STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, TUTOR: Isabelle Jooste Dev Golding 588 142
Table of Contents INTRODUCTION PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION 6 A.1. Design Futuring Case Study 1 9 A.1. Design Futuring Case Study 2 10 A.2. Design Computation Case Study 1 12 A.2. Design Computation Case Study 2 14 A.3. Composition/ Generation Case Study 1 16 A.3. Composition/ Generation Case Study 2 18 A.4. Conclusion 20 A.5. Learning outcomes 22 A.6. Appendix Algorithmic Sketches 24 References
Coming into this semester I am now starting the final year of my undergraduate degree with a double major in architecture and construction. Completing my degree part time has lead me along a different path than most students. I have now been in the construction industry for 6 years and have been completing my degree concurrently while working full time as a project manager for a specialist metalworker. My work has seen me be involved in some of Victoria’s most significant projects including the construction of Terminal 4 and Pier G at Melbourne Airport, redeveloping RMIT’s academic precinct, construction two of the recent MPavilions, (one for Sean Godsell and one for Rem Koolhaas and his studio OMA), and most recently completing, the extension to Victoria’s parliament house.
FIG.1: DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTS, SEMESTER 1, 2016
Although working in the construction field, ultimately i would like to move towards sustainable architecture. My interest is primarily focussed around the craft of building and the environmental systems that impact the built environment. As a result, i have limited digital design experience with my only real xplorations being with AutoCAD. With this being said, I look forward to exploring the opportunities that computational design opens as well as gaining a broader understanding into its growing role in sustainable design. The course of passive exploration its broader
has opened my eyes to the changing paradigm and sustainable design. I look forward to the of computational design and learning about impact within the field of architectural design
FIG.2: DESIGN STUDIO EARTH, SEMESTER 1, 2017
PART A CONCEPTUALISATION
A.1. Design Futuring Case Study 1 Barangaroo Headland Reserve PWP Landscape Architecture, in association with Johnson Pilton Walker (JPW)
(Fry, 2009) suggests that “it is essential for humanity to consider both the present state of the world and the notion of design, revamping both concepts and ultimately combining them. Design has to be tuned in an attempt to address the dialectic sustainment” Barangaroo Headland Reserve is a physical manifestation of these ideas and signals a realisation in Australian architectural thought. The project reflects on the process of colonisation and acknowledges that the design theory of twentieth century in the local area was inherently flawed.
Barangaroo was opened in 2015 and is the first stage of the renewal project for Sydney’s CDB. Originally a hunting ground for the Aboriginal Cadigal people, the site had progressively been developed since 1830 with the original sandstone ridges gradually being cut back and replaced by sheets of concrete as the area was turned into a ship yard. As Sydney’s harbour continued to evolve and commercial liners grew in size, the docking yards were relocated and the site became less relevant until in 2003 the New South Wales Government earmarked the site for redevelopment.
FIG.4: AERIAL VIEW OF THE BARANGAROO HEADLAND RESERVE
FIG.5: AERIAL VIEW OF THE SANDSTONE FORESHORE
FIG3: AERIAL VIEW OF BARANGAROO COMPARING THE SITE PRE AND POST SITE THE SITE PRE AND POST DEVELOPMENT
Accepting that the present state of design was flawed, the project transcends the capitalist notions that had plagued the area over the past century and expands architectural thought within Australia. Radical shifts in socio-political attitudes are embodied within the design, with considered responses to indigenous heritage a prominent design feature. Barangaroo ties together political sentiments of indigenous respect, socio-cultural attitudes of inclusion, and blends these with technological advancements in design and construction to instigate change.
FIG.6: DIAGRAM OF SANDSTONE BLOCK PLACEMENT
The project was radical in its proposal, but its significance is its construction. To move past the realm of ideation and have the concept fabricated in concrete reality signals the first significant step in realigning architectural thought in Australia. The project will continue to inform surrounding developments and enrich the local area but ultimately its value lies in its discourse from architectural convention. 1. Fry, T. (2009). Design futuring : sustainability, ethics and new practice. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
A.1. Design Futuring Case Study 2 Walking City Archigram (Ron Herron) Speculative everything contends that design can be used as “a tool to create not only things but ideas, it speculates about possible futures”1. No architectural firm of the twentieth century stimulated this theory in their work better than Archigram. Although Archigram’s key works such as walking city were never built, they provoked important debates surrounding architecture, society and technology. Walking city contributed to the field of architectural though by questioning modernity’s role in altering societal values, transportation and its effect on urbanism. Their radical works presented fantasies about potential futures that stemmed from abstract mediums and offered alternatives to the rigid dogma of traditional thinking. In contrast to Barangaroo, Walking City was never built however the significance of the theory driven ideas that it presented still hold their place in history. As such, walking city is still regarded today as a key project of the twentieth century for its divergence from the glamourism of modernity and its influence in Metabolist works is clear. Walking city would demonstrate that the subjective nature of design can evolve and explore unforeseen fantasies. Archigram could see past the superficial influence of modernism and return architecture to an outcome driven medium. Ultimately, Archigram would both correct and broaden the path of architectural theory which would open new horizons for designers. By breaking down conventional ideas expanding architectural thought, walking city would instigate change.
1. Dunne, A. (2013). Speculative everything : design, fiction, and social dreaming . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
FIG.7: ARCHIGRAM, WALKING CITY, 1964
A.2. Design Computation Case Study 1 International Terminal Waterloo, London, UK Grimshaw architects
Grimshawâ€™s work on the international terminal at waterloo station in London clearly demonstrates the benefits of embracing design computation within the conceptual development of a project. Due to the restrictions of the project, the building form ad to be contoured to respond to difficult geometry of the site. The roof structure was complex and constructed from a series of 36 different arches. Each arch was configured the same way however each arch was geometrically different as they become contoured around the restrictions of the site.
FIG.11: BUILDING SECTION SHOWING THE GEOMETRY OF THE ROOF TRUSS
To counter this, parametric modelling tools were used to insert underlying design logic that would respond to these restrictions and generate the lofted form. Grimshaw were able to take the developed logic and apply it to other building elements such as the structure and cladding. Adopting parametric modelling tools allowed iterative refinement during the design process that would provide Grimshaw with the power to choreograph several highly complex interdependencies. It was this approach that profoundly afforded Grimshaw the opportunity to explore an infinite amount of design options that otherwise would not have proven possible through traditional media.
FIG.12: ISOMETRIC DRAWING HIGHLIGHTING THE CURVE IN THE BUILDINGS FORM
FIG.8: (SCALE MODEL OF THE INTERNATIONAL TERMINAL WATERLOO, LONDON
Grimshaw have demonstrated the way in which computation has affected their design practices with the studio since extending its influence internationally on the back of other computational projects such as Southern Cross Station in Melbourne and Pulkovo Airport St. Petersburg, Russia. The firm has embraced the incoming technologies such as laser cutting, CNC routing, and robotics in their designs but importantly have expanded their architectural language to explore organic and curvilinear geometries. This is coupled with the evidence and performancebased solutions that were tested on Waterloo to establish what is now an integral part of Grimshawâ€™s design systems.
FIG.9: INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COMPLEX ROOF TRUSS
FIG.10: THE BUILDING FORM WAS GENERATED TO RESPOND TO THE CONTOURS OF THE SITE
A.2. Design Computation Case Study 2 Elytra Filament Pavilion Achim Menges
Expanding on performance-based research, The Elytra Filament Pavilion demonstrates the way in which design and technology have been fused to redefine the design process. Constructed from 40 hexagonal cells and densely wound fibres, the project was conceived to showcase the potential for robotic based fabrication, algorithmic modelling and material exploration. The structure is the result of modelling intersecting construction technology, science and design.
algorithmic modelling but deliberately shows restraint in the building form to highlight the material exploration of the project. Perhaps the most significant development of the project the its symbolic return to fabrication and material driven thinking. It is this process and systems thinking that can re-define practice by supporting a new logics in architectural theory.
The project embraces the incoming technologies of robotics and digital fabrication and used this as the base for the works proposal. Experimentation with materials is also a key driver for the project and possibly most important is the fusion of all three fields of thought â€“ design, fabrication and materials thinking. The Elytra Filament pavilion shows a small sample size of the range of conceivable geometries that are achievable through FIG.14: THE ELYTRA FILAMENT PAVILION
FIG.13: ROBOTS WERE USED TO FABRICATE THE STRUCTURES CELLS
FIG.15: THE HEXAGONAL STRUCTURE IS ENCASE WITH MECHANICALLY PLACED FIBRES
A.3. Composition/Generation Case Study 1 National Library of Israel Herzog & de Meuron
The weeks lecture introduced the concepts of composition and generation and their role within design. Traditional examples of formal compositions were explored and their ties to building typology were made apparent. In particular, the formal compositional language of institutional buildings was covered and their link to balanced and symmetrical design were highlighted. The national library of Israel by Herzog & de Meuron (HDM) continues this language, but through computational design they have allowed the language to evolve. Respectfully developing the design, HDM kept the traditional framework of simple yet symmetrical geometries and combined this with parametric modelling to progress the idiom into the twenty-first century. The curvilinear form, central oculus, and tessellated faĂ§ade all speak coherently as design elements for the building and neatly bring together a series of conceptual ideas that on their own arenâ€™t ground breaking, but together, speak volumes to parametric modellings value in altering the discourse of modern design. Not all parametric designs need to shatter what architecture is thought to be, but It is through these simple explorations that the true value of algorithmic thinking can begin to be broadly understood.
FIG.16: TESSELLATED PATTERN OF THE FACADE COMPLIMENTS TO THE CURVILINEAR FORM OF THE BUILDING
A.3. Composition/Generation Case Study 2 Serpentine Summer House 2016 Barkow Leibinger
In complete contrast to the formal composition of the National Library of Israel is the fluid form of the summer house pavilion of 2016 by Barkow Leibinger (B&L). The project was conceived as a formal exploration that investigates the possibilities of self-generating, free form ribbons. B&L used a combination of traditional form generating methods and computational methods to explore the distinct qualities of a relatively untried geometry. Conceptualising was completed intuitively with hand drawings being completed with the pencil continuously moving across the sketchpad without being lifted but form generation would occur via algorithmic sketches. Matrices were constructed that allowed exploratory comparisons to be made where the interactions between elements and complex interrelationships could be evaluated. Computational design removed the traditional barrier of representation and enabled a greater breadth of sophisticated design options to be explored. The resulting design is a testament to the distinct qualities that algorithmic modelling is capable of opening up to the designer. In this instance, computational design not only supplemented the intuitive design of the architect but developed it into reality.
FIG.18: EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC SHOWING THE FORMAL COMPONENTS OF THE PAVILION
FIG.20 : SERPENTINE SUMMER HOUSE 2016
FIG.17: INITIAL EXPLORATIONS ADOPTED TRADITIONAL MEDIA TO EXPLORE FORM
FIG.19: ITERATIONS WERE EXPLORED VIA ALGORITHMIC MODELLING
A.5. Learning outcomes
Part A of studio air explored the emergence of parametric design and its role within architectural discourse. Through the analysis of the precedents in can be concluded that algorithmic modelling is becoming a prominent part of design thinking in the field of architectural theory, and it will continue to influence design methods moving forward.
The research completed to this point has highlighted a number of key elements that were completely new to me and will continue to be explored throughout the semester. In particular I will continue to develop my grasshopper skills, and I hope that as I become more confident with the program I can fully embrace the breadth of design options that algorithmic modelling opens up.
Case study research highlighted the advantages in algorithmic modelling such as accelerated work-flows, process driven thinking, and improved problem solving capabilities. Generative design has transformed the architectâ€™s role in solutions thinking, and allowed a greater breadth of options to be explored and considered. It is important to note that the intuitive whim of the architect still lies at the heart of problem solving and building composition but it cannot be ignored that parametric design has removed the conventional barriers of graphic representation and made a significant step toward shifting architectural thinking in the modern age.
Use of algorithmic modelling for my designing environments project could have proved invaluable. My early explorations for the subject involved trying to simulate randomness with physical models. The use of matchsticks was adopted as a form finding exploration and upon reflection, this greatly reduced my ability to generate a broader range of outcomes. Not only could generative design have accelerated the exploration process and removed the barrier of media representation but it could have improved the assembly process which at the time, was purely whimsical and not systematic in any way.
Through its implementation, the global community will continue to benefit from enhanced, tailored and distinct outcomes that algorithmic modelling has opened up to the field of architecture.
EXPLORATION OF CURVE INTERSECTIONS
A.6. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches The introduction to computational design has been stimulating and having this paired with the case study research has highlighted to me how parametric design is being adopted in contemporary practices. The research has extended the technical applications of the tutorials and demonstrated the breadth in which designers have applied computational design to their projects, whether it be in ideation, rationalisation, systems thinking or materials prototyping.
INITIAL EXPLORATION INTO BOX MORPH
FIG.1: (EXPLAIN HERE & REFERENCE AT THE END OF YOUR DOCUMENT)
EXPLORATION INTO VORONOI TOOL
INCREASED DENSITY VIA SURFACE DIVDE TOOL
FIG.1: (EXPLAIN HERE & REFERENCE AT THE END OF YOUR DOCUMENT)
SUBTRACTIVE EXPLORATION INTO VORONOI
THIS ITERATION EXPLORES THE MODIFICATION TO THE BOX GEOMETRY WITH BTH DENSITY AND PROJECTIONS INCREASED TO EXAGERATE BOTH THE TACTILE SURFACE AND CURVILINEAR FORM
FIG.1: (EXPLAIN HERE & REFERENCE AT THE END OF YOUR DOCUMENT)
DECAY IS MAXIMISED
The sketches that have been completed to date already demostrate some of the benefits of computational design such as: •
the workflow process for ideation has been accelerated with multiple iterations of species easily generated and compared via state capture tools
generative methods of composition have been used to explore unforeseen and unexpected outcomes
systems and fabrication thinking have been explored through explorations into intersections and mesh geometries
Although the learning curve has been steep, the tutorials really placed an emphasis on progression rather than outcomes which was helpful in evaluating the course content and aided the exploration of the software. The technical knowledge that is being obtained through the tutorials has already opened new fields of possibilities for design that I had never explored before. After establishing this base insight, I’m excited to continue to develop my knowledge throughout the semester and look forward to continuing to investigate further opportunities.
Dunne, A. (2013). Speculative everything : design, fiction, and social dreaming . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Figure 1: Golding D, Designing Environments Final Presenation, 2016.
Fry, T. (2009). Design futuring : sustainability, ethics and new practice. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
Figure 2: Golding D, Design Studio Earth Final Presenation, 2017.
Kalay, Y. E. (2004). Architectureâ€™s new media : principles, theories, and methods of computer-aided design. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Figures 3-6: Landscape Architecture Magazine. (2016, November). Retrieved August 9th, 2018, from https://www.barangaroo.com/see-and-do/the-stories/sandstone-spectacular/
Kestelier, B. P. (2013). Computation works : the building of algorithmic thought. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 7 : Archigram, Walking City. 1964. Retrieved August 3rd, 2018 from http:// www.archigram.net/projects_pages/walking_city_5.html
Kolarevic, B. (2003). Architecture in the digital age : design and manufacturing . New York, NY: Spon Press. Landscape Architecture Magazine. (2016, November). Retrieved August 9th, 2018, from https:// www.barangaroo.com/see-and-do/the-stories/sandstone-spectacular/
Figures 8-13 : International Terminal Waterloo. Grimshaw Global. Retrieved August 4th, 2018 from https://grimshaw.global/projects/gallery/?i=227&p=93001_N149 Figures 13-15 : Elytra Filament Pavilion, Achim Menges. Retrieved August 3rd, 2018 from http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=19693
Oxman, R. O. (2014). Theories of the digital in architecture. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York: Routledge. Figure 16 : National Library of Israel, Herzog De Meuron. Retrieved August 5th, 2018 from https://www. herzogdemeuron.com/index/projects/complete-works/426-450/426-national-library-of-israel/image.html Figures 17-20 : Serpentine Summer House 2016, Barkow Leibinger. Retrieved August 5th, 2018 from https://www.archdaily.com/790032/serpentine-summer-house-barkow-leibinger/576a 8629e58ecec7870000d7-serpentine-summer-house-barkow-leibinger-concept