ISSN 1614-4600 · SEP · OCT £12.50 · US$ 24.50 · €18
Review of Architecture and Construction Details · Facades · Vol. 2014 · 5
∂ Review of Architecture Vol. 5, 2014 • Facades Editorial office: E-mail: email@example.com Tel.: +49 (0) 89 38 16 20-57 Christian Schittich (editor-in-chief) Sabine Drey, Andreas Gabriel, Frank Kaltenbach, Julia Liese, Michaela Linder, Thomas Madlener, Peter Popp, Edith Walter, Heide Wessely; Sophie Karst, Christa Schicker (freelance assistant) Dejanira Ornelas Bitterer, Marion Griese, Emese M. Köszegi, Simon Kramer (drawings) Product editors: Meike Regina Weber (editor-in-chief) Katja Reich, Hildegard Wänger, Tim Westphal, Jenny Clay Elise Feiersinger (pp. 552–561, 568 – 618); Marc Selway (pp. 620 – 649) (English translations) Advertising: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-34 UK Representative Advertising: Peter L. Townsend Email: email@example.com Tel.: +49 (0)157-85 05 95 32 Fax: +48 (0)89-38 16 20-99 Distribution and marketing: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Subscription contact and customer service: Vertriebsunion Meynen Grosse Hub 10 65344 Eltville, Germany E-mail: email@example.com Tel.: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-211 Fax: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-212 Publisher and editorial office: Institut für internationale ArchitekturDokumentation GmbH & Co. KG Hackerbrücke 6 80335 Munich Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Fax: +49 (0) 89-39 86 70 www.detail.de/english
The French and Italian translations are available for every issue and can be downloaded as PDF files: www.detail.de/translation
Discussion 552 Editorial 554 Interiority and Multi-dimensional Facades – an Interview with Wiel Arets Roland Pawlitschko
Reports 560 Small but Beautiful – the Sancaklar Mosque in Istanbulow Olaf Bartels 562 Sky Reflector-Net for the Fulton Center in New York 566 Books, Exhibitions
Documentation 568 Shop Facade in London 6a Architects, London 572 Art Academy in Glasgow Steven Holl Architects, New York City 577 Allianz Headquarters in Wallisellen Wiel Arets Architects, Amsterdam 582 Apartment Building in Paris Babled Nouvet Reynaud architectes, Paris 586 Garden Pavilion in Basel Christ & Gantenbein Architekten, Basel 589 Service Facilities of the SBB in Zurich EM2N, Zurich 592 Production and Office Building in Munich tillicharchitektur, Munich 596 Cultural Centre in Joué-lès-Tours Moussafir Architects, Paris 599 Hospitalhof in Stuttgart LRO Lederer Ragnarsdóttir Oei, Stuttgart 606 Residence in Krailling Unterlandstättner Architekten, Munich
Technology 612 Functional and Energy-saving Potential in Windows and Apertures – Interview with Ulrich Sieberath Roland Pawlitschko 616 Residential Tower with Turn-and-tilt-lift Windows – Smooth Facade with Balcony Ambience Klaus Lother, Frank Kaltenbach
Products 620 Facades 630 Anti-glare Shielding 634 Solar PV and Solar Thermal 638 CAD and Software 644 Landscaping 648 On the spot 650 Service 656 Persons and organizations involved in the planning • Contractors and suppliers 658 Programme • Photo credits • Editorial and publishing data
Facades The effect created by facades is by no means limited to the building exterior. As a rule, their colours, forms, surface qualities and structures also have an impact on the appearance of the interiors. In this issue we present buildings with a range of exceptional facades, some of which frame views, while others exploit contrasts or have moving or movable components. At the Allianz Headquarters in Wallisellen, Switzerland, the supple fabric used in the curtains within the closed cavity facade is a foil to the regularity of the glazing. The curtains endow the office spaces with a “liveable” atmosphere. In another project, the finely articulated cast iron elements of a London shop facade ennoble an existing brick building. And at a residence near Munich, the coarse stucco surfaces and wood-clad cut-outs are composed in a manner that causes the inside and outside realms to become interlocked.
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Interiority and Multi-dimensional Facades – an Interview with Wiel Arets
It is not without reason that Weil Arets is currently among the most sought-after architects. His buildings have been realised throughout Europe; in his designs he combines modern rigour and forceful gestures with sensual surfaces and a great variety of relationships between the different spaces – without losing sight of the human scale or the context in which the building is located. With the completion in 1993 of the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Maastricht, Arets’ office – founded in the same city in 1984 – first became known to a larger audience. In that design, the facades’ large fields of glass blocks provided a refreshing continuity between interior and exterior. In contrast, at the
University Library in Utrecht (2004), the building envelope consists of black concrete walls and glazed elements – both bearing the same bas relief papyrus pattern. One of his most recent buildings is the new Allianz Suisse Headquarters in Zurich (see page 577: the curtains contained within the closed-cavity facade have attracted international attention. DETAIL: Which ideas have the most impact on your projects’ building envelopes? Wiel Arets: First of all, I don’t see the facade as a thin skin separating inside from outside, but rather as a “thick layer” through which the outdoors can extend deep into a building. This layer can even reach from one side of the building to the other. For the extension to the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Maastricht, for example, we used the same material for the facade and the interiors: glass blocks. And it also becomes evident at the University Library in Utrecht that there is no distinction between external and internal surfaces – just seamless transitions. DETAIL: You’ve used the term “interiority” in this context. What does it refer to? Wiel Arets: I don’t believe in a clear separation between inside and outside. “Outside” doesn’t exist for me. Because even when we are in a city, we are inside a city. In the end we are always inside. If I were to define “facade” as building enclosure, I would have to accept the notion of inside-outside. Generally speaking, architects must grapple with all of the spaces in which humans spend time. From this standpoint, interior walls are also facades. The Villa Rotonda is a good example of this: when you are standing in the central space of this wonderful Palladio building, you are, of course, looking at its interiors, but at the same time, the walls are covered with images of cities – exterior and interior is one and the same. And when you stand on the terrace and look through the window, you’re seeing from outside to outside, or, depending on your philosophy, from inside to inside. DETAIL: Cities are just as complex constructs as interiors. Both are based on elaborate
functional stipulations and adjacencies. Don’t facades – for example of the Allianz Building in Zurich – have to be even more complex? Wiel Arets: In my opinion, this facade in particular is highly complex. The multi-layered skin alone has a thickness of nearly 30 cm. But the building’s history is the key to understanding it. When we began work on the project at the scale of the city, neither the future users nor the function had been determined – and this applied to both the 6-storey structure and the high-rise. The four bridges between the two buildings didn’t enter the picture until it became clear that the insurance corporation would be the sole tenant. DETAIL: At first glance the building appears rigid and smooth, especially on account of the repetitive facade elements. However, the closer one comes, the more visible the spatial and structural details become. When you stand right in front of the building, the facade seems very sensual … Wiel Arets: … it’s similar to a portrait photo: showing all of an individual’s different facets in a single image is hardly possible. But the closer you get, the more stories you can read in a face. Moreover, for the Allianz Building, achieving a certain ambiguity was important to us – not least of all because one day many people will live here in the Richti District – that the facade not be immediately identifiable as office facade. Regarding the effect of the building at the urban scale, we also had in mind from the beginning that apartments could also be placed behind the curtain facade (ills. 3, 4). I don’t believe in a strict separation between dwelling, working and leisure, anyway. I prefer to call it “living”. Instead of thinking in certain functional categories, we should instead be creating spaces in which we simply enjoy living – spaces with leeway for individuality – regardless of how large the building is. DETAIL: This philosophy explains why from a distance the four residential towers in Amsterdam-Osdorp and the E’Tower in Eindhoven might very well be taken for office buildings (ills. 11, 12). Is there no fundamental differ-
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Roland Pawlitschko conducted the interview in Wiel Arets’ office in Amsterdam.
1, 2 A cademy of Fine Arts and Design, Maastricht,1993 Interior/perspectival design sketch 3, 4 Allianz Suisse Headquarters, Wallisellen 2014 5 University Library Utrecht, 2004
ence between facades of residential buildings and office buildings? Wiel Arets: No. That is apparent in classical architecture. Until a few hundred years ago, buildings always also served as housing – and that is precisely how they look. Later different categories were created for different functions. At its core, however, that does not correspond to human nature. That is why I consider it wrong when an important aspect of life – work – leads to mono-functional urban sectors. DETAIL: Regarding functional structure and design, what must a state-of-the-art facade be capable of? Wiel Arets: Filtering light is probably one of a building envelope’s most important tasks. The flow of light and heat through the envelope must be controllable. In this context, glass has great potential – and this potential is far from being exhausted. For example, in the future, facades equipped with new technology will be able to communicate even more profoundly with interior spaces and with the city space. In this way completely new types of adjacencies can be brought about. But another important aspect is also the interaction with the building’s interior. That is why we worked for two years with the manufacturers to develop a suspended ceiling that also serves as interior facade (ill. 4). The micro-perforated ceiling, which supplies fresh air and extracts exhaust air, performs not only an acoustic task, but, in combination with the closed-cavity facade (CCF), also controls the room climate. DETAIL: How does the development process for such specialised facade and ceiling elements – which are not only functional but also highly aesthetic – work? Wiel Arets: We didn’t divide up the work and separately develop a facade and a suspended ceiling. Instead the two were treated in parallel. And we worked with firms whose specialists understood that it’s not a matter limited to each separate trade, but a common effort in which the result will have 5 considerable impact on how the building
Interiority and Multi-dimensional Facades – an Interview with Wiel Arets
6, 7 V’ House, Maastricht, 2013 8 –10 Jellyfish House, Marbella, 2013 Longitudinal section scale 1:400
functions, as well as on its appearance. The fact that the persons involved only concentrate on their own trade instead of communicating with each other and cooperating has always bothered me. DETAIL: Which means do you use to foster communication among the different persons involved in constructing a building? Wiel Arets: Many colleagues believe that computer programs such as Building Information Modelling are sufficient for good coordination. But problems can only be solved when there is a different type of thinking from the very start. For example, all of those involved must first understand the basic
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idea of the design and identify with it. Only in this manner can the different building components, which are made up of so many accrued layers, form a coherent whole in the end. Even buildings that look very simple are made up of a highly complex interplay of individual layers. DETAIL: How do you convince consultants and firms to internalise this basic concept? Wiel Arets: We can only achieve something new if we continuously pull each other out of the “comfort zone”, of our routines. In other words: the building services consultants should not restrict themselves to their field. Instead they should feel that they are also
part of the architecture or of the structural engineering. We live in a time in which multitasking is as much as part of our daily lives as hybrid thinking is. DETAIL: Please tell us more about the development of the closed-cavity facade for the Allianz Headquarters in Wallisellen. Wiel Arets: Many options were available to us at the beginning of the design process. We came up with the integrated-curtain concept relatively early in the process – in effect, right after it became clear that the new structure should not look like a conventional office building. After initial talks with a facade planner, we approached
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Sky Reflector-Net for the Fulton Center in New York Fred A. Bernstein
Artist/ Designer: James Carpenter Design Associates, New York Architects: Grimshaw Architects, New York
In Lower Manhattan, just east of the World Trade Center site, nine subway lines converge, linked by a web of dark underground passageways. The network of tunnels, near Fulton Street and Broadway, has never been described as welcoming. But that’s about to change, with the completion of a transportation and retail hub known as the Fulton Center. The most visible part of the center, designed by Grimshaw Architects under the supervision of Arup, is a new building containing curved stairways down to the subway platforms. A skylight was always part of the building’s design. But how could it be made to deliver the maximum amount of light to the below-ground portions of the station? Enter James Carpenter, an artist and designer who uses light to enliven the built environment. For the transit authority’s Arts & Design Program, his studio devised a 79-foot-tall installation. It consists of 952 diamond-shaped aluminium panels suspended from a net of steel cables in a hyperbolicparabaloid hourglass formation. This is no mere artwork, but a huge, architecturally scaled and technically precise creation. Called, appropriately, Sky Reflector-Net, it has been lauded for the astonishing way it captures light and seems to fold the sky into the station. An arresting composition that changes in response to shifts in sun position and cloud formations, it is likely to become one of Manhattan’s most photographed
Section • Building plan scale 1:750 Isometric drawing sky reflectornet key elements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ø 16 m oculus ring top tie back: Ø 16 mm stainless steel rod top tension ring: Ø 12 mm rod paired cable net with aluminium panels cantilever beams (level 3) bottom tension ring: Ø 12 mm rod Total bottom tie back, rod Ø 16 mm cantilever beams (level 2) columns (level 2)
7 8 9
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Sky Reflector-Net for the Fulton Center in New York
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rows 1, 2: 20 % open area
rows 7, 8: 32 % open area rows 11, 12: 40 % open area
rows 15, 16, 17: 48 % open area
Fred Bernstein has degrees in architecture from Princeton University and law from NYU and writes about both subjects. Born on Long Island, he lives in New York City.
sights. But even where the artwork itself is invisible, its effect is powerful; light reflected onto subterranean surfaces becomes a beacon and locating device. For both its beauty and its contribution to wayfinding, the New York Times has called the installation – which officially opens to the public in October 2014 – “magical.” The magic was 10 years in the making; as the design of the Fulton Center changed, Carpenter’s installation had to change with it. Initially, a glass dome was to top the building. With a redesign of the building, the dome became an opaque truncated cone containing offices and mechanical spaces. Working with engineers Schlaich Bergermann and Partner, James Carpenter Design Associates created a lightweight and costeffective net of 6-mm steel cables stretched between upper and lower steel rings – respectively 53 and 73 feet in diameter. Where the cables intersect, they support cross-shaped connectors to which the aluminum panels are bolted. The panels have a “scatter gloss” finish, devised by the designer, which allows them to reflect and subtly diffuse 90 % to 95 % of the light that reaches them. They also have hundreds of small perforations, which decrease in frequency from the bottom to the top of the installation. Overall, the panels are 20 % open at the top and 48 % open at the bottom. That variation, as well as subtle folds at the midpoint of each panel, means the reflections of the sky will always be variegated, even when the sky itself is uniform. Thanks to their finish, their perforations and their angles, the aluminium panels direct light deep into the station. An array of prismatic glass blades designed by Grimshaw Architects shines even more light onto the reflective surfaces, and from there to where it is most needed. At night, the entire installation is lit from front and back, replacing reflections of the sky with subtle lighting effects. To the architects the goal of the project was “to use light to create a great civic room”. That great civic room is now the portal not just to an underground station but to an island of the designer’s own making: an
island of daylight that will give commuters a sense of the passage of time – in both hours and seasons. The project designer Richard Kress notes that station’s peak hours are early morning and late afternoon and these are when the Sky Reflector-Net captures the most sky color and sky variation. And it will remind commuters of nature’s presence within the dense urban environment. Sky Reflector-Net is hardly the first Manhattan attraction devised by James Carpenter, the recipient of a MacArthur “genius” award and a one-time colleague of glass artist Dale Chihuly. In 2004, the Time Warner Center opened with a window-wall that allowed unusually clear views to and from Columbus Circle; to avoid thick frames, Carpenter had hung glass sheets from cables. A few years later he designed the shimmering metal base and crystalline glass facades of 7 World Trade Center, a building that makes the neighboring structures look crude by comparison. Now he is working on a 350-foot wall for the retail component of Midtown Manhattan’s Hudson Yards development. And his work extends far beyond New York; he is responsible for the redesign of the Israel Museum, in Jerusalem, and the recladding of a 1960s office tower in Sydney, among many other projects. The New York project is his largest using optical aluminum. The panels were shaped and lasercut in Germany by Durlum. Their perforations serve a practical purpose; they would permit smoke “purge” in an emergency – just one of many ways the installation meets tough performance standards. The cable system was manufactured by TriPyramid Structures of Westford, Massachusetts. After being hung from a crane, for testing, the net was collapsed and trucked to the lower Manhattan site. It took just two weeks to attach the net to the building, and another four weeks to bolt on the numerically-coded aluminum panels. The exact cost of the project – estimated at $2 million – has not been released. What is clear is that Carpenter has given New York a lot of bang, and beauty, for its buck.
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London Design Festival Over nine days in September, the London Design Festival features hundreds of events showcasing London’s pivotal role in global design. The Festival is both a cultural and a commercial event. The programme ranges from major international exhibitions to trade events and installations to talks and seminars, from product launches to receptions, private views and parties. Over 300 events and installations will be on offer across the capital, from a programme at the Victoria and Albert Museum to a major installation within Trafalgar Square plus over 250 partners who will participate in the Festival. A centerpiece of the Festival are the Landmark Projects: some of the world’s greatest architects and designers were commissioned to create pieces of work in some of London’s best-loved public spaces. From 13 September until 21 September 2014, London www.londondesignfestival.com Alvar Aalto The architect and designer Alvar Aalto (1898 –1976) was one of the most important proponents of organic design in the twentieth century. The exhibition provides comprehensive insights into Aalto’s oeuvre, presenting his most significant buildings, furniture and lighting designs and exploring the inspirations that shaped his work. Key themes are Aalto’s dialogue with important artists such as Hans Arp, Alexander Calder and Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, his extensive international collaborations and activities, his investigations of rational architecture, as well as his constant concern for the human factor in design. From 27 September until 01 March 2015, Vi��� tra Design Museum Gallery, Weil am Rhein www.design-museum.de Chicagoisms Throughout its history the city of Chicago has inspired myriad urban and architectural innovations. This exhibition surveys Chicago’s rich urban history and explores contemporary approaches to five Chicagoisms – key historical principles that have powered the city’s distinctive evolution. Contemporary architects were engaged to undertake their own investigations and interpretations. Developed as architectural models with corresponding manifestos, these contemporary explorations are presented with historical black-and-white photographs that are emblematic of the five Chicagoisms. Until 01 April 2015, Art Institute of Chicago www.artic.edu/
Best of DETAIL Glass
Glass is a traditional material with a rich rray of uses. It is closely related to our a cultural development: the industrial production of glass opens up new areas of application, making possible constructions with previously unimaginable spatial effects. Good glass architecture is invariably the result of successful interplay of design, technology, construction and implementation. This publication presents a compilation of DETAIL’s highlights in glazing. Alongside theoretical investigations of the subject, it offers a wealth of inspiration and constructive solutions through an extensive series of case studies.
Cecil Balmond defines the term “crossover” as the movement between idea and substance through pattern. The innovative design leads one through the various chapters of the book, each chapter showing an individual project through photographs, drawings, sketches, and plans that are accompanied by journal entries, technical details, and extended commentaries on the works shown. The designer, writer, and engineer Cecil Balmond introduces readers to his work from the last 10 years. He invites them into his creative process as he documents his most innovative projects in art, architecture, and bridge design. This book outlines more than a dozen international projects: bridges, towers, pavilions, and sculptures. The book includes among others the Weave Bridge at the University of Pennsylvania; Orbit sponsored by ArcelorMittal at the site of the 2012 Summer Olympics in London; and the CCTV tower in Beijing.
Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, Munich 2014, 200 pp., paperback, German/English ISBN 978-3-95553-202-4 US$ 69; £40; €49.00 www.detail.de/bestofglass Colour Design principles, Planning strategies, Visual communication DETAIL Practice “Colour” provides the expertise that an architect working with colour needs, covering colour theory and the laws of colour harmony through the basics of colour perception and colour’s effects, and culminates in strategies for developing consistent colour concepts in the design process. Colours in the city and country, historic observations, facts on spatial effects, materiality, and the influence of light round out the book’s theoretical section. Examples of the use of colour in interiors and on exteriors in various international projects provide inspiration for readers’ own work. Axel Buether, Institut für Internationale Architektur-Dokumentation, München 2014 120 pp., paperback ISBN 978-3-95553-208-6 US$ 66.60; £40; € 49,90 www.detail.de/p-colour
Cecil Balmond, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Prestel, Munich 2013, 720 pp., hardcover, ISBN 978-3-7913-4522-2 US$60; £55; €49,95 Wiel Arets Autobiographical References This book opens up a richly layered view of the architectural work and thinking of the Dutch architect. Underlying Arets’s practice, research and teaching is his concept of “a wonderful world“, an optimistic outlook on how the world will evolve in the next 75 years. In addition to portfolios of 60 exemplary projects and designs by his studio, this book presents 5 lectures, and 5 debates between Arets and other thinkers and practitioners, as well as an extensive series of 10 interviews with Arets. Robert McCarter, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2012 566 pp., paperback ISBN 978-3-0346-0811-4 US$ 69.95; £55; € 49.95
Shop Facade in London Architects: 6a Architects, London Team: Tom Emerson, Stephanie Macdonald, John Ross, Owen Watson, Noelia Pickard-Garcia, Johan Dehlin Facade consultants: Montresor Partnership, Wiltshire Structural engineers: Rodgers Leask, London Others involved in the project: see page 656
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Site plan scale 1:2000 3 4 5
6 4 4
Layout plan scale 1:500 1 Cast iron facade 2 Curiosity shop 3 Men’s collection 4 Fitting room 5 Bridge to neighbouring building 6 Women’s collection 7 Office lobby 8 Window display (neighbouring building)
Horizontal section Cast iron facade scale 1:50
With the facade design for the Paul Smith Store on Albemarle Street in London, 6a Architects has set up a relationship between the fabric used in the designer’s offbeat items of clothing and London’s industrial past. The cast iron skin harks back to the eighteenth century, the period in which the building was erected; at that time the material led to new branches of industry in Great Britain and, in the form of bridges, lanterns and balcony grilles, it has remained ubiquitous on the streets until the present day. The raised pattern of circles on the facade, which overlap and thereby yield a complex structure, are evidence of a playful engagement with the ornamentation of the era and brings to mind in its modern interpretation the fine fabrics upon which the British designer’s renown is based. On closer inspection the attentive flâneur will recognize Smith’s “signature” immortalised in cast iron: sketches of a cat, bird and shoe are hidden unobtrusively in the thicket of lines. Semi-circular glass vitrines serve as display windows and provide partial glimpses into the showroom of the extension to the shop. The architects found inspiration in the curves of the historic storefronts located in the vicinity. The glass was bent to shape, with minimal margin for error, in Spain and transported to England, where it was glued to the stainless-steel profiles before being mounted on the galvanised steel construction. The cast iron panels were developed using a combination of modern and traditional manufacturing methods: the geometry came about with the assistance of a computer program, and the polyurethane moulds were produced on a CNC mill, while the ductile cast iron received its final form – with raised pattern and integrated hooks – through the use of the conventional (CNC-mill produced) sand moulds. Then the panels were given time to oxidise before a tannin-based rust converter was employed to stop the process and give the cast iron its dark tone.The change in material from cast iron panel to oiled oak escape door – whose surface is an inverted play on the bas relief of the cast iron panels – is barely perceptible.
Shop Facade in London
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Horizontal sections Vertical sections scale 1:10
Art Academy in Glasgow Architects: Steven Holl Architects, New York City Team: Chris McVoy, Noah Yaffe, Dominik Sigg, Henry McKeown, Craig Tait, Paul Twynam, Vicky Batters, Ian Alexander, Dimitra Tsachrelia, Rychiee Espinosa, Scott Fredricks, Jong-Seo Lee, Jackie Luk, Fiorenza Matteoni, Ebbie Wisecarver, Peter Adams, Rychiee Espinosa Structural engineers: Ove Arup & Partners, London Others involved in the project: see page 568
Glasgow’s prominent position among Europe’s culturally attractive cities is due in no small part to its leading art academy, and in particular, to Charles Rennie Mackintosh. His Glasgow School of Art, which was partially destroyed by fire in late May, had recently been named the best building designed by a British architect in the last 175 years. The new structure, the Seona Reid Building, is across the street from the Mackintosh building; it bears the name of a former director and houses the design faculty. At first glance the facade of this new building – made of green-tinted glass elements in different degrees of transparency and translucence – appears lightweight. However, the skin cloaks a concrete load-bearing structure – a foil to the clearly structured facade of Mackintosh’s masterpiece. In addition, the west side incorporates the adjacent brick building. Steven Holl’s design is characterised by the orchestration of light. Three 25-metre-deep cylindrical shafts oriented southward penetrate the entire volume and supply daylight to the building’s innermost spaces. Moreover, with a diameter of about 6 metres they make an important contribution to the air circulation inside the building. Ateliers with specific light requirements and other classrooms are situated on the north facade – along the oblique glass surfaces. The offices, cafeteria and presentation spaces, in contrast, occupy the southern side of the building. The different areas are linked by ramps with step-shaped undersides. Because integrated anchors with point-fixed glazing were employed, the fasteners of the curtain facade, with acid-etched, coated glass and ventilated cavity, are not visible in the seam pattern. The 2.73 metre wide and 1.35 metre high panels furnish a non-glossy surface – free of reflections and mirrored images. Only when the sun is particularly strong does the skin appear more opaque and tends toward a shade of white. At dawn and dusk the building’s visage changes: the window surfaces, which are concealed within the homogeneous cloak, become visible and give the building a soft glow.
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Art Academy in Glasgow
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Vertical section Horizontal sections scale 1:20
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ventilated facade: mm laminated safety glass + 6 3.2 mm interlayer + 12 mm toughened glass outer pane acid-etched finish, 1350 ≈ 2700 mm stainless-steel integrated anchor supporting structure clasped to stainless-steel angle 300 mm ventilated cavity 0.75 mm breather membrane, moisture-diffusing, light grey 130 mm rigid foam thermal insulation polythene sheeting 350 mm reinforced concrete double glazing 10 mm toughened glass + 16 mm argon-filled cavity + 13.5 mm laminated safety glass glass floor: 3≈ 10 mm laminated glass on steel T-profile ventilated cavity double glazing of 10 mm toughened glass + 16 mm argon-filled cavity + 13.5 mm laminated safety glass stainless steel pressure-cap system 2 mm aluminium sheet, powder coated, on 12 mm plywood 75 mm screed separating layer 50 mm impact sound insulation vapour barrier 350 mm reinforced concrete double glazing 6 mm toughened glass + 22 mm argon-filled cavity + 10.8 mm laminated safety glass
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Art Academy in Glasgow
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Vertical section scale 1:20
4 5 6
7 8 9
bituminous sheeting 100 –160 mm PIR rigid foam insulation to falls polythene sheeting vapour retarder 350 mm reinforced concrete cladding: 2 mm stainless steel sheet aluminium supporting structure 50 mm ventilated cavity 160 mm rigid foam thermal insulation polythene sheeting vapour retarder 300 mm reinforced concrete 2 mm stainless-steel cover 70 mm rigid foam insulation board (phenolic resin) polythene sheeting vapour retarder 40 mm rigid foam insulation board (phenolic resin) 350 mm steel T-section double glazing: 10 mm toughened glass + 16 argon-filled cavity + 13.5 mm laminated safety glass 8 mm steel angle supporting structure double glazing: 6 mm toughened glass + 16 mm argon-filled cavity + 10.8 mm laminated safety glass 8 mm steel angle bolted to reinforced concrete 150/100 mm steel RHS primary beam 60 mm paving slabs on pedestals bituminous sheeting 100 –160 mm PIR rigid foam insulation to falls polythene sheeting vapour retarder 350 mm reinforced concrete
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Functional and Energy-saving Potential in Windows and Apertures Interview with Ulrich Sieberath, director of ift Rosenheim
DETAIL: The ift in Rosenheim is in charge of specifying the norms for windows, facades, and doors, and prepares certification of new products. In addition to that, you have developed a total of twenty-three criteria that are to be taken into account in the planning and construction of windows and glass facades. Which of them are the most important? Ulrich Sieberath: The areas usability, quality, and security are at the top of the list. On the one hand, for its entire period of use, a product must perform and fulfil the expectations placed upon it; on the other hand, safety must not be compromised by failure of an individual component, nor by insufficient structural dimensioning. Security has to do with discouraging break-ins, protection from special risks such as fire, and above all, child safety and unimpeded accessibility for elders. Energy and the environment are also very important. We view sustainability as an all-encompassing problem to be addressed. That is why we test the elution and evaporation associated with
the products, as well as resource consumption over the entire life cycle. DETAIL: Products and product specifications are becoming increasingly complex. Is that why the universal design you’ve been promoting in recent years plays a special role? Ulrich Sieberath: For us, universal design is nothing new. We have always viewed projects in light of “fitness for purpose” within a larger framework. Now we want to employ this universal design approach to help significant numbers of people understand complex products – and, consequently, not reject them. That is why we have developed criteria that can help the branch optimise its product development at an early stage in order to attain simpler and safer use and to answer the following questions: Are functional components intuitively recognisable? Is the operation of the product comprehensible for all user groups? Our recommendations are increasingly being implemented by the construction industry – so that windows,
doors, and larger openings are created that are accepted by the consumers and used in day-to-day life. DETAIL: What is the connection to the controls, which are, as you know, usually even more complex than the products themselves? Ulrich Sieberath: At the most recent trade fair for roller shutters, doors, and sun protection systems in Stuttgart, one of the innovation prizes was awarded to a control system that no longer regulates in a technology-based manner – in other words, not by means of temperature and humidity settings – because many people don’t know how to deal with these criteria. Instead, human perception comes into play. For example, the person in the room feels too warm or too cold. The technology then takes care of the regulating processes. If it’s too dark, first the solar shading louvers are opened. Artificial light isn’t turned on until daylight is in fact insufficient. It is essential to the acceptance of such control systems that the people can intervene – that they notice why something happens, but are not “overruled” by the technology. Otherwise users will block the systems or turn them off. DETAIL: How far away are we from what would theoretically be possible in building control systems? Aren’t there already fully operational applications that can do much more than the systems that are so widely used? Ulrich Sieberath: Deficits exist in practical applications, because both the interface and the way in which the different trades are structured in Germany cause problems. At present, if you install electronics and mechatronics, you come in contact with an ever-increasing number of trades. There are the window and motor manufacturers, the electrical systems planners, the building physics consultants, and, on top of that, the employees of the electrical firms who install all of the cables. In this “jungle” of trades, it’s extremely difficult to achieve overarching solutions. Moreover, instead of developing new systems to open the apertures that are better suited to automation – for example,
∂ 2014 ¥ 5
4, 5 D ifferent possibilities for thermo-technical optimisation of both metal and wood windows. The calculation of the U-values is based on a frame comprising 30% of the window and uniform dimensions (w ≈ h: 1.23 ≈ 1.48 m) in accordance with EN 14351-1. 6 Modular construction principles make it possible to obtain great variety in window frames with minimal means.
Ulrich Sieberath has been director of ift Rosenheim – an internationally active testing, certification and research institute for windows, facades, doors, glass and construction materials – since 2004. In addition to his professorship in the area “windows and facades” at the Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences, he also works as evaluator and author. He is involved in numerous technical committees and expert panels, for example, as chairman of the European “Windows and Doors” norm committee (CEN TC33).
*1 double glazing, Ug = 1,1 W/(m2K) *2 triple glazing, Ug = 0,6 W/(m2K) *3 Multiple-paned windows employing triple glazing are seldom used in construction.
struction of windows and facades. Are there new trends in these sectors? Ulrich Sieberath: Modifications are consistently made to metals – to name one example. These are related to new material properties, strengths, alloys or coatings. On the other hand, these days, plastic windows often contain a large number of other materials: glass-fibre reinforcement, insulation materials or other synthetics. In some cases entire facade structures employ glass-fibrereinforced profiles, for example, curved facades with complex geometry.
DETAIL: Will glass-fibre-reinforced structures someday be in a position to take the place of classical materials? Ulrich Sieberath: Right now, it doesn’t look like it. In the future we will work with composite materials, not with pure ones. That is increasingly in evidence with respect to wood: aluminium shells improve its resistance to weathering, and cavities can be filled with insulating materials.
position of insulation
enlargement and optimisation of insulation zone
reduction of visible frame
hinged panel window (Ug 2≈ 1,1 W/m2K)
*1 Uw ≈1.5
*2 Uw ≈1.0
DETAIL: Which of the projects presently being researched at ift Rosenheim – either one you starting initiated yourself, or one initiated by a manupoint facturer – has the potential to change the 68 mm course of the development of windows? Uf ≈1.4 Ulrich Sieberath: One very interesting pro*1 Uw ≈1.3 ject examines the technical properties, limits 2 5 * Uw ≈1.0 and possibilities of pressure-equalised glass. One aspect is that, due to visible bending and deformation, the reduction of glass thickness is quickly reaching its limits. These deformations come about because, depending on the climate, the pressure in the space between the panes is either higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure. When the interstitial space is no longer hermetically sealed, and the pressure problem is avoided, stable glass systems are attained which facilitate the integration of intelligent technology components – for examinsulation ple, louvers, light-deflection systems – in the glass assembly. Roland Pawlitschko conducted the interview with Ulrich Sieberath in Rosenheim.
enlargment of insulation zone
enlarged frame 85 mm
hinged panel window
wood type optimisation
examples of exterior profiles
optimised box-type window
examples of interior profiles
2014 ¥ 5 ∂
A bold choice
Building envelopes for regeneration projects
SistemA porcelain cladding by Marazzi has been used for the facade on this building in the Italian city of Ivrea. The area is strongly marked by the presence of former typewriter manufacturer Olivetti, and the Turin-based Archisbang Lab found there was an issue architecturally with the relationship between memory and nostalgia and a rather incoherent present when it took on the project to widen and restructure an old building on the outskirts, which was to be used for commercial spaces on the ground floor, with offices and apartments above.
Specialist contractor Prater played a fundamental role in the completion of the Hilton London Wembley Hotel, seen top, and a new student accommodation block nearby. The project formed part of a major development to regenerate the 85 acres around Wembley Stadium, and the company was appointed to design and install the exterior envelope for both these buildings.
The redesign is said to provide a challenging answer to the current local building approach: the path to the building is in the form of a bright red walkway that runs through the grass and broadens into a ‘chromatic 3D ribbon’ that leads to the stairway and then seems to wrap around the top floor of the building. The ventilated hightech skin in porcelain stoneware was realised with red coloured elements in a 60 ≈ 120 cm format with a Lux finish for a bright and attractive finish. ¥ Marazzi UK United Kingdom � +44 (0)113 200 9060 www.marazzi.it/en
The work included: rainscreen cladding and ceramic rainscreen cladding, render, structural waterproofing, curtain walling, louvres, doors, windows and fascias. Overlooking the stadium, the new Hilton hotel has two floors of retail space, five floors of accommodation, a ballroom, gym and leisure facility. On the west side of the same development sits the 9-storey student accommodation block with over 600 rooms. However, the design and delivery of the external envelopes for the two buildings were very different. Although within the same major development by Quinrain Estates & Development, each had its own architect and its own design. This meant a significant part of the role was to co-ordinate with all parties within the supply chain and manage the delivery of each building envelope. Prater’s project manager, Michael O’Boyle, commented: “The Hilton London Wembley Hotel was probably the more challenging of the two sites as this posed a more complicated design along with structural limitations. The main entrance to the hotel was designed with huge panels of glazing. This was difficult due to the sheer size and weight of the glass, which posed a challenge in itself as access around the site was seriously impeded at a number of locations and at various stages of the build.” Another recent project for the company was the new Tesco Superstore and high-rise residential development in the centre of Woolwich in southeast London, for which it deliv-
ered the complete building envelope, being responsible for the backing wall, windows and doors, the unitised, stick and structurally glazed curtain wall screens and the zinc and Trespa cladding to all balconies – together with the structural waterproofing and single-ply roofing. The curtain wall, windows and doors were manufactured at its own factory in Thurrock, Essex and materials were brought to site as required. This helped to provide increased control over the manufacturing and supply process, ensuring the store opened on schedule, says the company. At 80,000 sq.ft, the project is the largest Tesco mixed-use development to date, consisting of a Tesco Extra store and 259 apartments, including social housing, over 17 storeys. The complex design, by Sheppard Robson Architects, features a multifaceted building envelope with pre-coated zinc cladding. Located in the heart of Woolwich, the project forms part of a wider scheme to regenerate the area. ¥ Prater United Kingdom � +44 (0)1737 772331 www.prater.co.uk
2014 ¥ 5 ∂
New colours and design choices for modular buildings The range of colours and design possibilities for Yorkon off-site solutions has recently been expanded. The latest building system has been engineered to remove the need for external columns, creating seamless, flush facades. The palette of colours for the steel envelope has also been expanded from 20 to 55, giving architects and designers creative freedom without having to specify secondary cladding. The modular buildings can be finished in a wider range of colours to complement or contrast with adjacent schemes – or multiple shades and colours can be specified for a single facade to create a lively, vibrant exterior. Other external finishes include render, brickwork, timber or rainscreen cladding, which can either be installed at the Portakabin production centre in York or on site according to project requirements. A new teaching facility constructed using a Yorkon off-site building solution from the Portakabin Group has opened at the Queen Katherine School in Kendal, Cumbria after just four weeks on site. The comprehensive secondary school for 11 –18 year olds was recently granted Teaching School status: this enables schools with the top Ofsted rating to work with other partners to deliver
high-quality support for teachers and leaders at all stages in their career. The Centre for Leadership and Learning now built at the school was required as a training venue and to provide an area to host regular educational meetings and conferences. The single-storey facility, above, features full-height glazing to the front and rear elevations, creating a distinctive and contemporary exterior, finished in red and grey to match the school’s colours. Its south elevation is linked to the school’s existing administrative block and it accommodates a large conference space for up to 100 people, reception area, office, committee room and toilets with disabled access. Commenting on the project, executive head teacher, Stephen Wilkinson, said, “We are absolutely thrilled with our new Centre for Leadership and Learning. Site-based construction simply was not an option for us because it could not have been completed in time and it would have impacted on the daily running of the school. “The glazing looks great and it has really helped to create an exceptional and unique exterior – you would never know that it was manufactured off site. The team delivering the Yorkon solution went the extra mile to ensure the finish matched our precise requirements, resulting in a facility that fits in perfectly with the rest of the campus.”
Maintenance-free The versatility of Rockpanel cladding is said to have made it the ideal choice for two eyecatching apartment buildings situated at the northern edge of the town of Leusden in the Netherlands. Designed by ONB Architects, the buildings were created to be sympathetic to the environment rather than isolated objects, whilst offering striking views of the landscape, which at one time had been a largely agricultural area. The durability and workability of the material were two reasons for its specification, and made it possible to provide the facade with gnarled panels, so giving a practical as well as an attractive appearance: their weatherresistant nature and high levels of moisture resistance meant it was not necessary to protect the board edges. Project architect Lars Zwart commented, “Using Rockpanel we were able to create warm, white and maintenance-free facades which are a stylised modern translation of the weather-boarded wooden facades of the old farmhouses characteristic of the region – precisely what we wanted.” The multicoloured blinds on the front elevation bear the colours of the coat of arms of the region, whilst the shape of the roof is designed to be reminiscent of the sheep folds that had once stood there.
The modules were delivered to site around 60 % complete, with plumbing, electrics and high-performance concrete floor already in place. The flexibility of using an off-site building solution means the school can add a second floor to the centre without decanting, to meet changing requirements.
“Almost every apartment is unique because the layouts of both towers are almost triangular. As a result, you can easily see all the way around the buildings at ground level and the view over the inspiring landscape is ever-present,” explained Lars Zwart. The material is claimed to be as workable as wood and as durable as stone, so it can be cut, bent, curved and shaped to facilitate unusual forms and shapes.
¥ Yorkon United Kingdom � +44 (0)845 200 012 www.yorkon.co.uk
¥ Rockpanel United Kingdom � +44 (0)1656 863210 www.rockpanel.com
2014 ¥ 5 ∂
The architecture and design blog
The DETAIL daily blog provides news and information from the field of architecture and design.
Living in the Box: Studio in London
Energy-efficient aluminium and glass solutions
Deptford’s Comet Street Studio was designed by dRMM Architects for an artist. It was particularly important to this artist that the studio have both good and adjustable natural ventilation as well as indirect light to prevent unwanted glare and shadows. Read more JUN
Breaking out of bleakness: Mehdi Ghadyanloo paints Tehran
Making our city brighter: under this motto – and with permission from the municipal government – dozens of colourful murals are currently being created on Tehran’s otherwise rather bleak building exteriors. Read more JUN
A mobile hotel concept: hotel rooms to go
On the occasion of the Radical Innovation Awards 2014, OVA studio recently introduced their submission to the competition. The theme is a mobile hotel room that can ‘travel’; in other words, a room to go. Read more
The new headquarters for portable measuring technology company Testo AG, in the Black Forest in Germany, features a bespoke, energy-efficient aluminium and glass facade from Wicona. Designed by Sacker Architects in collaboration with landscape architects A Henne Ch Korn, the brief was to create a distinctive building that reflected the high-tech business but would also blend well into its surroundings and minimise impact on the environment. The side walls of the five-storey building, above, are angled and comprise a ribbon window design with integrated ventilation, interspersed with horizontal bands of smooth limestone cladding. At the north and south ends the glazing is constructed as Lshaped units which overlap and tilt outwards, for a strong, sculptural effect. Both fixed glazing and concealed vents for natural ventilation were used, with additional acoustic protection near the busy road. The design also had to incorporate external solar protection, and this project is believed to have been the first to feature an angled facade with external slatted blinds. At ground floor level and for the two-storey reception area, Wictec 50 stick curtain walling to Passive House standards was used to
create the inclined facade. The angle increases from one mullion to the next so every pane of glass is different. An energy-efficient aluminium and glass facade has been created for another project in southern Germany, a 70,000 sq.m surgical department at the University Hospital in Ulm, below. Designed by architects KSP Engel and Zimmermann, it has been given a prestigious architectural award by the German Architects Association, which praised the ‘exceptional quality and functionality of the building’, and it has since been used as a showcase project, with its design influencing other healthcare developments. The building envelope is bright and distinctive, featuring warm tones of yellow, orange, red and brown. The transparent areas of the facade were created using Wictec curtain walling suite, and highly insulated Wicline casement windows were inserted into the glazing for a seamless finish. The window openings have multi-coloured glass to add interest to the front and rear elevations. ¥ Wicona United Kingdom � +44 (0)845 602 8799 www.wicona.co.uk
2014 ¥ 5 ∂
CAD and Software
Automated design procedures enable realisation of complex spandrel panel elements The InterContinental Davos Hotel in Switzerland stands on a parcel of land named In der Stilli, reflecting the tranquil, sheltered surroundings. That peacefulness and security also had to be expressed in the architecture of the building and Oliver Hofmeister of Munich-based architects Oikios worked out the underlying idea for the supple yet incisive external form while he was in Davos. Pine cones from the nearby forest, with their smooth scales, also provided inspiration. With its oval form and the metal facade that almost seems to be flowing, the undulating envelope wraps itself tightly around the structure, leading to an interplay between open and closed surfaces that appears different from every angle. Partners in the project included the designtoproduction consultancy, responsible for the complex digital modelling, structural engineers Wilhelm + Partner and the facade design specialist company Seele. It was the latter’s suggestion to produce the three-dimensional, curving spandrel panel elements from steel instead of the aluminium originally envisaged. Taking this as its starting point, the team developed a design for the lasercut primary and secondary ribs, which is based on a square. This supporting frame,
with a main grid identical for all elements, is responsible for the three-dimensional curvature. The frame is covered on all sides with sheet steel just 3 mm thick, which with its champagne-coloured metallic coating forms the visible surface of the facade on the finished building. The steel construction is said to have proved less costly than aluminium and less susceptible to changes in length due to temperature fluctuations. Primarily, however, it enabled the intended, original geometry to be realised with great precision, minimum tolerances and the smooth surfaces specified in the design brief. At the same time, the ribs of the supporting structure allowed a new concept for the structural fixings and the transfer of the loads to the floor slabs at each storey. The challenge that faced the team in the production and erection of the elements was mastering the logistics for 791 spandrel panel elements – more than 62,000 individual pieces including the dome crowning the hotel. Such numbers can only be managed by automated procedures in design and the preparation of fabrication drawings. All the architects’ requirements were incorporated in a parameter-controlled script, and the 3D
model of the facade geometry was adopted by Seele and imported into programs for producing the fabrication drawings and the laser-cutting data. The 3D data was also used by the structural engineers for their detailed calculations. Every spandrel panel element is unique � however, each has an identical, square, steel rib construction, so the elements could still be produced very economically according to a modular system. Each of the individual elements (in standard sizes of about 1.6 ≈ 4.5 m and special sizes up to 14.6 m long) had its own bespoke transport frame so that it could be safely transported to Davos by road from the production plant in the Czech Republic. Seele was able to draw on the planning and research work of the design team so that, between building the crucial mock-up in the alternative steel design and the final handover of the facade, the entire project, involving detailed design, production and erection, took just two years. ¥ Seele Group Germany � +49 (0)821 2494-0 www.seele.com
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CAD and Software
Timber windows and doors
How to use roofing info
Plug-in aids 3D work
A complete CAD drawing library featuring Mumford & Wood’s Conservation™ timber windows and doors can be accessed on its website, in the universal PDF and DWG file formats, for use with architectural working drawings for new build and renovation projects. A variety of detailed drawings is available, from head, cill and jamb profiles to mullion and transom sections, and from glazing beads and bars to full elevations.
Marley Eternit has an online tutorial at www. youtube.com/MarleyEternitLtd on how to find, download and use BIM objects for its range of clay roof tiles, with a quick tour of the free online BIM Space (web address below) and an overview of the Autodesk Revit files, as well as demonstrating how they can be applied to the user’s own designs. The company’s BIM Space also contains BIM objects for fibre-cement slates.
A new Rhino plug-in is available from Evolute, a software company founded as a spinoff from Vienna University of Technology in 2008. Single curved surfaces, also known as developable surfaces, are important to 3D modelling, and the Evolute Tools D.LOFT gives a high degree of precision and control, allowing the creation of developable surfaces between arbitrary 3D curves with a push of a button.
¥ Mumford & Wood � +44 (0)1621 818155 www.mumfordwood.com
¥ Marley Eternit � +44 (0)1283 722588 www.marleyeternit.co.uk/BIM
¥ Evolute GmbH � +43 (0)1 503 1231 www.evolutetools.com/d.loft
British Gypsum has introduced The White Book System Selector, an online tool that enables specifiers to filter via a variety of performance requirements, such as fire and acoustics, to choose a relevant plaster and drylining solution for the job. BIM Revit data, CAD (DWG) drawings, NBS Specification Clauses and product and system performance information are all then available to download for the chosen solution.
The BIM area on Metsec’s website features an introduction to collaborative working in BIM, an interactive 3D steel framing model conceived in Revit and a downloads section of Revit and IFC files: model purlins and framing can thus be easily integrated in specifiers’ master models when choosing a suitable system during pre-construction. A full suite of BIM details is also available for the Metframe pre-panellised steel system.
Porcelanosa Group now forms part of Morpholio, a benchmark application between architects and designers, conceived as a complete virtual portfolio. The group showcases new products and systems as well as projects featuring materials from its divisions. A practical tool for iPads and iPhones, it highlights the work of designers, allowing participation in public/private forums and share-and-manage image galleries.
¥ British Gypsum � +44 (0)844 800 1991 www.british-gypsum.com
¥ Metsec plc � +44 (0)121 601 6000 www.metsec.com
¥ Porcelanosa � +34 (0)964 50 71 40 www.morpholioapps.com
2014 ¥ 5 ∂
Programme for 2014 • Photos ∂ 2014 1
Materials and Surfaces
∂ 2014 2
∂ 2014 3
∂ Green 2014 1 ∂ 2014 4
∂ 2014 5
∂ 2014 6
Lighting and Interiors
∂ Green 2014 2
Photo credits: Photos for which no credit is given were either provided by the respective architects or they are product photos from the DETAIL archives.
pp. 552 – 558, 579: Jan Bitter, Berlin pp. 559, 560 bottom, 561 bottom: Cemal Emden/Emre Arolat Architects pp. 560 top, 561 top: thomasmayerarchive.de / Emre Arolat Architects pp. 562, 564 bottom, 565: Patrick Cashin, MTA (Metropolitan Transportation Authority), New York p. 566: Daici Ano, Tokio pp. 567, 570, 571: Christian Schittich, Munich pp. 568, 569: David Grandorge, London pp. 572 – 574, 576: Iwan Baan, Amsterdam p. 575: Paul Riddle /arturimages pp. 577, 578, 580, 581: Frank Kaltenbach, Munich pp. 582, 585: Frédéric Delangle, Rueil-Malmaison pp. 583, 584: Clément Guillaume, Paris pp. 586 – 588: Walter Mair, Basel pp. 589 – 591: Roger Frei, Zurich pp. 592 – 594: Michael Compensis, Munich p. 595: Christian Schittich, Munich pp. 596, 598 bottom: Hervé Abbadie, Paris p. 597: Jérôme Ricolleau
pp. 599 – 605: Roland Halbe, Stuttgart pp. 606 – 610: Michael Heinrich, Munich p. 611, 616, 618: Frank Kaltenbach, Munich pp. 612 – 615: ift Rosenheim, Rosenheim p. 617 top: Josef Gartner GmbH, Gundelfingen p. 617 bottom: Thies Wachter, Zurich p. 619: Roger Frei, Zurich p. 622 top left: Charles Henshaw & Sons Ltd p. 622 top right: Martin Cleveland Photography, GB – Berkshire p. 622 bottom centre: Benedict Luxmoore Ltd p. 629: Toni Ott, D – Landshut p. 632 top left Mathieu Ducros, F – Montpellier p. 638: Seele.com; René Müller Photographie, D – Stuttgart p. 640 top middle: Labtop p. 645 top left, bottom left: Marcus Newey, Home Tour Property Photography p. 648 top right: Wienerberger AG, Pirak Anurakyawachon p. 648 bottom middle: Wienerberger AG, Marko Huttunen
Black-and-white photos introducing main sections: page 553:
Residential Towers in Amsterdam-Osdorp Architects: Wiel Arets Architects, Amsterdam
page 559: page 567:
Sancaklar Mosque in Istanbul Architects: Emre Arolat Architects,Istanbul Shop Facade in London Architects: 6a Architects, London
page 611: page 619:
Residential Tower “Löwenbräu Black” in Zurich Architects: Gigon / Guyer Architekten, Zurich with atelier ww Architekten, Zurich Service Facilities of the SBB in Zurich Architects: EM2N, Zurich
CAD drawings All CAD drawings contained in the “Documentation” section of the journal were produced with VectorWorks®.
∂ Review of Architecture + Construction Detail
DETAIL English appears in 2014 on 11 January, 1 March, 2 May, 1 July, 2 September, 4 November.
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