroStoxx® index provide some D&I data, and most do
so for their entire organization—on a global scale and not focused on their domestic market. This has been one of the (smaller) surprises for the researchers who had expected that national legislation would have a clearer impact on data disclosure. In line with political priorities, the study found a ranking of D&I data prevalence. • Gender continues to be the top priority of Diversity and Inclusion, and all companies provide some gender data; however, none of them mentions the third gender as yet
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber • Age data is communicated by 92 percent of the companies, and the largest subgroup (N=20) uses 4–6 age groups to illustrate their demographic profile • Unlike in former studies, nationality is very prevalent when taking a data reporting perspective; 72 percent of companies report the number of nationalities they employ • Due to a mix of legal regulations and measurability, disability ranks fourth and is reported by 62 percent of the companies While the choice of data appears quite understandable from a pragmatic point of view, other data would be more aligned with business priorities. In fact, companies are starting to report work/ life-related data (N=36) or some facts on educational background (N=8). However, the predominant approach is to leverage personnel data that can directly and easily be retrieved from data warehouses.
Board diversity, management diversity, workforce diversity Despite a politically endorsed focus on the highest decision-making bodies, the analysis shows that 96 percent of companies report the
gender split of their workforce (ranging from 14 to 75 percent women) and slightly fewer, 90 percent, do so for their board of (managing) directors (0 to 56 percent women) and 76 percent for their supervisory boards (7 to 40 percent women). Less than half that amount provides gender data for their senior management (32 percent, from 9 to 32 percent women) or the management population at large (24 percent, from 10 to 65 percent women). Thirty-eight percent of the companies only mention female numbers in their reports (in the same way the previous paragraph has done deliberately), while 28 percent always mention both the share of men and women, the remaining group of 32 percent practices a mix of reporting approaches. This detail has been found to be of great importance as an inclusive form of reporting, that is mentioning all subgroups so that numbers add up to 100 percent, drives the acceptance of the data and the reporting. For nationality, companies find it easier to pursue this all-inclusive reporting as they simply mention the number of nationalities represented— in the workforce or the top management team. Twenty of the EuroStoxx 50 companies employ between 91 and 170 nationalities and 22 companies in the sample have between 3 and 8 nationalities on their top leadership teams.
The next level of D&I reporting In an attempt to foster the comprehensiveness of their D&I strategy, a few companies have started to include different diversity numbers—their LGBTI workforce or employees who have recently fled their respective homelands. For LGBTI, the number of people engaged in an LGBTI-related network (including allies or not) is a metric of choice. Neither ethnicity nor religion has been operationalized by any of the companies. While it seems understandable at first sight, experience, mostly in the Anglo-Saxon world, shows that metrics in these fields help identify gaps and make discussions more fact-based. Another obvious gap in the current reporting is the lack of longitudinal data (comparison over time), which is a definite standard in corporate (financial) reporting. This would be a huge step in the direction of more transparency, and it would help focus the discussion on impact and progress, rather than situation and activities. Broader or more detailed representation data reporting would help a lot. However, it would not address the most important gap—widely missing metrics on openness, belonging, and inclusion, which the following article discusses.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Measuring the Success of D&I (the What and the How) How could companies measure the success of their D&I work, and which types of success would have to be defined in the first place? Over the years, different paradigms have emerged and each has its implication on D&I implementation and communication. For some, success in D&I means increasing representation numbers, while for others, it is defined as increasing openmindedness in their corporate culture or in the inclusiveness of their processes. In financial terms, D&I success refers to the return on investment which is generated by D&I programs or the change D&I creates.
Combined, these elements generate benefits and add value to the business. Hence, they are also natural success measurement elements or paradigms. The model also shows quite clearly that representation targets for diversity are not appropriate, as they form the starting point of the value-creation process. This means they are a key prerequisite and that they are not the ultimate goal. Therefore, advanced success measurement covers at least two more areas: â€˘ Measuring open-mindedness through perceived belonging, respect, and being valued. Practically, this is often done
through employee surveys; in many cases, existing formats can be adjusted to cover the required elements. â€˘ Measuring inclusiveness through observable behaviors and/or by monitoring process outcomes. Practically, this is often done by 360-degree feedback, elements of engagement surveys, and proportional process evaluations. Here is an article that talks more about how to measure corporate culture and inclusiveness: http://en.diversitymine.eu/ metrics-for-inclusion-employeeengagement-surveys-providebaseline-data/
Elements of the D&I value chain as metrics In a business environment, D&I could and probably should be seen as a value creation process. The so-called Propelling Performance Principle consolidates research evidence to illustrate that differences can only be turned into advantages when both open-mindedness (in people, teams, and the organizational culture) and inclusiveness (in processes, collaboration, and leadership) exist as additional elements.
Propelling Performance Principle The D&I Value-Creation Process
Reality / resources
Mind-set / values
Behaviors / processes
Outcome / result
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber As an important side effect, this holistic understanding of D&I success is key to avoid the perception of simplistic quotas or reverse discrimination in the communication of D&I. Hence, it helps to mitigate resistance. Measuring progress: the success of D&I organization development Another important and effective form of D&I success measurement focuses on the evaluation of organizational development and uses the following approaches: • Action-based success measurement includes accountability schemes (for action) and the evaluation of implementation activities (checks and impact assessments). Practically, this is done by scorecard elements and tailored evaluation of activities such as training, events, or communication. • Process-based success measurement includes D&I audits or assessments and the monitoring of process results through a D&I lens. Practically, this is done through gap analysis and the closure of these gaps. Measuring ROI: the benefits of D&I management From a business perspective, the financial aspect of D&I management adds another success measurement paradigm. From
that perspective, we ask which benefits, advantages, or improvements the investment in D&I programs and activities creates. On a higher level, companies can measure the marketing benefit of D&I by comparing the ROI of D&I marketing activities and customer feedback with that of mainstream marketing. On a more specific level, the benefits of D&I communication can be measured through the value of media coverage. Important evidence about the ROI of D&I is provided by more than 250 empirical studies summarized in the IBCR (International Business Case Report) published bi-annually by European Diversity Research & Consulting. This article provides a more thorough analysis of how to make the business case for D&I: http://en.diversitymine.eu/if-youthink-your-business-case-fordiversity-is-robust-think-again/
The importance of targets and why addressing leaks should come first The widespread, partly politically-led, and often exclusive focus on numeric representation targets has contributed to the increasing backlash in D&I many have experienced over the past five years. Broadening success measurement is one way to overcome the perception of reverse discrimination or unfair advantage. In addition, a number of analyses have shown that increasing the representation of previously disadvantaged groups can be a quite temporary success. This is true particularly when the corporate culture was not analyzed upfront and relevant unwritten rules or invisible norms were not addressed. The following article talks more about the critical need for “right” mindset.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Research Says: Without the Right Mindset, Targets Don’t Work
The belief in D&I targets is almost as strong as the resistance they often create. Based on new large-scale, international research, experts now confirm that consistent, business-based sense-making will create the acceptance required to make targets a success. What does it take to turn diversity into business benefits? This question has become increasingly important for D&I practitioners for a number of reasons: • Examples and some research show that diversity can lead to performance decrease (in specific situations or under certain circumstances) • Organizations and their stakeholders continue to expect (more) progress on obvious metrics (while the reality is mostly flat or volatile) • International organizations struggle with differences
across entities, cultures, and contexts (This article provides an analysis of globally standardized vs. de-centralized local D&I approaches: https://www.linkedin.com/ pulse/standardised-globaldiversity-u-differentiatedeuropean-stuber/) • Copying and pasting blueprint solutions does not create traction (and such a trial and error is also expensive) New research suggests that preparing the organizational culture with regard to D&I is required before targets or structural support can have a positive impact.
The myth of quotas and targets (reprise) In a business setting, the mantra of “What gets measured, gets done” is so prevalent that it is not even questioned with regard to D&I.
After years of experience with more or less rigid state-ordered, self-imposed, or other targets, ambitions, or other forms of describing the desired future state, it has become clear that simply setting numeric expectations does not drive the desired changes to mindsets or of behaviors. In fact, targets often trigger damaging actions. New international research helps us understand this dynamic by drawing an important distinction between what researchers call normative acceptance and regulatory support. Data analyses show that, while the two are related, it is the normative acceptance that actually leads to (gender) diversity becoming a success story. The findings show that neither legal quotas nor supportive policies or infrastructure (child care, leave policy, flex work) alone mediate diversity to add business value, while pro-diversity mindsets do.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber The critical component of values, mindsets, and shared beliefs When the value-chain model for D&I, called the propelling performance principle, was first introduced in 2005, it highlighted the need to create open mindsets at the individual level, on teams, and in wider contexts (organizational or societal cultures). Open-mindedness is described as the prerequisite for leveraging diversity through the following steps of inclusive behaviors and processes. Research has continued to confirm the model. Latest data—from 1,000+ firms in 35 countries—show that shared values and beliefs regarding, for example, gender role attitudes, must imply an intrinsic value for D&I, so that business benefits can be created. The study explicitly states that it is not enough to “… see gender inclusion as an obligation.” Company practices have been acknowledging this to some extent: They often refer to a high-level business case for D&I. However, many D&I strategies and messages keep returning to simplified expectations related to numbers or ethics. Achieving a better level of sense-making and traction at the same time will require more sophisticated considerations.
The need to analyze your individual situation(s) and tailor solutions accordingly Each corporate culture is unique, based on individual heritage and industry-specific, geographical, and other factors. Therefore, it must be carefully analyzed from a D&I perspective in order to understand underlying assumptions, invisible norms, and the unwanted dynam-
ics these specific forms of unconscious biases create. On the basis of such insights, change programs can be created, tailored to the very situation. Blueprint solutions, on the other hand, cannot be expected to have strong impact in such individual and specific settings.
Additional new findings • Almost like an added value, the research found—due to its longitudinal methodology—that diversity was actually the driver of company success and not, as critics sometimes argue, a result of good business performance. • Results are supporting previous studies showing the need for open team cultures, so that diverse teams can reap the benefits of their diversity, e.g., the creation of best solutions. • The findings extend former research showing that investors value strategies, including D&I, that are commonly accepted as best practices (another element related to the importance of normative acceptance of D&I mentioned at the beginning of the article).
Summary: Key lessons from the latest international research To summarize, the new research sends a strong message to companies that want to take their D&I work to the next level. However, they need to transpose the findings and understand the importance of context, as the report describes: “The more gender diversity has been
normatively accepted in a country or industry, the more it benefits a firm’s market valuation and revenue. These findings demonstrate the importance of the broader social contexts in shaping the consequences of gender diversity.” Converted into business practice recommendations, the results imply three lessons that may not be appreciated by practitioners who like to navigate as part of a mainstream peer group: • The situation is too complex for simple or blueprint solutions (“3 things you have to do …” or just copy & paste programs from the peer group)—rigorous analyses of the specific situation, including development to date, are key • Quotas or quantitative targets are not effective in overcoming resistance and driving change (particularly if they are the main mechanism or the headline of your D&I program) • Individual and collective mindsets must be at the center of your attention (In this respect, let’s remind ourselves that training and communication must stimulate reflection and dialogue in order to instigate cultural change) These three items alone can serve as an impetus to review your storyline, strategy, governance, and communication for D&I. Some particular types of bias that may be relevant in this regard are discussed in the following article.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Public Bias: Which Criminals Are Mentally Ill and Which Are Terrorists?
One day after the tragic fatal attack on Mayor of Gdansk (Poland) Paweł Adamowicz, many media outlets spread allegations about the “reported” mental illness of the attacker. What messages do we recall from other attacks? And how is it relevant for corporate D&I? Understanding the motive(s) of a criminal offense forms part of root cause analyses and hence, mitigation and public sensemaking. In the assassination of Gdansk’s mayor, Paweł Adamowicz, the international media quickly spread explanations, including the following two main components: • The fact that the attacker had a criminal history for armed attacks for which he had spent more than five years in prison • An allegation or reported perception that the attacker
suffered from mental health problems Although the quality of the information seems to be clearly different (one proven, one alleged), some media mixed the two, e.g., “Authorities allege … a history of crime and mental illness.” (The Washington Post). It is worth noting that in other cases a different kind of connection is offered in the media. Quick judgments: Terrorists attack the mainstream society When the majority, dominant, or mainstream society appears to be the target of a crime, reports quickly, sometimes too hastily, include an allegation of terrorism. One day after a knife attack on two tourists in Amsterdam, the media reported this: “Authorities believe the man to be part of a 12-member Islamic terror cell,” based on data carriers found at
the man’s house. There were no reports regarding whether the attacker was examined for mental illness, just like there were no reports about whether radical material was found in the home of the Polish attacker. Analysts of different forms of communication conclude that the two explanations seem to be mutually exclusive: Once a terrorist allegation is established, mental illness will no longer be discussed, and vice versa. Narratives: Hate crime or terrorist attack? The different ways crimes are described include implicit assumptions about both the targets and the attackers, and lead to different evaluations: • Hate crime: When an individual attacks another individual representing a certain group sharing a
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber personal or social characteristic (difference). Such will often be considered a singular case and mental illness might well be brought in as an explanation, while other factors are not considered. • Terrorist attack: When random members of a country or a larger community are attacked by a representative of an organization with ideological or political motives. For decades, politicians have been using this narrative to define enemies of their respective state, system, or society. In recent years, though, a new quality of hate crimes seems to have been emerging, which can be described as a borderline case between the two aforementioned concepts. Ideologically fueled hate crimes against civil society The assassination of Polish Mayor Adamowicz presents unanswered questions: While Adamowicz was recognized as a supporter of the current Polish opposition, this does not seem to lead to an assumption that the attack was aimed at civil society, open and liberal values, or democracy. This would nudge the case away from the mental illness notion and closer to the terrorism paradigm. Similarly, the reason for the attack was quickly identified as individual hate. The BBC, however, included the additional hint that “… many commentators are blaming Poland’s bitter political divisions and widespread
online hate speech.” This would mean that a larger dynamic might have been involved and it would be careless to marginalize the deed as a singular, individual act. But it is not easy to break up the established dichotomy between individual hate crimes and organized terrorist plots. For in recent years, the concept of terrorism has been connected more firmly with extremist positions: • Some politicians have made excessive use of the term terror to justify discriminating actions (Trump’s travel ban) or to push the boundaries to include everybody who criticizes their policies (Erdogan’s 200,000+ inmates, the world’s third highest per capita ratio and the highest number of jailed journalists). • Academic analyses of U.S. media reports of terrorist attacks (2006–2015) show that Muslim extremists receive 357 percent more coverage—particularly by national news outlets— than those committed by non-Muslims. Separate reports found that between 2008 and 2016, right-wing attacks and plots outnumbered Islamist attacks 115 to 63, and were also carried out more often (35 percent foiled plots vs. 76 percent). Such factors make it difficult for everyone, experts and the public alike, to identify when influential groups, or the state itself, nurture aggression against societal groups, which happen to overlap
with the D&I agenda. While in European countries, some of this happens within democratic, yet biased, public discourse (excused sexism, wide-spread racism, homophobic norms, or denial of local Shoah collaboration), the international community seems quite helpless when a government protects or supports anti-Diversity action. Relevance for D&I practitioners The cases described here may appear extreme, but there are analogous cases in the workplace. While crime is not a workplace issue, different narratives about singular cases or provocations of the mainstream exist in companies as well—for example when corporate cultural biases are involved. They may include socalled explanations about career aspirations or leadership qualities of various diversity groups. The underlying assumptions of such simplistic statements are often not even recognized, let alone questioned. In addition, depending on the power distribution, inappropriate behaviors might be covered, explained, or excused in different ways and at times, biases are perpetuated by corporate activities. Organizations that consider themselves advanced in their D&I practices will find an opportunity to explore subtle, embedded, implicit, or hidden biases in their strategies, programs, practices, or processes. Whether similarity biases can be mitigated by exposing people to others different from themselves will help, forms part of the following article.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
The Affinity that Working Internationally Does Not Change Exposing yourself to differences is known to contribute to reducing biases. Following this thought, researchers tested the role of nationality in interpersonal relationships among expats. They found significant interplay. It serves as an ideal test laboratory: The expat community in the United Arab Emirates. There, researchers applied a multilevel study design that included 63 supervisors and 221 subordinates, mostly from outside the UAE (94 percent and 95 percent respectively, from Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, and Yemen). About half of the relationship dyads between supervisors and subordinates (46 percent) were from the same, and 54 percent from different, countries of origin.
Influence of nationality on supervisor–subordinate relationships In such a multicultural setting, researchers were able to investigate whether nationality influenced the quality of human relationships, when the context was more or less culturally diverse. They found that nationality does indeed play a role in leader–member relationships, but
with this caveat: The quality of relationships that individual subordinates have with their supervisors is positively and significantly influenced by national similarity, but only when their workgroup is very diverse. When a workgroup is rather homogenous, the influence becomes negligible.
Social identity and “black sheep” Social identity theory suggests that a diverse work environment might be related to greater feelings of uncertainty, thus heightening one’s awareness of surface similarity and increasing attempts to connect on that basis. For the case of more homogenous expat groups, the researchers mention the possibility of the so-called “black sheep effect”—individuals judging unlikable in-group individuals more negatively than out-ofgroup individuals.
Beyond the obvious: contextualized diversity dynamics The study contributes to the body of research that challenges existing myths about intra-group bonding and support in diversity. The pledge for more women on boards, for example, often includes the assumption that they
would not only attract, but also promote, more women across the ranks and support equality in general. However, a large-scale study described later in this section shows that the latter does not hold true regarding gender pay gaps. It echoes, with regard to gender, some of the results of the expat study summarized above. The combined key learning of the two studies is two-fold: • On a general level, it is critical to develop more awareness for biases that are not so rarely embedded in D&I narratives. Some of them serve as toxic elements, while others create blind spots and divert attention and energy away from key issues into areas where low to no impact on the system is created. • On a specific level, the studies reconfirm the need to pay the utmost attention to the various levels of organizational culture, including observable behaviors, proclaimed values and their perception and interpretation, and most tricky, the invisible norms and unwritten rules that often serve as the strongest barriers to D&I.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Quantifying Hidden Biases against Women in Management
Two new studies paint an alarming picture: One shows a strong increase in xenophobia; the other shows that true attitudes towards women in management positions are much more negative than usual surveys indicate. A study from the University of Duesseldorf (Germany) quantifies, for the first time, the â€œsocial desirabilityâ€? factor in the area of women in management. The researchers found that true attitudes were less positive than surveys usually suggest. This insight not only sheds new light on
many diversity studies, including employee surveys. It may also cast a shadow over current data on growing xenophobia, in Germany for example. What people really think about women in management Prejudices against female leaders are more widespread than previously thought, for participants in surveys on sensitive issues sometimes respond dishonestly. The extent of the known
phenomenon of social desirability is quantified by means of an indirect questioning technique to record the actual attitudes of respondents. This enabled researchers to show that significantly more people have reservations about female executives than direct questions suggestâ€”37 percent instead of 23 percent! Double encryption exposes both women and men The advanced survey format CrossWise is based on random
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber encryption and guarantees respondents the confidentiality of their answers to questions on sensitive topics. When compared with conventionally collected results, this kind of survey shows that women are more inclined than men to respond in ways they believe will be more readily accepted by others. At the same time, women’s reservations about their “gender comrades” in management are significantly lower than men’s. The indirect survey method led to the following results in comparison to the traditional survey method:
“Researchers found that true attitudes towards women in management were less positive than surveys usually suggest.”
Germany shows that almost one in three Germans holds xenophobic positions, and that the devaluation of individual groups is growing. The researchers distinguish between the agreement to individual xenophobic statements (e.g., perceived alienation by Muslims, assumed exploitation of the welfare state, or anti-Jewish views) • 28% of women showed resand so-called manifest xenophoervations (compared to 10%) bia in the form of a consistent • 45% of men showed reserva- agreement with all statements that are regarded as xenophobic. The tions (compared to 36%) latter increased from 20.4 percent It should be noted that this in 2016 to around 24.1 percent in quantification of the effect of 2018. Six percent of German citisocial desirability was specific to zens currently have a clear rightthe questioning techniques used. wing extremist view of the world. Another survey method, the pen- Although this figure has risen cil-to-paper method, appears to slightly, it is lower than the figure be less susceptible in this regard. at the beginning of the longitudiHowever, other factors can also nal study in 2002, when it was influence the results of survey, 9.7 percent. scientists warn. It has, for example, been repeatedly suspected Rejection in the labor marthat the presence of latent and ket, rejection of religious manifest xenophobic statements minorities, and advocacy by politicians and other public of right-wing dictatorships figures in the media is likely to fuel negative attitudes in society. The Leipzig Authoritarianism This is one explanation for the Study 2018 (formerly called the following survey results. Centre Study) provides insights into society’s basic attitudes toGrowing, multilayered wards a number of items: xenophobia • 36 percent of Germans agree with the statement that forThe latest survey wave of a eigners only migrate there to long-term study on xenophobia in
exploit the welfare state • 36 percent consider Germany to be alienated to a dangerous degree by foreigners • Over a quarter would send foreigners “back home” if jobs were scarce in Germany • Every tenth participant agrees that “Jews have something special about them and don’t really suit us”; an additional 20 percent agree with this statement to some degree Dr. Decker, author of the study, still sees “dangerous magnitudes of anti-Semitic thought patterns.” At the same time, the devaluation of other groups perceived as “foreign” or “deviant” has increased. Aggression against Sinti and Roma, asylum seekers, and Muslims continues to increase. Slightly more than half of the respondents (one third in 2010) feel like “foreigners in their own country” due to the (perceived) number of Muslims living there. Putting this into perspective, in 2009 there were an estimated 4.2 million Muslims in Germany, between 4.4 and 4.7 million in 2015 and about 5 million today— compared to a total population of 82 million.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
The Gaps that Female Managers Do Not Close Will more women on boards lead to more equality in an organization? Or do multinational teams promote intercultural relationships? While some numbers support such linkages, deeper research provides a more sophisticated picture. Current representation data published by the European Commission show that gender equality progresses in countries where some related legislation is in place. The supporters of mandated female representation on corporate boards interpret this as a proof that women at the top drive gender equality. A new, large-scale empirical study now shows that this does not apply to equal pay.
Female bosses have no impact on female—or male!— earnings Are the earnings of female employees affected by either a) having a female line manager themselves or b) a greater proportion of female managers in total within the organization? Two rival theories—that women are agents of change or that they are cogs in the machine—were empirically tested. Large-scale empirical research provides an intriguing finding
beyond an all too familiar overall picture: While in the sample the average hourly wage of men was 8.33€ compared to 7.74€ for women (not adjusted), the presence of female managers was found to have no significant effect on either female or male earnings. This applied to both tested hypotheses: the supposed influence of the overall proportion of female managers and the fact that an individual manager was female. This means that (more) women in management does not contribute to closing the gender pay gap, nor does their increased presence create a disadvantage for men (as sometimes alleged).
Unique research design In a unique way, the study analyzed manager–employee linked data from nine European countries: Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In order to avoid statistical biases, they included not only the individual employee level (N=9,267), but also the departmental (N=706) and organizational levels (N=236) in the data analysis.
Able but not willing, or willing but unable? The results of the analysis support the hypothesis formulated by the researchers that female managers function as “cogs in the machine.” The question remains, WHY do they have no impact on existing pay gaps, even where their direct reports are concerned? The scientists provide a mixed explanation that they might be partly not willing (“queen bee” theory) and partly unable (in lower ranks) to influence the situation. Regardless of the explanation, the findings emphasize the need to consider other elements in addition to representation. The results specifically point toward various types of biases that are often overlooked when focusing on individual blind spots or implicit associations. Systemic biases embedded in many HR or leadership processes or models, or in the organizational or management culture, are particularly relevant in this respect. Unfortunately, many of them are now being reproduced in a digital world that was supposed to be more equal than offline reality.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Evidence about Online Gender Bias and How to Avoid it at Work
Empirical analyses of YouTube, Instagram, and online music videos show that the presence of women focuses on stereotypically feminine topics and formats, while overall, they are underrepresented. Companies can avoid a toxic spill-over of online gender bias into the workplace. If you believe that men and women are similarly represented on, for example, YouTube, your perception equals that of young people. Eighty percent of 13- to 19-year-olds think that an equal number of males and females perform on YouTube. The reality is one woman for every two men. What could be even more wor-
rying are the stereotypes that are perpetuated across all formats. As if this were not enough, experts also warn about the excessive posing and playing norms on social media that are seen to foster gender biases, such as the male self-marketing and mutual promotion tendency.
When bias becomes (online) normality Think women, think beauty, fashion, and household? Think men, think gaming, comedy, and sports? What sounds like an outdated parody of blackand-white gender images
actually summarizes the results of an empirical analysis of YouTube formats by gender. While 71 percent of women show themselves in a private context (and related topics), men position themselves more in public, and they cover many more fields and declare their online activities more often as â€œprofessionalâ€? compared to women. Experts found a stunning consistency of these genderseparating results.
Pressure to idealize yourself: boys fake more than girls In a second study, gender dynamics on Instagram were
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber analyzed, including the impact of influencers. A strong normative force was found in which influencers play a key role in reducing existing diversity within both gender groups (no third-gender or intersexual aspects were examined in this study). The analysis shows that girls who follow influencers consider it more important to be slim than their friends who don’t follow. Boys, on the other hand, are more inclined to optimize their online pictures according to gender norms: Wider shoulders, stronger arms or legs, or added six packs. The researchers point out that the original idea of Instagram, to capture the moment in a spontaneous and natural way, has been distorted.
Similar gender biases in corporate culture, talent management, and leadership While companies have implemented many meritocratic HR processes, most still struggle with gender biases embedded in unwritten rules that also influence the application of objective processes or tools. Some of the rules that have emerged in the online world are unfortunately fueling some of the still-existing implicit biases in corporate realities: • Idea of infinite talent supply creates the notion of replaceability and a demand for perfectionism • Fulfilling expectancies is considered more important than authenticity • Everybody can impose and apply their own rules on others 28
Some of the rules that have emerged in the online world are unfortunately fueling some of the still-existing implicit biases in corporate realities
• Only the moment counts, not your achievements over time or to date • Adaptability is required as the rules may change overnight • Popularity (gained by likes and agreement) is more important than critical thinking For YouTube, scientists have confirmed that “the structures of the medium (logic of the algorithm, expectations of the audience, financing possibilities) influence the content” as it relates to gender biases. For many corporate processes, experts observe the exact same dynamics: Structural and cultural defaults are perpetuating gender biases which continue to result in uphill battles for women, while limiting the impact of superficial D&I initiatives. The progress of past years can easily be eroded or reversed when gender biases are re-introduced through the online culture. It may or may not be a coincidence that offline images of digital natives include beards, burgers, and boasts for men versus flowers, skirts, and princesses for women.
Platform of opportunities Regardless of the hefty biases researchers found, there is one element that should be acknowledged going forward: Online platforms provide an almost equal opportunity for all, and it is largely up to the individual to grasp it. That includes deciding what to use the platforms for. Accordingly, the described studies talk about the “self-staging: of men and women—with the exception of music videos, where women are often portrayed in a sexualized way (53 percent of Top 100 videos show women without their heads). One group was found to literally take advantage of online opportunities: Ethnic minorities are well represented on YouTube: 32 percent of female and 49 percent of male YouTubers analyzed were categorized “with a migration history” (= the vague equivalent for ethnic or racial or BAME minorities applied in Germany to consider waves of immigration over the past 50 years). However, the mutual relationship of D&I and the digital transformation goes far beyond bias overspill, as the following article shows.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
How D&I Contributes to Digital Transformation While Earning Hidden Risks
Although the trend is not new, the profoundness of digital transformation is only about to become clearer. While most areas feel as if they had to follow (or obey) digital standards, D&I should not only be seen as an object, but also as a driver of this change. As a value chain, Diversity & Inclusion has the potential to contribute to many business priorities. While this has been described in detail for innovation, productivity, marketing, or organizational effectiveness, it appears to be less clear for digital transformation. Since this megatrend is seen as the dominant force impacting each
and every area of (business) life, a more thorough look from a D&I perspective is important. The scope of digital transformation Like every industrial revolution before, digitalization creates numerous disruptions, including huge opportunities, as well as losses, in quite a few industries or job families. While automation is already felt in many everyday situations, the dynamics of change present challenges for many involved, mostly due to its pace, complexity, and profound-
ness. Resilience has become a key need in this respect. At the same time, the dynamics of the new ways of working and an â€œeverybody-can-do-anythingâ€? attitude needs to be managed. Finally, the redistribution of work to fewer jobs, some less and some more skilled, presents a challenge for individuals, as well as economies. What D&I contributes to the success of the digital transformation With thousands of start-ups and a specific generational culture, the digital era has created a wide-
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber spread belief that everybody can achieve (and create) anything. This founding age spirit creates huge positive momentum which, at times, ends abruptly. D&I can add significant value by facilitating a self-awareness process for individual strengths (or weaknesses) and foster the recognition of existing solutions that have already been created by others (as opposed to starting from scratch). In many of these processes, generational, cultural, or competence gaps exist that can be addressed easily and effectively through a holistic process of D&I. Related to the multiple changes that are going on and yet to come, D&I promotes an open mindset that is key to successfully driving digital transformation. Fostering open-mindedness is a critical component of well-designed D&I processes and unfortunately, lacking in many normative (e.g., policy- or metric-driven) frameworks. The other key component of successful D&I strategies focuses on inclusive behaviors and communication, which inevitably could and should encompass more flexibility and adaptability. Finally, as a theme that cuts across all elements of the D&I value chain, D&I contributes a fresh look at capabilities and, more specifically, new leadership competencies that are required in a digitalized world. Reversed perspective: What is the impact of digitalization on D&I? Based on the success of digitalized HR processes, including standardized online applications and automated evaluation tools, D&I experts were filled with hope
that the digital revolution would help to overcome existing barriers or biases toward diversity. Closer analysis and more in-depth research have shown, unfortunately, that most tools cannot meet this expectation for reasons that are embedded in the tools: • Artificial intelligence creates knowledge and insight based on existing data and the patterns included in these data. This means that AI will inevitably reproduce biases that exist in the current reality. A powerful example of this dynamic is the attempt of the London Metropolitan Police to use AI to evaluate public CCTV data • Software that is programmed to perform people processes, such as CV screening or evaluation, will reproduce biases that might well be embedded in the code— stemming from the designer or programmer who has to set criteria for the software to operate (e.g., if a career break is counted negatively, positively, or neutrally). However, people analytics tools also show that dealing with bigger data in an effective way can create new insight that is relevant (and helpful) for D&I in that it unveils previously hidden patterns of attrition or subtle inequalities for example. Some fundamental biases of the Digital Revolution Previous industrial revolutions created inequalities. While this
does not mean that it is happening again as a result of the current digital transformation, past experience should prompt us to check current dynamics with regard to D&I. In fact, some new technologies are widely described as drivers for D&I, as they improve accessibility (e.g., for people with disabilities), employability (e.g., remote work for people with dependent-care responsibilities), and inclusion of people in various global locations in collaborative processes. However, it has been noted by many authors that digital success stories are usually “his story” and almost never “her story.” This may be fueled by the persisting gender gap in STEM education and professions, as well as by gender biases in the start-up environment, including among venture capitalists. In her book Bienvenue dans le nouveau monde, Mathilde Ramadier busts many of the myths that have been glorifying the startup industry. On the other hand, recent analyses have shown that the hi-tech industry does not automatically qualify as a role model for D&I. Their corporate cultures and employment policies have been admired for a long time—often overlooking the fact that the industry is operating in a more favorable setting compared to the steel, retail, or tourist industry, for example. New data and incidences provide clues that many of the larger hi-tech firms suffer from many of the same issues as corporations in more traditional industries. This article provides an analysis on this specific aspect: http://en.diversitymine.eu/cool-hi-tech-brandsfinally-hit-by-harsh-di-reality/
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Why Heidi Klum Harmed Diversity Just as BlackRock Did
It has literally become a fashion to position yourself as pro-diversity, including in contexts that historically were struggling with many, most, or all aspects of D&I. Here is why we must be careful about fullmouthed statements from famous, rich, or powerful people, and how companies can make their D&I communication credible and accepted. In rare unanimity, the media commented on Heidi Klum’s effort to reposition her TV show Germany’s Next Top Model with a diversity flavor—it was described as parody of itself. There might be an entertaining element, when diverse candidates add color, authenticity, or extravagance to a mold that before had only been famous for its uniformity. However, what should concern not only D&I professionals, but all of
us, is the fact that the idea of diversity is corrupted when it is applied in random contexts or stereotypical ways. Candidates with diverse backgrounds are reduced to their otherness and overexposed in a way that is just as insulting as the extreme normative approach the show had before.
Similar negative reactions to BlackRock’s Diversity statements Some were surprised that BlackRock’s pro-diversity statements also provoked highly negative reactions. When the investment giant announced its intention to increase its efforts and expectations regarding board diversity, it was not the first time. This time, however, many questioned whether or not it was adequate that an
investor brought up the topic in the way Larry Fink, CEO of BlackRock, did. A closer look reveals small toxic elements and also implicit bias embedded in the case.
Understanding the particular context Whether it is fair or not, based on their perceived characteristic of short-term profit and stock price focus, investment management firms were traditionally not seen as promoters of D&I. As an increasing body of research, including studies by investment experts, provided evidence that diversity and inclusion was good for both profitability and performance, asset management specialists warmed to the idea. However, their actions were under scrutiny. www.diversityjournal.com
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber First pointing to the “others”
Consistency, clarity, coherence
When BlackRock, by far the largest publicly held asset management firm, first communicated about board diversity to companies in which they had invested, the message was not much discussed by D&I experts or the media. It was noted, however, that there was a discrepancy between what was requested from others and what the often male-dominated company did internally. In addition, D&I had been added as a second topic to climate change, which was the headline of that Shepard’s Message.
It appeared that connecting D&I with a broader societal agenda upset a part of the target group that preferred that an investment firm should stick to its business realm. Actually, many companies experience the same effect: When management positions D&I somewhere between business and philanthropy, criticism grows faster and stronger, compared to a solid business-based storyline— another aspect related to the polarizing effect of making gender or racial inequality part of a corporate mission. These and other topics have become explicit elements of public political battles where a large group of people only sees either/or: them versus us, red versus blue, etc. In this context, BlackRock’s statement was opposed by those who had a different opinion—for it was perceived as an opinion in the first place.
Crossing a red line In 2019, however, the tone of BlackRock’s diversity communication had slightly changed and suddenly created heated reactions. This year, D&I was added to a pledge for purpose—again within the context of the annual BlackRock letter to CEOs. D&I was combined in a fluffy way with other “issues […] from protecting the environment to retirement to gender and racial inequality, among others.” The approach was unfortunate in several respects and provoked polarized reactions from cheerful support on one side and to hefty backlash on the other. None of that was related either to questions about internal BlackRock D&I or to potentially questionable objectives of the company.
What high-profile communication about D&I has to consider In a polarized context, where racism, sexism, ageism, and homophobia have become parts of reality again, D&I must be a more elaborate than in the beginning, when creating attention and raising basic awareness was appropriate and enough. Lessons from the above and other cases include the following: • Back to Business: In a business context, base
your D&I story on business arguments only, and make sure these are firmly connected with corporate priorities • A Clear Priority: Position D&I as a dedicated contribution to the business agenda and not as a second or support item of another trendy topic with which “everybody agrees” • Choice of Timing: Choose a business context for your D&I communication and make sure it is just as recurring as other business communications (market, financial, etc.) • A Proven Approach: There is a ton of evidence for the value-add and benefits of diversity today, which should be reflected in your D&I language; today, there is still too much language of “belief” or “conviction,” which must be replaced by “knowledge” and “proof.” By recalibrating the positioning and communication of D&I, the approach does not become less human, nor does it lose its social impact. A clear, sharp, and sometimes hard appearance provides the objective base for D&I that is required in an often hostile and sometimes aggressive environment. Allowing and encouraging everyone to identify with and engage in D&I is another element that is key in this regard—and therefore, widely discussed and considered going forward.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Business-Based Reactions to Anti-Diversity Policies
The operator of Londonâ€™s public transport network, TfL, has banned advertising from eleven countries that breach human (LGBT) rights. The reaction reaches far beyond the individual â€œBrunei case,â€? and affects global airlines and tourist boards. It raises the question: How many more countries could be criticized for different forms of anti-diversity policies? At first, it looked like a mostly symbolic move, when celebrities like Ellen DeGeneres, George
Clooney, or Elton John supported a global boycott of nine hotels tied to the Sultan of Brunei. The country had introduced anti-gay legislation and first defended it against initial international criticism. Insisting on their position triggered a much bigger wave of criticism, including business-based moves of large companies that excluded the Brunei-owned hotels from their lists of business accommodations, as well as reactions of a much larger
scale. This is both important and noteworthy, for human rightsbased boycotts aiming at correcting public or corporate policies have, over decades, had mostly modest effects. The initiative of Transport for London (TfL) creates a new quality and dimension in this field. However, it also raises another question on a higher level: How many countries have anti-diversity policies in place that would merit some form of penalty?
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber How big businesses are negatively affected by anti-gay policies of their home countries The interesting effect of TfL’s reaction is that we are no longer talking about a call for boycott of a few luxury hotels. Transport for London suspended advertising with companies or public bodies from eleven countries that impose the death penalty (or the possibility of it) for consensual sex between same-sex adults, according to human rights organizations. This ban means that companies like Emirates Airlines or Qatar Airways, or tourist boards like
also be excluded from sponsorship opportunities the TfL may offer. Human rights principle consistently applied in the public sphere The TfL ban establishes a new business relevance of state diversity policies on several levels: It not only affects one country that happens to be in the spotlight, it also directly affects commercial business. And it not only targets the state, but also all companies from the respective countries. To this end, the approach is as consistent as it is powerful, and
these states and their companies over decades—and continue to do so? Such harsh political critique was only occasionally voiced by radical LGBT groups. Another broader question refers to other anti-diversity legislation that exists in many countries, resulting in difficult living conditions for women, ethnic minorities, religious groups, or other societal groups such as Roma and others. Issues occur quite randomly for some countries (China more than many others) and for companies from some industries (automotive more than software) which shows that there is a need to
“The TfL ban establishes a new business relevance of state diversity policies on several levels: It not only affects one country that happens to be in the spotlight, it also directly affects commercial business.” Pakistan Tourism, will no longer be given the opportunity to purchase advertising space on London’s transport network, where some 31 million journeys take place every day. In addition to Brunei, 11 other countries are affected: Afghanistan, Iran, Mauritania, Nigeria, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, UAE, and Yemen. TfL has confirmed to the media that their advertising partners have been asked not to approve any new campaigns from those states and their state-owned entities, while a review is ongoing that the mayor of London requested. In addition, the Green Party requested that these businesses should
it aims in a clever way at the corrective influence that iconic companies can have on their states. A spokesman explained the rationale for the City of London: “Given the global role London plays in championing LGBT+ rights, the Mayor has asked that TfL reviews how it treats advertising and sponsorship from countries with anti-LGBT+ laws.” Which other areas could be addressed? As a unique initiative, the TfL ban raises the question, why have so many other public and private bodies with similar high standards or aspirations done business with
create some form of consistency. But which bodies could potentially provide robust information of the existing situation and, more important, who would be in the position to decide upon appropriate responses? Some frameworks already exist that routinely check the policies and procedures of business partners, such as vendors in large tenders or publicly traded companies as part of financial analyses. Experts say it would be possible to apply similar processes when preparing business deals and that such an application would require substantial conviction, leadership, and determination.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Diversity in Advertising? Global Survey Spurs Hope
Marketing experts from five countries on four continents were surveyed about diversity in advertising. Their answers show that they know what is expected from them. However, mindsets and actions vary. Among marketing experts, there seems to be a surprising level of agreement across the globe when it comes to diversity. Collectively, across the countries surveyed, the latest Shutterstock research shows nine in ten of Generation X (91%) and Millennial (92%) marketers believe they are expected to
use more diverse representation in their campaigns, and 88% of Generation X and 90% of Millennials believe that this helps the respective brand’s reputation. At the same time, they realize that there is still room for improvement with regard to D&I. The level of perceived opportunity has not only remained on the same level as in the previous year (2017 figures in brackets), criticism of campaigns for being sexist or stereotyping persists. Agreement to “room for growth in using more diverse
images” by country: • • Australia: 87% [93%] • • Brazil: 95% [92%] • • Germany: 86% [n/a] • • U.K.: 88% [93%] • • U.S.: 89% [91%] Vast differences: purposes and priorities for D&I in marketing In assessing the criteria for selecting imagery for campaigns, differences that appear www.diversityjournal.com
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
to mirror the respective local business mindsets emerge: While in Germany, more tactical considerations could lead marketers to use more diverse imagery (create an emotional reaction (32%) and improve shareability of images (32%)), Brazilian (44%) and Australian (38%) marketers were more interested in the connection between the images and the brand message. The North Atlantic geographies think that such imagery will best represent modern day society (British (45%) and American (37%))— or should they have said customers and markets?
gender stereotyping ban, 74 percent of UK marketers say they have been impacted by that standard (compared to 57 percent the previous year). Half (51%) of the respondents also agree that there are some company concerns that gender-neutral advertising could negatively impact their bottom line, while 60 percent (younger generations more, older less) agree that gender is no longer as important a factor when it comes to targeting in marketing campaigns.
Brazilians lead on transgender, androgynous, and non-binary gender images
Echoing discussions of the past 15 years, 60 percent of German marketers agreed that a gender stereotyping ban (similar to the UK’s) should exist for advertising in Germany, and 50 percent believe it is important to support gender fluidity through marketing campaigns. Both are the lowest figures among countries surveyed, and relatively low agreements within the context of the survey. The country also ranks last regarding the use of more images featuring racially diverse models, transgender models, or people with a disability.
Over the past 12 months, 36 percent of Brazilian marketers have used more images featuring women in their marketing campaigns, 19 percent have started using more images of transgender models, and 18 percent have featured gender fluid, non-binary or androgynous models—leading the way, compared to the other countries surveyed. They also rank highest (45%) for having used more images featuring racially diverse models in the last 12 months. UK struggling with regulation-based gender issues Following the recent introduction of the Advertising Standards Authority’s (ASA)
Traditional mind-sets in Germany
Scope and learning for D&I and marketing practices While this latest research does not analyze the actual imagery in advertising, it sheds light on the proclaimed
opinions, perceptions, and intentions of marketing experts. Their answers may or may not be influenced by social expectancy, peer group think, or messages spread in special interest media and filter bubbles. Similar to the results from previous research, high levels of interest are coupled with low awareness for the hard business case. Furthermore, the question of diverse imagery may only be one element of a larger approach that accommodates differences within the mass market and market segments in a credible and relevant way. Larger-scale data about the extent to which this is already happening are scarce and exist mainly for local markets. However, they consistently show that neither product nor communication strategies—above or below the line—nor sales (front end, customer service…) are close to the diversity of the actual existing customer base, regarding ethnic or cultural diversity, gender, LGBT, age, religion, or disability (cf. the following article). Instead, the internet provides a platform for different communities to finally voice their anger about, for example, sexism in advertising, as well as all-white or all-young approaches in marketing. The persistence of these campaigns confirms the high percentage of agreement regarding room for growth for D&I in marketing.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Irish Retail Battle for Autism Friendliness
Shortly after SuperValu launched its Autism-Friendly Shopping project—following an 18-month development and piloting journey—their competitor Lidl followed with Autism Aware Quiet Evenings. Hefty backlash over an incident showed Lidl the form of the learning curve companies need to follow in order to tap into diverse market segments. Basic accessibility in public spaces and stores in most Western or industrialized countries is a no-brainer today. New technologies have helped hugely to drive the inclusion of people with disabilities. A report by Accenture calculated that “new technologies have the potential
to bring an estimated 350 million people with disabilities into the workforce over the next 10 years.” What is needed is to keep accessibility in mind when starting to think about new developments (along other diversity aspects). The Accenture report provides an overview of five key areas needed to create more positive experiences for people with disabilities and lead a peoplecentric digital revolution: Universal design, Artificial Intelligence, wider partnerships, talent market, and new industries. Customers with disabilities, however, are only mentioned in a brief aside. The extent to which different-
ly abled market segments are marginalized, for example by the retail or hospitality industries, is illustrated by the campaign Help Me Spend My Money, launched by the social enterprise Purple in 2017. According to UK research, shopping, and eating and drinking out, rank as the top three most difficult experiences for disabled persons. U.S. figures show that they are also three times more likely than people without disabilities to never go online (23% vs. 8%). Experts recommend that companies need to do a proper journey mapping to understand customers with disabilities in
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber order to be able to respond to their needs and eventually, serve a much larger clientele as countless examples of the so-called “from the margin to the mainstream” effect have shown in the past.
First steps to create Autism friendliness in Irish retail stores For many, the predominant image of accessibility includes wheelchair access, accessible web technologies, and perhaps, Braille. The challenges for people with autism, in everyday situations such as shopping, are as significant as they are unknown to many. Noise, light, crowds, and other elements can create stress, often to an extreme extent. In 2016, the Irish retail chain SuperValu started a step-by-step learning journey and development process to assist customers with autism in shopping at their stores. Initial steps included the following: • Autism-friendly shopping times (quieter, low lights, fast track till) • Introduction of Autism Lifeskill Friend (ALF) trolleys (providing clipboard for images of articles to buy and a “finished” box, so that children with autism can focus on something and participate in shopping) The retail chain worked with subject-matter-expert partners, such as Middletown Centre for Autism and AsIAm to develop
additional supports, including these:
• Photos of store–visualize the store trip before you visit
who has autism, and his specially trained autism assistance dog were asked to leave a Lidl store in Dublin. This happened despite explanations about the situation, the child’s needs, and the dog’s official blue jacket. Lidl Ireland quickly sent their unreserved apology.
• Store sounds–download and listen to get familiar with our store sounds
D&I change process: Accepting the need to be on the journey together
• Sensory Store Maps–indicate high intensity and low intensity areas in store
A dedicated webpage makes these items available and provides additional explanations. http://supervalu.ie/real-people/ autism-friendly
Lidl Ireland’s bumpy catch-up SuperValu’s competitor, Lidl Ireland, also carried out tests and pilots in 2017, and announced in March 2018 that they would begin offering Autism Aware Quiet Evenings across all of their 194 stores in Ireland and Northern Ireland on April 2, World Autism Day. In addition to reduced lighting, no music, priority queuing, and lowered till scan sounds, they offer extra assistance upon request. The Irish Equality Status act already requires stores to allow autism assistance dogs (similar to dogs assisting blind people). Lidl also announced that they will train all store teams “to gain a greater understanding of autism (…).” An incident that occurred just prior to the announcement made headlines and demonstrated the need for such information. A woman, her son
Not only in the field of disability but in the D&I arena at large, it has become important for everyone involved to understand the need to learn and grow together. The breadth and depth of what needs to be understood and addressed is typically much larger than people think. And more complex than many of the cool solutions presented online or at events. Hence, along the development process, everyone involved will experience learning moments, including those who see themselves as “in the know.” A careful analysis of your customer touch points, starting from very early communication all the way to potential moments of truth and follow-up contacts, will provide an impression of what companies should consider when planning to include diverse costumers more consciously. This kind of thorough approach, which goes beyond nice initiatives or projects, will show how your business and your customers can benefit from intelligent Inclusion.
Resilient D&I: Michael Stuber
Advancing D&I Differently Although D&I practices have evolved for more than two decades, the political, societal, and economic environments have recently changed in a way that requires drastic paradigm shifts. Empirical findings and practical learning presented in this section and elsewhere show areas where new approaches can contribute effectively in this changing context.
4. New Contours 1. New Considerations The ongoing challenge to define diversity, including its limits, contains a desire to focus on areas of pronounced disadvantage, as well as a need to be broad, comprehensive, and hence, inclusive of many topics or groups. The current trend to look at intersectionality in a new way is an important step toward working across traditional boxes. However, in order to effectively pursue value-adding D&I strategies, more business-related diversity topics must be considered going forward. Working with educational, functional, or skill-based diversities can make our D&I work not only more relevant to many business priorities, but also more precisely tailored to a specific organization.
Taking into account the vast insight we have been gaining, and the extensive experience—both positive and challenging—with a large number of formats everywhere around the world, it is evident to me as the D&I engineer that our field has to be transformed in a fundamental way. On several occasions, I have given examples of things and formats that we should stop using, even if they were successful in the past. Divisive events and polarising messages have already contributed to current resistance. And the tasks and challenges D&I will face in the future will be even larger and more complex than they have been to date.
2. New Conversations In addition to the encouraging kudos in social media and echo chambers, we need more critical discourse in order to get to the next level of D&I. This is even more important as simplified filter bubble messages (for vs. against, yes vs. no, true vs. false) show that there will be no automatic or natural (dis)solution of D&I issues any time soon. Binary thinking and a bias for well-presented messages tell us quite clearly that a thorough discussion of mind-set issues will become even more relevant in the future.
3. New Contributors In order to shift the focus from special interest groups to everyone, and from white-washed stories to authentic, critical thinking, new stakeholders must be involved. So far, women, minorities, and the ‘younger generation’ dominate the D&I landscape. The anecdotal reports of business leaders or the occasional meetings of D&I councils are not enough to drive the required change. Mature managers, research or sales people, engineers, and finance managers must be regular stakeholders going forward. This should also make D&I a more professionally tackled issue—hinting at the many companies that delegate the topic to the lowest levels, including to interns or temp students.
“So let’s make sure we combine our different strengths and perspectives to advance D&I in a role-modelling way.” Michael Stuber Blog Web http://en.diversitymine.eu • www.european-diversity.com • Linked-In/michaelstuber
A Fresh Cup of Tea: What The Nutcracker Can Teach Us about Inclusion By Phil Chan, cofounder of Final Bow for Yellowface
Archival photos courtesy of Ballet West
In the 1950s, we see a rise in Chinese caricature in American Nutcrackers, to a trend in recent years through initiatives like Final Bow for Yellowface to improve how Asians have been represented on our stages. Here is Salt Lake City’s Ballet West in a series of historical productions of the Chinese dance in The Nutcracker, featuring choreography by first Willam Christiensen, then by his brother Lew Christiensen. The Christiensen brothers were responsible for America’s first production of The Nutcracker, celebrating its 75th anniversary this year in 2019. Photos are courtesy of Ballet West.
t’s Nutcracker time again: the season of sweet delights and a sparkling good time for all—if we’re able to ignore the sour taste left behind by the outdated and unimaginative cultural stereotypes so often portrayed in the second act of some productions. As the dance community
becomes more diverse, how do the classic ballets we present need to change to be more inclusive? It’s something that, as a former dancer and dance historian, I spend a lot of time thinking about. I was born in Hong Kong, the biracial son of a Chinese man and white American woman, and
spent the first ten years of my life in a community that saw me as white. Then, my family moved to Berkeley, California, and suddenly I became the fresh-off-the-boat Chinese kid. As a result, I grew up well versed in both the slurs directed at white people in Asia and the ugly stereotypes of Asians
Photo courtesy of Final Bow for Yellowface Agrippina Vaganova in the Chinese dance from the 1903 The Fairy Doll
Chinese objects and architecture were commonly available to Westerners, so many depictions of Chinese people involve parasols and pagodas (1965).
perpetuated in America. Experiencing these barbs firsthand from an early age, I understood how quickly negative racial images from movies, television, and the performing arts trickled into the repertoire of schoolyard bullies. As I became an adult and a professional dancer, I began to wonder why we continued to perform caricatures of other racial groups for the sake of “preserving history” on the ballet stages where I worked. This question came into sharp focus for me during a conversation with then Artistic Director of New York City Ballet Peter Martins, who asked for assistance modifying elements of Chinese caricature in George Balanchine’s iconic The Nutcracker in November of 2017. Inspired by a growing volume of emails from audience members expressing their discomfort with how Chinese people were portrayed in the ballet, Peter reached out to see how we could retain as much of the spirit of the dance as possible, while being respectful and inclusive to Asian people today. Following a very positive conversation in which Peter made adjustments to the makeup, costuming, and choreography, I cofounded Final Bow for Yellowface with NYCB soloist Georgina Pazcoguin. We created a public pledge to eliminate outdated Asian stereotypes on our stages, in light of the field’s larger commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion housed at www.yellowface.org. The pledge simply states, “I love ballet as an art form, and acknowledge that to achieve a diversity amongst our artists, audiences, donors, students, volunwww.diversityjournal.com
teers, and staff, I am committed to eliminating outdated and offensive stereotypes of Asians (Yellowface) on our stages.” Since then, almost every American ballet company has signed the pledge, and has leaned into the question of how we portray people of other races. I believe there is a fear that in this new era of political correctness, some beloved dance classics that have been preserved “as is” may be deemed unacceptable to audiences today. As Sarah Kaufman of the Washington Post recently said of the visiting Mariinsky Ballet in Le Corsaire, an Orientalist work by Marius Petipa from 1856: If the glitzy depiction of human trafficking doesn’t make you cringe, how about its parade of deplorable ethnic stereotypes, starting with turbaned Turks ogling female captives at a slave market? Popular for its flamboyance and passionate love duets, “Le Corsaire” hasn’t aged well in terms of its plot points, and its 19th-century conventions feel crass to a contemporary perspective. But what about the dance heritage contained in the ballet itself? Is it possible to separate the artistic merit of Petipa’s choreography from the outdated representation of Arab culture? When encountering problematic portrayals of race in the classical Western canon, how do we not throw the baby out with the bathwater? In my attempt to make some sense of where these caricatures came from, I examined East/West relations at large, and broke them
“They Must Go.” An advertisement for Rough On Rats rat poison, 1870s
A Chinese coolie with a Fu Manchu mustache with a rice paddy hat became the standard way to depict “Chinese” (1955).
down into three loose periods that show how the dynamics in Asian representation changed over time. I looked at political cartoons and commentary, political treaties and immigration laws, and later, film, television, and other media to better understand what we were putting on our stages and why. To illustrate this visually, Salt Lake City’s Ballet West has graciously offered to open their archives to illustrate this historical journey. Period I: “On Many A Vase and Jar”: The Asian as Object
Despite featuring beautiful and elaborate costumes, these early portrayals nevertheless depict inaccurate and exaggerated representations of Chinese people (1958).
A Ming dynasty porcelain-inspired fantasy (1983)
Before widespread Asian immigration, Asians were often portrayed as exotic “others,” with Asian personality defined through objects, artifacts, and other secondary sources that were available. Many of these objects came to the West as a result of trade on the Silk Road, with a vogue and demand for Chinese objects in Europe dating back to 13th century. We primarily have one man to thank for this: Genghis Khan. Not only did he bring the Silk Road under a cohesive political environment (thus opening up trade in an unprecedented way), he was also the grandfather of “Yellow Peril,” having brutally conquered most of the steppes of Asia and scaring the living daylights out of Europeans at the time with the cruelty and brutality of his campaigns. Before Asian migration in the 18th century, we largely see representations of Asians in the West as possessing an elaborate and advanced culture, potentially even rivaling the West in terms of intellectual thought, technology, refinement, military might, and cultural potency. www.diversityjournal.com
Period II: “Yellow Peril”: The Asian as Threat From the Gold Rush of the 1840s to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, assimilating Asians were often portrayed as caricatures, in response to rising xenophobia. Representations were informed by, or in response to, national political events like Chinese Exclusion, Japanese Internment, and the Vietnam War. Representation suddenly shifted downward in terms of class, with arts and media replacing images of exotic and regal Chinese emperors with railroad laborers, coolies, and “Chinamen.” Certain physical caricatures of Asians by Westerners during this time have translated across film, vaudeville, and the performing arts as well. When translated to the stage, the Chinese tradition of bound feet became small shuffling steps, while the humble bow gesture became an exaggerated head bobbing, and in classical ballet, the two raised index fingers. At one time, these movements may have been attempts at imagined Chinese character dance, but over time, they’ve warped into physical caricature—exaggerated characteristics meant to create a comic, simplistic, or grotesque impression. As many of the classical ballet works were made in Russia at the end of the 1800s, American and European caricatures of Asians aren’t featured prominently until these ballets made their way to America in the 1940s and ’50s, when we start to see caricatured Asians become the industry’s choreographic standard. 44
A Chinese warrior design (1991)
Adam Sklute became the Artistic Director of Ballet West in 2007, and eliminated many elements of caricatured make-up and mannerisms (2011)
Period III: “Asian American”: The Asian as Us With the Civil Rights Era in the 1960s, Asians began expanding self-portrayals within a new “Asian American” identity. Asians started telling their own stories and working as creatives in their own right. From playwrights like David Henry Hwang to films like Crazy Rich Asians, the idea of what it means to be Asian, and
who defines that identity, occupies the artistic spirit of our current times. This is where we are currently with Final Bow for Yellowface, questioning how Asians are defined in dance, and supporting efforts by our colleagues to see beyond outdated caricature in our classics and re-imagine them as something bigger and more inclusive.
makeup just a little bit to avoid caricature doesn’t make the work any less charming. Small updates to refresh portrayals of race ensure that classic works like The Nutcracker stay alive and become bigger than their creators intended—something for everyone to enjoy year after year around the holidays. Isn’t that a better way to tell a story? PDJ With the permission of the Christiensen Trust in 2013, Ballet West interpolated Lew Christiensen’s version in their production, which features a warrior battling a dragon, reminiscent of what Lew saw in San Francisco’s Chinatown while he was director of San Francisco Ballet (2018).
The make-up design is inspired by traditional Chinese Peking Opera masks, and contains sections of the dancer’s natural skin tone as part of the mask design (2018).
Conclusion The greater longevity and relevance of the works from the Western canon depend on their ability to touch audiences around universal human truths. As a result, the arts provide a unique platform on which to build empathy for “the other” at a time when we need it most in our society; presenting outdated represen-
tations of race goes against that critical work. When arts organizations stop reviving caricature and instead offer up complex characterizations, audiences can be guided to see and appreciate the nuance in the different people around us. Changing a little bit of head bobbing to avoid perpetuating Chinese stereotypes goes a long way with audiences; modifying
Phil Chan is the co-founder of Final Bow for Yellowface and currently serves as the Director of Programming for IVY, connecting young professionals with leading American museums and performing arts institutions. He is a graduate of Carleton College and an alumnus of the Ailey School. As a writer, he served as the executive editor for FLATT Magazine and has contributed to Dance Europe Magazine and the Huffington Post. He was the founding general manager of the Buck Hill Skytop Music Festival and the general manager for Armitage Gone! Dance and Youth America Grand Prix. He served multiple years on the National Endowment for the Arts dance panel and the Jadin Wong Award panel presented by the Asian American Arts Alliance, and is on the advisory committee for the Parsons Dance Company. He also serves on the Leaders of Color steering committee at Americans for the Arts.
6 Make or Break DEI Decisions By Janet and Gary Smith, Ivy Planning Group
erhaps your organization is new to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) or simply wants to re-energize its DEI efforts. Here are 6 Make or Break DEI Decisions you’ll need to get right:
1. Who leads the effort? It’s a difficult job that requires exceptional talent. Do you choose core business expertise or DEI credibility? When your organization announces its new DEI director, people will ask themselves a series of questions such as the following: • What qualifies this person to lead our effort? Does this individual understand DEI? • Does the new director understand our core business and our industry? • Will the individual understand our organization and the way we prefer to do things here? • Does this individual understand DEI? Has this director led DEI initiatives from launch to maturity, ensuring success elsewhere? • Which (visible and invisible) dimensions of diversity does the new leader represent? • Will this director have credibility with our employees,
customers, stakeholders, partners, and community? • Does this individual have external relationships to elevate our brand and generate positive PR for our DEI work? • Will this person be credible with our leaders and able to influence them throughout our DEI change process? Yes, that’s a lot to ask of one person, and it might be difficult to get everything in one package. Particularly when it comes down to two capabilities: Knowing the core business; and Knowing DEI. It’s an important decision that starts with remembering that success depends on having the right expectations about the talent required to succeed. For some organizations, if you don’t know the core business, or if you don’t have a proven track record driving revenue or running a line of business, you will have zero credibility. So when it comes to DEI—particularly when you have stated that DEI is a core business opportunity—why would you bail on that requirement? Other organizations, particularly those who value subject matter expertise, would never trust DEI to someone who didn’t have a proven DEI track record. They wouldn’t hire a CFO who didn’t know math and expect them to figure it out because they look like they’re good at it. Why hire a
chief diversity, equity, and inclusion officer who doesn’t have past experience in DEI?
2. Where does DEI report? A long time ago I was told that I could understand what matters to the organization by reading its org chart. It would tell me who holds the power and what the organization values. For some companies, that is less true today. Some have become less hierarchical, flatter, and more fluid. And even in those companies, organizational structure impacts communication, accountability, and efficiency. So it matters where DEI sits and where it reports. If you want DEI to drive workforce, workplace, and marketplace opportunity, it helps when it reports to a person or group that considers all of those functions. Some DEI leaders struggle to influence business operations, product/service development, customer acquisition, and so on, because they are sitting under human resources (HR). We don’t want DEI to be viewed only as an HR initiative, when it should also include marketplace, R&D, suppliers, and more. Think about where DEI reports.
3. Top down or bottom up? This could be its own point/ counterpoint discussion: DEI only works when it is driven from the
Regression analysis helps to pinpoint areas of inequity, so that you know where any targeted interventions are required. Measurement provides the proof you need that DEI does indeed drive organizational success in all areas—workforce, workplace, and marketplace.
top vs. DEI only works when it is grassroots-driven from the lowest levels. The answer is revealed in how your organization gets things done. Does change happen when the workforce gets energized, makes the case for change, and captures the attention of decision-makers? Does it start with a small group of change agents who create a pilot or lab environment in order to demonstrate that change is possible? Or does change happen when the CEO declares it, gains buy-in from the senior team, and provides the resources and accountability for implementation to move throughout the organization? Pay attention to how change happens at your organization. Then go for it. We’ve seen it work well both ways.
4. Programs vs. strategy? The list of available DEI programs today reads like a
Cheesecake Factory menu: Training, Affinity Groups, ERGs, BRGs, Special Emphasis Months and Celebrations, Keynote Speeches, DEI Teambuilding, DEI Dialogues, Speakers Series, Mentoring, and more. Without question, many of these programs can increase awareness, engage the entire workforce, and inspire behavioral change. Before launching a program, ask yourself: • Is the strategic intent for doing this clear? • What education or knowledge gaps are inhibiting DEI change?
rearview mirror and find that you’ve wasted time, money, and credibility. Furthermore, the organization will view your DEI programs as check-the-box events that do not drive meaningful outcomes. It’s fascinating how many organizations do NOT have a DEI strategy. They can’t answer some fairly simple questions: • When it comes to DEI, what are our strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats? • Why are we on a DEI journey? Why now?
• What value will this program bring to advancing the DEI effort?
• What constitutes DEI success? How will we know when we get there?
• What actions or behavior change will come from this program?
• What milestones must we achieve over the next few years to realize measurable progress toward our goals?
Answering these questions increases the likelihood your programs will have impact. Otherwise you’ll look in the
Assessing the current state of DEI, creating a case for change or a business case, envisioning the
desired state, and developing a plan for moving from point A to point B are fairly straightforward. Then, implement the plan, measure progress along the way, and course correct when necessary. In other words, it requires work. And maybe that’s the problem. Strategy development and execution, at least in the beginning, isn’t as fun as a program. There’s not yet a reason to celebrate—just basic blocking and tackling with no points on the board … yet! So, if you choose to go the strategy route, you will have prepared the organization for sustainable DEI success.
5. Best performer, worst offender? We have practically emptied rooms when we’ve asked this question, “What happens when your otherwise best performer is one of the worst offenders of DEI?” One of the funniest—well at least most honest answers— has been, “Best performer, huh … how much money are we talking about?” The rainmaker, top surgeon, most published scientist, most distinguished professor, the A-player, the star—every organization has one or, hopefully, many. People look to these people as the example, and they are what the organization values. When such a person underperforms on DEI, how does the organization respond?
How you answer the question defines the credibility of your DEI initiative. It is an indicator of DEI’s importance if the immediate reaction to the question is to put a condition on the response based on the individual’s value to the organization. Employees are assessing whether you consistently hold everyone accountable. If underperformance in DEI is allowed to slide, then DEI isn’t a priority and people will act accordingly. The answer to best performer/ worst offender demonstrates the organization’s appetite for accountability, and ultimately, whether you will succeed when you get to the hard work of DEI.
data is their best friend. Trending data shows where you are making progress. Regression analysis helps to pinpoint areas of inequity, so that you know where any targeted interventions are required. Measurement provides the proof you need that DEI does indeed drive organizational success in all areas—workforce, workplace, and marketplace. We strongly believe that there’s a “right answer” to these 6 make or break DEI decisions. We believe that the most successful organizations choose well and significantly increase the likelihood that their DEI initiatives will succeed. PDJ
6. Measurement: Friend or foe? People seem to really like numbers—revenue, profit, productivity, website hits, citizens served, percent engaged—until we talk DEI numbers. The conversation often changes when DEI metrics are on the table. If that’s true for your organization, figure out why. Do you not know what to count? Do you not have the analytics know how? Do you think you will uncover something distasteful that could be used against you? All of these concerns have remedies. They are not viable reasons to avoid DEI measurement. Many people have come to learn that when it comes to DEI,
Janet Crenshaw Smith and Gary A. Smith Sr. are the cofounders of Ivy Planning Group, a 29-year-old consulting and training firm. Ivy won Profiles in Diversity Journal‘s 2018 Innovations in Diversity Award. Profiles in Diversity Journal has also named Gary and Janet Diversity Pioneers and Diversity Leaders.
MicroDeceptions & the Halo Effect
By Stephen Young and Barbara Hockfield
n the world of diversity and inclusion there are the good, the bad, and the invisible. More often, the good and the bad are easily observable and managed. The invisible behaviors tend to not present themselves in such clear and tangible form. Exposure to these, like invisible radiation, can be exceptionally damaging. They often go undetected, doing harm with no knowledge of how the damage occurred. In a strange twist to the D&I formula, normally focused on behaviors perpetrated upon others, in the case of invisible behaviors, we unwittingly become both predator and prey. The messages are often well intended, but can belie a harmful and disrespectful undercurrent. Learning how to swim
above and around this powerful undertow can profoundly influence one’s leadership success. Over the years, our flagship program, MicroInequities: Managing Unconscious Bias, has given people the skills and tools to identify MicroInequities and MicroAdvantages in the workplace. Here, we will take a slightly different turn and look at a third category of micromessaging that sits quietly at “invisible central”— MicroDeceptions. While most D&I training focuses on awareness and the impact exclusion has on the disenfranchised, the focus of this article is entirely about the pernicious messages sent by subordinates to their superiors that limit and encumber the performance of
both parties. One doesn’t typically think of the boss as a victim. Yet, MicroDeceptions can be quite powerful and ubiquitous, even at the C-Suite level. I recall presenting our program to the executive vice president and his senior management team at a large multinational company. During the break, he asked, “Steve, do you think I ever get any MicroInequities at my level?” My response was a resounding, “No. At your level people don’t typically receive MicroInequities. It’s more likely you receive MicroDeceptions.” I could see the wheels spinning and the expression on his face said it all. He could sense where this was going, and his an-
tennae had tuned to full alert. He reeled back asking, “What exactly are MicroDeceptions and why would I be getting them?” Speaking directly to his concern, I explained that with MicroDeceptions, “You never know when you’re hearing the truth.” In your role, as the center of power, when people communicate with you or respond to your comments or just listen to you speak, much of what they send back are responses often filtered through caution and not necessarily truth. This brought him to a full stop. It is not necessarily done with malicious intent. The phenomenon occurs for one of two reasons: • Self-preservation • Blind admiration People are cautious about offending those who control their destiny and job security. (Don’t poke the bear.) Or, they are influenced by the boss’s stature and assumed wisdom. This is sometimes known as the “Halo Effect.” The “Halo Effect” operates in the realm of the invisible. It’s a common aphorism that people laugh at the boss’s joke, even when it’s not funny. I’m sure everyone has sat in a meeting where the boss said something intended to be humorous and the entire conference room cackles, as if he or she were headlining at Caroline’s Comedy Club in Times Square. On the other hand, if someone else were to utter the very same remark, it would be likely received with a sigh, a roll of the eyes, and head shake of dismissal. Funny thing—under the Halo
Effect, people actually deceive themselves into genuinely believing that the boss’s joke was the height of humor. It suddenly became clear to that EVP that he was likely not hearing the truth, and likely not getting his team’s best thinking, perspectives, insights, and contributions. “But wait a minute,” he responded defensively. “I always ask my people to tell me what they really think. Isn’t that enough?” That question became the impetus for a two-hour executive coaching session following the meeting. Here is a highlight: Asking people to tell you what they think is well-intended but weak in outcome. Merely inviting challenge doesn’t offer people a safe haven to do so. So, don’t just invite people to challenge your perspective, make it a requirement. I shared with him a technique I first employed early in my career as a middle manager on Wall Street. I kicked off one my staff meetings by saying, “There are ten of us on this team, nine of you and one me. Since we already have my opinion, to the degree that you agree with me lessens your value to the team. If your perspective always agrees with mine, then we don’t need you, except to complete busy work and tasks.” I went on to explain, “You were hired for your thinking capacity. I expect to tap into that and have you bringing different perspectives and viewpoints to everything we do. It doesn’t mean that I will always agree with and accept those perspectives, but I
do require them from you.” To ensure my comments would go from request to requirement, I informed the team that their performance appraisals, as well as my endorsement for future opportunities, would hinge largely on their ability and willingness to share their innovative thinking as a cornerstone of making our team more effective. A secondary and equally critical step leaders must take is to never be defensive or dismissive of any challenge offered. It is essential that you explore perspectives thoroughly and express appreciation for team members’ contributions. This process resonated deeply for that EVP. He was quite forthcoming in acknowledging that he had always been more comfortable with compliance and confirmation of his thinking than the vulnerability of not having the answers. Several months later he reached out to me and confessed that, although these concepts and skills had not been in his comfort zone, he did see their value. Most important, when he applied them, he saw a clear and measurable difference in the way his team operated. The skills and techniques for managing this technique became a fundamental part of how he and his organization’s managers virtually extinguished the ill effects of MicroDeceptions within their workplace culture. For more information, email Stephen Young (email@example.com) or Barbara Hockfield (firstname.lastname@example.org); or call Insight Education Systems; 973-509-2911. PDJ
The Inclusion By Amanda J Felkey, PhD
Habit T his evidence-based solution transfers inclusion work to the individual, and focuses on changing behaviors and habits. The program is designed to help individuals be proactive in making their behavior more inclusive through six habit-building phasesâ€”embracing that inclusion matters, understanding biases and their sources, dispersing the negativity associated with unconscious biases, practicing thinking more deliberately, reprogramming incorrect intuitions about others, and becoming more empathetic. It uses small daily activities designed to mitigate biases and microaggressions, while creating new habits of understanding, empathy, and inclusion.
responsibility to arm employees with the resources necessary to face diversity, embrace diversity, understand diversity, and be incluEnhancing inclusive behavior sive of diversity. needs to be propelled by compaInclusion policy will likely be nies, but start with individuals. ineffective, given that those who The workplace is the best place currently hold the most social, to enhance inclusive behavior. political, and economic power are Indeed, it is likely the only place not representative of the general to make strides toward a more inclusive society. In all other facets population. For example, broadly of our lives, we surround ourselves considering the dimensions of race and gender, the following with people who are like usâ€”our figures demonstrate the lack of family members are like us, we choose friends who are like us, we equitable representation among those in power. If our power pipelive near people who are like us, line is not filled and fostered to be and we go to church with others representative, then those sitting like us. Dr. Martin Luther King at our policymaking tables do not noted that 11 a.m. Sunday morning is the most segregated hour in have experiences that encompass those of our whole society. There America. For most of us, work is is little hope these individuals can the only place that is truly didesign truly inclusive policies. verse, making it the corporationâ€™s
The Limits of Policy and Programming
Note: Statistics come from CAWP, 2019; Chronicle of Higher Education, 2018; Moody, 2018; Blauvelt, 2019; Frank, 2018; Brenner, 2018; US Census, 2018.
A 2017 survey of American tech workers confirms that individuals agree the government is not the key to meaningful changes in inclusion (Atlassian, 2017). To date, companies have relied heavily on programming—speakers, training, and workshops—to introduce their workers to ideas about diversity and enhance inclusion in their workplaces. While programming is a cost-effective way to convey information to large numbers of people, it is limited in effectiveness for two reasons. First, programming does not accommodate the way humans learn and retain information.
Second, awareness does not automatically translate into changes in behavior. This translation into action is especially limited in the realm of inclusion, where we have unconscious biases and our fast thinking (our intuition or gut reaction) is not always in line with our slow thinking (our deliberate decisions, intentions, and values). Since our brains operate as efficiently as possible, when we are performing difficult tasks, multitasking, or are under time constraints, we rely more heavily on our fast thinking, allowing our biases to creep into our decisions. Moving beyond programming is essential for companies because
address inclusion at the individual level, the power pipeline will be filled and fostered to be representative of our general population. Through the pipeline, individuals will bring those inclusive ideas to our decision-making tables, and changes in the social design will follow. These changes will reinforce the original individual change toward inclusivity. Genuine individual change requires new habits that come from self-understanding, consistent attention, and repeated effort. By performing reflection tasks, as well as action tasks, individuals can create a habit of being inclusive. Reflection tasks will raise
“If we successfully address inclusion at the individual level, the power pipeline will be filled and fostered to be representative of our general population.”
Models of information retention, beginning with the Ebbinghaus classic forgetting curve from the 1880s, demonstrate that the effects of mass communication of persuasive ideas are subject to rapid decay (Hill et.al., 2013; Murre & Dros, 2015). This is exacerbated by the fact that recollection is far more robust and accurate when we see and do something, rather than when we simply hear it. Remember the Chinese proverb: “Tell me and I’ll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I’ll understand.”
its ineffectiveness is beginning to wear on workers. A 2018 survey showed that workers prioritize fostering inclusion and diversity, but are becoming tired of simply talking about its importance (Atlassian, 2018). They are frustrated that programming does not generate meaningful action and create sustainable change.
Building an Inclusion Habit Inclusion needs to be tackled at the individual level by becoming a new habit. If we successfully
self-awareness and allow individuals to be more conscious of their actions. Action tasks facilitate expanding one’s comfort zone, providing authentic interactions with others, and enhancing understanding across social barriers. The habit-based inclusion solution summarized below is designed to help individuals make their behaviors more inclusive by (1) embracing the idea that inclusion matters, (2) understanding biases and their sources, (3) dispersing the negativity associated with unconscious
biases, (4) practicing thinking more deliberately, (5) reprogramming incorrect intuitions about others, and (6) becoming more empathetic. The six habitbuilding phases of this solution use evidence and methods on the frontiers of research to provide small daily activities that will modify behavior and create new habits of understanding, empathy, and inclusion. Given how individuals retain information, this solution has the potential to take us beyond the limits of D&I programming. Phase 1: Know Inclusion Matters. In order for individuals to engage in creating a new habit, they must believe the new habit is beneficial. This phase will create an accurate understanding of the advantages of inclusion, as well as the current status of inclusion and diversity in todayâ€™s workforce. The tasks will ask individuals to personalize and operationalize this information, so they can enhance their acknowledgement of advantage and grow positive perceptions of diversity and inclusion. The goal is for individuals to believe that inclusion is an issue worth being diligently addressed by new habit formation. Phase 2: Understand and Recognize Biases. Before individuals can start to create new habits that will override their biases, they need to know what biases they hold, what parts of their intuition are incorrect, and when those biases creep into their decisions and actions. This phase will equip individuals with diagnostic labels for biases and behaviors that are readily
accessible, making biases easier to identify, recognize, understand, and anticipate. It will also promote self-awareness as individuals identify, and reflect on the origins of, their biases. Phase 3: Disperse the Negativity. Biases and discrimination are surrounded by negativity that propagates selfdefensive reactions. For example, being or acting racist is so fraught with negative emotion that when we have a racially biased thought, we immediately shut down and devote attention to explaining why and how we are not racist, rather than critically examining that bias or systematic error in our thinking. Since, in large part, our biases are artifacts of the architecture of our brain and the social systems into which we were born, we can work to mitigate much of the negativity accompanying these thought errors. In order to minimize the defensive avoidance responses, this phase will focus on normalizing biases and creating self-affirming behaviors, so biases are no longer denied, but rather, examined and challenged. Phase 4: Practice Thinking Slow. Our slow thinking is deliberate, informed, and contentiousâ€”it is responsible for most of our decisions and actions. When conditions allow, our slow thinking will filter, modify, and maybe even censor our fast thinking or intuition, where biases reside. Slow thinking is what keeps our actions in line with our intentions and values. This phase will teach individuals to recognize situations in which they are more likely to make decisions based on their
biases and help them practice thinking more deliberately in those circumstances. Phase 5: Reprogram Fast Thinking. Relying on our fast thinking is inescapable. In fact, it is indispensable, as it is what allows you to perform at a high level. Since fast thinking is essential, individuals need to diligently examine their intuitions to ensure that they are providing correct, unbiased information. This phase will help individuals create new intuitions that will override old biases. Since our implicit attitudes are malleable, the goals of this phase are to challenge what we know about people different from us, change our intuition about other groups of people, and create intuitions that focus on individual attributes rather than group stereotypes. With new correct intuition, individuals will act more inclusively, even when they are thinking fast. Phase 6: Enhance Empathy. Practicing empathy is important to being inclusive for two reasons: (1) Enhancing our ability to truly understand others will allow us to build more correct intuition and fast thinking in the future, ensuring that we do not create more biases; and (2) Empathy, including listening well and picking up on unspoken cues, will allow us to be inclusive of the diversity we cannot see, the diversity people do not explicitly share. This phase will encourage individuals to expand their comfort zone to interact authentically with people different from themselves, communicate with a goal of understanding, and cultivate a curiosity about others.
Behavior Change Technology Since individuals have a hard time following through with commitments that are onerous, ProHabits provides a platform that can make inclusive behavior change possible. It delivers small daily activities called MicroActions to individuals via text message or email. The platform uses commitment devices and social accountability to encourage individuals to complete the tasks and create new habits of inclusion. ProHabits creates a habit loop for inclusive behaviorsâ€”a cue, a routine, and a reward. In order for a new habit to take hold, individuals must crave the reward when they receive the cue. And ProHabits provides a reward most of us already craveâ€”interaction on a social media feed. Even if an individual is too busy on any given day to commit to or complete the MicroAction, receiving these small tasks daily primes the users thoughts to be more inclusive, encourages
slow thinking that is in line with intentions, helps overwrite biases by repeated exposure to correct information, helps dispense with the negativity that keeps one from acknowledging and attending to biases, and enhances the empathy that allows an individual to be inclusive even of the diversity that cannot be seen. Finally, ProHabits has a social element that creates communities around inclusion, leveraging the fact that change embedded in social groups is much easier. Communities for change can
create a belief that change is possible, making actual change more likely. These communities provide encouragement and social accountability, and give individuals the opportunity to see the accomplishments of others, making their own change more tangible. To the right (page 57) are examples of MicroActions that have been designed, using the habit-building phases, to mitigate unconscious biases and enhance inclusive behavior in the workplace.
Dr. Amanda J Felkey has a Ph.D. in Behavioral Economics from Cornell University and a Diversity and Inclusion Certificate from eCornell. She has authored award winning publications and is actively researching unconscious bias. She has 20 years of experience in decision-making research and 15 years of experience in curriculum design.
Enhance Psychological Safety
Understand Your Biases
Note: Photos by Daoudi Aissa, Ganapathy Kumar, Joshua Ness, Perry Grone, Xan Griffin, Josh Calabrese, Annie Spratt, and Maria Krisanova. PDJ
The Mother Bias: A Reality for Many Women Who Work and Have Children By Crystal M. Brown, Communications Strategist and Advisor
uring my second pregnancy, a colleague asked if I was planning to exit the workforce and stay home with my young children. When I answered no, he said I was “totally clueless or going to be a really bad mother,” and that “strangers are raising your children.” This one moment of conscious bias, thoroughly devoid of empathy and respect, had a profound impact on my experience as a working mother. It also serves as an example of the real and demoralizing biases against working mothers that continue to be prevalent in our society.
BREAKING DOWN BIAS Bias is a prejudice for or against a thing, person, or group compared with another, typically in a way that is considered to be unfair. Bias is a reflection of experiences. Upbringing, culture, and media are just a few examples that influence how we perceive and treat other people.
Crystal with her first son, shortly before welcoming her second son in February 2017.
Implicit biases, more commonly known as unconscious biases, are social stereotypes about certain groups of people that individuals hold outside their conscious awareness. Unconscious bias is a particular challenge in the workplace, with regard to recruitment, development, and promotion. Explicit biases, also called conscious biases, are deliberate and happen more often when a person feels threatened. At an extreme, conscious bias can manifest as discrimination, harassment, or exclusion. We all have both conscious and unconscious biases. Race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and religion are just a few areas in which bias may affect how decisions are made regarding hiring, opportunity, training, and promotion in the workplace. As a woman who has spent nearly a decade in male-dominated industries, I’ve experienced my share of gender bias. When I welcomed the birth of my two children, I discovered a new one—the mother bias.
THE MOTHER BIAS I wasn’t prepared for the bias that came along with being a working mother. It has proved to be a completely different animal from gender bias. In particular, I encountered more conscious bias, and it was especially amplified during the months I was pregnant.
As a woman who has spent nearly a decade in male-dominated industries, I’ve experienced my share of gender bias. When I welcomed the birth of my two children, I discovered a new one—the mother bias.
That said, the number of mothers in the workforce continues to grow. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the labor force participation rate of women with children under the age of 18 has risen from 47 percent in 1975 to nearly 72 percent in 2018. So, why are mothers choosing to stay in the workforce? Increasing costs, for one. Across the board, we see escalating costs in health care, education, retirement, and more that require a dual-income household. Additionally, many women fear that exiting the workforce, even for a few years, will affect their future income or advancement opportunities. This is especially the case if they have children later in life, after many years of establishing their careers.
TAKING ACTION Personally, my experiences with gender bias and mother bias inspired me to take action. Facing the ambiguous and
daunting challenge of where to start, I found a simple and personal approach that has helped me become a better advocate for change. First, I reflected on my personal biases. Through this self-awareness, I was able to recognize and take control of those biases. Next, I committed to raising awareness, and the most effective means of doing that has been at a personal level, in my day-to-day interactions with other people. This “inside out” approach has empowered me in a very meaningful way to continue the dialogue around bias in the workplace and strengthen progress for equality. PDJ
Crystal M. Brown is a communications strategist and advisor. Her career of more than a decade has been spent in the engineering, construction, and manufacturing industries.
Accelerating Innovation through Strategic Diversity Management By David L. Casey, Vice President, Workforce Strategies and Chief Diversity Officer, CVS Health
rganizations are recognizing the importance of strategic diversity management more than ever before, because research is showing that companies with the ability to attract and engage a highly diverse workforce see higher levels of innovation and improved financial performance than their peers. In today’s competitive global marketplace, companies recognize that investing in diversifying their workforces, workplaces, and consumer bases is no longer just a social responsibility—it’s vital to ensuring longterm business success and marketplace relevance. However, to drive meaningful change and fully realize the competitive advantage of an inclusive workforce, companies can’t approach diversity management as a stand-alone objective. Organizations need to take a strategic approach to weaving numerous aspects of diversity into the fabric of the business. At CVS Health, our commitment to strategic diversity man-
agement is deeply rooted in our purpose of helping people on their path to better health. We have found that true innovation is enhanced when we seek out and include the diverse experiences and ideas of our customers, colleagues, and communities. We have developed a four-pillar framework for strategic diversity management that is designed to engage every colleague in the process and enable every business function to deliver on both nearand longer-term goals: • Workforce Representation– colleague demographics
reflective of the demographics of those we serve • Inclusion & Belonging– workplace defined by personal connections, having a seat at the table, and demonstrating genuine care for one another • Talent Systems–equitable access to growth and development • Diverse Marketplace–exceptional service and stewardship for those we serve and the communities in which we do business
As the nation’s premier health innovation company, we serve millions of patients and customers every day—each of them with unique backgrounds and needs. For our company to thrive, it’s important to have a workforce that reflects not only our customers, but also the communities they live in. CVS Health’s Workforce Initiatives team creates powerful programs and partnerships with state and local agencies, the U.S. Department of Labor, workforce boards, faith-based organizations, and academic institutions. We have also established Workforce Innovation and Talent Centers (WITCs) to help attract and cultivate individuals interested in careers across our enterprise. WITCs offer a unique and innovative platform to develop workforce solutions attracting potential partnerships to provide CVS Health with diverse and inclusive pipelines of talent. Through effective partnership development and collaboration with government agencies, community organizations, and educational institutions, the WITCs create programs tailored to the specific needs of our partners and the populations they serve. These customized programs incorporate education and on-the-job skill development, while providing exposure to work in a retail environment and, more recently, in the nonretail areas of our business. As one example, CVS Health’s Workforce Initiatives team manages more than 30 job-training centers around the country, many of which help people with physical, developmental, or intellectual
disabilities prepare for full-time employment in retail and pharmacy-technician careers, in partnership with the National Consortium of State-Operated Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers. Kyle Mendez is one of many individuals with a disability who have participated in CVS Health’s simulated pharmacy program, which provides onsite training and hands-on work experience to prepare individuals with intellectual and other developmental disabilities for jobs and self-sufficiency. Through AHRC New York City, Kyle was introduced to the simulated pharmacy program being offered at the WITC in New York City. The program includes a seven-week training segment,
including orientation, register training, and mock interview preparation, followed by an eightweek internship at a CVS Pharmacy store. The WITC team worked closely with Kyle to help him complete the internship and go on to achieve his goal of becoming a CVS Health colleague. “When you hear of someone that has a disability, you automatically think the person isn’t capable of doing things effectively,” said Janice Merckling, Kyle’s CVS Pharmacy store manager. “I’ve learned that is an unfair and untrue statement. Kyle truly enjoys helping our customers, and the world would benefit from more people like him. He has set the bar extremely high for the rest of my staff to follow.”
School-based mock pharmacies are an innovative approach in developing an external talent pipeline of students to be exposed to CVS Health Pharmacy Technician training, along with exploration of future careers with CVS Health. The first high school-based mock pharmacy in Georgia, and only the second in the country, opened at Gwinnett County Public School’s Shiloh High School in 2017. The CVS Health Workforce Initiatives pharmacy program at Shiloh provides classroom training focused on pharmacy operations and fundamentals, followed by hands-on training and role playing in the mock pharmacy, as well as a job shadow exercise at a local CVS pharmacy.
CVS Health’s Workforce Initiatives team also includes Talent Pipeline Groups that are tasked with the creation and execution of a departmental strategic framework for targeting specific populations. This organizational structure enables our workforce teams across the country to carry out programs that build nontraditional talent pipelines within the focus areas of military alliances, mature workers, youth, and individuals with disabilities. These collaborative efforts enable us to actively attract, train, hire, and retain qualified individuals from many demographics, based on our workforce needs. As we attract new talent to CVS Health, we also help to break the cycle of poverty for people who may otherwise continue down the road of dependency, which often spans generations. Since the inception of the Workforce Initiatives function more than 20 years ago, we estimate that more than 115,000 people have been moved from public assistance to meaningful career paths at CVS Health. For example, our STEM-enriched program, myCVS Journey, Pathways to Health Care Careers, is designed to engage young people (ages 5–24) in age-appropriate awareness, exploration, and preparation for health care careers. This is a school-to-career model that begins in elementary grades, spanning middle school and high school, with opportunities along the way to learn about the many career choices available within CVS Health, including pharmacy, professional management, nursing, and information technology. To date, CVS Health has
introduced company career paths to more than 1,000,000 young people. We also helped launch SMART (School Health Model for Academics Reaching All and Transforming Lives) in 2013, a program that uses an “active access-active care” model that identifies and addresses physical and behavioral health barriers to academic achievement. The program provides integrative physical and behavioral health interventions to prevent and mitigate health risks for the entire population of the school building, including faculty, to positively affect their health, stress levels, attendance, and capacity for educational impact. Using the SMART model, schools are able to maximize conditions for optimal learning and ultimately, break the cycle of poverty and
improve the trajectory of lives. Shymara Prosser was a member of Cristo Rey Philadelphia High School’s graduating class in 2018, where for the third consecutive year, 100 percent of the graduates were accepted into a four-year college or university. Shymara spent all four years at Cristo Rey as a work-study student sponsored by CVS Health Workforce Initiatives, which is one of several business sponsors at the high school. Shymara followed a rigorous academic curriculum, along with working five days per month at a local CVS store. Cristo Rey faculty members attribute the impressive graduation rates to the valuable workstudy program. Shymara is now enrolled at Immaculata University in Malvern, Pennsylvania, planning to become a pharmacist.
On April 11, 2016, the Wilson Workforce & Rehabilitation Center celebrated the graduation of the first four students to complete the CVS Health Workforce Initiatives training program for people with disabilities. Also, the event marked the opening of an onsite CVS Health mock pharmacy at WWRC. The Workforce Initiatives innovative job training program, in collaboration with WWRC, prepares Virginians with disabilities for employment with CVS Health. A two-week training segment teaches customer service, cash register, merchandising, and backroom organization skills. This is followed by a six-week internship at a CVS pharmacy and a week’s training in the application process. Students come from the entire Commonwealth of Virginia to train in the program on campus and then, return to their hometown to find employment. The Wilson Center is one of eight National Consortium State Operated Rehabilitation Centers in the United States.
At CVS Health, we’re continuing to make even greater strides in building and sustaining a diverse and inclusive culture where all colleagues can achieve their potential, contribute, and succeed.
Alysha Faulkner is a member of the first cohort of students to graduate from a pharmacy technician program offered by CVS Health Workforce Initiatives in collaboration with Goodwill Industries of the Chesapeake. Through the program, students are provided real-time career training for cashier, pharmacy technician, and store management positions through an onsite mock store. “When I enrolled in the pharmacy tech program, I was determined to obtain a certification to add to my credentials and to seek a better career path,” said Alysha.
“I soon found that the staff is determined to see students succeed. During my first week of externship at a CVS store, the pharmacist approached me about seeking employment, saying that my work ethic was amazing. I am currently employed with CVS due to my hard work and help from Goodwill. I want to thank everyone at CVS and Goodwill for allowing me to be part of this fantastic career opportunity. Thank you for believing and pushing us to better our career paths with CVS Pharmacy.” At CVS Health, we’re continuing to make even greater strides in
building and sustaining a diverse and inclusive culture where all colleagues can achieve their potential, contribute, and succeed. Our ongoing commitment and systemic, top-to-bottom approach to strategic diversity management has led to our national recognition as a leader in workforce development and education. Companies looking to leverage the value of a diverse workforce might want to refer to CVS Health’s Diversity page for ideas regarding how to successfully implement their own strategic diversity management framework. PDJ To support our company’s growth, we focus on attracting and equipping diverse talent for careers with CVS Health. Our Workforce Initiatives team ensures that youth, mature workers, veterans, and individuals with disabilities have a place within our company. They partner with state and federal workforce agencies to provide employment services and training to underserved communities, and have helped thousands of people access meaningful employment opportunities. We also work with schools, churches, universities, faith-based, and community organizations to hire people with diverse backgrounds.
MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture
an a large, conservative bank change its culture? Particularly one with more than 360 years of history? MUFG, the world’s fifth largest financial group, is taking a page from the playbook of more nimble, innovative companies, such as those in the technology sector, and undergoing a massive culture change in its operations in the Americas. Why? Because the bank realized that a strong company culture where employees feel valued and empowered is at the heart of any successful business. So earlier this year, MUFG unveiled its Culture Principles across the organization. The Principles—Client Centric, People Focused, Listen Up. Speak Up., Innovate & Simplify, Own & Execute— provide clear behavior expectations to change and sustain new ways of working together. They are embedded in all aspects of the company and are driving its diverse and inclusive culture. “Our Culture Principles are redefining how we work,” says Amy Ward, chief human resources officer for the Americas. “From client interactions and team meetings to global performance management, every colleague is accountable for owning
MUFG’s culture and delivering on our Principles consistently and conscientiously.” The Principles help foster an environment where diverse perspectives are encouraged and embraced, and the belief that each colleague brings a unique viewpoint to every situation, challenge, and opportunity remains at the bank’s core. The objective is to make sure all colleagues understand that their contributions are valued, and that results are recognized at every level within the organization. “Every employee, regardless of his or her level or title, has the ability to make change,” says Donna Valiquette, chief corporate administrative officer for Canada, who spearheaded the culture initiative in the Americas. “Like many other organizations, we have senior-level support; however, this isn’t a top-down process, and it definitely has to be all inclusive to succeed.” Several internal tools were developed to support the launch of the Principles, including a Culture Principles “flipbook” and culture intranet page, messages from senior leaders and colleagues whose actions bring the Culture Principles to life, and Culture Principles screensavers for daily reinforcement. In addition, Speak
Up Boards are being rolled out to various lines of business to encourage colleagues to suggest and implement new ways of doing things. The Culture Principles were also incorporated into the company’s new external careers website, which recently earned the bank a coveted honor as the Best Employment Website, a 2019 WebAward for Outstanding Achievement in Web Development. Approximately 380 “influencers” have been identified by managers from all business units and tasked as change leaders for their departments— identifying opportunities for growth, and finding new ways to engage employees to help them “live” the Culture Principles. They are being given measurement tools to help them assess where their groups are doing well with cultural change and where they can focus on improvement. “Evolving MUFG’s culture is a journey that will take dedication and commitment on the part of every colleague,” says Amy. “We’re all agents of change and have an important role in making sure our company continues to thrive for the next 360 years and beyond, with our culture at the heart of our organization.”
Stephanie Andrews-Higgins Director, Regulatory Business Controls Manager in Wealth Markets Investment Management & Trust
Tell us about your education and professional path. I graduated from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) with a BA degree in history and then, completed law school at the University of Iowa College of Law. After passing the California Bar during a recession when many firms were laying off attorneys, I followed my father’s path by accepting a position within MUFG’s Management Training Program. (My father worked for the bank for 25 years, and retired the year I started.) I’ve spent most of my banking career in audit, compliance, and risk management, supporting affluent clients. In 2012, I joined our Wealth Markets team, and for the past five years, I’ve been a director, regulatory business controls manager, as part of Investment Management & Trust. I manage a small team responsible for performing fiduciary controls testing, quality assurance reviews of issue remediations, and risk management support
during compliance, audit, and examiner reviews. The Culture Principles* have helped enhance how I accomplish my daily work. Best practices you’d like to share? Stay open to different career possibilities. You may be presented with an opportunity that you never considered and discover that you love it! Even if you don’t love it, you’ve exposed yourself to something new and hopefully, gained a unique skill. To stay relevant in the modern workplace, you must constantly evolve and learn new things, and you never know what wonderful opportunity is around the corner! Why is inclusion and diversity important? To achieve the optimal outcome, I, like most people, need to feel valued and know that my contributions make a difference. When I feel like I can bring my best, true self to
work, the results are stronger. Diversity fosters a more creative and innovative workforce, recognizing value in differing thoughts, ideas, backgrounds, and experiences that are in alignment with our changing nation. That’s what our Culture Principles* are all about. What/who motivates you? My parents instilled in me the importance of always doing my best, and I wanted them to be proud of me. I am also strongly motivated by all of the opportunities available to me that were not legally and socially available to my ancestors. I’m humbled by their sacrifices, strength, and courage. Three words that describe you? Optimistic. Collaborative. Critical thinker. *See MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture on page 64.
Candice Nakagawa Director, Private Wealth Advisor
Candice Nakagawa has had many high points in her career, including a 2019 MUFG President’s Award. Her journey is empowering.
their trusted advisor,” she says. “We often transform dreams into reality, and that’s incredibly fulfilling.” Learning
Transforming Working as a teller while in college sparked Candice’s interest in banking, and after graduation, she joined MUFG’s Management Training Program. “I’d read about how the company was a diverse, great place to work and was intrigued,” she says. Through various Private Bank roles, she quickly honed her passion for service, with a thoughtful, client-centric approach—traits that she embodied even before they became MUFG Culture Principles*. In 2014, Candice took on her current role as a private wealth advisor, leading teams of subject matter experts in developing customized strategies to help affluent clients reach their financial goals. “I enjoy building long-term relationships with clients and their families as
Candice, who is bilingual in Japanese and English, earned her bachelor’s degree in economics with a minor in Japanese studies from the University of California, San Diego. In 2009, she was selected for the Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Exchange Program in Japan. In 2012, she graduated from the Pacific Coast Banking School and recently, completed an MBA at the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business. “‘Keep learning’ is the best career advice I’ve received. The philosophy of kaizen, or continuous improvement, is what we live by in serving clients,” she says. Giving Candice’s passion for learning fuels her commitment to
giving back. She helped create and oversees The Private Bank’s professional development program, through which she and her colleagues work with private bankers to build their skillsets. “It’s important to remain committed to developing internal talent, as strong teams help make the entire organization stronger,” she says. To rejuvenate, Candice squeezes in time to travel, including to Jerusalem and Jordan, where she visited the Old City and Petra, a World Heritage Site, describing both as magical. She also enjoys music and says that “Stand by Me” by Ben E. King reminds her of her grandfather. He taught her humility and kindness, and to never see her gender as a barrier to what she could achieve in life. He’d definitely be proud. *See “MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture” on page 64.
Joseph DeMarino Vice President Global Corporate & Investment Banking
Tell us about your professional background. I majored in finance and international business at Villanova University, and received my MBA from the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business. I have worked in various finance disciplines, including investment management, equity research, and investment banking.
ly been shut are all of a sudden open, and you need to be in the right place at the right time. Also, I think it’s important to be flexible when assigned new projects. Not every new task will align perfectly with your skillset, but that’s an opportunity to broaden your expertise and experience. Why is inclusion and diversity important?
I joined MUFG in 2016 and work on a relationship management team in MUFG’s Chicago office. I coordinate and help deliver MUFG’s full product suite to corporations in the United States and globally, with a specific focus on the food and beverage sector. Some of these products and services include acquisition financing, access to debt capital markets, and derivatives.
Inclusion and diversity are key drivers in creating a positive culture and morale. People do their best work when they feel that they’re valued team members. Including all those who wish to contribute, and hearing viewpoints from a diverse pool of backgrounds and experiences allows the best ideas to surface, ultimately increasing your organization’s odds of success.
What are some key lessons you’ve learned in your career?
How are you practicing the MUFG Culture Principles* in your work?
The benefits of being patient and remaining flexible. Organizations are constantly evolving, so patience is crucial. Sometimes doors that have previous-
Client Centric–Being client centric is all about understanding your clients’ needs. When meeting with clients, I try to talk less and listen more.
People Focused–Last year, I participated on a team that created an internal process for communicating key deal successes that improved both recognition and communication within the department. Listen Up. Speak Up.– The openness of MUFG’s management creates an environment where I feel highly comfortable voicing my own opinions. Innovate & Simplify–As one of the largest banks in the world, certain aspects of doing business can be complicated. Innovating and simplifying is rewarding, and the payoff is direct and easily felt. Own & Execute–Being the point person on a transaction creates an opportunity for professional development. With that responsibility comes accountability, so there are clear incentives to perform well. *See “MUFG: Creating a Winning Culture” on page 64. PDJ
Where Are They Now? 2004 Punam Mathur
Speaker, Trainer, Writer, Punam Mathur, LLC
This 2004 Woman Worth Watching Award recipient has shared her wisdom and experience with others since 2012, when she founded Punam Mathur, LLC. Prior to starting her own business, Punam Mathur served as vice president of employee and community engagement for NV Energy, and from 1996 to 2009, she was senior vice president of corporate diversity and community affairs for MGM Resorts—the position she held when she was named a Worman Worth Watching in 2004. During her tenure, MGM Resorts was named one of the “Most Admired Companies in America” by Fortune magazine. Mathur studied elementary education, special education at the University of British Columbia.
President & CEO, Otis Elevator Company
A Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2004, Judy Marks was named president of Otis Elevator Company in 2017, and in 2019, she was also named CEO. In these roles, Marks is responsible for the global leadership of the company, and charged with focusing on the customer and driving strategic growth, innovation, and earnings, while leading the company through a digital and cultural transformation. Before joining Otis Elevator, she held several executive-level positions with Siemens and Lockheed Martin. Marks is also a director of Hubbell Incorporated and holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Lehigh University.
Chief Information Officer, Empower Retirement
Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2004, Carol Kline was recently named Empower Retirement’s newest chief information officer. Prior to making the move to Empower Retirement, Kline served in the same role at Conduent, and earlier held leadership positions with Teletech, Dish Network, AOL, Qwest, and US West. She has also provided advisory and consulting services to tech and other firms. Kline is a graduate of Ohio Northern University, where she earned a BSBA in marketing and management. She also holds an MBA from the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University.
Chief Manufacturing Officer, TherapeuticsMD
A Woman Worth Watching for 2004, Eileen Farinacci recently became chief manufacturing officer for TherapeuticsMD, an innovative pharmaceutical company exclusively committed to advancing the health of women. Prior to joining her present employer, Farinacci served as a pharmaceutical consultant and earlier held several leadership roles with Bausch + Lomb, including general manager for Spain and Portugal and vice president of U.S. pharmaceutical operations. She was also vice president and general manager at Sterling Winthrop, Inc. She earned her bachelor’s degree in pharmacy from Universidad de Puerto Rico, and received her MBA in business from University of Phoenix.
2005 Teresa White
President, Aflac U.S.
This 2005 Woman Worth Watching joined Aflac more than two decades ago and currently serves as president of Aflac U.S. During her long and highly productive tenure with Aflac, Teresa White has held several leadership positions, including vice president of sales, senior vice president and executive vice president of internal operations, CAO, and CEO of Aflac Columbus. Early in her career, she was a site manager for AT&T Universal Card Services. White holds an MSM in business administration from Troy University and a BBA in computer information systems from The University of Texas at Arlington.
Chief Information Officer & Senior Vice President, Eastman Kodak Company
Kim VanGelder, a Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2005, now serves as CIO and senior vice president for Eastman Kodak. Since joining Kodak in 1984, VanGelder has played increasingly key roles, including as director of Kodak’s global ERP competency center, director of information technology for its research and development organization, chief information officer, and in 2014, as senior vice president. In 2011, she was also named director of worldwide customer operations. VanGelder holds a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from the Rochester Institute of Technology.
Where Are They Now?
Consultant, Värde Partners
A 2005 Woman Worth Watching, Karin Stone recently joined the team at Värde Partners as a consultant. She came to her current position from the Cleveland Institute of Music, where, over the course of five years, she contributed significantly to the Institute’s success as vice president of institutional advancement and vice president of institutional initiatives. Previously, Stone held key leadership positions with American Express, Ford Motor Credit, Walker Digital, and National City Corporation. She earned her Bachelor of Arts in mathematics and accounting at Gustavus Adolphus College and her MBA in finance at the University of Minnesota.
Principal/President, Axum Energy Ventures, LLC
For the past seven years, 2005 Woman Worth Watching Tsion Messick has been principal and president of Axum Energy Ventures, a company that provides consulting services to asset owners, operators, and investors in the electric power sector. Previously, she was employed by Pepco Holdings Inc., where she served as vice president of transmission, and played key roles at Connectiv and Atlantic City Electric. Messick earned her bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering at Temple University and her master’s degree in electrical engineering–power systems & control systems at Drexel University.
2006 Kim Griffin-Hunter
Managing Partner–South Florida, Deloitte This 2006 Woman Worth Watching Award recipient recently became the managing partner for Deloitte South Florida region. Kim Griffin-Hunter began her career with Deloitte in 1989 and served as the firm’s health care and life sciences partner for several years—it is the position she held when she was named a Worman Worth Watching in 2006. During her tenure, she has led key initiatives to create and support a diverse and inclusive culture that provides Deloitte people with opportunities for personal and professional growth. Griffin-Hunter, who is a CPA, earned her BBA and MBA degrees in accounting at the University of Florida Herbert Business School.
Cynthia Hardy Young
Founder & CEO, Pivot Global Partners
A Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2006, Cynthia Hardy Young founded global professional services firm Pivot Global Partners five year ago, and currently serves as the company’s CEO. Previously, Young held several leadership positions with insurance industry leaders, including AIG, where she led a multi-national $7.5 billion retail sales channel, Encompass Insurance (a division of Allstate Insurance), Hanover Insurance, The Hartford, and Progressive Insurance. Early in her career, she was a litigation associate at Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue. Young earned her bachelor’s degree in economics at Xavier University of Louisiana and her JD at University of Notre Dame Law School.
Chief Growth Officer, The Story Room
Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2006, Melisa Quiñoy recently became the chief growth officer for The Story Room, a digital and social media consultancy and content publisher connecting brands to 700 million fans in the United States and Latin America. Before making this move, Quiñoy was an associate with The Hoxby Collective. Previously, she held leadership positions with A&E Networks Latin America, Dieste Inc., and Viacom. Quiñoy is a graduate of Cornell University, where she earned a bachelor’s degree in economics. She also holds an MBA in marketing and international business from Columbia Business School.
Chief Executive Officer, Hudson’s Bay Company
A Woman Worth Watching for 2006, Helena Foulkes recently became CEO of Hudson’s Bay Company, a Canadian retail business group that owns and operates retail stores worldwide. Previously, Foulkes built a highly successful 20-year career with CVS Health. Most recently, she served as executive vice president of CVS Health and president of CVS Pharmacy, where she led strategy as well as operations for nearly 9,700 retail stores, 20 distribution centers, and e-commerce sites. Foulkes holds an AB in economics from Harvard University and an MBA in economics from Harvard Business School.
Where Are They Now?
2007 Saumil Shukla
Senior Vice President–Utility Shared Services, Consolidated Edison Company of New York
This 2007 Woman Worth Watching was named to her current role, senior vice president of utility shared services, in 2015. Shukla joined Consolidated Edison after graduation and has taken on increasingly responsible positions during her tenure, including becoming only the second woman to run a generating station for the utility. Initially hired as a technical manager, she soon consolidated several control rooms into a centralized system and introduced important cross-training programs. Shukla holds a Bachelor of Engineering in mechanical engineering from The City College of New York and a Master of Engineering in industrial engineering from Polytechnic University.
President, Elevate Communications LLC
Debra Nelson, a Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2007, recently founded, and now serves as president of, Elevate Communications LLC, a firm dedicated to delivering professional development and communication services. Previously, Nelson served as director and head of corporate communications at Brasfield & Gorrie, one of the nation’s largest privately held construction firms, and as vice president of diversity and community affairs for MGM Resorts International. Earlier in her career, she held the position of senior manager at Daimler Chrysler and was diversity manager at Mercedes-Benz USA. Nelson earned her bachelor’s degree in communication at the University of Alabama.
Senior Vice President & Chief Commercial Officer, Boston Biomedical, Inc.
A 2007 Woman Worth Watching, Dee Mahoney recently joined Boston Biomedical as senior vice president and chief commercial officer. She came to her current position from DMH BioPharm Advisors, a a boutique consulting firm focused on delivering effective product marketing, brand commercialization, and regulatory compliance strategies—a company she cofounded, and where she served as president of operations. Earlier in her career, Mahoney held leadership positions at Pfizer. She earned a bachelor’s degree in organic chemistry and microbiology at Stephen F. Austin State University, a finance and accounting certificate at The Wharton School, and a comprehensive leadership certificate at Harvard Business School.
VP and Chief Tax Officer at Nike
A 2007 Woman Worth Watching, Patti Johnson was recently named vice president and chief tax officer for Nike. Before making the move to Nike, Johnson held leadership positions in the areas of finance and tax at Bunge Ltd. (a global agribusiness and food business), Target, Ecolab, and General Mills. She also served in tax-related managerial roles at Deloitte and EY, and was a staff attorney at Oppenheimer Wolff & Donnelly, early in her career. Johnson earned her BBA in accounting at the University of Iowa and her JD (cum laude) at William Mitchell College of Law.
2008 Barbara Taylor
Chief Marketing Officer, DLA Piper LLP
As chief marketing officer, this 2008 Woman Worth Watching Award recipient leads DLA Piper’s national marketing team. Prior to joining DLA Piper LLP in 2013, Taylor accumulated 25 years of legal experience, including a lengthy tenure at BDO USA and BDO Seidman, where she held various positions on the legal team, including serving as the firm’s general counsel. In addition to her role at DLA Piper, she is currently an author for Thompson Reuters’ Legal Executive Institute. Taylor earned her bachelor’s degree in accounting at the University of Delaware and her JD at Georgetown University.
Director, VK Integrated Systems; President & CEO, Heidi Shyu Inc.
These days, 2008 Woman Worth Watching Award recipient Heidi Shyu serves as a director for VK Integrated Systems and as president and CEO of Heidi Shyu Inc. She also serves a member of several boards and advisory groups. Previously, Shyu served as secretary of the (U.S.) Army–acquisition, logistics & technology and held several leadership positions at Raytheon. She earned a BSc in mathematics from the University of New Brunswick and an MS in mathematics from the University of Toronto, as well as an MS in system science (electrical eng.) and an engineer‘s degree in system science and theory from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Where Are They Now?
President, Market and Business Development North America, BASF Corporation
A Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2008, Teressa Szelest-Shah joined BASF Corporation in 1988 and, in 2015, was named president of market and business development for North America. In her current role, Szelest-Shah is responsible for strategic business development and marketing across the region. She began at BASF as an environmental specialist in the EHS group, and after handling roles of progressively more responsibility within EHS, she moved to a marketing management position in the company’s North American Performance Chemicals business. Szelest-Shah holds a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
President & CEO, Sock Enterprises Inc.
A Woman Worth Watching for 2008, Karen Sock became president and CEO of Sock Enterprises that same year. She also served as interim vice president of development for United Way of Greater Toledo during part of 2017 and 2018. Previously, Sock held leadership positions at several venues operated by Harrah’s Entertainment, Inc., and served as executive vice president and general manager of a venue owned by Caesar’s Entertainment, Inc. Sock studied economics at Jackson State University and business administration at Wright State University. She also earned Executive Education Certification in finance and accounting at The Wharton School.
2009 Andrea Bortner
CHRO, Executive Advisor and Coach & Talent and Organizational Effectiveness Executive, Maxar Technologies
In 2016, this 2009 Woman Worth Watching was named chief human resources officer for Maxar Technologies, a leading global provider of advanced space-based technology solutions, including integrated capabilities in Earth imagery, geospatial data, analytics & insights, satellites, and robotics. Previously, Bortner held HR-related leadership roles at Catalina Marketing, Harris Corporation, Insight Into Action, Inc., Gap, Inc., and PepsiCo. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in industrial and organizational psychology from Canisius College and an MBA in organizational development from the University of California Marshall School of Business.
Senior Vice President–External Affairs, Blue Shield of California
Kimberley Goode, a Woman Worth Watching Award recipient in 2009, recently became senior vice president of external affairs for Blue Shield of California, a 4-million-member nonprofit health plan that serves the state’s commercial, individual, and government markets. In this role, she sets strategy to build the company’s reputation through government affairs, corporate citizenship, and communications. Previously, Goode held various communications and corporate relations-related leadership positions at Northwestern Mutual, Visteon Corporation, Kellogg Company, Prudential Financial, American Express, Galileo International, and Allstate. She earned her bachelor’s degree in journalism at Northwestern University.
Susan B. Garcia
Partner/CIO Advisory, KPMG
A 2009 Woman Worth Watching, Susan Garcia is currently a partner and the managing director of KPMG’s Advisory Service practice, which provides a range of integrated technology services to support CIOs in their efforts to transform and manage IT. Before joining KPMG, Garcia held IT-related leadership positions at American Airlines and Texas Instruments. She has accumulated more than 25 years of experience in technology, finance, and strategic planning. Garcia earned a bachelor’s degree in computer science and Spanish from Marquette University and an MBA in accounting and finance from Southern Methodist University. She also studied Spanish at Instituto de Filología Hispánica.
Corporate Vice President–Advanced Product Technology Development for New Markets and Alliances Group, Applied Materials, Inc.
A 2009 Woman Worth Watching, Ellie Yieh is now corporate vice president of advanced product technology development for new markets and alliances group at Applied Materials, Inc. During her nearly 30 years with Applied, she has served in a variety of roles, including product unit head of the Low k Dielectric Division and general manager of the Gap Fill, Etch, and Dielectric System and Modules business unit. Yieh earned her bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. She holds more than 100 semiconductor engineering patents and, in 2016, was inducted into the Women in Technology International (WITI) Hall of Fame. PDJ
CORPORATE INDEX BOLD DENOTES ADVERTISER BLUE PAGE NUMBER OF AD
Aflac U.S............................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 AMD.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Applied Materials, Inc....................................................................................................................................................................... 75 Axum Energy Ventures, LLC......................................................................................................................................................... 70 BASF Corporation............................................................................................................................................................................. 74 Biogen..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11 Blue Shield of California.................................................................................................................................................................. 75 Boston Biomedical, Inc.................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Consolidated Edison Company of New York.......................................................................................................................... 72 CVS Health.............................................................................................................................. inside front cover, 60 DLA Piper LLP..................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Dechert LLP............................................................................................................................................................ 7, 8 Deloitte.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 70 DiversityMine...................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Eastman Kodak Company.............................................................................................................................................................. 69 Elevate Communications LLC....................................................................................................................................................... 72 Empower Retirement....................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Final Bow for Yellowface................................................................................................................................................................ 45 FordHarrison.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Heidi Shyu Inc..................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 HP............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Hudson’s Bay Company................................................................................................................................................................... 71 Idaho National Laboratory....................................................................................................................................... 3 Insight Education Systems............................................................................................................................................................. 51 Ivy Planning Group................................................................................................................................................................... 46, 49 KPMG............................................................................................................................................... 9, 75, back cover Lincoln Financial Group.................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Maxar Technologies.......................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Moss Adams LLP................................................................................................................................................................................. 11 MUFG Union Bank, N.A.......................................................................................................... 64, inside back cover Nelson Mullins Riley & Scarborough LLP................................................................................................................................... 11 New York Life......................................................................................................................................................... 6, 9 Nike......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 73 Otis Elevator Company................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Pivot Global Partners........................................................................................................................................................................ 71 Punam Mathur, LLC.......................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Sandia National Laboratories........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Sock Enterprises Inc......................................................................................................................................................................... 74 Talent Path............................................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Tata Consultancy Services.............................................................................................................................................................. 10 TherapeuticsMD................................................................................................................................................................................. 69 Thermo Fisher Scientific................................................................................................................................................................. 10 The Story Room.................................................................................................................................................................................. 71 Värde Partners................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Building relationships that help build the world Your trust, your future, our commitment MUFG wasn’t built in a day. We’ve spent over 360 years committed to serving businesses and communities by building lasting client relationships that have made us a leading global financial group. With operations in more than 50 countries, approximately 3,000 locations, and over 180,000 experienced professionals, MUFG empowers clients with comprehensive financial solutions. Gaining continued success in their industries, our clients are building their futures, one day at a time. Learn more at mufgamericas.com/careers
MUFG Union Bank, N.A.
A member of MUFG, a global financial group
©2019 Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Inc. All rights reserved. The MUFG logo and name is a service mark of Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Inc., and is used by MUFG Union Bank, N.A., with permission. Member FDIC.
Inclusion. Because balance comes from the strength of many. At KPMG, we are committed to building a diverse workforce. We believe in our culture that strives for equity and values the unique experiences and qualities essential to leadership, innovation and success. We achieve this goal by providing valuable career opportunities for everyone. KPMG is proud to be among Profiles in Diversity Journal’s 2019 Diversity Leaders, and to be recognized as one of this year’s Top 10 Innovations in Diversity winners for “KPMG’s Leadership Essentials Series.” kpmg.com
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Profiles in Diversity Journal Fall 2019 Issue - Innovations Awards