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THE NEW POLICE

LEADER MAGAZINE

Spring 2018

LAW ENFORCEMENT, TECHNOLOGY AND PRIVACY The growing partnership of public and private surveillance

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


The New Police

LEADER Spring 2018

MAGAZINE

STAFF Magazine Marketing Supervisor Milton Brown

Director

Sandra Brown

Art Director Barb Donovan

Office Manager Robert Wurzbach

The New Police Leader Magazine is a law enforcement magazine which is free to all police chiefs in Texas as well as other law enforcement offices and officials across the state. The New Police Leader Magazine is owned and published by Milton Brown, as a professional trade magazine focusing on topics relating to law enforcement and is distributed state-wide in Texas. The magazine is solely owned and does not support any association or political group.

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Law Enforcement, Technology and Privacy By Diandra Ritchie Video surveillance is becoming increasingly popular with law enforcement agencies, especially after the great success the FBI had in apprehending the 2 Boston Marathon suspects using security cameras of businesses, and law enforcement cameras placed in the area.

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Police Dogs By Diandra Ritchie K9s help protect citizens, officers, and can apprehend a suspect using non-deadly force, which protects both the suspect and officers. These dogs are also used in prisons to help control riots and large scale fights. Search and rescue dogs were used after the September 11 attacks to find survivors. These dogs are not only “man’s best friend,” but an invaluable asset to the community.

The New Police Leader Magazine does not assume responsibility for statements of fact or opinion made by contributors. Articles that appear in the publication do not offer endorsement of products or services from the magazine or employees. The entire content of the New Police Leader Magazine is copyrighted by the publisher or held as indicated and may not be reproduced in any manner, either whole or in part, without written permission. The New Police Leader Magazine is released twice a year state-wide in Texas. Advertising rates are available upon request. The New Police Leader Magazine mailing address: P.O. Box 140072, Austin, Texas 78714 Phone: 512-300-4200 www.thenewpoliceleader.org For Owner/Publisher/Sales or other inquiries, please call 512-300-4200 ©2016. All rights reserved. Reproductions of any form are strictly prohibited.

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


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LAW ENFORCEMENT, PRIVACY By Diandra Ritchie 12

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


PHoto Credit: Jin Lee/Bloomberg

TECHNOLOGY AND The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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V

ideo surveillance is becoming increasingly popular with law enforcement agencies, especially

after the great success the FBI had in apprehending the 2 Boston Marathon suspects using security cameras of businesses, and law enforcement

PHoto Credit: Peter Foley/Bloomberg

cameras placed in the area.

They also used cell phone footage from bystanders for gathering evidence. This partnering of public and private surveillance seems inevitable, especially when it comes to solving crimes. Video cameras, and cameras generally, are playing a larger role in our society. Citizens, businesses and governments use them for protection. Most people have camera and video camera capabilities on their cell phone. With the increase of social media like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, more people are documenting their lives with photos and videos. And sometimes this private documenting can facilitate the solving of a crime. This is one of the reasons law enforcement agencies have been pushing for a greater network of cameras placed in their cities – they won’t need to ask business owners for their recordings, or reach out to the public to see if anyone saw or recorded any potential evidence. Given the tough economic times, many cities are not in a position to expend the money required, however. Philadelphia’s police commissioner, Charles Ramsey, invites the alliance of private surveillance by businesses and public surveillance by the police department. He has asked

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


business owners with cameras to register with the police department for the mutual use of each other’s video. Given the expense of adding surveillance technology, it seems wasteful to put up another camera where there may already be one in use by a business. Some large cities like New York have increased their use of video surveillance using grants from the Department of Homeland Security. New York has about 3,000 closed circuit cameras in use. San Francisco has cameras installed in high crime rate areas and reviews the footage when crimes have been committed. Houston is working to expand its network of 450 cameras using both public and private surveillance. As of 2011, Chicago had access to about 10,000 public and private security cameras according to an American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois study. But the Homeland Security News Wire reported on May 8, 2013 that Chicago now has over 22,000 cameras, and Mayor Emanuel is working to increase that number. London and its boroughs have a system of about 91,000 closed circuit cameras according to Big Brother Watch, a civil liberties group. Other cities like Los Angeles have opted against the increase in surveillance, in large part due to costs. Budgets remain tight and good technology is not cheap. Law enforcement is expanding beyond just mere video surveillance. Last year the NYPD unveiled a terrorist prevention program called the Domain Awareness System that was built in partnership with Microsoft. The program mines data from multiple public sources and puts the information together in an easy-to-read way. The various sources include cameras placed in the city (mostly lower and midtown Manhattan), license plate readers, portable radiation detectors, the Department’s police records, other law enforcement databases, and 911 calls. All of this data is public, and is not additional surveillance. Facial recognition is not currently used by the program. Police stations have large monitors which display an alert panel, generated by incoming 911 calls. Cameras within 500 feet of the location called about are pulled up on screens for officers to view. The video feed shows footage from 30 seconds prior to the call, not live feed. The footage can be rewound several minutes. When the program launched, Mayor Michael Bloomberg described it as a “one stop shop for law enforcement.” Although originally designed for use in the counter-terrorism unit, the program will soon be available for use by most of the NYPD’s 34,000 officers in their patrol cars. The city also plans to try to

Tension between citizens’ right to privacy and government surveillance remains a constant point of contention. The Washington Post took a poll after the Boston Marathon bombings. 588 people were polled: 48% felt the government would go too far investigating terrorism incidents, and infringe citizens’ right to privacy, while 41% felt the government would not go far enough. If this is any indication, we are almost evenly divided on the issue in our communities. sell the program to other police departments and law enforcement agencies, as well as companies that do sporting events. The city will collect 30% of the profits. Tension between citizens’ right to privacy and government surveillance remains a constant point of contention. The Washington Post took a poll after the Boston Marathon bombings. 588 people were polled: 48% felt the government would go too far investigating terrorism incidents, and infringe citizens’ right to privacy, while 41% felt the government would not go far enough. If this is any indication, we are almost evenly divided on the issue in our communities. Mayor Bloomberg in a WOR Radio interview in March discussed other technological advancements like the use of drones by police (drones are currently used by the federal government at the borders), and the development and eventual use of facial recognition technology. “We’re going to have more visibility and less privacy. It’s not a question of whether it is good or bad, I just don’t see how you can stop that.” Surveillance has been a part of our daily lives for years now. Stores have cameras and some even alert their customers that dressing rooms are being watched by security officers. Cameras are in ATM machines, on the exteriors of apartment buildings, and in the lobbies of our work buildings. Most people in cities are likely being observed much more than they realize. This increased observation has decreased crime, as well as increased the solving of crimes. What we do on the street, at a park, at the bus stop or any other public place is open to scrutiny. A citizen’s right to privacy is minimized in public places. The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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The expectation of privacy is greater in private places like our homes rather than public areas. Even students have a decreased right of privacy at school. San Diego’s police chief announced in December 2012 that the police department was going to have access to live streaming video from about 70 school campuses across the city by mid-2013. The video feeds would be accessible from patrol car laptops. The cameras will be watching both the interior and exterior portions of the campuses, including offices, lunchrooms and hallways. This measure came in response to the Connecticut elementary school shooting tragedy. A western Pennsylvania school district also decided to start sending images from its 130 cameras to their local police department. The police will also be able to access digital floorprints of each of the schools. The Bridgeport, Connecticut police also unveiled a plan to stream security video from schools live to patrol cars. The project has yet to be funded, but additionally, officers would be able to lock or unlock doors remotely. The right to privacy is even further diminished when it comes to travel and immigration. Due to heightened security measures, we are open to even further scrutiny at airports and border crossings. In addition to surveillance, interrogation plays a large part of law enforcement’s quest to keep our country safe. The Department of Homeland Security is currently testing a new lie detector device called the Embodied Avatar, and is currently being used in Nogales, Arizona at border crossings. Tim Dees describes the Embodied Avatar in his article, “The Next Generation of Lie Detectors”: “It all but takes over the job of interrogator by having the subject stand in front of a computer monitor integrated with a microphone and two cameras. The first is a high definition visible light camera that adjusts to the subject’s height, and the other is a near-infrared camera that records pupil dilation and gaze direction. Except for a brief moment when the subject touches a fingerprint scanner, there is no physical connection between the device and the subject… As a disembodied face on a computer display asks questions of the subject, the cameras look for microexpressions, stiffness associated with attempts to ‘freeze’ and inhibit changes, pupil The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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size changes and deviations of gaze angles. The microphones record changes in voice pitch and inflection. The computerized interrogator asks questions about the truthfulness of information already furnished by the subject — name, addresses, work history, citizenship, criminal offenses, etc. If the machine senses a lie, the subject is referred to a human investigator. If not, they are allowed to go on their way.” The Embodied Avatar touts a 94% accuracy rate, which came from a study done in Poland using 37 European Union border guards. Some were asked to present falsified documents, and the avatar detected every liar. The combination of vocal and eye analysis increases the machine’s accuracy. Assuming two false positives, the machine had a 94% accuracy rate in the study, while the human interrogators did not catch even one of the guards with the falsified documents. Although law enforcement has been using lie detecting machines for almost 100 years, the accuracy rate has never reached the level of the Embodied Avatar. Polygraph results are not even admissible as evidence in all states. Immigration

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and Customs Enforcement and TSA want to employ more of the devices, but costs remain an issue. This device is still experimental, but given its accuracy, it seems only a matter of time before we will be seeing these lie detecting kiosks at airports. One fact remains clear: surveillance is here to stay. With the increase of surveillance comes a decrease in individual privacy, but greater societal safety. Governments, local and federal, will continue to keep an eye on its citizens, as well as those who are trying to enter the country, in the name of public welfare. Sometimes in order to gain something, we have to give up something. In today’s world, we sacrifice some of our individual privacy so that we might gain greater safety from potential threats, both domestic and foreign.

Courtesy of Joyce P. Chan/The University of Arizona

The Embodied Avatar

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POLICE DOGS Are an Invaluable Asset to our

Communities By Diandra Ritchie

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


P

olice dogs (or K9s as they are often called) have been assisting law enforcement since the end of the 19th century. Europe was the first to use organized dogs on a big scale to assist their police. It started in Belgium in 1899 and quickly spread throughout the continent. Germans selected the German Shepherd as their ideal breed, while Britain experimented with other breeds such as Doberman Pinschers and Labrador Retrievers. Today, the most commonly used breeds in America are German Shepherds (the most popular breed) and Belgian Malinois (the second most popular, imported from Holland). The Belgian Malinois, also called the Belgian Shepherd, is essentially a slimmer version of the German Shepherd. Around the world, the Malinois is primarily used as a working dog for police work, detection, personal protection, and search and rescue. The Malinois is considered a medium-sized breed, while the German Shepherd is a largesized breed also commonly used as a working dog. The working span of a police dog is usually six to nine years, on average. K9s are trained for many purposes. Primarily, they are used to locate evidence and people. They can detect spent shell casings and firearms, bombs and other weapons, and accelerants (where arson is suspected). K9s can also follow scents to locate missing people or criminal suspects (called “human tracking”), locate cadavers (they can detect bodies that have been buried up to 12 feet underground), and even technological devices. In July last year, a Golden Labrador named Thoreau was used to secure an arrest warrant in a child pornography case in Rhode Island. Thoreau assisted in the search and was able to locate a thumb drive hidden four layers deep in a tin box inside of a metal cabinet. That thumb drive contained illegal material and the suspect was arrested. Dogs trained like Thoreau can find hard drives and other technological devices that are usually hidden far away from the suspect’s computer. Dogs have up to 300 million olfactory receptors in their noses, while humans have about six million. Bloodhounds are the number one scent-tracking dog. The large, droopy ears of the bloodhound work to fan odors up into the dog’s nose, and the wrinkled skin on the face traps scent particles. These adaptations are why the breed is so successful with scent tracking. They are often used to search for escaped prisoners, and are relentless when they are on the search for a particular scent. They have stuck to trails for over 100 miles. These dogs have been helping law enforcement find missing persons and capture criminals for over 200 years. The officers that train and are partnered with police dogs are called their handlers. The handlers are with their K9 partners for 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The dogs live with their handlers while they are on duty, and after they retire. There is a very special bond developed between the two. The police dogs are trained to protect their handlers as well. Handlers use verbal and hand commands with dogs. There are two ways that police canines alert to the smells they are trained to detect. One is called a passive alert and is most commonly used with bomb detection dogs. The dog will sit when it smells the odor. This is necessary for bomb detection dogs because any sudden movements could set off the explosive. With narcotics detection dogs, an aggressive alert is most commonly used. An aggressive

alert is indicated by the dog barking and scratching at the location of the odor. This helps officers locate the narcotics, or other illegal items like weapons, more quickly. Looking for narcotics is a game for these K9s. A popular training technique is using a white towel to play tug of war with the canine. First, the handlers use a towel with no scent, and play with that for some time. Then the handler will hide a drug in the towel, say cocaine, and will play with that towel until the dog comes to know the scent of that particular narcotic. Handlers will use several different substances until the dog learns them all. When it is time to search a home, for example, the dog is smelling and looking for his toy to play with. The smell of the drugs becomes associated with playing a fun game. The barking, scratching and pawing helps officers locate the illegal substances, but the dog is also excited to have found what he thinks is his toy. There is sometimes the perception that police dogs are all attack dogs, especially German Shepherds. Some K9s are trained to bite, but not all of them. Dogs that are used for patrolling purposes are often “find and bite” dogs. They find suspects by tracking their scent and when the target is located, the dog will bite the suspect and hold him/her until officers arrive. The dog helps prevent injuries to officers while a suspect is attempting to be apprehended. Additionally, a dog bite is rarely fatal. The K9 allows for the possibility of using non-deadly force to obtain a suspect. Some dogs are trained for “minimal force,” meaning the dog will just bark at the suspect when they are located and stand guard until officers arrive, but will not bite unless the suspect attempts to fight or flee. Police dogs have been killed by being shot or stabbed by suspects. In September of this year, a K9 named Ike was killed by a domestic violence suspect that had fled the scene of the crime on a bicycle and was apprehended by Ike. Ike was a 6 year old Belgian Malinois who had been with the police department since 2012. Some police departments have ballistic protective and stab-resistant vests for their police dogs. Considering that a single K9 dog is a $10,000-$15,000 investment, the vest is an easy way to protect a police dog that may be involved in potentially violent and dangerous encounters. However, it isn’t an inexpensive way. The vests are made with the same Kevlar bulletproof material that the officers’ vests use, and cover all of the dog’s vital organs. Vests weigh, on average, between four and five pounds. These body armor vests can cost anywhere from $900 to $2,500. Organizations like K-9 Armor, Kevlar for K9s, and Project Paws Alive have been created to help law enforcement and military organizations obtain this protective gear through the help of citizen donations. Most law enforcement agencies are prohibited from spending money on equipment for non-human use. The Metropolis, Illinois police department was awarded a vest for their newest K9 member, Jocobo. The vest was provided by Vested Interest in K9s, Inc., a non-profit Massachusetts organization that provides protective vests to dogs around the country. The vest will be worn only during dangerous situations, weighs 4.25 pounds, and costs $1,700. Jocobo is trained to search for narcotics, suspects and lost individuals. K9s are The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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extremely important to law enforcement, and are an expensive investment that should be protected. These dogs have substantial training and abilities, and help protect both citizens and police officers. This past summer saw several K9 deaths from being locked in overheated patrol cars. A South Texas deputy was fired after leaving his K9 partner, Jola, in his patrol car for more than 20 hours. The dog died from the heat, and had been a member of the sheriff’s office since 2012. K9 deaths from being trapped in hot patrol cars also happened in Georgia, Alabama and Wisconsin this summer. In Wisconsin, the officer left his dog in his air conditioned car, but the air conditioner malfunctioned, and the heat alarm in the officer’s car also failed to alert. The 3-year old police dog was named Wix and he was on special assignment at the PGA Championship in Kohler. He specialized in explosive detection. Technology has been developed to help with situations such as these, for example heat alarms. The units monitor the temperature of the vehicle and some of them also monitor the vehicle’s battery voltage. The battery voltage monitor is to detect whether the car’s battery may fail soon, and cause the air conditioning to stop. Officers will leave their K9 partners in their air conditioned cars at times, and this practice is not considered unsafe if the officers check on the dog regularly and the temperatures are not extreme. But heat alarms add an extra level of protection and monitoring. If an alarm condition is detected (eg, the car gets too hot, or the battery is running too low) various alerts are triggered, based on the product and the settings on the technology. Some alerts include the horn continuously honking, the siren and light bars can be activated, and windows can be activated to be rolled down in the patrol car. There are also digital transmitters that are worn on the officer’s person that alerts them if an alarm has gone off. Some technology also has a door-popping system, where the car’s doors will open and let the K9 exit if the officer does not respond to the heat alarm in time. Other technology can sync up the heat monitor in the patrol car to the officer’s smartphone and the K9 can be monitored remotely. Additionally, these alarms now come with cold temperature settings to alert if the car gets too cold for year-round protection. Top of the line units cost between $2,500 and $3,000.

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K9s help protect citizens, officers, and can apprehend a suspect using non-deadly force, which protects both the suspect and officers. Agencies on the local, state and federal level use K9s to assist with their law enforcement duties. These dogs are also used in prisons to help control riots and large scale fights. Search and rescue dogs were used after the September 11 attacks to find survivors. These dogs are not only “man’s best friend,” but an invaluable asset to the community.

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Perfection Roofing & Construction 210.695.1497 • Helotes, TX

Lufkin, TX

In Memorial: Mr. Winters

Debra Morris & Family

FLORES TRUCKING

Herman Freeman Trucking

512.667.0550 Kyle, TX

Bluff Dale, TX

Tapia and Sons Company LLC San Angelo, TX

Victory Sand & Gravel Anna, TX

214-356-8705

Grande Used Resturant Equipment Houston, TX

713.314.7105

RDZ Paving LLC Adkins, TX Office: 210.272.0097 Cell #: 210.870.3849

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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Proudly serving clients in Deer Park, Pasadena, LaPorte, Clear Lake, Pearland and all surrounding areas. We also offer metal awnings & carports, wood awnings & carports, steel erecting services and metal buildings. All referrals are greatly appreciated. We thank you for your business and give Glory to GOD for our talent!

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


C.D. Hopkins Sand & Gravel McKinney, TX

972.519.0681 CARDINAL MOVING, LLC 409.828.0561 Lumberton, TX

Dan’s Transport 254.759-8342

Aliz Brick Carrier 214.707.4776 Dallas, TX

Waco, TX The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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Karalis Trucking 713.598.6376 New Caney, TX

F&H Water Service, LLC Three Rivers, TX Why choose F&H Water Service, LLC? •

• • • • • •

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Certified TCEQ (Texas Commission of Environmental Quality) licensed water hauler. Monthly water samples are sent to TCEQ for testing. Copy of results are available upon request. Registered TCEQ Transporter of Septic Waste. Insured trucking company BBB member since 2013 We offer a variety of services Competitive prices Drivers all have a clean driving record

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

Who We Are About Us A family owned and operated business for 6 years. 12 years of combined experience in the water, septic, and trucking business. Contact Us Office: (361) 786-2734 Email: h2owaterservices@yahoo.com


Juarez Trucking & Flatbed

PADRON PLUMBING

512.970.9212 Austin, TX

956-569-9734 Mission, TX

C A V Trucking 214.516.1962 Irving, Tx

STENNETT FARMS 806-842-3205

SINCE 1921 • LUBBOCK, TEXAS

S

Ms Ernestine Stennett 208 N FM 400 Lubbock, TX 79403-7882

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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Merrill Transportion LLC. 417-455-3395 Neosho, MO

Rivas Clean-Up Service 713-302-2391 Houston, TX 52

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


Lions Gate Development Inc/ Amarillo Roofing Inc Colgate, OK

806.372.7887 or 806.678.9301

Rolando Garcia Trucking 956.592.1873 Brownsville, TX

M-Z Trucking Services 830.560.0619 Waelder, TX

325-784-5100•Brownwood, Texas The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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F&F Farms

FROY Trucking LLC 512.378.0975 Manor, TX

903.986.0229 Kilgore, TX

G & J Trucking

Houston, TX • 832.309.7978

LEON’S TRANSPORT 469.688.4369 Garland, TX

La Joya Services, LLC 210.391.3984 Cibolo, TX

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


HD

HOMER DELEON CLEAN-UP SERVICE 979-399-0202 Hempstead, Texas

DeLeon Transportation 214.554.4685 Balch Springs, TX

Del Rio, TX 78840 The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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T & A Mobile Home Specialist Schertz, TX

830.391.1287

BROKERAGE•UNLOADING DELIVERY AVAILABLE 2 RAIL SITES TO BETTER SERVE YOU CUT THE HIGH COST OF FREIGHT

“COW MEALS ON WHEELS” Art Cane Manager

650 Curry Rd O Clovis, NM 88101 Office (575) 683-0384 FAX (575) 683-5154 Home (575) 359-0384

M & A Transport

617.699.9333 Addison, TX

Munoz Trucking 575.734.5528 Dexter, NM

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

Mobile (575) 760-9860 FAX (575) 356-1281 dancingwithmules@yucca.net


CHAT’S Trucking 956.298.1757 • Plains, TX

Poling Cattle Company

Texline, Tx

806.333.4682

Reyes Mobile Home Service

512.718.7074

Bastrop, TX

Blue Water AC & Refrigeration Brazoria, TX

Zippy Courier

Houston, TX

941 E. Gem Raymondville, TX 78580

956.532.8520

F. Lopez Transport

832.633.1993

956.642.7673

Hugo Garcia & Family Houston, TX

806-674-5590 Amarillo, Texas

E-Z Trucking

White Hill Excavating & Landscaping LLC Fort Worth, TX • 817.401.0638

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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White’s Trucking Service Houston, TX

832.805.4540

EXTREME PUMPING 210-460-3444 INFO@EXTREMEPUMPINGLLC.COM

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018


Tijerina Trucking 575.760.1623 Clovis, NM

The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

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Tijerina Trucking 575.760.1623 Clovis, NM

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The New Police Leader Magazine l Spring 2018

The New Police Leader  

Spring 2018

The New Police Leader  

Spring 2018