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ma n a g e r i a l s k i l l s


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Summary TRAINING CONTENT ................................................................................................... 3 The managerial skills ..................................................................................................................... 3

1 - DESIGN SKILLS ....................................................................................................... 4 1.1 - Logical / analytical and synthesizing.................................................................................... 4 1.2 - Insight and Creativity............................................................................................................ 6 1.3 - Problem solving ...................................................................................................................... 8 1.4 – Learning ............................................................................................................................... 11

2 - BEHAVIOURAL SKILLS .......................................................................................... 13 2.1 - Capacity for personal relationships ................................................................................... 13 2.2 - Capacity for autonomy ........................................................................................................ 14 2.3 - Communication skills .......................................................................................................... 16 2.4 - Negotiation skills .................................................................................................................. 18 2.5 - Flexibility .............................................................................................................................. 20

3 - LEADING SKILLS ................................................................................................... 22 3.1 – Leadership ........................................................................................................................... 22 3.2 – Decision Making .................................................................................................................. 24 3.3 - Risk-oriented / Entrepreneurial skills................................................................................ 26 3.4 – Integration skill ................................................................................................................... 27 3.5 – Holistic View ........................................................................................................................ 29 3.6 - Time perspective (strategic view) ....................................................................................... 30

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TRAINING CONTENT The managerial skills In the framework of the comparative report on the state-of-the-art in the field of validation of managerial competencies in the countries concerned by CREDNET project (notably, Greece, Italy, Cyprus, Romania, Latvia, Poland and Slovenia), most of the subjects interviewed have declared that the formal education system fails to provide these competencies and that, in order to contribute to continuous managerial competence development, soft skills seem to be more needed than technical competences, particularly personal relationships, creativity and leadership. When detecting the needs and objectives for recognition and validation of managerial competences, the main motivation for managerial learning has been found to be to learn how to plan, organize, lead, decide and control effectively the business process and to create an optimum working environment. Furthermore, interactivity has been mostly appreciated in terms of informal and non-formal learning; the formal learning systems are still mostly based on teaching in one way, therefore the information goes from the trainer to the trainees and the systems are less based on the feedback from the trainees and interactivity. In informal learning systems, interactive technologies can be used, outdoors, in public places, and in the other nonclassroom settings, extending the depth and breadth of informal learning. In this way, mobile technologies open up a vast range of possibilities as they enable information sharing from any location and notably provide feedback and reinforcement.

The main purpose of the training content is to facilitate the managers to develop their skills and improve competencies in which they are weak. The identification of this weakness can be made through the self evaluation tool.

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1 - DESIGN SKILLS 1.1 - Logical / analytical and synthesizing 1.2 - Insght and creativity 1.3 - Problem solving 1.4 - Learning 1.1 - Logical / analytical and synthesizing The logical and analytical skills concern splitting up the whole system into its simple parts, indicating hierarchies and relations. The capacity to synthesize, on the contrary, concerns the achievement of indicators describing simple structured data, and the application of theoretical knowledge targeted to the application and revision of a concept. The concept of intellectual ability is very wide and debated. Every feature of intelligence should be dealt with separately: intuition, attention and memory, critical reasoning skills, capacity for analysis and synthesis; accuracy, organizational skills, communication. Capacity for analysis and synthesis Capacity for analysis and synthesis means the subject's ability to understand a problem in depth and in its different issues, firstly analyzing each aspect, then building them up in a unified and comprehensive view. The two processes of analysis and synthesis must be balanced with each other. The analytical ability as such, in fact, enables to dissect down to the details what we take into consideration, but it is subject to the risk to offer a fragmented and partial view of things. The ability to synthesize, on the other hand, if not balanced with the analytical one, can lead to associate concepts together quickly and in a brilliant way, achieving rapidly a global vision of the problems, but not going beyond the surface, because we neglect important details. Precision Precision means the ability to pinpoint ideas, concepts and facts observed, both in their substance and in the relevant details. Closely connected with the accuracy skill, it refers to the clarity of ideas, the mental order, the ability to distinguish between the core of a thing and its details. The concept of precision does not necessarily require a brilliant intelligence, but rather requires order, accuracy, care in the formal aspects; this is not only appearance, but a genuine inner need of harmony, clarity and distinction. The accuracy is characterized as a quality which is at the same time intellectual and behavioral, which may be influenced both from a motivation to achieve a balance and from a tendency to perfectionism. English Resources www.logic-project.eu - It is a website of LOGIC project, which aimed to exchange about the use of logic in

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adult education. The background of project vision of logical reasoning is based upon Jean Piaget's theory principle. http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving-skills.htm - Tools/techniques/quizzes Bibliography Growth of Logical Thinking: From Childhood to Adolescence Hardcover – December 1, 1958 by Jean Piaget (Author) , Barbel Inhelder (Author) , A. Parsons (Translator)

Local languages resources Italy http://www.lepidorocco.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=185:capacita&catid=69:lett era-c&Itemid=165 - An exploration of the concept of capacity, analyzed in several aspects Latvia http://www.iac.edu.lv/assets/Uploads/Projekti/Kritiska-domasana-daudzveidibasveicinasanai/Kompleksasdomasanasprasmes12.pdf - The methodology summarized by The Education Development Centre (developed with the help of Soros Foundation – Latvia). Material proposes various methods connected with reasoning processes (deductive reasoning, analysis, decision making process, illation etc.) http://lvasa.lv/files/file/Diana_Rumpite_Novitates_kreativitates_teorija.pdf The article is written by Diana Rumpite (docent of Riga Technical University). The article is about creativity and importance of analytical skills in the process of creative thinking. Poland http://www.papilot.pl/psychologia/10524/Jak-usprawnic-swoj-mozg-8-prostych-sztuczek.html - Four-page text that describes the basic principles that should be applied in everyday life, that will allow for proper stimulation of our brain and will stimulate him to analytical and logical thinking. Bibliography • “Rozwiń swój genialny umysł”, Katarzyna Gózdek-Michaelis; • „Kurs myślenia. Narzędzia myślenia dla tych, którzy chcą naprawdę wykorzystać swoją inteligencję”, Edward de Bono. Greece https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDkQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.edc.uoc.gr%2Fptde%2Fptde%2Fanounc%2Fb_tomeas%2Fgnwst_psyhol%2Fskepsi_lipsi_apof.ppt&

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ei=OAZBUenPKcPWswbmyICQBg&usg=AFQjCNHvPWqJ-Bf9gsvra5aWY-Ku1LF1Hw - Powerpoint Presentation on how to make logical thinking and taking decisions. It has been presented as part of cognitive psychology seminars http://www.cs.phs.uoa.gr/el/courses/cognitive_psychology/logic_prob_intro.pdf - Scientific presentation of the meaning of logical and analytical skills by the University of Athens.

1.2 - Insight and Creativity Ability to develop something original, innovative and unique. Creativity is set out into four different and complementary phases: preparation, incubation (conceptual phases), inspiration, (motivational phase and breaking out of schemes) and assessment (operational phase). Intellectual liveliness and insight The intellectual liveliness is the speed and flexibility with which the individual receives the inputs from the outside world, understands them, absorbs them, processes them, associates them to one another, and finally reacts. This involves: - Readiness in the reactions and learning, - Ability to adapt previous experience to the current situation, - Ability to capture the core in a complex situation, - Ability to solve new problems. Insight is placed in this context of intellectual readiness, and constitutes a form of "pre-understanding", that is the immediate knowledge of reality. It is facilitated by rapid learning, understanding and association, and influence them in turn. The same insight facilitates the immediate enhancement of all these processes, as well as the readiness to grasp the core of things, the quickness and originality in solving problems. We may notice that, in order that the intellectual liveliness of the individual is really constructive, the insight must interact harmoniously with reasoning which processes and submit to verification the results of insight. --Insight is the discovery of a new map or solution of a situation. As a matter of fact, it has to do with implementing own "genius." The genius can indeed be learned, it also means becoming better able to find new solutions, more able to use own mind. ... The four step of insight process are: • awareness of a problem in this situation we can say that we focus on conflicting maps that have not been reconciled yet. The phenomenon is also perceived through non-verbal communication; • reflection: external inputs have been excluded to facilitate the focus on internal processes • insight itself, associated with complex cognitive processes • action: insight leads to short-term urgency to act and the action increases the density of attention. The density of attention deepens mental connections English and Multilanguage Resources www.skills4me.eu - The ‘Creative Learning Communities’ (CLC) project is designed to explore and create improved teaching and learning pathways in relation to increasing a sense of initiative and personal entrepreneurship. www.debonofoundation.co.uk - On the project website is located “Tools box”, including new and innovative tools grouped into categories: Personal development, Idea Generation, Project Building. The new tools are identified by mnemonics (a mechanism that helps you to remember). We use the first

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letter of each word to create the mnemonic that, once expanded, would give you the kind of thinking you might wish to engage in. For example, GYF stands for Generate Your Focus, TOB stands for Think Outside the Box and so forth. http://www.creativity4med.eu/Portals/0/Files/Guide%20for%20creativity.pdf - Guide for Creativity in Business. This is a guide produced by an European project (Creamed) (in English), with the participation, however, of Greek partners. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_CT.htm e http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/lateral.htm Tools/techniques/quizes

Local languages resources Italy http://www.lepidorocco.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=185:capacita&catid=69:lett era-c&Itemid=165 - An exploration of the concept of capacity, analyzed in several aspects http://www.neurolinguistic.com/pnl/reduced/aziendale/Azienda2/insightequantumcoaching.htm - An exploration of the concept of “Insight”

Latvia http://www.veritweet.com/event/3140/Turiba.Pasakums.23.03.2012Izglītības - Video lecture provided by Turiba University, one of the leading higher educational institutions in Latvia. Lecturers Don Prince (general manager of Centre for Creative Leadership - CCL) and Janis Oslejs - business person, economist and founder of Ltd Castle of Creativity. The lecture consist of practical ideas how to be creative in his/her work and in the processes of leadership. http://lvasa.lv/files/file/Diana_Rumpite_Novitates_kreativitates_teorija.pdf - The article is written by Diana Rumpite (docent of Riga Technical University). The article is about creativity and importance of analytical skills in the process of creative thinking. The title of the article is Novelties in the theory of Creativity. http://www.va.lv/sites/default/files/izdales_materials_via_darbnicas_dalibniekiem.pdf - Abstract of seminar of Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences (ViA). Abstract consists of methods how to generate inovative and creative ideas in the area of entrepreneurship.

Poland Bibliography • • • •

„ABC Kreatywności”, Krzysztof J. Szmidt; „Myślenie lateralne. Idee na przekór schematom”, Edward de Bono; „Mieć piękny umysł”, Edward de Bono; „Myśleć jak Einstein”, Scott Thorpe; Greece

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http://openarchives.gr/view/96237 - Article with theoretical and practical approach in the issue of creativity in Business http://www.slideshare.net/nikilambropoulos/ss-12004289 - Innovation and Creativity ManagementTheoretical and Practical Approach http://www.tovima.gr/vimagazino/views/article/?aid=458846 - Article with the stories of famous persons on how they became creative https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CDEQFjAA&url=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.cs.phs.uoa.gr%2Fel%2Fcourses%2Fcognitive_psychology%2Fergasies%2FDhmiourgikotita. doc&ei=G5v7UY6dJqP_4QSC3oGIAw&usg=AFQjCNHm6kYRV_uegnPHWsc4_RpUCa7Quw - Theoretical Analysis of the creativity by the University of Athens http://pappanna.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/%CE%B4%CF%8E%CE%B4%CE%B5%CE%BA%CE%B1%CF%80%CF%81%CE%AC%CE%B3%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B1-%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B7%CE%B4%CE%B7%CE%BC%CE%B9%CE%BF%CF%85%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE%CF%83%CE%BA/ - Twelve issues about creative thinking that they have not taught you in school

Slovenia http://www.vodja.net - an article about creativity

1.3 - Problem solving That is, ability to provide solutions even when basic information or reference models are lacking and to distinguish cause-effect relationships, data and queries in a logical process, so as to resolve critical points and technical, organizational, business and relational problems which are generated as a rule by complex and stormy processes. The analysis of problems, so that they can be both fully and timely understood, is particularly important for management. Learning from own mistakes, in fact, is definitely the best basis for the development and quality improvement of organizations. Problem-solving is a methodology that has been very popular especially in the years betweeen mid-40s and mid-60s and it is meant to analyze, deal with, put forward the most suitable solutions to solve problems and develop therefore the learning process. Moreover, the question of problem solving is a skill that has always been a prerequisite for human survival and that may not be considered an obstacle if adequate tools are used. The tools to be used can be very different, depending on the context in which the problem arises: • if a problem occurred in the past, we will use the techniques of problem solving • if a problem occurs in the present, the techniques of decision making and concerns analysis will be applied • to prevent a problem that could occur in the future, we will use the technique of planning and problem prevention

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One of the most frequently used tools in the context of problem solving is the report called A3 layout. This report, to be really useful, should include the following sections: • frame of the problem • analysis of the causes • list of proposed corrective/preventive measures • Implementation Plan • results • plans for the future Through these steps, the problem-solver keeps track of the results of the investigation carried out to understand the causes of the problem and explain briefly how a suitable solution has been planned (max one page, at best A3). To "solve problems" The subject needs to know how to: • assess a difficult situation or a complex task, setting them in relations with own skills, goals and crosssituational skills • assess their level of direct involvement and responsibility in a situation or problem or how (and whether) to delegate actions and responsibilities to others • clearly define objectives, expected results and possible fields of action to deal with a problem to be solved (either social, technical or organizational) • define a strategy for action to address a problem or a situation, considering constraints and resources within the outer context in relation to targets to achieve, taking into account the consequences of actions taken • establish criteria and procedures for monitoring and evaluating the results of a plan for action, also taking into account different viewpoints from other people. The following skills are linked with the problem solving concept: Attention and memory • Attention is the process by which you select certain inputs, focusing on them, in order to get a clear vision. In order to focus attention, one must be able to remove from the field of consciousness all other details that would be disruptive, and support the effort and commitment for the time needed. The ability to concentrate the attention on a particular theme or a particular problem is a major issue for learning and memorizing concepts. • Memory is the ability to fix in mind notions and concepts, and then recall them when needed. It is connected with the attention and the individual ability to subdivide the material to be stored according to effective organizational patterns. Having a good memory means to be able to: - acquire the concept or notion - fix it and keep it in the appropriate memory areas - recall it promptly if needed Impulsivity, excitability and hyper-emotionality disrupt these mechanisms, thereby influencing in a negative way the mental storage process. Critical Reasoning skills The ability of reason and criticism is one that allows the person to achieve objectivity in the interpretation and evaluation of things. This capacity involves: • reflection, to consider carefully the inputs received, control and get aware of them; • systematic research to identify the causes of what is being considered; • deeper analysis of the concepts known and the facts observed, to know them in their various

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aspects. The ability of reason and criticism are a crucial asset to those who face the responsibility at a higher level or deal with problems of some complexity. Organizational capacity Organization means to know how to translate ideas and plans from the project level to the operational level, planning activities to be carried out for the realization of the project, and making available timely means and resources. Even the learning and memory process requires, among others, the availability of effective organizational mechanisms of the learned material. Organization is a core project activity, much more complex as extensive is the range in which it operates. No matter what level it is carried out, the organizational activity involves, however, some basic requirements: • the clear vision of the goal to be achieved and the way we want to go;- the perspective of reality, to be able to predict the results of our action; • the ability to distinguish promptly the core from the details • the ability to relate time and means of action to the goals that are pursued • the continuity of the process towards the achievement of results English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.mindtools.com/index.html - A collection of creative tools and exercises to train the ability to solving problems. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm - Tools/articles/techniques Local languages resources Italy http://www.qualitiamo.com/miglioramento/problem%20solving/introduzione.html http://www.mariafamiglietti.it/problem_solving.htm - This sites contain a detailed analysis of Problem Solving, and several concrete examples. http://www.lepidorocco.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=185:capacita&catid=69:lett era-c&Itemid=165 - This resource is described in the above categories. Latvia http://www.veritweet.com/event/4856/Vieslekcija.Turiba.13.02.2013 - Video lecture provided by Turiba University, one of the leading higher educational institutions in Latvia. Lecturer Kristine Sneidere, Head of Swedbank Group HR Administration at Swedbank. The lecture includes information what is stress and how to manage stress in problem solving process and in the everyday life of person. http://riimc.lv/files/Ingrida_Muraskovska_Pieejas_%20darba_%20ar_%20problemam1.pdf - The material is published by Education and Information Centre of Riga City (RIIMC). It consists of methods how to solve problems in working environment. Material is written by Ingrīda Muraškovska. Poland

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http://psychologia-ogolna.wyklady.org/wyklad/199_problem-i-rozwiazywanie-problemow.html - Practical tips on how to deal with the problem-solving process. Bibliography • „Kurs myślenia. Narzędzia myślenia dla tych, którzy chcą naprawdę wykorzystać swoją inteligencję”, Edward de Bono; • „Mieć piękny umysł”, Edward de Bono; • „6 myślowych kapeluszy”, Edward de Bono; Greece http://bit.ly/1flWNzl - Article regarding financial crisis and problem solving skills http://bit.ly/1flWW5R - Practical Guidelines for problem solving in small steps https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDMQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.cs.phs.uoa.gr%2Fel%2Fcourses%2Fcognitive_psychology%2Fergasies%2FepilyshProblhmatwn.ppt &ei=XQhBUajkK4TZtQa6soCoCQ&usg=AFQjCNHmbF4ZoP5J-QUsE9svr_EEbyfOCQ - Problem SolvingTheoretical Approach http://www.startup.gr/index.php?about=89&id=896 - Problem- Solving Techniques for Start-Ups.

1.4 – Learning A wide range of abilities which reflect the need to manage and develop the tacit dimension of knowledge and to adapt technologies and ideas developed in other frameworks to company business. The learning skills can be discovered when an individual goes through an entire cycle of experience in its four steps: practical experience, observations and reflections on experience, abstraction and concept design of experience, assessment of concepts worked out in other frameworks. Learning is acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves. Learning is not compulsory; it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Learning produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_ISS.htm - tools for recording information, concisely and effectively. Local languages resources

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Italy www.sdabocconi.it/it/learning-lab - The Learning Lab of Bocconi Business School website. Latvia http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-pxx-IbYYY - Video lecture provided by Latvian University. Lecturer of the video lecute Baiba Mūze. The lecture includes theory how to search information and how to put it into practice. http://www.lu.lv/par/mediji/video/lekcijas/2010/macisasnas-veidi/ - Video lecture provided by Latvian University about learning styles. Lecture includes information how to organize one’s own study/learning process in most productive way (study environment, time management, obstacles of successful learning process). Poland http://www.edulandia.pl - Platform brings together all aspects of education in formal and informal systems, courses and opportunities for development and validation of your skills. http://www.uczsieszybko.pl - Portal which presents the techniques and principles of quick (and effective) learning. Practical advice, exercise. Bibliography • “Tao szkolenia”, Max Landsberg; • "Superlearning 2000 Podręcznik", Sheila Ostrander i Lynn Schroeder; • "NLP - wstęp do programowania neurolingwistycznego" Joseph O'Connor, John Seymour. Greece http://www.studygs.net/greek/metacog.htm - An article with simple guidelines on learning how to learn. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/9017_el.pdf - European Framework for learning skills- learning at work. http://haspeedlearning.wordpress.com/ - Portal with articles regarding development of learning skills. http://bit.ly/1flYrkB - 13 ways to learn in 2013

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2 - BEHAVIOURAL SKILLS 2.1 - Capacity for personal relationships 2.2 - Capacity for autonomy 2.3 - Communication skills 2.4 -Negotiation skills 2.5 -Flexibility

2.1 - Capacity for personal relationships Set up good personal relationships, developing trust in internal and external business relationships. It implies a strong motivation towards a subsidiary approach, that is an aptitude to establish relationships with the members of the group the subject belongs to rather than to perform the task assigned. As well as commitment and a willingness to adapt and change throughout life, healthy relationships require skills in communication and emotional awareness. Thankfully, these skills can be easily learned. Interpersonal skills are the life skills we use every day to communicate and interact with other people, both individually and in groups. People who have worked on developing strong interpersonal skills are usually more successful in both their professional and personal lives. Employers often seek to hire staff with 'strong interpersonal skills' - they want people who will work well in a team and be able to communicate effectively with colleagues, customers and clients. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/morale.htm - Tools/articles/techniques (building-up a morale) Test and Assess Your Interpersonal Skills A self-assessment questionnaire to http://www.skillsyouneed.com/interpersonal-skills.html#ixzz2vBx4Ro41 Harold H. Kelley, Personal Relationships: Their Structures and Processes Local languages resources Italy http://www.mip.polimi.it/mip/it/Executive-Education/Programmi-a-catalogo - short training to reinforce managerial knowledge and consolidate experience, as well a sto increase the sensitivity and flexibility of leaders to the human factor. Latvia

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http://www.veritweet.com/event/2684/Turiba.Vieslekcija.08.02.2012 - The video lecture of Turiba University. This lecture includes information how to create successful communication with clients. Lecturer - Marika Gederte. http://www.medkursi.lv/?p=2033 - An article about how to set up profesional relationships and creat positive psychological environment. Psychotherapist Ērika Rutkovska speaks about psychoemotional problems in work environment. http://www.medkursi.lv/?page_id=244 - Basic information about Communication and Social psycholgy created by lecturers (psychotherapists) of medical further education courses. Poland http://psychologia.wieszjak.pl - ABC of psychology for laymen. Website contains articles, a collection of tips, case studies and the opportunity to ask a question to experts in the field. http://freelearning.pl - Free courses prepared in the form of individual lessons (video, text, presentations) concerning topics about personal relationships. http://www.teamcoaching.pl - Team Coaching is a process-oriented on teams and groups of staff support in making changes in the way that is closest to their needs and expectations and to help achieve the desired level of effectiveness of teamwork. It is a process of strengthening the group’s in achieving its objectives, and improving competence in areas chosen by them. Bibliography • “Jak się dogadać” Leil Lowndes; • “Mosty zamiast murów. Podręcznik komunikacji interpersonalnej” red. Naukowa John Stewart; • Norman V. Peale "Moc pozytywnego myślenia", "Możesz, jeśli myślisz, że możesz" i inne, Norman V. Peale. Greece http://www.psychologo.gr/site/2011-02-08-08-55-52.html http://www.hrpro.gr/?pid=9&arID=2694&la=1 http://bit.ly/1fm01Tn http://e-psychologist.blogspot.gr/2008/01/blog-post.html http://www.medlook.net.cy/article.asp?item_id=1697 http://epaggelma.medlook.gr/articles.php?id=278&type=1 - Articles about the personal relationships in a work environment.

2.2 - Capacity for autonomy

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Ability for self-determination and self-management in the framework of a broad organization, even if it is under the control of boards in charge of ensuring the legitimacy of acts to be performed. The degree of autonomy when playing a role can be expressed from the period of time in which the activities are carried out at one’s discretion. This ability to bear uncertainty is supported both by intelligence and by emotivity. When it comes to autonomy we turn to the capacity for self-regulation, or the ability to organize own behavior and choices based on individual characteristics and social/environmental factors around us. The conquest of autonomy is a necessary goal for growth and social inclusion of the individual and fundamental prerequisite for employment. Self-determination is meant as the person's ability to "choose wisely", as well as to understand and progressively taken on the responsibilities that some decisions imply. The concept of autonomy in carrying out a task or the ability to take decisions are the two fundamental aspects of the delegation process. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ps/time-management.html This page is an introduction to time management and aims to provide you with some simple ideas and techniques that you can use to help make your time as efficiently as possible Local languages resources Latvia http://www.medkursi.lv/?p=2033 - Basic information about Communication and Social psycholgy created by lecturers (psychotherapists) of medical further education courses. http://www.abstrakcija.lv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=100&Itemid=67 - Theory about emotional intelligence. Poland http://www.foley.com.pl www.joymanne.org http://sciezkami-zycia.prv.pl - Organization Inspiration Seminars International (ISI) It contributes to the development of personal, holistic education for a better life in the form of hands-on workshops, lectures, open and specialized training. ISI is a publisher of audio / video (CD, DVD, MP3) promoting conscious, healthy and responsible life. Personal development, health education, psychohigiena, relaxation techniques, positive psychology, optimism in life are the main issues it is dealing with. Bibliography • • • •

“6 filarów poczucia własnej wartości”, Nathaniel Branden; “Samoświadomość” Nathaniel Branden; „Cztery umowy��� Don Miguel Ruiz; „Wewnętrzny krytyk”, Hal i Sindra Stone

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• "JA", "TY", Tadeusz Niwiński. Greece Slovenia http://www.google.si/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CEUQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F% 2Fwww.dlib.si%2Fstream%2FURN%3ANBN%3ASI%3Adoc-UINILAYE%2F8a2ac354-2e46-4c3e-b2e5bc0433d00272%2FPDF&ei=IOZ4UYOHH8eS4ASY_IHQDg&usg=AFQjCNF5uFd4IphiWhXPCet1qejw9EyGqw&si g2=46ZbcJ41CBDotCLFTBvpPw&bvm=bv.45645796,d.bGE - Article about social skills.

2.3 - Communication skills Ability to reach a target group within or out of the company organization with a well defined message and using the available media. Prompt and appropriate use of media to facilitate dissemination of business info. Communication is the way in which a person expresses his thoughts and ideas, verbally or in writing. Everyone has her/his own style in expressing oneself, but in order to make the messages accessible to others, and to explain own ideas effectively, some basic requirements are needed including: - Clarity in the concepts and expressions, - Fluency and command of the language, - The ability to work through personal ideas and concepts, adapting the style of expression to the audience needs To communicate effectively in an organizational and professional environment, the individual needs to know how to: • give and ask for information at the interpersonal level and within the group work • adapt own communication styles and strategies to the external conditions and to the needs of the listeners, either individual and collective • distinguish among various communicative contexts and interactions, recognizing specific communication strategies and feedback adopted from other people (colleagues, upper level people, co-workers) • give and receive information with the help of tools (verbal communication, writing, by telephone, computer-aided etc.). • encode and decode verbal and non verbal messages and messages sent through other kind of media. It's well known that good communication is the foundation of any successful relationship, be it personal or professional. It's important to recognize, though, that it's our nonverbal communication—our facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, posture, and tone of voice—that speak the loudest. The ability to understand and use nonverbal communication, or body language, is a powerful tool that can help you connect with others, express what you really mean, and build better relationships. Effective communication helps us better understand a person or situation and enables us to resolve differences, build trust and respect, and create environments where creative ideas, problem solving, affection, and caring can flourish. As simple as communication seems, much of what we try to communicate to others—and what others try to communicate to us—gets misunderstood, which can cause conflict and frustration in personal and professional relationships. By learning these effective communication skills, you

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can better connect with your spouse, kids, friends, and coworkers. In the information age, we have to send, receive, and process huge numbers of messages every day. But effective communication is about more than just exchanging information; it's also about understanding the emotion behind the information. Effective communication can improve relationships at home, work, and in social situations by deepening your connections to others and improving teamwork, decision-making, and problem solving. It enables you to communicate even negative or difficult messages without creating conflict or destroying trust. Effective communication combines a set of skills including nonverbal communication, attentive listening, the ability to manage stress in the moment, and the capacity to recognize and understand your own emotions and those of the person you’re communicating with. While effective communication is a learned skill, it is more effective when it’s spontaneous rather than formulaic. A speech that is read, for example, rarely has the same impact as a speech that’s delivered (or appears to be delivered) spontaneously. Of course, it takes time and effort to develop these skills and become an effective communicator. The more effort and practice you put in, the more instinctive and spontaneous your communication skills will become. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.directionservice.org/cadre/section4.cfm - COMMUNICATION SKILLS - free course in English. http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk e http://www.mindtools.com - Develop The Skills You Need For Life - Rich base of knowledge, training and practical descriptions. http://www.demop.eu/library/demopcd/gr/11.html - Introduction to the communication skills. http://www.mindtools.com/page8.html - Tools/articles/techniques http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication.htm Non verbal communication skills http://www.helpguide.org/mental/effective_communication_skills.htm Improving Communication Skills in Business and Relationships

Local languages resources Italy http://www.cui.org/corso/95/ITA/23/Comunicazione-e-Public-Speaking - The free on-line course on ‘Communication and Public Speaking’ introduces the rules and tools of effective communication and listening. It teaches how to define the objectives, structure and communication styles. It provides the elements and techniques of Public Speaking. It takes place online on the E-Campus learning platform. The course is completely free of charge and is limited to 20 trainees for each edition. http://www.ninjamarketing.it/2011/10/25/lelevator-pitch-larte-di-comunicare-unidea-in-modo-efficace-e-inpochi-secondi/ - The elevator pitch: how to communicate and present an idea effectively and in few minutes. Definition of the tool, flash advice for a successful elevator pitch, and resources to get inspired, including video tutorials. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFlgo3zmG4g&list=PL4FEF8F225E6D1B66 – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qo-q6dndVzY http://www.cambiolavoro.com/test/orecchie/orecchie.html Latvia

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http://www.veritweet.com/event/4886/Vieslekcija.Turiba.18.02.2013 - Video lecture provided by Turiba University. Lecturer speaks about prompt and appropriate use of media to facilitate dissemination of business info. http://www.veritweet.com/event/5032/Vieslekcija.Turiba.18.03.2013 - Video lecture provided by Turiba University. The strategical planning of communication. The sistematic approach for creating integrated campaign. http://www.veritweet.com/event/4298/Turiba.Vieslekcija.27.11.2012„Iekšējās - Video lecture provided by Turiba University. Lecturer Ieva Kukule. Lecture includes information about threats and provocations of internal communication of organisation. http://www.veritweet.com/event/3196/Vieslekcija.05.04.2012Sociālie - Social media as a tool for companies self-advertisement and way of communication. Video lecture provided by Turiba University. http://www.veritweet.com/event/2684/Turiba.Vieslekcija.08.02.2012 - The video lecture of Turiba University. This lecture includes information how to create successful communication with clients. Lecturer - Marika Gederte. Poland

Bibliography • “ABC Psychologii komunikacji”, Elżbieta Sujak; • “Mosty zamiast murów.

Greece http://www.tekbar.net/el/market-demand/customer--management-and-communication-skills.html - Simple guidelines for communication with clients Slovenia http://www.jeziki.doba.si/si/e-jeziki/online-tecaji/prijava-na-brezplacni-online-tecaj/ - DOBA d.o.o. (foreign languages) http://virtualis.si/znanje/tuji_jeziki/spletni_tecaji/ - VIRTUALIS (foreign languages)

2.4 - Negotiation skills Ability to exchange ideas, looking for balance and compatibility both at the organizational level and at the psychological and relational levels, in order to manage successfully possible conflicts resulting from organization and management dynamics. Search for a compromise between two or more parties. Conflict Resolution Skills: Building the Skills That Can Turn Conflicts into Opportunities. Conflict is a normal part of any healthy relationship. After all, two people can’t be expected to agree on everything, all the time. Learning how to deal with conflict—rather than avoiding it—is crucial. When conflict is mismanaged, it can cause great harm to a relationship, but when handled in a respectful, positive way, conflict provides an opportunity to strengthen the bond between two people. By learning these skills for conflict resolution, you can keep your personal and professional relationships strong and growing.

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Successful conflict resolution depends on the ability to regulate stress and your emotions Conflict triggers strong emotions and can lead to hurt feelings, disappointment, and discomfort. When handled in an unhealthy manner, it can cause irreparable rifts, resentments, and break-ups. But when conflict is resolved in a healthy way, it increases our understanding of one another, builds trust, and strengthens our relationship bonds. If you are out of touch with your feelings or so stressed that you can only pay attention to a limited number of emotions, you won’t be able to understand your own needs. And, if you don’t understand your own needs, you will have a hard time communicating with others and staying in touch with what's really troubling you. For example, couples often argue about petty differences—the way she hangs the towels, the way he slurps his soup—rather than what is really bothering them. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eq8_conflict_resolution.htm An useful help guide on Conflict Resolution Skills Local languages resources Italy http://www.formazione.ilsole24ore.com/e-learning/OA4636-conunicare-un-mondo-globale.php - The course is highly interactive and develops the dynamics, processes and techniques of internal and external negotiation. http://www.olympos.it/Dispensa_Negoziazione.pdf - In this teaching unit the process of negotiation will be explored and the tools to manage relationships in the negotiations effectively will be provided. The goal is to understand how to manage the negotiation process effectively, manage and resolve conflicts successfully. http://www.ottantaventi.it/perle/tecniche_negoziazione_tra_vincitori.htm - "Negotiation between winners" ("win-win" or "both win") is a set of techniques available to those who want to get something from someone else, that allows everyone to achieve own goal. Latvia http://www.veritweet.com/event/5006/Vieslekcija.Turiba.12.03.2013 - Mediation – the way how to solve conlicts. The video lecture of Turiba University. Lecturer Ieva Ramina. http://www.veritweet.com/event/2684/Turiba.Vieslekcija.08.02.2012 - The video lecture of Turiba University. This lecture includes information how to create successful communication with clients. Lecturer - Marika Gederte. http://www.medkursi.lv/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/saskarsme-konfliki.pdf - Basic information about solution of conflicts. Psycholgy created by lecturers (psychotherapists) of medical further education courses. Poland http://www.strategiablekitnegooceanu.pl - Blue Ocean Strategy is, used all over the world, a set of tools that allows companies to create new market space and effectively take a break from competition through innovation values at the same time distinction their offers and reduce costs. http://www.szkola-negocjacji.pl e http://www.negocjowanie.com.pl - The first Polish School of negotiations based on business practice.

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Bibliography • “Odchodząc od nie”, William Ury; • “Dochodząc do TAK”, William Ury; • “Strategia błękitnego oceanu”, W. Chan Kim, Renee Mauborgne. Greece http://www.etoro.com/gr/ - Social platform for managers offering also consulting regarding negotiation skills http://www.tekbar.net/el/brands-and-marketing/sales-negotiation-skills-the-establishment-of.html - Article on how to develop negotiation skills. http://www.skroutz.gr/books/135541.%CE%95%CF%80%CE%B9%CF%84%CF%85%CF%87%CE%B7%CE%BC %CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%B5%CF%82%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%B1%CF%80%CF%81%CE%B1%CE%B3%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B5%CF%8D%CF %83%CE%B5%CE%B9%CF%82-%CF%80%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%B4%CE%B9%CE%B1%CF%86%CF%85%CE%BB%CE%AC%CF%83%CF%83%CE%BF%CF%85%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B7-%CF%83%CF%87%CE%AD%CF%83%CE%B7.html - How to handle successful negotiations. Slovenia

http://www.profil.si/docs/Profil_v_medijih/uspesna_prodaja_e08_26.pdf - Article

2.5 - Flexibility This is the ability to change effectively through adaptation to variable situations or conditions. It discloses at the cluster level the capacity of the organization to react to pressure from outside or to anticipate needs. It is characterized by a strategic focus on the outer environment. Adaptability is generally considered the key to success of any kind of change, on the work site, in the lifestyle, in social life, etc... To know how to adapt to change is a quality that can and must be fostered because it teaches us the "new rules" of the game, as well as gives us the enthusiasm needed to carry out a new project. Developing this ability to adapt helps to "go with the flow" rather than to fight against events and situations that would lead to an uncomfortable experience when dealt with differently. The philosopher Juan Punset considers flexibility as one of the pillars on which human intelligence is founded, whereas according to the psychiatrist Luis Rojas Marcos (author of the book "Conquering Adversity") neither physical strength or intelligence, but the ability to adapt to changes of any kind (from the economic crisis till a rainy day) allows people to succeed in life. Flexibility is identified not only as the ability to adapt to market changes and variability, but also as a strategic capability to exploit the complexity of the environment for competitive purposes.

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English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk e http://www.mindtools.com - Develop The Skills You Need For Life - Rich base of knowledge, training and practical descriptions. Local Languages Resources Italy Latvia http://www.durga.lv/index.php/psihologija/1249-kreativa-adaptacija - The article written by psychologist Anita Lasmane. Article includes information about psychological flexibility and competence of adaptability. http://nekrize.lv/ka-rikoties-ja-darbinieki-nepienem-parmainas/ - A summary of article published in the magazine Fortune (written by Anne Fisher). The summary consist of ideas what to do if workers refuse to adapt to new alteration in your company. Poland http://www.teamcoaching.pl - Team Coaching is a process-oriented on teams and groups of staff support in making changes in the way that is closest to their needs and expectations and to help achieve the desired level of effectiveness of teamwork. It is a process of strengthening the group’s in achieving its objectives, and improving competence in areas chosen by them. Bibliography • "Supermożliwości twojego umysłu", Katarzyna Gozdek – Michaelis; • "Obudź w sobie olbrzyma" Anthony Robbins; • "Nasza moc bez granic" Anthony Robbins. Greece http://euractiv.gr/epixeiriseis-kai-ergasia/eyeliksia-deksiotiton-zitoyn-oi-epixeiriseis-apo-toys-neoys - Article describing flexibility requirements in European enterprises Slovenia http://www.blazkos.com/fleksibilnost.php - An article about flexibility.

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3 - LEADING SKILLS 3.1 - Leadership 3.2 - Decision-making 3.3 - Risk-oriented / Entrepreneurial skills 3.4 - Integration skills 3.5 - Holistic view 3.6 - Time perspective (strategic view) 3.1 – Leadership The capacity to exert influence, either using formal hierarchies or not, to persuade and motivate superior officers or senior managers/peers/subordinates to achieve the objectives set up. It varies from one framework to another (situational leadership). Leadership roles are all around us, not just in a work environment. They can be applied to any situation where you are required to take the lead, professionally, socially and at home in family settings. Ideally, leaders become leaders because they have credibility, and because people want to follow them. Two questions which are often asked are what exactly is a leader? And how is it different from being a manager? Many people also wonder if leadership can really be taught. People with vested interests (academics and those offering leadership training or literature of some sort) are convinced that it can. Many successful leaders, however, have never had any formal training. For them leadership is a state of mind, and it is their personalities and traits that make them successful leaders. One of the most important aspects of leadership is that not every leader is the same. Of course we have all heard jokes about ‘mushroom’ leadership (keep them in the dark and feed them on manure) and ‘seagulls’ (swoop in, squawk, and drop unpleasant things on people), but joking aside, there are many different styles of leadership. They are appropriate for different people and different circumstances, and the best leaders learn to use them all. Leaders also need to be able to make good decisions in support of their strategy delivery. Along the way to achieving the vision the leader will come upon many problems. Effective problem solving is therefore another key leadership skill. With a positive attitude, problems can become opportunities and learning experiences, and a leader can gain much information from a problem addressed. Leaders also need to be very organised on a personal level, and able to manage themselves and their time, so that they can spend time doing what they need to do, and not on other tasks (Time management). As well as organising their time and their teams, leaders need to spend a bit of time on themselves, and particularly on their self-motivation. A leader who lacks self-motivation will struggle to motivate others, as

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people are quick to detect a lack of sincerity. Another area which is crucial for leaders is skills in leading people. After all, without followers, there are no leaders. Leaders need skills in working with others on a one-to-one and group basis, and a range of tools in their armoury to deal with a wide range of situations. One of the first skills that new leaders need to master is how to delegate. This is a difficult skill for many people but, done well, delegation can give team members responsibility and a taste of leadership themselves, and help them to remain motivated. You can of course learn about effective leadership skills and practices but being able to implement them yourself may require an altogether different set of skills and attitudes. The question “Can leadership be taught?� has no simple answer and we do not want to argue for one side or the other, but rather keep an open mind on the subject and provide information about the skills good leaders need.

English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.talentsmart.com - At the following address are located a collection of articles on leadership skills. There are also paid courses that use the coaching method. http://www.kursy-online.4system.com - At the following address are located a collection of articles on leadership skills. There are also paid courses that use the coaching method. http://www.crestcomtraining.com/gr/leadership-training - Description of the leadership skills http://www.skillsyouneed.com/lead/trait-theory.html Leadership Trait Theory http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_LDR.htm#ei - Tools/articles/techniques Local Languages Resources Italy http://www.cui.org/corso/95/ITA/22/Leadership-e-Gestione-dei-Collaboratori - The course provides the tools and strategies to motivate, evaluate and guide employees and enable to achieve the key competence to perform an effective leadership. It takes place online on the E-Campus learning platform. The course is completely free of charge and is limited to 20 trainees for each edition. At the end of the course it is possible to apply for the Professional Certificate in Leadership and Human Resources Management. http://www.betraining.it/blog/2010/02/26/gli-stili-di-leadership-secondo-goleman/ - According to Daniel Goleman, an effective leader must have not only the intellect, but must have self-awareness, know how to manage emotions, understand the feelings of others, know how to conduct interpersonal relationships and, above all, how to create empathy. http://www.leaderformazione.it/test_leadership.php - A test to measure the leadership. http://www.mip.polimi.it/mip/it/Corsi-Executive/corsi-brevi.html - The course on Basic Leadership held at the MIP Polytechnic of Milan is addressed to managers who want to cope with the issues of team management and of team building, with group dynamics and the relationship between leadership and membership. http://www.slideshare.net/MarcoMerangola/le-competenze-manageriali http://www.windbusinessfactor.it/palestra/category/leadership-organizzazione/lezioni-leadershiporganizzazione :Video Lessons on Leadership and Organization Latvia

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http://www.veritweet.com/event/4852/Vieslekcija.Turiba.12.02.2013# - The video lecture of Turiba University. Lecture includes information how to fina appropriate employees. Lecturer Evija Jasūne. http://www.lu.lv/par/mediji/video/lekcijas/2013/freivalds-ergonomika/principi/ - Video lecture provided by Latvian University. Lecturer includes information hoe to use ergonomical principles in organisation. http://www.abstrakcija.lv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=100&Itemid=67 - Theory about emotional intelligence. http://www.medkursi.lv/?p=2033 - Basic information about Communication and Social psycholgy created by lecturers (psychotherapists) of medical further education courses. http://www.veritweet.com/event/5006/Vieslekcija.Turiba.12.03.2013 - Mediation – the way how to solve conlicts. The video lecture of Turiba University. Lecturer Ieva Ramina http://izglitibasfonds.lv/lv/publikacijas/237-vadbas-stili - An article about styles of leadership provided by Latvian foundation of education. http://www.db.lv/blogi-viedokli/blogi/arta-biruma/kadu-vadibas-stilu-izveleties-sajos-ekonomiskajosapstaklos-108812 - An article in e-Newspaper Dienas Bizness about the styles of leadership. Poland http://coachu.pl/669-umiejetnosci_przywodcy.htm e http://www.psychologia.info - At the following address are located a collection of articles on leadership skills. There are also paid courses that use the coaching method. Bibliography - "Decyzje na manowcach” Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann ; - „Coaching - trening efektywności”, John Whitmore; - „Myślenie pytaniami”, Marilee Adams. Greece http://news.disabled.gr/?p=31861 - Article regarding development of leadership skills http://www.allinonetraining.gr/blog/basic-and-required-skills-of-a-projectmanager/?goback=%2Egde_3318117_member_94856206 - Leadership Skills in Project Management Slovenia

http://dkum.unimb.si/Iskanje.php?type=napredno&stl0=KljucneBesede&niz0=mehke+ve%C5%A1%C4%8Dine - few bachelor's degrees

3.2 – Decision Making Ability to evaluate the appropriateness of information needed and understanding the framework in which decisions are taken. The decision is the choice to start an action, among several alternatives considered (options), by an individual or a group (decision maker). In the process leading to the decision (decision-making), two steps

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can be identified: -deliberation, in which the decision -maker takes into account several options and assesses the reasons pros and cons of each of them; -choice, ie to select an option, among those taken into account, depending on the outcome of the assessment. In order to speak properly of a decision process, the decision maker should have in front of him/her a number of options: the obvious choice, where other alternatives are not allowed, is not a decision. The decision is a core issue of freedom: the free action is the one that is chosen. The decision-making process has been studied in a number of disciplines: philosophy, logic, mathematics, statistics, psychology, sociology, economics, political science, etc.. The approach to analyse decision-making process can be divided into descriptive and normative. Those who adopt a descriptive approach seek to discover how effectively the decisions are made in different contexts, whereas those who adopt a regulatory approach seek to identify the way in which decisions should be taken with reference to ideal, rational decision-makers. Decision making (decision from Latin decidere "to decide, determine," literally "to cut off," from de- "off" and caedere "to cut") can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. Decision making is an essential leadership skill. If you can learn how to make timely, well-considered decisions, then you can lead your team to well-deserved success. If, however, you make poor decisions, your time as a leader will be brutally short. English and Multilanguage Resources http://managementhelp.org/personalproductivity/problem-solving.htm#guide - Guidelines for Problem Solving and Decision Making http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htm - Free on line tools in English. http://www.kursy-online.4system.com - A collection of courses available online and on the issues of running the office, decision-making and the management team. http://www.pro-skills.eu/wp-content/uploads/examples/el/social-skills/Decision%20making.pdf - Practical Exercise for Decision Making. http://uplifepsychology.com/el/personal-development-and-consulting-el/19-decision-making-skills-el.html Article on the effective ways of decision making. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htm#BBC - Tools/articles/techniques. Local Languages Resources Italy Latvia http://stpk.cs.rtu.lv/Sazi/saturs/nodaljas/lemum.html - Material provided by Riga Technical University. The material includes theory and methodology of decition making process. Poland http://portal.zpsb.edu.pl/content/jak-ludzie-popelniaja-bledy-w-procesie-podejmowania-decyzji-cz2 http://coachu.pl - The business school shows description of the most common mistakes in the decision

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making process. Bibliography - "Decyzje na manowcach” Philip G. Zimbardo, Robert L. Johnson, Vivian McCann ; - „Coaching - trening efektywności”, John Whitmore; - „Myślenie pytaniami”, Marilee Adams. Greece http://www.keaes.gr/main/doc/Programma%20Lipsis%20Apofasis.pdf - Programme for development of decision making skills in the education and working environments from the University of Athens. http://www.randstad.gr/blog/kosmos-tisergasias/%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%B1%CE%BA%CE%AC%CE%B8%CE%AD%CE%BC%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B1/kariera-kosmosergasias/%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%84%CE%B5%CF%87%CE%BD%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AD%CF%82%CE%BB%CE%AE%CF%88%CE%B7%CF%82%CE%B1%CF%80%CE%BF%CF%86%CE%AC%CF%83%CE%B5%CF %89%CE%BD.htm - Simple steps in decision making process.

3.3 - Risk-oriented / Entrepreneurial skills Ability to grasp the business opportunities provided within the company and by the outer environment, assessing their benefit in terms of financial risks and return on investment. The entrepreneur must have a risk-oriented attitude. In order to develop an interpretative model, two components must be taken into account: 1) goal-oriented behavior, which includes a strong commitment to shape the future, then the vision, and a strong interest in working out and applying strategies and interest in organization in all its features and connections; 2) risk-oriented behavior, as the ability to seize opportunities where success can not be predicted and where you may miss something. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.talentsmart.com - At the following address are located a collection of articles on leadership skills. There are also paid courses that use the coaching method. http://mailer.fsu.edu/~sehrlich/papers/riskandtrade.pdf e http://www.unitar.org/demand-training-riskbased-approach-financial-auditing-continues-grow- Articles with short courses.

Local Languages Resources Italy http://cambiolavoro.com/test/decisione/decisione.html - Managing risk. A test to evaluate their capacity for decision.

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http://www.isida.it/it/offerta/scheda.php?id=221 - ISIDA is a business school acknowledged by ASFOR which manages MBA courses as well as specializing courses in the field of managerial training, addressed both to unemployed young graduates and to professionals. http://www.insegnalo.it/corsi-online - Social learning platform. On-line courses and webinars. http://www.slideshare.net/max_slide/le-competenze-imprenditoriali - Presentation about entrepreneurial skills. Latvia http://www.slideshare.net/martinsgineitis/mg-jauna-uznemuma-marketings-pardosana - The supporting material for development of entrepreneur skills related to marketing. http://www.enterprisingself.com/lv/frontpage - Materials created in the frameworks of the project Enterprising Education in Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Finland 2009 – 2011 with the aim to improve andto stimulate entrepreneurship. http://www.riski.lv/public/25799.html - List of risks related to entrepreneurship. http://ocw.e-learning.lv/EK0104/lv/M_Volodina/Prezentacijas_pps/3_Uznemejdarbibas%20riski.pps Presentation about risks of entrprenurship. Poland http://coachu.pl/669-umiejetnosci_przywodcy.htm - At the following address are located a collection of articles on leadership skills. There are also paid courses that use the coaching method. Bibliography - “Coaching”, Jenny Rogers; - “Coaching”, Julie Starr; - „Coaching - trening efektywności”, John Whitmore; - „Myślenie pytaniami”, Marilee Adams. Greece http://bit.ly/M07GPq - How to develop your entrepreneurial plans (guide) http://www.elearning4all.gr/course/category.php?id=6 - Free online course on entrepreneurial skills https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=19&cad=rja&ved=0CGAQFjAIOAo&url =http%3A%2F%2Fmke.teilar.gr%2Fbusiness%2Fepixeirimatikotita-kainotomia1%2Fitem%2Fdownload%2F37.html&ei=Pr77UcrqI8Pf4QSV4YDADg&usg=AFQjCNHHeQ7SsGvIrhOh9QcKXJD n_Xt67g - Powerpoint Presentation with Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skills

3.4 – Integration skill Ability to focus the work of more individuals or working units on the achievement of a high-level common objective. It results in a combination of specific knowledge and cultural approaches to provide solutions. The integration is meant in a systemic sense, such as overcoming an approach of strict separation of business activities, from the perspective of operation management (with reference to the methods of lean design, automation technologies modular development, strategic coordination of outsourcing processes, the evolution of total quality tools).

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In addition, the concept of integration is closely related to the ability to work in a team. A working group is made up of a collection of individuals who interact with each other on a regular basis, knowing that they depend on each other and share the same goals and the same tasks. Each of them has a specific, acknowledged role under the guidance of a leader, based on the circularity of communication, preserving the well-being of the individual (climate) and at the same time pursuing the development of the individual components and of the group itself. In order to let a working group grow up over time and allow for greater collaboration between its members and their more active participation, it is necessary to upgrade from the simple interaction to a real integration, so that the participants in the group may share needs and requirements. The concrete realization of the cooperation within the group is also facilitated by the negotiation mechanism, which enables the comparison and the transition from the point of view of individuals to a common point of view, shared by the group, to best achieve the objectives. To work in team effectively, the individual needs to know how to: -integrate effectively in a network of communication and recognize the main levers of interaction in a group -compare their representation of a problem or situation with others -recognize and change their approach to personal relationships based on feedback received -recognize and control the effects of social influence on the activities of collective diagnosis and collective decision-making -use techniques of collective problem-setting -compare the different solutions to facilitate collective decision making English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCDV_50.htm - When Work Involves Socializing. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCDV_41.htm - Managing Your Emotions at Work http://www.mindtools.com, http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk and http://www.teamcoaching.pl Set of articles and exercises for self-use. Local Languages Resources Italy http://www.federica.unina.it/lettere-e-filosofia/psicologia-sociale-comunita/gruppo-lavoro/ - Slides about team working. Latvia http://izglitibasfonds.lv/lv/publikacijas/237-vadbas-stili - An article about styles of leadership provided by Latvian foundation of education. http://www.db.lv/blogi-viedokli/blogi/arta-biruma/kadu-vadibas-stilu-izveleties-sajos-ekonomiskajosapstaklos-108812 - An article in e-Newspaper Dienas Bizness about the styles of leadership. http://rigacoach.lv/aktuali/efektivu-komandu-veidosana-un-komandu-koucings - An article about team building and how coaching can support the work of team leadr. http://www.veritweet.com/event/5006/Vieslekcija.Turiba.12.03.2013 - Mediation – the way how to solve conlicts. The video lecture of Turiba University. Lecturer Ieva Ramina. http://izglitibasfonds.lv/lv/publikacijas/237-vadbas-stili - The video lecture of Turiba University. This lecture includes information how to create successful communication with clients. Lecturer - Marika Gederte. http://www.db.lv/blogi-viedokli/blogi/arta-biruma/kadu-vadibas-stilu-izveleties-sajos-ekonomiskajosapstaklos-108812 - Basic information about solution of conflicts. Psycholgy created by lecturers

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(psychotherapists) of medical further education courses. Poland http://cocreation.bblog.pl - Blog devoted entirely to issues related to Integration skills. The author is a recognized expert in the field and practitioner with experience. Bibliography -

"Ziarna Wielkości", Denis Waitley; "Do zobaczenia na szczycie" Zig Ziglar; "Magia myślenia kategoriami sukcesu”, David Schwartz . Greece

http://bit.ly/M07GPq - How to develop your entrepreneurial plans (guide) http://www.elearning4all.gr/course/category.php?id=6 - Free online course on entrepreneurial skills https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=19&cad=rja&ved=0CGAQFjAIOAo&url =http%3A%2F%2Fmke.teilar.gr%2Fbusiness%2Fepixeirimatikotita-kainotomia1%2Fitem%2Fdownload%2F37.html&ei=Pr77UcrqI8Pf4QSV4YDADg&usg=AFQjCNHHeQ7SsGvIrhOh9QcKXJD n_Xt67g - Powerpoint Presentation with Introduction to Entrepreneurial Skills Slovenia http://www.cek.ef.uni-lj.si/u_diplome/sever3146.pdf - Bachelor’s degree:

3.5 – Holistic View Ability to see specific business problems and working units (microstructures) as a whole and to consider the business organization system as an ongoing process. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.betraining.it/blog/2011/04/18/management-leadership-e-i-national-occupational-standards/ The National Occupational Standards describe the performance standards each individual has to achieve in his/her job and the skills and knowledge needed for an effective job performance. http://www.mindtools.com and http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk - Set of articles and exercises for self-use, extensive texts on the educational dimension and awareness-raising. Local Languages Resources Latvia http://www.nti.lv/lat/news/media/index.php?5447 - Material provided by Nordic training group. The material includes holistic idea that work collective has to be a team. http://www.slideshare.net/martinsgineitis/komandas-darbs-viens-par-visiem-visi-par-vienu - The

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Experience summary about team leading of Martiņš Gineitis. Poland http://www.foley.com.pl, www.joymanne.org and http://sciezkami-zycia.prv.pl - Set of articles and exercises for self-use, extensive texts on the educational dimension and awareness-raising. Bibliography -

Andrew J. DuBrin "Moc samodyscypliny" David Schwartz "Magia myślenia kategoriami sukcesu" Florence Littauer "Odważ się marzyć" i wszystkie inne! Norman V. Peale "Moc pozytywnego myślenia", "Możesz, jeśli myślisz, że możesz". Greece Slovenia

http://www.aktualno.biz/2012/05/sistemsko-in-holisticno-razmisljanje.html - Interview with links and articles. http://www.rmc.si/vsebina-za-dinam%C4%8Dni-blok/holisti%C4%8Dno-upravljanje-kakovosti-z-modelomodli%C4%8Dnosti-in-s-samoocenjevanjem.html and http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09650790000200108 - articles, books

3.6 - Time perspective (strategic view) Trend to grasp the evolution of the markets and the institutional environment in the time dimension and balance short-term feedback with long-term results, as well as the ability to update the objectives set up. English and Multilanguage Resources http://www.mindtools.com and http://www.skillsyouneed.co.uk - Extensive texts on the educational dimension and awareness-raising in Polish and English language. http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_HTE.htm - Tools/articles/techniques. Local Languages Resources Italy http://www.cambiolavoro.com/test/tempo/tempo.html - Time management http://www.cui.org/corso/95/ITA/24/Time-&-Personal-Management---CORSO-GRATUITO-On-Line - Free on line course of Time and Personal Management. Latvia

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http://www.lu.lv/par/mediji/video/lekcijas/2010/macisasnas-veidi/ - Video lecture provided by Latvian University about learning styles. Lecture includes information how to organize one’s own study/learning process in most productive way (study environment, time management, obstacles of successful learning process). http://www.lu.lv/par/mediji/video/lekcijas/2013/freivalds-ergonomika/principi/ - Video lecture provided by Latvian University. Lecturer includes information hoe to use ergonomical principles in organisation. http://www.reitingi.lv/lv/news/sabiedriba/24003.htm - An article about time management by Susan Ward. http://www.webmarketing.lv/laika-menedzments-planosana - E-publication about time management. http://www.citadel.lv/lat/news/work/index.php?13984 - E-publication about time management. Poland http://www.teamcoaching.pl - Extensive texts on the educational dimension and awareness-raising in Polish and English language. Bibliography - “Coaching”, Jenny Rogers; - "Psychocybernetyka", Bobbe Sommer; - "NLP - wstęp do programowania neurolingwistycznego" Joseph O'Connor, John Seymour. Greece http://www.e-boss.gr/eboss/articles/article.jsp?context=103&articleid=9096 - Article on what is strategic thinking in the enterprises. http://career.duth.gr/cms/?q=node/54749#.UfvBHJI250w - Article on the importance of strategic thinking http://bit.ly/M0cCUH - The steps for strategic view. Slovenia http://www.aktualno.biz/2012/05/sistemsko-in-holisticno-razmisljanje.html - Interview with links and articles. http://www.rmc.si/vsebina-za-dinam%C4%8Dni-blok/holisti%C4%8Dno-upravljanje-kakovosti-z-modelomodli%C4%8Dnosti-in-s-samoocenjevanjem.html and http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09650790000200108 - articles, books.

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Managerial skills