Page 1

Manual of Natural Stone Modern usage of a classic building material

Ansgar Schulz Benedikt Schulz

Edition ∂


Authors

With specialist contributions from:

Ansgar Schulz Univ.- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Architect

Jun. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jutta Albus Technische Universität Dortmund Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering Resource-efficient Construction

Benedikt Schulz Univ.- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Architect both: Technische Universität Dresden Faculty of Architecture Chair of Architectural Design and Construction I Team: Thomas Gohr Claudia Hildebrandt Romina Streffing

Prof. Alberto Campo Baeza ETSA Madrid Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Hönig Schulz und Schulz Architekten GmbH Dr.-Ing. Martin Zeumer ee concept GmbH, Darmstadt

Editorial services Editing, copy editing (German edition): Steffi Lenzen (Project Manager), Jana Rackwitz, Daniel Reisch; Carola Jacob-Ritz (Proofreading) Jasmin Rankl, Lena Stiller (Editorial Assistants) Drawings: Marion Griese, Sabrina Heckel, Barbara Kissinger Translation into English: Susanne Hauger, New York (US) Copy editing (English edition): Stefan Widdess, Berlin (DE) Proofreading (English edition): Meriel Clemett, Bromborough (GB) Cover design: Wiegand von Hartmann GbR, Munich (DE) Production and DTP: Simone Soesters Reproduction: ludwig:media, Zell am See (AT) Printing and binding: Grafisches Centrum Cuno GmbH & Co. KG, Calbe (DE) © 2020 English translation of the 1st German edition “Atlas Naturstein” (ISBN: 978-3-95553-454-7) Paper: environment Grocer Kraft (cover), Profibulk (content) 2

Publisher: Detail Business Information GmbH, Munich detail-online.com ISBN: 978-3-95553-523-0 (printed edition) ISBN: 978-3-95553-524-7 (e-book) Bibliographic information published by the German National ­Library. The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography (Deutsche Nationalbibliografie); detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de. This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved. These rights specifically include the rights of translation, reprinting, and presentation, the reuse of illustrations and tables, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or on any other media and storage in data processing systems. Furthermore, these rights pertain to any and all parts of the material. Any reproduction of this work, whether in whole or in part, even in individual cases, is only permitted within the scope specified by the ap­ plicable copyright law. Any reproduction is subject to charges. Any infringement will be subject to the penalty clauses of copyright law. This textbook uses terms applicable at the time of writing and is based on the current state of the art, to the best of the authors’ and editors’ knowledge and belief. All drawings in this book were made specifically by the publisher. No legal claims can be derived from the contents of this book.


Contents

Preface4 The Final Stone – The Future Is Set in Stone 6 Part A  Production Natural Stone 12 Dressed Stone 14 Quarrying15 Processing17 Stone Surfaces 20 Transport26 Part B  Construction Building Components of Dressed Stone 30 The Selection of Stone 32 Design Methodology 36 Structural Building Components 39 Veneers46 Wall Cladding 50 Floor Coverings 58 Stair Cladding 64 Ceiling Cladding 66 Individual Dressed Stone Workpieces 68 Care and Maintenance 70 Part C  Computer Technologies

Prefabrication and Industrial Production 78 Requirements for Systematised Design 80 Potential83  Part D  Sustainability Environmental Effects of Quarrying Using Natural Stone Environmental Impacts of Constructions Hazardous Substances When Using Natural Stone Sustainability Assessment

89 90 92 95 96

Part E  Detailed Guidelines Detailed Guidelines 1 – 28

100

Part F  Example Builds Twenty-Two Example Projects

123

Appendix Authors217 Project Participants 218 Standards, Guidelines 219 Bibliography219 Picture Credits 220 Subject Index 222 Supporters / Sponsors 224 3


Preface

We grew up in a region known for coal and steel, during a time in which natural stone was viewed as a backward-looking and encumbered material. Throughout our education, building with glass was seen as an implicit acknowledgement of a commitment to democracy. Nevertheless, the very first house we built was of natural stone, a project for which our builder had for years been enthusiastically collecting Ruhr sandstone at building demolitions. Looking back at our body of work this seems like an aberration, for it was not until 20 years later, with St Trinitatis Catholic Church in ­Leipzig, that we once again built an entire building from natural stone. But perhaps our own progression is an ex­­ ample of the changing perception of and appreciation for the material in contemporary architecture, because building with natural stone has once again become a topic for discussion between clients and architects. After a long period of time during which the material was considered too conservative and extravagant, a more open-minded and innovative use of ­natural stone has become noticeable in recent years. Today, thanks to its enormous range of sensual qualities, natural stone is both perceived and employed differently. Since we do not build exclusively with natural stone, we remain on the lookout for buildings of this material. Our open-minded approach is meant to be reflected in this publication, with which we hope to encourage the use of and experimentation with natural stone in ways that do justice to the material. We also wish to raise awareness of its qualities and beauty. The texts and guidelines are based on the standards and regulatory frameworks that govern stone construction in Germany. European equivalents exist for harmonised EN standards. The international selection of example builds showcases the bandwidth of architectural solutions. We wish to thank the many participants who contributed to this book in various ways. We thank the publisher for their confidence and their ­professional collaboration. We thank our co-­authors for their expert contributions. We are grateful to Alberto Campo Baeza for the declar­ ation of love to this material that constitutes his wonderfully heart-felt introduction to this book. Quarry in Rochlitz (DE)

Ansgar and Benedikt Schulz 5


Production Ansgar and Benedikt Schulz

Natural Stone Stone as a building material is categorised as either natural or artificial. In this way we differentiate between stone that is extracted from the environment and stone that is manufactured by humans, such as brick, for example. Geologists approach this distinction by speaking of rock when they refer to the environmentally sourced variety. In construction, the expression “natural stone” describes the naturally-quarried building material. Natural stone is one of the oldest materials from which humans build structures. The earliest constructions were created in a removal process by hollowing out solid rock (fig. A 1.1) or in an additive joining of boulders (fig. A 1.2). Current knowledge of historical structures made from natural stone is due entirely to the durability of the material, a characteristic that remains an argument for its use in construction to this day. Other factors that also support the use of nat­ ural stone are that, since it occurs naturally, it is a sustainable building material; it exhibits regional attributes that reference a distinct origin; and it has been stamped by nature with a unique appearance. Man-made materials may be more predictable in their manufacture and processing than natural stone, but as building materials they lack its unmistakable character. Rock

A 1.1  Cave architecture in Cappadocia (TR) A 1.2  Stonehenge, near Amesbury (GB) A 1.3  The Mohs scale of mineral hardness A 1.4 Generally defined soil and rock classifications ­according to ATV DIN 18 300 VOB 2012, replaced in 2016 by project-specific homoge­neous zones

12

Geologists define rock as a natural material that consists mainly of one or several minerals. Approximately 100 minerals form rock, specif­ ically silicates, carbonates, oxides, sulphides and sulphates. Other components may include rock fragments or remains of organisms. Depending on composition, a distinction is made between monomineralic rock, which is predominantly formed from a single mineral (e.g. marble) and polymineralic rock, which comprises several different minerals (e.g. granite). The appearance of the rock is determined by its structure as well as its mineral content. In granite, for example, which is an aggregate of feldspar, quartz and mica, the vari­ ations in brightness and colour among these minerals produce its characteristic speckling.

Sandstone, in contrast, consists almost entirely of quartz and thus often appears very homogeneous. The texture of the rock is determined by the size, form and spatial arrangement of its components. Rock is classified as coarse-grained or fine-grained depending on whether or not the constituent minerals are distinguishable by the naked eye. Uniformly-grained rocks ­feature components of equal form and size, while this is not the case for those with nonuniform grain sizes. The rock classification scheme undertaken by the natural stone industry into hard and soft rock types does not follow any scientific definition, since the constituents of polymin­ eralic rock can exhibit differences in their Mohs hardness (fig. A 1.3). What the categorisation illustrates is rather the relative difficulty of machining various rock types. The hardness of rock can be classified by its strength param­ eters, specifically its compressive and bending tensile strengths, which are the decisive determinants for the structural applications of a given natural stone material. From a geological perspective, internal cohesion is not a definitive characteristic of rock. According to this view, both a chunk of sandstone and a pile of sand are considered rock. The subdivision of rock into consolidated (solid) and unconsolidated (loose) types is known in the construction industry from the field of geotechnical engineering, which until 2012 sorted ground types into seven soil and rock class levels [1]. Unconsolidated rock was assigned Soil and Rock Classes 1– 5, while solid rock occupied Classes 6 and 7 (fig. A 1.4). The only categories relevant to the use of natural stone in building construction are the solid rock classes. Petrography

Within the field of geology, the scientific dis­ ciplines of petrology and petrography deal with rock. The term “petrology” is derived from the Greek pétros (stone) and lógos (learning). For construction with natural stone, petrography is the relevant discipline. Petrography concerns itself with the description and classification of rock through the analysis of its origins,


Production

A 1.2

A 1.1

structure and mineral content. It is therefore tasked with identifying rock on a scientific basis, which is important in light of the frequently vague stone descriptions under im­­ aginative trade names that are rife in the building industry. Without the petrographic rock identifications, it would often be impossible to come to a definitive resolution as to which stone type to select. In such a petrographic process, a macroscopic description of the rock sample is followed by an examination of thin sections under a polarising microscope at up to 1,000-fold magnification in order to identify the minerals and the rock itself. The identification process may also make use of x-ray diffractometry, chemical and physical analyses and other resources. In Europe, the identification of natural stone is governed by three standards. DIN EN 12 407 Natural stone test methods – Petrographic examination sets out the manner of testing. DIN EN 12 670 Natural stone – Terminology clarifies the meaning of scientific and technical terms, testing methods and products and defines the scientific classification of natural stone. DIN EN 12 440 Natural stone – Denomin­ ation criteria specifies how natural stone is to be labelled both as a raw material and as a finished product, and contains a list of traditional trade names of European natural stone types.

Mohs hardness

Mineral

Hardness test

 1

Talc

can be scraped with a fingernail

0.03

 2

Gypsum

can be scored with a fingernail

1.25

 3

Calcite

can be scored with a copper coin

4.5

 4

Fluorite

can be lightly scored with a knife

5.0

 5

Apatite

can still be scored with a knife

6.5

 6

Orthoclase

can be scored with a steel file

37

 7

Quartz

scores window glass

120

 8

Topaz

scores quartz

175

 9

Corundum

scores topaz

10

Diamond

scores corundum

Igneous rock Igneous rock is formed through the cooling of magma. After its formation it is further sub­ divided into three groups. Intrusive igneous rock, also known as plutonic rock, has solidified slowly in the deeper regions of the Earth’s crust. Extrusive igneous (or volcanic) rock forms through a more rapid cooling of magma at the earth’s surface. Dyke rock takes up an intermediary position between plutonic and volcanic rock and occurs in sheet-like formations.

1,000 140,000 A 1.3

Class 1

Topsoil • Uppermost ground layer, which contains – in addition to inorganic matter such as mixtures of gravel, sand, silt and clay – humus and soil organisms

Class 2

Liquid soils • Soil types that are of liquid to pasty consistency and barely release water

Class 3

Easy to excavate • Sands, gravels and sand-gravel mixtures with a mass fraction of silt and clay of no more than 15 % with grain sizes of less than 0.063 mm, and a mass fraction of pebbles of no more than 30 % with sizes from 63 mm to 200 mm •  Organic soil types that are not of liquid to pasty consistency and peats

Class 4

Moderately difficult to excavate • Mixtures of sand, gravel, silt and clay with respective mass fractions of at least 15 % and grain sizes smaller than 0.063 mm • Soil types of low to medium plasticity that have, depending on water content, a soft to semi-solid consistency and contain a maximum mass fraction of 30 % rock

Types of rock

Rock is sorted into one of three categories according to the process in which it was formed: •  Igneous rock (also known as magmatic rock) •  Sedimentary rock •  Metamorphic rock

Grinding hardness (absolute)

Class 5

Hard to excavate • Soil types similar to classes 3 and 4 with rock mass fractions of over 30 % • Soil types with a maximum mass fraction of 30 % blocks with a particle size between 200 mm and 630 mm •  Highly plastic clays with a soft to semi-solid consistency, depending on water content

Class 6

Easy to excavate rock and similar soils • Rock types with minerally bound cohesion that are strongly fragmented, brittle, friable, slate-like or weathered •  Similar solid or solidified soil types arising from dehydration, freezing or chemical bonding •  Soil types with a block mass fraction of over 30 %

Class 7

Hard to excavate rock • Rock types with minerally bound cohesion and high solidity that are only minimally fragmented or weathered; also unweathered argillaceous schist (clay shale), conglomerate layers, solidified slags, etc. •  Heavily compacted large blocks with particle sizes of over 630 mm A 1.4

13


a

b

c

several metres in size with a rotating diamondheaded tool. Even one-of-a-kind pieces such as highly detailed, intricately sculpted facade ornaments can be created on the basis of a digital model by means of CNC milling. The profiling of the final layer, which has a thickness of about 2 mm, is completed manually by the stonemason in order to remove all traces of machining and to make the dressed stone appear handworked (fig. A 1.23). The fully automated finishing of stone using a five-axis CNC milling machine opens up the potential for efficient, economically competitive prefabrication of large-scale, freely formed building components. Possible candidates for such pieces would be, for example, elements of structurally defined facades, such as storeyhigh support sheathing and full-width parapet facing. The advantages of natural stone, as compared to form-cast, unvarying, prefabricated concrete elements, lie in the individual shapeability of every single building component (see “Computer Technologies”, p. 78ff.).

d

Stone Surfaces

e

i

20

f

g

A 1.25

h

A 1.26

The appearance of a piece of cut natural stone is determined not only by the chosen rock type, but also by the texture of the stone surface. Depending on the surface finish, identical rock types can exhibit highly divergent visual appearances, because the structure, granu­ larity and contrast can be accentuated to varying intensity. Aside from aesthetic considerations, functionality also plays a role in the selection of a particular surface treatment, especially with regard to slip-resistance and ease of cleaning. In addition, not all treatments are suitable for every type of stone. While surface finishing was formerly done with handheld tools, nowadays the stone surfaces are usually treated on automated assembly lines. The stone traverses the diverse processing machines in large panel form and is only cut to its installation size afterwards. Most treatment techniques for stone surfaces follow standardised definitions, which simplifies both the understanding of and the comparison


Production

among the numerous options offered by the stone industry. Paragraph 2.3 (“Processing terms”) of the European standard DIN EN 12 670 Natural stone – Terminology describes the established treatment variants for natural stone surfaces. A listing of these commonly used techniques can also be found in Germany in DIN 18 332 [2]. Complementing the processes outlined in the standards, there exist further independent treatment procedures developed either in-house or for particular projects by individual natural stone companies. These include, for example, water-jet finishing and custom treatments that create surface relief through notching, milling, dabbing, etc. Because of the large number of natural stone types and processing techniques, the selection of a stone and the choice of surface finish is usually made with the aid of reference samples and built reference objects. The selection of cut natural stone for construction is an iterative process in which the architectural and functional requirements are defined at the outset, and in which natural stone producers and processing companies, as well as additional experts as needed, take part. Surface finishes

The surfaces of dressed natural stone can be grouped into three categories according to the degree of treatment: • surfaces created during the excavation of the material •  coarsely finished surfaces •  finely finished surfaces The simplest possible way to obtain a visually appealing and functional stone surface is to quarry the stone in such a way that further surface processing is unnecessary. Coarse finish processes include techniques that give the dressed stone a textured, relieflike surface. Such a relief can range in thickness from one millimetre up to several centimetres. The most common fine finishing techniques are sanding and polishing. In the past, the coarse finish was applied by hand with the aid of appropriate tools. To a large extent, however, these techniques are now performed by machines (fig. A 1.25 – A 1.28).

Sawn Cutting the rough material with a diamond gang saw, frame saw or diamond wire saw (fig. A 1.26) yields a surface that need not undergo further processing. This type of finish is correspondingly less expensive than those of treated surfaces, and is therefore quite common. However, the cutting method – by frame saw, for instance – can produce saw blade grooves that may or may not be desired. Split or cleft Specific thin-bed sedimentary rocks such as slate and Solnhofen limestone are quarried by splitting them along their natural stratum boundaries. When the separated surfaces are not processed further, they are referred to as “cleft” or “split face” finishes. Panels quarried in this way are suitable for installation as floor coverings even in a rough cleft and sanded state, where the partial sanding removes the sharp edges that result from splitting the stone. Rough-hewn The surface texture of a rough quarry block is a result of how the rock is cut from the quarry. Rough-hewn stone is only rarely used in the construction of buildings. It is more common in landscaping, for example in embankments along highways, which are often stabilised with offcuts from the shaping of quarry blocks. Often, the offcuts still exhibit the drill holes that served to separate the rock from the quarry face. Pitched Pitching is a traditional manual technique for dressing softer rock. A sharp-edged pitching chisel is used to roughly knock off projecting stone edges, producing a surface that resembles that of a natural fracture. Chipped Using a hand set, a wedge-like chisel, the outer edges of the stone are chipped or spalled off by hand, in a manner similar to pitching. This manual stone-dressing technique, in which a mason’s hammer impacts the hand set to remove stone chips, produces a rough, sharpedged surface.

a

b

c

d

A 1.27

A 1.25 Grey-white Main sandstone a Ground b Compressed air comb-chiselled c Machine comb-chiselled d Comb-chiselled by hand e Trimmed f Shot-blasted g 7 mm grooved split h 30 mm grooved split i Machine split A 1.26  Diamond wire saw in a marble quarry in Laas (IT) A 1.27 Viking red granite a Flamed b Hydro-blasted c High-pressure hydro-blasted d Polished

21


28


Construction

Part B  Construction

Building Components of Dressed Stone Structure30 Building shell 31 Extensions31 Outdoor areas 32 The Selection of Stone Technical and functional parameters 33 Design34 Economic factors 35 Sustainability criteria 35 Gathering information 36 Design Methodology Regulatory framework Design and execution Manufacturing and assembly planning

36 36 38

Structural Building Components Walls39 Supports42 Beams42 Arches42 Ceilings and roofs 44 Stairs44 Veneers Layered construction Load distribution Water drainage Bonds and joints Plinths and corners Interior veneers

46 47 48 48 49 50

Wall Cladding Rear-ventilated curtain facades Load distribution

51 51

Water drainage Fire protection The appearance of the facade Plinths and corners Cladding of tiles or panels fixed in mortar Interior wall cladding

53 54 54 55 56 57

Floor Coverings Tiles and panels 58 Applications58 Layered constructions 59 Panel arrangements and joints 60 Surface finish 61 Flooring in wet areas 61 Balcony and roof terrace paving 62 Stair Cladding Cladding on reinforced concrete stairs Surface finish Attachments at wall and well hole

64 65 65

Ceiling Cladding Layered construction Load distribution Panel arrangements and joints Interior ceiling cladding

66 67 67 68

Individual Dressed Stone Workpieces Built-in components Special components

69 70

Care and Maintenance Signs of ageing 70 Material-preserving construction 72 Cleaning72 Upkeep73

Gneiss veneer, council buildings, Iragna (CH) 1995, ­Raffaele Cavadini

29


B 1.12

place, etc. – determines what requirements must be met. To support the forces that actually act on the building component, the stone must possess the appropriate compression and bending ­tensile strengths. The forces can come from the load-bearing function of the building part (e.g. a compressive load in a bearing masonry wall), from the transfer of external loads into the support framework (e.g. bending tensile forces in elevated floor panels) or from the d ­ istribution of self-weight into the structure (e.g. the breaking load of the dowel holes in facade panels). Natural stone used in outdoor applications must be resistant to weathering, meaning that it will have to stand up to precipitation, humidity, wind, sun and daily temperature fluctuations. It must also exhibit resistance to frost and deicing salt and the typical signs of damage from weathering. Mechanically stressed natural stone building components, such as floor coverings or work surfaces, must be especially resistant to wear and possess the appropriate surface hardness (Mohs hardness, fig. A 1.3, p. 13). Resistance to acids and cleaning products may also be of some importance. Floors typically require a certain degree of slip resistance (see “Applications”, p. 58f.). Similarly, the size and weight of the individual pieces are subject to requirements and limits. Not every stone can be quarried and processed in every possible size. Rock structure, quarrying techniques, transportation constraints and installation technologies all limit the dimensions and weight of the building components. Economic factors also play a role. For example, facade panels that are too small could generate increased costs because of the need for a larger number of mounting anchors, or lightweight parapet coping will potentially have to be secured against wind suction at consider­ able expense. The availability criterion of natural stone addresses not only the question of which stone is installed in which reasonable sizes, but also that of potential resupply at a later date. Natural stone specimens quarried from the selfsame quarry can vary in their technical properties, so that it may be of some importance to ascertain 34

whether the stone currently being quarried has threshold characteristics that may no longer be available for subsequent extensions or upkeep purposes. The technical requirements for building components of natural stone have already been standardised for many applications. For ex­­ ample, DIN EN 1469 [3] contains the qualitative specifications for stone panels for wall and ceiling cladding, while DIN EN 12 058 [4] lists those for floor panels and stair slabs. The relevant standards can be found in databases; architects who proceed methodically will also encounter them as they deal with the portions of Part C (General technical specifications in construction contracts) of the VOB that apply to work done with natural stone. The technical properties of natural stone traded as a building material are verified via test certificates, which are issued according to standardised guidelines. Only such test certificates, which must be renewed periodically to ensure that the stone characteristics remain consistent, provide reliable information about the technical performance of the stone. For facade and floor panels, information on the technical properties of natural stone is given on the CE mark that is required in Europe (fig. A 1.7, p. 15). Most igneous rock products can be used both indoors and outdoors. Sedimentary and metamorphic rock products are more frequently employed in building interiors, though sandstone and limestone are also found on many facades. In assessing the exceptional use of a particular stone in a rare installation application, it pays to couple an intensive examination of its suit­ability with a healthy dose of common sense. If the material does not appear in a comparative context on any building in the vicinity of the proposed project, that could mean that it is not suitable for its intended use. Design

The selection of stone is heavily influenced by design considerations. Stone extracted from the environment is a natural material with a vibrant, varied and individual appearance, available in abundant variability. This diversity is further expanded by the many additional design freedoms that are determined by the

type of cut, the surface finish, how it is laid or offset, the joint arrangement, depth effects and the play of shadows, decorative elements and ornamental patterns. Structures and buildings of natural stone can achieve very different atmospheric effects. Therefore the desired architectural expression must be determined at the onset of the design process. Should the architecture appear cheerful, joyous, sedate, dignified, intimidating, inviting, modest, conspicuous, noble, representative or down-to-earth? Or perhaps something else entirely? The intended appearance is the leitmotif for the selection of an appropriate stone and its subsequent processing. A design-motivated selection can only be done with the aid of physical samples. Photographs may convey a first impression of the look and feel of a stone, but because of the two-dimensionality of the images and the limited quality of the colour reproduction, they cannot show its actual effect. Vendors offer demo samples that provide information about colour, compos­ ition and texture of the stone (fig. B 1.14). The larger the sample piece is, the easier it is to assess the stone’s overall effect. It is therefore advisable in the latter stages of the selection process to have larger samples made, up to and including full-size mock-ups that provide an advance look at the eventual installation including all the parameters such as the format, joint configuration, surface finish etc. (fig. B 1.15). Models of facades or rooms are commonplace and prudent in cases of large-volume manufacture, since they offer confirmation that the stated design criteria can be met. In the early stages it is also a good idea to view comparison objects made of the available stone options. Such reference buildings also show how the stone changes with time. The appearance of a stone varies within a certain range. This is not a flaw, but is expressly allowed according to DIN 18 332 [5]. Differences in colour, composition and texture can be restricted with the aid of agreed-upon limit samples. The sorting and elimination that such restrictions require, however, may run up the cost, especially if a lot of material must be extracted from different areas of the quarry. The more material-oriented approach lies in


Construction

1 Reference sample 2 Production sample 3 Daylight

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2

3

1 2 2m

B 1.13

adopting the variations in appearance as a design tool. The European natural stone product norms describe how the appearance of the stone is determined and how the range of fluctuation is defined [6]. Several reference samples of uniform size, to be provided by the vendor, show all the visual characteristics that are typical for the stone. Production samples of the same number and size are compared directly to the reference samples (fig. B 1.13). Though they should not exhibit any significant deviations in their visual characteristics, they do not have to show a one-to-one correspondence with the reference samples. In addition to its visual appearance, in selecting a stone one must also take into account its technical and structural properties. The tech­ nical parameters of the stone are influenced by the manner in which it was cut as well as its desired size and dimensions. Some rock types have defects in their structure, such as inclusions of other minerals, which render the larger formats more susceptible to fracture (fig. B 1.16). The popular practice of cutting sedimentary rock “against the vein” (see “Cutting”, p. 17f.) in order to achieve a striated appearance is usually associated with a decrease in the bending tensile strength of the stone. In order to assess the correct technical properties of the stone, it is therefore necessary to perform material testing on samples in which the orientation of the vein conforms with that of the eventual installation. Economic factors

As a rule, construction projects are subject to a detailed budget that specifies the available funds for the project and for the individual building components. The prices of dressed natural stone vary significantly depending on the quarrying circumstances, processing and transportation costs, installation setting and demand for a specific surface finish and mounting system. For this reason, the selection of a stone should be based on sound cost planning. Since natural stone products depend on individual production conditions and installation locations, an assessment of the investment

cost cannot be based solely on reference data, but must be carried out early for the actual project. It is therefore good practice to work together with vendors and fabricators in the initial planning stages to establish a realistic cost determination. Since excessively high investment costs can become an exclusion criterion during the stone selection process, it is advis­ able to verify adherence to the budget before or in parallel with the consideration of the other decision criteria. When it comes to an examination of the life cycle of a building from an economic point of view, the appeal of natural stone rises considerably with the projected lifetime of the building. As the lifetime increases, the modest upkeep costs of stone building components as well as the longevity of both the material and the construction potentially serve to mitigate the higher capital costs. From an economic perspective, the degree to which life cycle costs of the building are considered in the overall financial picture is critically import­ ant for the stone selection process (see “Sustainability”, p. 88ff.).

B 1.14

Sustainability criteria

In the selection of stone, the issue of sustain­ ability should be taken into account. The relevant aspects of sustainability include not only the aforementioned advantages of the material in the life cycle analysis of buildings, but also its environmental and social impacts. The encroachment on nature that the quarrying of rock entails can have substantial repercussions for flora, fauna, natural scenery and human ­living conditions. In many countries outside of Europe in which natural stone is processed, deplorable circumstances such as child labour and inhumane working conditions are commonplace (see “Quarrying”, p. 15ff.). Economic and B 1.12 Loading blocks of Carrara marble onto a cargo vessel B 1.13 Comparison between production and reference samples after DIN EN 12 058 B 1.14 Various demo samples of Krastal marble B 1.15 1:1 facade mock-up of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, Ulm (DE) 2017, Schulz und Schulz B 1.16 Slab of Rochlitz porphyry, broken due to structural defects, after material testing

B 1.15

B 1.16

35


B 1.37

B 1.38

since the standard requirements for joining ashlars in orthogonal bonds apply only to the sides on the bed and head joints. Famous historical examples thus also comply with presentday norms (fig. B 1.27). Dressed stone workpieces can also form part of a single-leaf load-bearing mixed masonry wall, for example in the form of plinth facing, cornices, window benches, window posts and lintels. For these uses, which have become increasingly rare over time, further information is available in the publication Naturwerkstein [21] and in Bautechnische Information (BTI) 1.2 from the Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband (DNV) [22]. B 1.39

Supports

B 1.40

A support is a vertically oriented rod-shaped element that usually holds up a ceiling or roof and is subjected to longitudinal compression and occasionally also tension forces. An import­ ant part of the technical assessment of supports is the confirmation that they will not buckle under compression loads. “Support” is a general term. Depending on the structural, geometrical or architectural description one also refers to pillars, columns, posts, uprights or stems. The cross section can be ­rectangular, polygonal or round and can vary throughout the height of the support. A support can be free-standing or integrated into a wall as a half column or pilaster, for example. Structural supports of natural stone can be ­produced as a single unit or several units, or composed of masonry. Single-unit supports are rare because they must be fabricated from large blocks of raw material. In Germany, there is also the required individual certification of structural resistance to buckling, which necessitates a steel or other type of reinforcement that is technically difficult and very expensive to integrate (fig. B 1.39). Greek builders of antiquity developed multipart supports to perfection by creating column shafts from drums stacked on top of one another. It is more feas­ ible to perform the integration of the structural reinforcement mandated in Germany into multipart natural stone columns. A masonry pillar of stone, which like the masonry wall is the simplest form of load-bearing

B 1.41

42

support, underlies the normative requirements for load-bearing walls. DIN EN 1996-1-1 prescribes the minimum cross section of 0.10 m2. For the smallest wall thickness of 24 cm allowed by the standard, the pillar would have to have a width of at least 42 cm; a square cross section would have to have dimensions of 32 ≈ 32 cm. Beams

A beam, girder, architrave, crossbar or lintel is a rod-shaped structural element that usually forms part of a ceiling, floor or roof construction or serves as a cap for openings across their longitudinal dimension. This generates internal lateral forces as well as compression and tensile stresses. Natural stone does not possess good tensile strength, which is why the material is unsuited for large spans. Nevertheless, numerous ex­­ amples in the history of construction feature monolithic stone beams, most of them with square cross sections – the architraves of Greek temples come to mind, or typical stone lintels or, to name a contemporary example, the wine cellars in Vauvert by Gilles Perraudin (fig. B 1.40). While structural girders are still common today in other countries, in Germany their use is hampered by the mandated individual structural certification. The requirement usually means that natural stone beams subject to bending stresses must be reinforced or prestressed in the affected areas (fig. B 1.38). In the capping of openings in masonry, the bending stresses on a lintel can be significantly reduced by a discharging or relieving arch positioned above it. In such a situation the vertical loads of the wall are redirected around the opening so that the lintel must ­support only its own weight, and the stability of the wall is not endangered in case the lintel should fail (fig. B 1.41). Arches

An arch spans an opening. As a rule, it re­­ directs exclusively compression forces, but occasionally also thrust forces, into its supports. Because of its great compression strength, natural stone is an eminently suit­ able material for arches. Single-unit arches


Construction

­ onsume a great deal of material; the limitations c placed on their size restrict their use to the spanning of doors and window openings in masonry. Multipart and masonry arches, in which the component arch stones (voussoirs) are joined with dowels and clamps or with mortar, are more widespread. Of the many geometries found in arches, the most common are the semicircular (or round) arch, the segmental arch and the jack arch (fig. B 1.42). The flatter the arch is, the greater are the thrust forces acting on the abutments. These forces are redir­ ected into the masonry through the appropriate imposts, joints with the voussoirs, lateral mortar padding and upper loads in the abutments. An arch cannot bear loads until the ­keystone is inserted, and must therefore be supported during construction. The interplay of the joint pattern of the regular masonry wall with that of the arch presents a particular design challenge. Either the arch itself is emphasised by shaping the voussoirs into ring segments, or the surrounding masonry dominates and the voussoirs tie into its orthogonal jointing (fig. B 1.43). In their narrower configurations, natural stone arches can bridge large spans, as can be seen in the Devil’s Bridge at Borgo a Mozzano (fig. B 1.44). The spectacular wide-span nat­

a a

b

c

B 1.42

b

B 1.43

B 1.37 Natural stone arches with steel cable reinforcement, pilgrimage church San Pio da Pietrelcina, San Giovanni Rotondo (IT) 2004, Renzo Piano B 1.38  Tension and compression stresses in beams B 1.39 Single-unit facade and pergola columns, ­Diocese of Regensburg (DE) 2015, Brückner und Brückner B 1.40 Muschelkalk (lacustrine limestone) block pillars, wine cellar, Vauvert (FR) 1999, Gilles ­Perraudin B 1.41  Discharging arch over a door in Puglia (IT) B 1.42 Arch constructions a  Semicircular or round arch b  Segmental arch c  Jack arch B 1.43 Arch construction a Emphasising the arch by shaping the voussoirs to form arch components b Emphasising the masonry bond by integrating the voussoirs into the orthogonal joint pattern B 1.44 Arch construction of the Devil’s Bridge at Borgo a Mozzano (IT) 14th century B 1.44

43


a

a

d1

d1

≥ 30 ≥ 40 ≥ 40 a,b ≥ 40 a,b a

≥ 25 bB≥≥25 25bB ≥ 25 ≥ 50 c ≥ 50 c

a

≥ 30 ≥ 40 ≥ 30 ≥ 40

B 1.61

B 1.62 Interior veneers

a a

b a, b ≥ 40≥a,40

a a d1 Remaining wall thickness at the dowel hole � bB ≤ 12 mm (for M 8) � bB ≤ 14 mm (for M 10) � bB ≤ 16 mm (for M 12)

When a veneer of 9 cm thickness or more is intended for an interior space – for example ≤ 100 when an irregular masonry surface is desired to lend character to a room – the moistureVentilation proofing and insulating requirements as well as gap the ability to support wind loads that normally apply to multiple-leaf components fall away. The construction is thus usually built as an ­air-filled cavity wall or a cavity wall with mortar B 1.63 filling. With such a veneer, which is typically only ­room-high, complex bracing constructions are unnecessary, as long as the veneer wall is supported by the floor slab. Of course, the resulting load must be taken into account in the structural design of the slab. The veneer d1 d1 is anchored to the backing wall with wire wall ties, just like the facade veneer. The locations of expansion joints depend on the wall size and its thermal loads and must be determined ≥ 25≥ 25 bB ≥bB25≥ 25 on a case-by-case basis. If the veneer is less c c ≥ 50≥ 50 than 9 cm thick, it is installed according to DIN 18 515-2 [32] (see “Wall Cladding”, below). a  ≥ 40 mm or ≥ 2 (d1 + 5) b Reduction to 20 mm ­possible c  ≥ 50 mm or ≥ 2 (d1 + 5)

Wall Cladding

The term “wall cladding” comprises the cladding of an exterior or interior wall as well as B 1.64 any associated sealing, insulating or protect­ a a2 4 3 ive layers. Wall cladding is tailor-made for the 1 1 24 3 expression of architectural design, and on outer walls it has the added benefit of providing weather protection. When building with nat­ ≥8 ≥8 ural stone, a distinction is drawn between an anchored veneer with a minimum thickness of 9 cm (see “Veneers”, p. 46ff.) and wall cladding ≥5 ≥5 d1 dd1 1 ≥5 ≥5 d1 of lesser thickness. One of the main differences a a lies in appearance. While the veneer usually d d ag ≤a16 2 ≤ ag ≤216 a ≤ 16 ≤ aga≤b 16 N N b g projects the image of a solid wall, wall cladding ≥ 25 ≥ 25 ≥ 25 ≥ 25 gives the impression of an enveloping mantle. In Germany, there are three types of con­ aj aj struction: • tiles or panels fixed with mortar as per 1 Dowel sleeve aj Joint width DIN 18 515-1 [33] 2 Dowel hole ab Anchor bar width • facing blocks fixed in mortar on supports 3 Cement paste or other dN Nominal natural stone as per DIN 18 515-2 [34] appropriate glue panel thickness 4 Dowel d1 Remaining wall thickness • rear-ventilated exterior wall cladding as per DIN 18 516-3 [35]. ag Gap width at the dowel hole B 1.65

50

The rear-ventilated exterior wall cladding, that is to say, a stone curtain wall, is the most common implementation of natural stone wall cladding. In Germany, all three constructions are governed by DIN 18 332 [36]. This document contains cross references to the appropriate product and construction standards. The requirements for the cladding panels traded in Europe for use in curtain facades are codified in DIN EN 1469 [37]. According to these, panels that do not bear a CE mark (see “From raw material to dressed stone”, p. 14) cannot be used. The installation of the panels, especially the mounting technique, is regulated in Germany by DIN 18 516-1 [38] and DIN 18 516-3 [39]. Slate facades represent an exception. Since the slate tiles are less than 3 cm thick and the construction of the facade conforms to that of a lightweight rear-ventilated facade, which is executed by a roofing contractor, slate facades in Germany are not subject to a 1 24 3 DIN 18 332 [40] but rather DIN 18 338 Part C [41]. The requirements for slate are contained in DIN EN 12 326-1 [42], which in turn refers to the “Fachregel für Außenwandbekleidun≥8 gen mit Schiefer” from the Zentralverband des Deutschen Dachdeckerhandwerks (“Rules 5 for exterior≥slate cladding” from≥ 5the Central a Association of the German Roofing Trade) [43] ag ≤ 16 material. 2 ≤ ag ≤ 16 ab of for the implementation the ≥ 25

≥ 25 aj

B 1.61 Scaffolding anchor fastened to the structural wall (i.e. not the veneer wall) through the insulation, St Trinitatis Catholic Church, Leipzig (DE) 2015, Schulz und Schulz (see also example project p. 124ff.) B 1.62 Standard construction of a rear-ventilated curtain wall (VCW) of natural stone B 1.63 Effective vertical windproofing at the building corners B 1.64 Facade panel mounting with shear dowel ­anchors B 1.65  Facade panel mounting with dowel anchors B 1.66  Attachment of a soffit panel to a mother panel B 1.67 Facade panel mounting with expansion bolt ­anchors B 1.68  Facade panel mounting with cramp anchors

d1

d1 dN


Construction

1 1

≥ 1.5 ≥ 1.5

1 3 3

≥ 15≥ 15 d1 d1

3 1 Soffit 2  Screw connection 3  (Mother) panel

1  EPDM gasket 2 Corrosion-resistant steel gasket

A rear-ventilated curtain wall (VCW) or facade is composed of the outer cladding, the anchoring system fixing it to the structure, the venti­ lation space and the insulation outside of the structure (fig. B 1.62). In contrast to VCWs with other cladding materials such as fibre cement or metal, in a natural stone VCW, the weight of the material makes the method by which the facade panels are attached to the load-bearing structure of the building a significant factor. A natural stone VCW must meet the following requirements: •  stone panel thickness of at least 3 cm •  mounting system of corrosion-resistant steel • air cushion layer between stone and insulation of no less than 4 cm • non-flammable insulation of type WAB according to DIN 4108-10 [44] •  reinforced concrete or masonry structure The thickness of the insulating layer is determined by the thermal insulation concept and must take into account the thermal bridges ­created by the mounting system. The insulating panels are installed with tight butt joints and attached at the joint crossings and at the centres of the panels with an average of five fasteners per square metre. Alternatively (or in addition), the panels may be glued. Their edges are secured with additional fasteners. The design of a natural stone facade must take the tolerances and dimensional features of the individual layers and building components into account. For structural reasons, stone panels installed at special locations – in soffits, for example – are often thicker than those on the flat surface, as they are expected to accommodate building tolerances from the structural shell and from the mounting of the insulating panels. As in glass facades, it is advisable for surveys of the structural shell to be taken during the construction phase so that a tailored fit of the facade panels can be ensured in a timely manner. In addition to this, it is recommended that the design assume a panel thickness of 4 cm, since the specific characteristics of many stones require this thickness to allow for the appropriate mounting hardware. Apart from the other factors influencing the

2 2

d1 d1≥ 10≥ 10d1 d≥11.5

3 3 3 ≥ 15 3  Anchor rod d1 d  Nominal natural stone N panel thickness

d1

1

≥ 1.5 ≥ 10

2

d1

1 EPDM fairing strip 2 Cramp profile d1 Remaining wall thickness at the dowel hole

B 1.67

B 1.68

choice of stone (see “The Selection of Stone”, p. 32ff.), architects should test the suitability of the stone as a facade material, since the stone cladding will be exposed to temperature and moisture fluctuations. Natural stone VCWs are much more frequently used than anchored masonry veneers because they require less material, the panels are manufactured all over the world, and they weigh less per square metre of facade. Consequently, there is a greater variety of suitable panel material to choose from than for masonry veneers.

requires a basic understanding of the different anchoring techniques. While other anchoring systems are common in many other countries, in Germany the dowel anchor has largely asserted itself. It is described in detail in DIN 18 516-3 [45], though other types of anchor are also permitted. The standard differentiates between dowel, shear dowel, expansion bolt and cramp anchors.

B 1.66 Rear-ventilated curtain facades

≥ 1.5 ≥ 1.5

≥1.5

1 1

2

≥10

1 1

≥1.5

1 2

2 2

≥1.5 ≥10 ≥1.5 ≥10

≥1.5

≥1.5

1 1 2 2

1

Load distribution

In contrast to the anchored masonry veneer, which rests fully on a support pad and is tied to the backing wall to prevent it from tipping (see “Parapet with stone coping”, p. 114ff.), a VCW of natural stone consists of stone panels that are individually mounted to the structure. Usually this is done at four attachment points: two load-bearing anchors support the panel and two restraint anchors prevent it from tipping and transfer wind and restraint forces into the building structure. In special installation situations, the standard allows the exceptional use of only three anchor points. Elements that do not belong to the facade construction, such as windows, doors, lighting, advertisement or scaffolding, may not be mounted to the stone cladding or its anchors, but must be attached directly to the structure (fig. B 1.61). In Germany, such a facade requires proof of stability, which is to be submitted along with the building documents. The proof determines the panel thicknesses and the type of anchoring system, among other things. In order to reduce the wind loads, the design must incorporate open joints between panels as well as vertical wind barriers at building corners (fig. B 1.63). As a rule, the structural certification is performed by the contracting firm as a special service, in order to factor in productionand mounting-related concerns. The structural engineer then incorporates the reported selfweight and the wind loads into their stability certification for the building structure. Although there are a great many normative regulations that pertain to the structural aspects of the anchors, in designing a facade, an architect

Dowel anchors The most common mount used in Germany to attach natural stone facade panels is the dowel anchor. In this method, holes are drilled into the lateral panel edges; dowels affixed to anchors are inserted into these holes to support and secure the panel. The anchor is usually provided with two dowels in order to hold neighbouring panels in place. In these instances, the dowel on one side of the anchor is glued into the hole at the panel edge with adhesive or cement paste. The other dowel is inserted into a dowel sleeve glued into the hole in the opposing panel edge (fig. B 1.65). The dowel sleeve allows the restraint-free movement of the stone panel resulting from thermal expansion. Shear dowel anchors In the shear dowel anchor system, a hole is drilled into the lateral panel edge to accommodate a long dowel. A threaded bolt with a hole through its shaft is inserted into another drill hole at right angles to the plane of the panel, and the dowel is inserted into the first hole so that it passes through the opening in the bolt. As the bolt is tightened by a nut on the rear of the panel, the dowel is fixed to the stone panel (fig. B 1.64). This technique, familiar to some from furniture assembly, is preferred in the rare cases in which one panel is attached directly to another – for example, soffit cladding which has been fixed to a so-called mother panel with angle connectors (fig. B 1.66). Expansion bolt anchors The expansion bolt anchor, a somewhat antiquated mounting fastener, is only used when no other anchoring method is possible and where the bolt location will later be hard to see (e.g. in the parapet near the building corner). 51


B 1.100 Various stair tread implementations on a ­structural reinforced concrete staircase a Steps in form of shaped stone workpieces placed on stair strings b Solid-appearing variation with adhered and dowel-joined risers and treads c Plated look conveyed via permanently ­elastic jointing between risers and treads B 1.101 Stone skirting board options a  Skirting following the stair profile b  “Bishop’s hats” skirting B 1.102 Contrasting edge strips on top and bottom steps of the main staircase, Nordkopf Tower, Wolfsburg (DE) 2017, Schulz und Schulz

from transferring to the panel from the substrate. Natural stone exposed to weathering will be visually compromised not only by moisture incursions and discolouration, but also by algae growth, moss and encrustations. For surfaces exposed to little sunlight and excessive or prolonged wetness, in particular, the only way to combat these problems is through regular maintenance and cleaning (see “Care and Maintenance”, p. 70ff.). The slip-resistance of exterior floor coverings should also be considered. On this topic, the trade regulation GUV-R 181 [78] contains helpful information for outdoor areas. The rougher the surface texture of the natural stone surface is, however, the greater the gradient should be in the direction of the drainage elements. For completeness, it should be noted that even slanted roofs can be covered in natural stone. Pitched roofs with thick stone panelling have become somewhat fashionable, though the cost of securely mounting the heavy materials and of doubling the drainage must be critically examined (fig. B 1.98, p. 63). Pitched roofs covered with split stone, preferably slate, are better suited to the material. Design tips can be found in “Fachregel für Dachdeckungen mit Schiefer” by the Zentralverband des Deutschen Dachdeckerhandwerks (“Rules for slate roof coverings” by the Central Association of the German Roofing Trade) [79].

a

b

c

64

Stair Cladding

B 1.100

Designing staircases requires a thorough familiarity with the relevant rules and regulations. In Germany, the geometrical requirements for stairs are described in DIN 18 065. The regulations provided in BGI / GUV-I 561 “Stairs” reiterate many of the requirements stated in DIN 18 065 and expand on them with more concrete provisions [80]. The standards pertaining to barrier-free construction, DIN 18 040-1 and DIN 18 040-2, contain further design principles for staircases in public and residential buildings [81]. The product norm for natural stone, DIN EN 12 058 [82], defines the required specifications for stone traded in Europe as floor panels and stair cladding.

DIN 18 332 includes instructions for the professional installation of natural stone stair cladding [83]. Most of the information taken from the standards and rules and regulations are summarised in the DNV’s Bautechnische Information (BTI) 2.2. The design and planning of stairs is one of the most demanding jobs in architecture – not only because of the complex spatial geometry involved, but also because of the interplay of all the individual stair parts, such as flights, steps, well hole and bannisters. Thanks to its durability, its many fabrication options and its appearance, natural stone is a material extremely well-suited for use as stair cladding. Many of the requirements and design fundamentals translate directly from the use of stone as a floor covering (see “Floor Coverings”, p. 58ff.), though there are a few special features to bear in mind. Cladding on reinforced concrete stairs

The main difference between stair cladding and structural stairs (see “Stairs”, p. 44ff.) is that in the former, panels or shaped pieces of natural stone are attached onto the entire surface of a load-bearing flight of stairs. The flight is generally built from reinforced concrete. Such a construction has closed risers and is therefore considered barrier-free according to DIN 18 040 [85], as long as the stair flights are straight or the well hole of a curved flight has an inner diameter of 2 m or more. In add­ ition, with accessible stairs the stair treads may not protrude beyond the risers, and for angled risers the maximum allowable undercut is 2 cm. The structural staircase may be prefabricated or of cast-in-place concrete. Usually, the nonstructural steps are moulded onto the stair flight and covered with squared-off panels. Individual shaped pieces of natural stone can themselves constitute the steps, though in this case additional measures must be taken to secure the step against sliding off (fig. B 1.100 a). Since casting the concrete stairs on the construction site is a very laborious process, precast stairs have become quite common. In the prefabrication plant the concrete is poured into a stair mould that lies


Construction

1 2 3

3 1

1 2 3

3 1

14 5

14 5 1  Elastic joint 2 Screed 3 Insulation

flat on the ground with the steps facing down. The extension of the isolation joint into the landing cladding at the foot and head of the stairs is a direct consequence of the typical acoustic decoupling of precast stairs via elastic supports (see Guideline on p. 120f.). Apart from the technically and architecturally correct installation of the stone floor covering, the challenge in these types of prefabricated stairs lies in designing an appealing interplay among joints, inflection points and well hole (see Guideline, p. 119). A less common technique for noise abatement is to support the acous­ tically decoupled landings and stair flights on consoles. This method avoids the floating screed on the landing, though the reinforced concrete consoles lack elegance. In order to form the base of a natural stone cladding, a reinforced concrete staircase must possess sufficient structural strength and rigidity. The structural engineer should make sure that the deflection of the flight is ­limited to 1/1,000th of its span, to prevent ­separation of the step panels or the mortar bed from the stairs. Normally the stone panels are 3 – 5 cm thick and are laid on the concrete step on a 2 cm bed of mortar so that any unevenness of the base can be levelled out. According to BTI 2.2 by the DNV, trass cement mortar should be used in order to minimise the risk of stone discolouration [86]. On accessible stairs without undercut projections, the stair treads and risers have the same panel thickness. If the visual impression of a solid step is desired, the upper panel edge of the riser should be bonded and dowel-jointed to the underside of the tread (fig. B 1.100 b). If the panels are meant to be visible, it is recommended that the butt joint be filled with per­manently elastic compound (fig. B 1.100 c). For the usual stair widths, the treads and risers should consist of a single dressed stone panel, that is, the length of the panel should equal the width of the stair. This is not possible for panels or tiles of less than 3 cm thickness. The plasticity of a natural stone-clad staircase cannot be achieved with the smaller panels or tiles because of the joints between them. Additional drawbacks of the smaller stones

4  Plaster lath 5 Elastic staircase ­support

a

b

are in the increased demands on the tolerances of the sub-base and the labour-intensive full-surface buttering-floating method required to lay them.

ishes of accessible stairs which has substantial consequences for their design [89]. In order for visually impaired people to be able to negotiate stairs safely, the edges of the treads and risers must be marked by a con­ tinuous contrasting stripe. These markings can be incorporated on natural-stone-clad stairs by inlaying a strip of stone that contrasts visually with the cladding. For stairwells, the standard allows an exception, according to which only the bottom and top steps must be so marked (fig. B 1.102). Nevertheless, this is an incisive example of how the requirements of inclusive construction change architectural design patterns: a stair is considered accessible if protruding stair treads are precluded. But since this also removes the associated shadow effect of the step panel, its outer edge must be marked.

Surface finish

For high-traffic stairs, e.g. in public buildings, the stone selected for the stair cladding should be abrasion-resistant, so that the wear of the cladding from use as well as from cleaning and maintenance is minimised (see “Floor coverings”, p. 58). BTI 2.2 from the DNV contains an overview of the abrasion resistance values of the different rock groups, which offers guidance in the stone selection (fig. B 1.89, p. 59) [87]. Like floor coverings, stair claddings are required to have slip-resistant properties which are achieved by an appropriately rough stone surface (see “Surface finish”, p. 61). Stairs subject to the GUV-R 181 regulations are usually expected to conform with the R 9 requirement, which can be met by grinding the stone surface with grit size F 120 [88]. Unless a ­difference between tread and riser is explicitly called for in the design, all surfaces receive the same finish. Alternatives to the full-surface treatment of a panel are to give the stone a band of slip-resistant finish or to insert an antiskid profile. These methods allow for an in situ retrofitting of the stairs. The series of norms incorporated in DIN 18 040 yields a further requirement for the surface fin-

B 1.101

Attachments at wall and well hole

A flight of stairs is bordered on its sides by walls or by one wall and a well hole. In attaching the stairs to the wall, direct contact between the two elements should be prevented so that impact sound is not transmitted. Just as for stone floor coverings, a skirting board should be installed along the bottom of the wall to protect it from mechanical loading and dirt. For plaster walls, a flush-mounted skirting board is recommended, as it is more elegant and prevents the accumulation of dirt on its top edge (see “Panel arrangements and joints”,

B 1.102

65


98


Detailed Guidelines – Anchored Veneer

Part E Detailed Guidelines

Anchored Veneer  1 Plinth   2 Window lintel   3 Exterior windowsill   4 Window reveal, horizontal section   5 Window reveal, vertical section   6 Parapet with sheet metal coping   7 Parapet with stone coping   8 Eaves with overhang   9 Eaves without overhang

101 102 102 103 103 104 105 106 107

Rear-Ventilated Curtain Wall (VCW) 10 Plinth with ground clearance 11 Plinth embedded in ground 12 Window soffit 13 Exterior windowsill 14 Window reveal, horizontal section 15 Window reveal, vertical section 16 Parapet with exposed sheet metal coping 17 Parapet with concealed sheet metal coping 18 Parapet with stone coping 19 Eaves without overhang

108 109 110 110 111 111 112 113 114 115

Floor Covering 20 Mortar bed 21 Thin-set bed 22 Floor system 23 Wet area 24 Terrace 25 Terrace with connecting door 26 Stairs, well hole and wall attachment 27 Stairs, bottom 28 Stairs, top

116 116 117 117 118 118 119 120 121

Facade construction, St Trinitatis Catholic Church, Leipzig (DE) 2015, Schulz und Schulz

99


Detailed Guidelines Ansgar and Benedikt Schulz, Matthias Hönig

Detailed diagrams illustrate how building components are joined to form constructions. Their purpose is to define the technically correct method of implementing a construction so that it can fulfil its function, in principle over as long a time period as possible. Construction details play a critical role in the architectural expression, impression and atmospheric effect of buildings. Whether buildings appear elegant or rustic, meticulous or rough-hewn, unassuming or conspicuous depends not only on the choice of materials and their surface finishes, but more importantly on the way in which the construction elements are put together. Architectural design and construction build on one another – from the large overall picture to the “small” details. The architectural space that the original concept describes in abstract terms is fleshed out step by step in the design process. In the same way, constructional space gains concrete form only in the devel­opment of the detailed solutions. The methodology for developing construction details is based on this progression. Starting with the desired architectural expression, the size of the construction spaces must be defined, the connecting geometries of adjacent building components determined and their individual layered constructions coordin­ ated with one another. This process is iterative, both in terms of the design depth, which depends on the scale of the detail, and in terms of the evaluative approach to finding architectural solutions. The detailed guidelines given in this chapter are meant to provide reference points for pos­ sible technical solutions in building with natural stone. The diagrams show typical layering sequences and draw attention to the connection issues that arise in areas where different building components meet. In the building shell, the illustrated guidelines therefore focus on the constructional interfaces at the plinth, window and roof attachments – specifically at the eaves and parapet. Solution options are depicted for both anchored masonry veneers of natural stone (see also “Veneers”, p. 46ff.)

100

and ventilated curtain facades (or walls), often abbreviated VCWs (see also “Wall Cladding”, p. 50ff.). For natural stone floor coverings, the common layered constructions are shown along with their typical attachments to walls (see also “Floor Coverings”, p. 58ff.), with the additional illustration of a threshold-free exit transition onto a (roof) terrace. The detailed guidelines are rounded out by technical solutions for natural stone stair cladding on re­­ inforced concrete staircases (see also “Stair Cladding”, p. 64f.). In some cases, variants of a given detail are illustrated that are linked to fundamental technical and architectural differences. For ex­­ ample, there are two opposite approaches to the construction of the plinth of a VCW: though it may be technically simpler to install the facade with ground clearance, embedding the facade into the ground conforms better stylistically with a solid stone appearance. At the parapet, the critical question is how the top of the wall is to be capped. The simple solution of a sheet metal coping is often unsuited to the intended effect of the facade. Alternative approaches lie in stone coping or in a hidden attachment of the steel sheet. At the eaves, the detailing depends critically on the location of the roof gutter. The gutter can be attached to the front of a facade (with or without a roof overhang), it can be installed flush with the leading edge of the facade or it can be concealed in the roof pitch. This sequence of options corresponds to the increasing constructional complexity of the eaves detailing. The differences in natural stone floor con­ structions depend mainly on the live loads on the floors. Each stone is a unique building material that has particular characteristics and is subject to particular regulations, just as every building design represents a singular response to location and purpose. Therefore, the construction details for buildings and building components of natural stone should be developed individually, in accordance with the material and the architectural concept.


Detailed Guidelines – Anchored Veneer

Anchored Veneer 1 Plinth

The masonry veneer is placed on angle support brackets at plinth level. The plinth stone must be resistant to water, frost and de-icing salt as well as mechanical stresses. If the stone chosen for the facade cannot fulfil these per­ formance requirements, a different stone must be installed at the plinth. This stone can contrast with the facade material or match it (see “Plinths and corners”, p. 49ff.). Water that penetrates into the wall cavity is allowed to drain through open joints at the bottom-most stone into the drainage system. The thermal insulation in the ground and plinth areas must be waterproof. Ventilation openings must be provided above ground.

1.1

Vertical section Scale 1:10 1.2 1.4

1.5

1.1 90 mm natural stone veneer 20 mm gap 200 mm fleece-laminated mineral wool insulation Reinforced steel load-bearing wall 1.2 Ventilation opening 1.3 90 mm natural stone veneer 20 mm gap Stainless steel angle support bracket (base bracket) 140 mm XPS thermal insulation Building waterproofing Reinforced steel load-bearing wall 1.4 Weep hole 1.5 Drainage layer 1.6 10 mm separation and protection layer

1.3

1.6

1 101


122


Part F  Example Builds

Schulz und Schulz – St Trinitatis Catholic Church in Leipzig (DE)

124

Rolf Mühlethaler – Training Centre for the German Foreign Office in Berlin (DE)

130

Barrault Pressacco – Residential Building on Rue Oberkampf in Paris (FR)

134

Wespi de Meuron Romeo Architects – House on Lake Maggiore in Ascona (CH)

138

Alberto Campo Baeza – Government Building in Zamora (ES)

142

Brückner & Brückner Architekten – Bayerischer Wald Granite Centre in Hauzenberg (DE)

146

Lederer Ragnarsdóttir Oei – New Building, Historisches Museum in Frankfurt am Main (DE)

150

José Rafael Moneo – Museum of the Roman Theatre in Cartagena (ES)

155

Michele De Lucchi – Chapel of St James in Fischbachau (DE)

158

Caruso St John Architects – Chiswick House Café in London (GB)

162

Renzo Piano Building Workshop – Parliament Building in Valletta (MT)

166

Gualano + Gualano Arquitectos – Vacation House near Maldonado (UY)

171

Max Dudler – Visitor Centre in Heidelberg (DE)

174

Álvaro Siza Vieira, Eduardo Souto de Moura – Museum of Contemporary Sculpture in Santo Tirso (PT)

178

Longhi Architects – Residence in Pachacámac (PE)

182

Christoph Mäckler Architekten – Zoofenster Tower in Berlin (DE)

186

Levitt Bernstein – Wilkins Terrace University Courtyard in London (GB)

191

bernardo bader architekten – Alpine Sports Centre in Schruns (AT)

196

HGA Architects and Engineers – Expansion of Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis (US)

200

Office Haratori with Office Winhov – Bucherer Commercial Building in Zurich (CH)

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KAAN Architecten – Supreme Court of the Netherlands in The Hague (NL)

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O’Donnell + Tuomey, M-Teampannon – Central European University in Budapest (HU)

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Vacation house near Maldonado (UY) 2015, Gualano + Gualano Arquitectos

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  1 Roof construction: 50 mm ballast of granite chippings Diffusion fabric separating layer 60 mm EPS thermal insulation Bitumen sheet waterproofing, double layer 40 –150 mm tapered foam glass insulation Temporary sealing sheet 250 mm exposed concrete ceiling slab   2 40 mm granite cladding, fastened with weld-on anchors   3 Exposed concrete, graphite-coated and polished   4 Roof construction: 30 – 60 mm ballast of granite chippings Diffusion fabric separating layer 60 mm EPS thermal insulation Bitumen sheet waterproofing, double layer 40 –130 mm tapered foam glass insulation Temporary sealing sheet 60 mm profile height trapezoidal sheet IPE 330 steel beam 2 mm steel sheet suspended ceiling, oiled and waxed, with visible screws   5 Post-and-beam facade with insulating glazing   6 Exhibition floor construction: 25 mm oak planks 50 mm cement screed PE film separating layer 2≈ 60 mm EPS thermal insulation 100 mm concrete topping 460 mm precast reinforced concrete T slab   7 800 mm ID shaft foundation   8 Bedrock   9 Ceiling underside of rough-hewn granite plate as permanent formwork with lateral supports and anchoring 10 Lintel of granite blocks, laterally supported and ­anchored to reinforced concrete 11 10 mm steel frame profile door with insulated core, clad with waxed steel panels on both sides 12 Floor construction in entrance area: Epoxy resin floor sealant 25 mm hard-aggregate floor screed 200 mm reinforced concrete ground slab with ­concrete core activation PE film separating layer 50 mm lean concrete blinding layer 13 Grating with drainage in ground slab 14 Ground construction in entrance area: 100 mm granite pavement Bed of stone chippings Base course of crushed stone

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Residence Pachacámac (PE) 2009 Architects: Longhi Architects, Lima (PE)

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Stone used: Local rubblestone (PE)

Built into a hill 50 kilometres south of Lima is the retirement home for a philosopher couple. Because of their love for this undeveloped area near the ancient Incan city of Pachacámac, they decided to change the place as little as possible while seeking to enter into a dialogue with the countryside. For this reason, the bulk of the building has been carved into the hillside. On the west side, the underground rooms are illuminated via tunnel-like incisions, while in the east, small openings in the solid stone walls provide nat­ural lighting and ventilation. Only the living room is conceptualised as a glass volume jutting from the landscape. It gives the house visibility and affords the residents a one-of-a-kind panoramic view. The

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outer walls consist of a local rubblestone veneer anchored to reinforced concrete walls. The choice of stone was determined by the particular installation site – the farther the walls are located from the house, the larger the stone and the rougher its surface; with decreasing distance from the residence the stone becomes smaller and its finish smoother. Indoors, the rubblestone masonry walls alternate with exposed concrete surfaces. Bookcases, tables, washbasins and a fireplace are cast as an integral part of the concrete walls using timber formwork. The roof is covered with a mixture of recycled plastic bottles and soil. With time, the planted vegetation will allow the house to blend fully into its surroundings.

Site map Scale 1:1,000 Sections • Floor plans Scale 1:400   1 Entry courtyard   2 Entrance hallway  3 Bedroom  4 Library  5 Courtyard  6 Bathroom   7 Studio  /  office gallery  8 Pool   9 Living room 10 Dining room 11 Kitchen 12 Laundry room 13 Wine cellar


Longhi Architects – Residence

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1 1 Roof construction: 60 mm strongly patterned Cristallina Virginio marble, cut with the vein 70 – 40 mm gravel bed 10 mm drainage Bitumen sheet waterproofing, double layer 380 – 270 mm rock wool thermal insulation, tapered Temporary roof sheet / vapour-proofing 40 mm concrete topping 60 mm existing hollow-core slab between DIN 22 steel beams 2 Marble facade construction: 60 –160 mm homogeneous Cristallina Virginio marble, cut with the vein 60 mm CNS support frame for stone element /  rear ventilation 60 mm vacuum-insulated panels 8 mm interior waterproofing layer / steel sheet ­subconstruction for insulation 100 mm earthquake protection / facade ­subconstruction of mounted steel pipe frames Existing HEB 200 steel skeleton supports 3 Floor construction: 25 mm flooring 35 mm cement screed Separating layer 30 mm impact sound insulation 40 mm concrete topping 60 mm existing hollow-core slab between DIN 22 steel beams 4 Bronze facade construction: 8 –13 mm sand-cast bronze element ≥ 60 mm CNS shelf angle supports / rear ventilation 170 mm fibreglass panel thermal insulation 30 mm Duripanel fire barrier 250 mm reinforced existing HEM 200 columns, with insulated trusses in lintel and sill areas as ­earthquake reinforcement and impact protection 5 mm steel sheet interior waterproofing Anchored plasterboard veneer

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Office Haratori with Office Winhov – Bucherer Commercial Building

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Authors Ansgar Schulz born 1966 in Witten / Ruhr Univ.- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Architect BDA (Association of ­German A ­ rchitects’), DWB (Deutscher Werkbund) 1985 –1992 studied architecture at RWTH Aachen ­University and at ETSAM Madrid 1992 founded Schulz und Schulz with his brother ­Benedikt 2002 appointed to the Bund Deutscher Architekten BDA 2004 appointed to the Arbeitskreis junger Architektinnen und Architekten AKJAA of the BDA 2004 – 2009 member of the state executive board of the Saxony BDA 2005 – 2010 head of the BDA Regional Group in Leipzig 2015 appointed to the Deutscher Werkbund Berlin DWB 2010, 2016 and 2018 appointed to the Convention of Baukultur within the Federal Foundation of Baukultur since 2016 member of the scientific advisory committee of the Deutsches Institut für Stadtbaukunst since 2017 member of the Baukollegium Berlin 2002 – 2004 lectureship at TU Karlsruhe 2010 – 2018 Professor of Building Construction at ­Technische Universität Dortmund since 2018 Professor of Architectural Design and ­Construction at Technische Universität Dresden Benedikt Schulz born 1968 in Witten / Ruhr Univ.- Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Architect BDA (Association of ­German A ­ rchitects’), DWB (Deutscher Werkbund) 1988 –1994 studied architecture at RWTH Aachen ­University and UC Asunción / Paraguay 1992 founded Schulz und Schulz with his brother Ansgar 2002 appointed to the Bund Deutscher Architekten BDA 2004 appointed to the Arbeitskreis junger Architektinnen und Architekten AKJAA of the BDA 2006 – 2009 Spokesperson for the AKJAA since 2010 member of the Sächsische Akademie der Künste 2015 appointed to the Deutscher Werkbund Berlin DWB since 2016 member of the scientific advisory committee of the Deutsches Institut für Stadtbaukunst 1995 –1996 research assistant at the Chair for Urban Design at RWTH Aachen University 2002 – 2004 lectureship at TU Karlsruhe 2010 – 2018 Professor of Building Construction at ­Technische Universität Dortmund since 2018 Professor of Architectural Design and ­Construction at Technische Universität Dresden Ansgar and Benedikt Schulz Awards (selection) 2020, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2013, 2011, 2010, 2009 Best Architects 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016 DAM Prize nominations 2018 Grand DAI (Verband Deutscher Architekten- und Ingenieurvereine) Award for Building Culture 2017, 2013 German Architecture Award, shortlist 2016, 2010 European Mies van der Rohe Award ­nominations 2016 World Architecture Festival Awards, Religious ­Building of the Year 2016 International Prize for Sacred Architecture 2016, 3rd place 2016 BDA 2016 Nike Architectural Prize for Symbolism 2016, 2007 BDA Prize Saxony 2016 RIBA Awards for International Excellence, Selection 2016 European Balthasar Neumann Award 2015, 2007 Architecture Prize of the City of Leipzig 2013, 2010 BDA Prize Saxony, honourable mentions 2012, 2010 selection for the German contribution to the 13th Venice Architecture Biennale 2011, 2009, 2003 Architecture Prize of the City of Leipzig, honourable mentions 2009 German Facade Award for Rear-Ventilated Facades 2007 German Architecture Award, honourable mention

Martin Zeumer born 1977 in Siegen Dr.-Ing. Architect self-employed since 2003 2005 – 2010 research associate and senior lecturer at the TU Darmstadt, Design and Energy-Efficient Construction group, Prof. Hegger 2008 lectureship at Hochschule Bochum 2010 – 2011 research associate at TU Darmstadt, Architectural and Building Design group, Prof. Eisele and TU Darmstadt, Design and Energy-Efficient Construction group, Prof. Hegger 2012 completed certification course in building biology and aspects of indoor loads as "Certified Building ­Biology Designer” 2012 completed certification course in existing residential buildings as “Energy Consultant (TU Darmstadt)” since 2012 employed at ee concept GmbH (since 2013 member of the executive board and authorised officer) 2015 earned doctorate at TU Darmstadt under Prof. ­Hegger / Prof. Eisele / Prof. Joppien: “Fassadensystem zur Altbausanierung – Konstruktion und energetische Optimierung eines Sanierungs­ systems aus Kunststoff für den Wohnungsbau” 2018 completed certification course in sustainable design and construction as “Coordinator of Sustainable Construction Based on the BNB System” since 2018 writer of blog on the sustainable refurbishment of residential buildings (www.altbau-neu-gedacht.de)

Alberto Campo Baeza born 1946 in Valladolid 1971 completed architecture studies at ETSAM Madrid 1986 professor at ETSAM Madrid since He has also taught at ETH Zurich (CH), EPFL in Lausanne (CH), University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (US), ­Kansas State University (US), CUA in Washington (US) and, in 2016, at the École d’ Architecture in Tournai (BE) 2017 Clarkson Chair of Architecture at the University of Buffalo (US) His work has been shown at exhibitions worldwide, his writings have been published in more than 30 publications and his architecture firm has been awarded numerous prizes, including the Heinrich Tessenow Gold Medal, the RIBA International Fellowship and the Piranesi Prix de Rome. His most important works include Casa del Infinito, completed in 2014 in Cádiz, the seat of the Castile and León Regional Government in Zamora (2011) and the Museum of Memory in Granada, built in 2009.

Jutta Albus born 1976 in Bad Wildungen Jun. Prof. Dr.-Ing. 1996 – 2003 Universität Darmstadt Dipl.-Ing. Arch. 1999 – 2000 Goshow Architects New York / US 2000 – 2001 AS&P Albert Speer & Partner Frankfurt am Main 2003 – 2004 Phase 4, Munich, Dipl.-Ing. Architect 2004 – 2006 Hamilton Associates London / GB, Dipl.-Ing. Architect 2006 – 2008 Santiago Calatrava GmbH Zurich / CH and New York /US, Dipl.-Ing. Architect / Lead Designer 2008 – 2009 Festina Lente LLC (Santiago Calatrava) New York / US, Dipl.-Ing. Architect / Lead Designer 2009 – 2017 University of Stuttgart Institute of Building Construction 2, Dipl.-Ing. Architect, research associate, PhD candidate 2017 earned doctorate at the University of Stuttgart: “Implementing the Benefits of Prefabrication and ­Automated Processes in Residential Construction” since 2010 albusarchitecture, independent architect since 2017 Technische Universität Dortmund, Junior ­Professor, resource-efficient construction, Dr.-Ing. Architect Specialist in prefabrication and automated construction methods Numerous scientific articles and books / publications Matthias Hönig born 1974 in Borna Dipl.-Ing. Architect 1994 – 2000 studied architecture at Hochschule für ­Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur in Leipzig since 2000 employed at Schulz und Schulz since 2001 project lead, since 2008 office manager and since 2013 authorised officer at Schulz und Schulz Responsible for projects such as the Neue Nikolai­ schule in Leipzig, the Cloud Laboratory in Leipzig, the Chemnitz Süd police station, daycare facilities in modular system design in Munich, Heiterblick ­Technical Centre in Leipzig, the Tropos lab modules in Leipzig, Senftenauerstraße elementary school with sports and indoor pool in Munich, Leipzig Mitte ­elementary school

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Project Participants St Trinitatis Catholic Church in Leipzig (DE) Client: St Trinitatis Catholic Church, Leipzig (DE) Architects: Schulz und Schulz, Leipzig (DE) Project team: C. Wischalla, B. Roßberg, L. Wolter, M. Hönig, K. Liebner, P. Gaffron, J. Gallitschke, S. Nestroi, F. Heiland, S. Weiske, R. Büttner, T. Gohr Structural engineering: Seeberger Friedl Planungsgesell­schaft mbH Ingenieurbüro für Tragwerksplanung, ­Munich (DE) with: Büro für Baustatik Benno, Dominik und Mathias Förtsch Ingenieur Partnerschaftsgesellschaft Leipzig (DE) Sustainability: ee concept GmbH, Darmstadt Training Centre for the German Foreign Office in ­Berlin (DE) Client: Federal Republic of Germany; represented by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, ­Building and Community, Berlin (DE); represented by the Federal ­Office for Building and Regional Planning, Berlin (DE) Architects: Rolf Mühlethaler, Bern (CH) Project team: E. Geissmann, T. Waeber, S. Walthert, M. Jäggi, F. Aeschbacher, P. Knapp, B. Gygax, S. Lobsiger, U. Meuter, N. Ruef, S. Stein Site management: Backmann Schieber Kohler, Berlin (DE) Structural engineering: Wetzel & von Seht, Berlin (DE) Residential Building on Rue Oberkampf in Paris (FR) Client: Régie Immobilière de la Ville de Paris, Paris (FR) Architects: Barrault Pressacco, Paris (FR) Site management: Thibaut Barrault, Cyril Pressacco Structural engineering: LM Ingénierie, Paris (FR) House on Lake Maggiore in Ascona (CH) Client: private Architects: Wespi de Meuron Romeo Architekten, Caviano (CH) Site management: Wespi de Meuron Romeo Architekten, Caviano (CH) Structural engineering: de Giorgi & Partners, Muralto (CH) Government Building in Zamora (ES) Client: Junta Castilla y León, Valladolid (ES) Architects: Alberto Campo Baeza, Pablo Fernández Lorenzo, Pablo Redondo Díez, Alfonso González Gaisán, Francisco Blanco Velasco, Madrid (ES) Project team: I. Aguirre López, M. Ciria Hernández Structural engineering: Ideee Alicante S.l., Alicante (ES) Bayerischer Wald Granite Centre in Hauzenberg (DE) Client: Town of Hauzenberg and Landratsamt ­Passau (DE) Architects: Brückner & Brückner Architekten, Tirschenreuth / Würzburg (DE); Peter Brückner, Christian Brückner Project team: R. Reith, R. Völkl, W. Herrmann, S. Dostler, N. Ritzer (competition) Site management: Architekturbüro Ludwig A. Bauer, Hauzenberg (DE) Structural engineering: Ingenieurbüro Kropfmühl, Hauzenberg (DE) New Building, Historisches Museum in Frankfurt am Main (DE) Client: City of Frankfurt am Main, Dezernat VII – Kultur und Wissenschaft, represented by the Building Department of the City of Frankfurt am Main (DE) Architects: Lederer Ragnarsdóttir Oei, Stuttgart (DE) Project team: D. Fornol (project management through ­service phase 4), D. Steinhübl (project management), E. Caspar, H. Jalloul, A. Schönhoff, M. Kager, S. Günter, H. Thibault, U. Kreuz

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Site management: Architekturbüro Wenzel + Wenzel, Frankfurt am Main (DE) Structural engineering: Lenz Weber Ingenieure GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (DE) Museum of the Roman Theatre in Cartagena (ES) Client: Fundación Teatro Romano de Cartagena Architects: José Rafael Moneo, Madrid (ES) Project team: J. M. Nicás (project management) C. Bovio, A. Huertas Suanzes Structural engineering: NB 35 S.L. Ingenieros, Madrid (ES) Chapel of St James in Fischbachau (DE) Client: private Architects: Michele De Lucchi, Milan (IT) Project architect: B. Bauer, Munich (DE) Project team: M. Biffi, F. Faccin, G. Filippini Structural engineering: Jens Corsepius, Munich (DE) Chiswick House Café in London (GB) Client: English Heritage, London (GB) Architects: Caruso St John Architects, London (GB) / Zurich (CH) Project team: R. Heyes, A. Kim Structural engineering: Ramboll UK, London (GB) Parliament Building in Valletta (MT) Client: Grand Harbour Regeneration Corporation, Floriana (MT) Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop Genoa (IT) with Architecture Project, Valletta (MT) Project team: A. Belvedere, B. Plattner (Partner in charge), D. Franceschin, P. Colonna, P. Pires da Fonte, S. Giorgio-­Marrano, N. Baniahmad, A. Boucsein, J. Da Nova, T. Gantner, N. Delevaux, N. Byrelid, R. Tse and B. Alves de Campos, J. LaBoskey, A. Panchasara, A.Thompson, S. Moreau, O. Aubert, C. Colson, Y. Kyrkos (models) Structural engineering: Arup London (GB) with TBA Periti, Balzan (MT) Vacation House near Maldonado (UY) Building client: private Architects: Gualano + Gualano Arquitectos, Montevideo (UY) Project team: I. de Souza, J. Mascheroni Structural engineering: Alberto Catañy Building contractor: B. Pereira, Montevideo (UY) Visitor Centre in Heidelberg (DE) Client: Federal State of Baden-Württemberg, r­ epresented by Vermögen und Bau Baden-Württemberg, Mannheim Office (DE) Architect: Max Dudler, Berlin (DE) Project team: S. Boldrin (project management), P. Gründel, J. Werner Site management: plan-art, Kaiserslautern (DE) Structural engineering: Ingenieurbüro Schenck, Neustadt / W. (DE) Museum of Contemporary Sculpture in Santo Tirso (PT) Client: Câmara Municipal de Santo Tirso (PT) Architects: Arq. Álvaro Siza Vieira / Arq. Eduardo Souto de Moura, Porto (PT) Coordination: Arq. José Carlos Nunes de Oliveira, Arq. Pedro Guedes Oliveira Project team: B. Macarron, D. Guimarães, A. P. Sobral, E. Sanllehí, R. Amaral Structural engineering: GOP, Porto (PT) Residence in Pachacámac (PE) Client: private Architecture and structural engineering: Longhi ­Architects, Lima (PE) Project team: H. Suasnabar Noda (project management), V. Schreibeis, C. Botteger, C. Tamariz, I. Loredo

Zoofenster Tower in Berlin (DE) Client: Harvest United Enterprises, Abu Dhabi (AE) Architects: Christoph Mäckler Architekten, Frankfurt am Main (DE) Project team: C. Gruchow (Partner), T. Mayer (Partner), M. Bosch (Partner), D. Hassinger (project management), K. Gallus (project management), S. Wymer (project ­management), M. Beckermann, M. Büntig, L. Chinenaya, J. Gastner, C. Gerum, J. Hettmann, K. Hoppstädter, D. Hübener, M. Juko, B. Kaster, J. Kleiner, T. Klöppelt, T.-Maria Klug, K. Matsuno, G. Mühlenfeld, U. Nix, D. Paris, B. Roth, U. Schallenkammer, S. Steudel, M. Sylla, C. Zheng Structural engineering: Grontmij BGS, Berlin (DE) Wilkins Terrace University Courtyard in London (GB) Client: University College London, London (GB) Architects: Levitt Bernstein, London (GB) Project team: M. Goulcher, B. McCullough, K. Digney, M. Lewis, T. Hall, E. Mayfield, P. Martin, B. Monteagle, F. Heath, B. Treseder, J. Charman Site management: WSP, London (GB) Structural engineering: Curtins, London (GB) Alpine Sports Centre in Schruns (AT) Client: Silvretta Montafon, Schruns (AT) Architects: Bernardo Bader Architekten, Bregenz (AT) Project team: J. Ambrosig, T. Wretschko, P. Jungwirth Site management: Fleisch Loser, Rankweil (AT) Structural engineering: Mader Flatz, Bregenz (AT) Expansion of Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis (US) Client: Lakewood Cemetery Association Architecture and structural engineering: HGA Architects and Engineers, Minneapolis (US) Project team: D. Avchen (Principal), S. Fiskum (project management), J. M. Soranno (Design Principal), J. Cook (project management), N. Potts, M. Koch, E. Amel, S. Philippi, J. Lane, R. Johnson Miller, R. Altheimer, P. Asp, S. Sim Hakes Bucherer Commercial Building in Zurich (CH) Client: Bucherer Immobilien AG, Lucerne (CH) Architects: Office Haratori, Zurich (CH) with Office ­Winhov, Amsterdam (NL) Project team: M. Portell (project management), Z. Vogel, J. P. Wingender, U.Gilad, N. Hara, J. Spaar, A. Menino-­Silva (competition/ project), S. Pertinez, A. Gutherz, E. Pasini, Y. Fejza, A. Yamagata, M. Séon (project / execution) Structural engineering: BlessHess Bauingenieure, ­Lucerne (CH) Supreme Court of the Netherlands in The Hague (NL) Client: Rijksvastgoedbedrijf (Ministry of the ­Interior), The Hague (NL) Architects: KAAN Architecten (K. Kaan, V. Panhuysen, D. Scipio), Rotterdam (NL) / Paris (FR) / Sao Paulo (BR) Project team: A. Assies, L. Baialardo, C. Banderier, B. Barendse, D. Bruijn, T. Cardol, S. van Damme, M. Dashorst, L. Dietz, W. van Donselaar, P. Faleschini, R. Firicel, M. Geensen, C. Gonzalo Cuairán, J. Harteveld, W. Hoogerwerf, M. van der Horst, M. Jonkers, J. T. ten Kate, M. Lanna, G. Mazzaglia, A. Rivero Esteban, J. Spijkers, K. van Tienen, N. Vos Structural engineering: Arup Nederland, Amsterdam (NL) Central European University in Budapest (HU) Client: Central European University, Budapest (HU) Architects: O’Donnell + Tuomey, Dublin (IE) in cooper­ ation with M. Grehan, C. Reddy Local architect: M-Teampannon, Budapest (HU) Project team: M. Grehan (project management), M. Hidasnémeti (project management), K. O’Brien, J. Janssens, G. Watkin, I. O’Clery, L. Small, E. Gicevic Structural engineering: KENESE Mérnöki Iroda, Budapest (HU)


Standards, Guidelines Standards DIN EN 12 440:2018-01 Natural stone – Denomination ­criteria; German version EN 12 440:2017 DIN EN 12 670:2002-03 Natural stone – Terminology; ­German version EN 12 670:2001 DIN EN 1467:2012-06 Natural stone – Rough blocks – Requirements; German version EN 1467:2012 DIN EN 1468:2012-06 Natural stone – Rough slabs – Requirements; German version EN 1468:2012 DIN EN 1469:2015-05. Natural stone products – Slabs for cladding – Requirements; German version EN 1469:2015 DIN EN 12 057:2015-05 Natural stone products – Modular tiles – Requirements; German version EN 12 057:2015 DIN EN 12 058:2015-05 Natural stone products – Slabs for floors and stairs – Requirements; German version EN 12 058:2015 DIN EN 12 059:2012-03. Natural stone products – Dimensional stone work – Requirements; German version EN 12 059:2008+A1:2011 DIN EN 12 004-1:2017-05 Adhesives for ceramic tiles – Part 1: Requirements, assessment and verification of constancy of performance, classification and marking; German version EN 12 004-1:2017 DIN EN 12 004-2:2017-05 Adhesives for ceramic tiles – Part 2: Test methods; German version EN 12 004-2:2017 DIN EN 13 888:2009-08 Grout for tiles – Requirements, evaluation of conformity, classification and designation; German version EN 13 888:2009 DIN EN 771-6:2015-11 Specification for masonry units – Part 6: Natural stone masonry units; German version EN 771-6:2011+A1:2015 DIN 4102-1:1998-05 Fire behaviour of building materials and building components – Part 1: Building materials; concepts, requirements and tests DIN 4108 Supplement 2: 2006-03 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Thermal bridges – Examples for planning and performance DIN 4108-2:2013-02 Thermal insulation and energy ­economy in buildings – Part 2: Minimum requirements to thermal insulation DIN 4108 -3: 2014-11 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 3: Protection against moisture subject to climate conditions – Requirements, calculation methods and directions for planning and construction DIN 4108 -7: 2011-01 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 7: Air tightness of buildings – Requirements, recommendations and examples for planning and performance DIN 4109 -1: 2018-01 Sound insulation in buildings – Part 1: Minimum requirements DIN 18 202:2013:-04 Tolerances in building construction – Buildings DIN 18 332:2016-09 German construction contract pro­ cedures (VOB) – Part C: General technical specifications in construction contracts (ATV) – General rules applying to all types of construction work DIN 18 065:2015-03 Stairs in buildings – Terminology, measuring rules, main dimensions DIN 18 040-1:2010-10 Construction of accessible buildings – Design principles – Part 1: Publicly accessible buildings DIN 18 040-2:2011-09 Construction of accessible buildings – Design principles – Part 2: Dwellings DIN 18 332:2016-09 German construction contract pro­ cedures (VOB) – Part C: General technical specifications in construction contracts (ATV) – Natural stone work DIN 18 515-1:2017-08 Cladding for external walls – ­Principles of design and application – Part 1: Tiles fixed with mortar DIN 18 516:2010-06 Cladding for external walls, ventilated at rear – Part 1: Requirements, principles of testing DIN 18 516:2018-03 Cladding for external walls, ventilated at rear – Part 3: Natural stone – Requirements, design DIN 18 540:2014-09 Sealing of exterior wall joints in building using joint sealants DIN EN 1996-1-1:2013-02 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures – Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures; German version EN 1996-1-1:2005+A1:2012 DIN EN 1996-2:2010-12 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures – Part 2: Design considerations, selection of materials and execution of masonry: German version EN 1996-2:2006+AC:2009

DIN EN 12 326-1: 2014-11 Slate and stone for discon­ tinuous roofing and external cladding – Part 1: Specifications for slate and carbonate slate; German version EN 12 326-1:2014 DIN 18 560-1:2015-11 Floor screeds in building construction – Part 1: General requirements, testing and construction DIN 18 560-2:2009-09 Floor screeds in building construction – Part 2: Floor screeds and heating floor screeds on insulation layers DIN 18 560-2: 2012 2012-05 Floor screeds in building construction – Part 2: Floor screeds and heating floor screeds on insulation layers, Corrigendum to DIN 18 560-2:2009-09 DIN 18 560-3:2006-03 Floor screeds in building construction – Part 3: Bonded screed DIN 18 560-4:2012-06 Floor screeds in building construction – Part 4: Screeds laid on separated layer DGUV Regulation 108-003 Fußböden in Arbeitsräumen und Arbeitsbereichen mit Rutschgefahr (Floors in work areas with danger of slipping) DGUV Information 207-006 Bodenbeläge für nassbelastete Barfußbereiche (Floor coverings for wet barefoot zones) Bautechnische Informationen Naturwerkstein by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. (DNV, BTI): 1.1 Mauerwerk (Masonry), 2014 1.2 Massive Bauteile (Solid components), 2018 1.3 Massivstufen und Treppenbeläge, außen (Solid ­exterior steps and stair cladding), 2013 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen (Exterior floor coverings), 2008 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung (Facade cladding), 2016 1.6 Mörtel für Außenarbeiten (Mortar for exterior work), 1996 1.7 Bauchemische und bauphysikalische Einflüsse, außen (Exterior chemical and structural influences), 1995 2.1 Fußbodenbeläge im Innenbereich (Interior floor ­coverings), 2009 2.2 Treppenbeläge, innen (Interior stair cladding), 2015 2.3 Fensterbänke, innen (Interior windowsills), 1999 2.4 Wandbekleidungen, innen (Interior wall cladding), 2002 2.5 Mörtel für Innenarbeiten (Mortar for interior work), 1996 2.6 Bauchemische und bauphysikalische Einflüsse, innen (Interior chemical and structural influences), 1993 2.7 Leistungsverzeichnis für Innenarbeiten (Bill of quan­ tities for interior work), 1997 2.8 Arbeitsplatten, innen (Interior work surfaces), 2016 3.1 Gebäudeerhaltung von historischen Bauten (Conservation of historical buildings), 2011 3.2 Reinigung und Pflege (Cleaning and care), 1997 4.1 Wissenswertes über Naturstein (Facts about natural stone), 2011 Bauen mit Naturstein – Technische Informationen, Leaflets by Naturstein-Verband Schweiz (NVS):   1 Bemusterung von Naturstein (Sampling natural stone)   2 Gleitfestigkeit von Natursteinbelägen (Slip resistance of stone flooring)   3 Planung und Ausführung von Aussentreppen aus Naturstein (Design and construction of natural stone exterior staircases)   4 Checkliste für die Planung und Ausführung von Bodenbelägen (Checklist for the design and construction of flooring)   5 Werkstücke wie Küchen-, Waschtisch- und Möbel­ abdeckungen sowie Tische aus Naturstein (Workpieces for kitchen counters, washstands and furniture tops as well as natural stone tables)   6 Küchenabdeckungen aus Naturstein – Benutzerhinweise (Care instructions for stone kitchen counters)   7 Natursteinbeläge in Wintergärten (Natural stone ­flooring in conservatories)   8 Naturstein im Nassbereich: (Natural stone in wet areas:) Duschen (Showers)   9 Naturstein im Nassbereich: (Natural stone in wet areas:) Schwimmbäder (Swimming pools) 10 Aussenbeläge auf Dachterrassen, Balkonen und ­Gartensitzplätzen (Flagstones on roof terraces, ­balconies and patios) 11 Natursteinbeläge im Aussenbereich für begehbare und befahrene Flächen (Outdoor natural stone paving for paths and driveways) 12 Verarbeitungstoleranzen (Fabrication tolerances) 13 Natursteinverfärbungen (Discolouration of natural stone)

14 Reinigung von Naturstein-Belägen (Cleaning of ­natural stone flooring) 15 Naturstein und Ökologie (Natural stone and the ­environment) 16 Naturstein und Radioaktivität (Natural stone and ­radioactivity) 17 Geltende Normen für Natursteinanwendungen ­(Applicable standards for the use of stone) 18 Planungshilfe Natursteinfassaden (Planning tool for natural stone facades) 19 Artfremde Materialien (Atypical materials) 20 Vertragsrecht (Contract law) Merkblätter Naturstein-Fassaden (Leaflets on Natural Stone Facades) by Naturstein-Verband Schweiz (NVS): A Natursteinverblendung auf Trägerplattensystem, gedämmt und hinterlüftet (Adhered stone veneer on mounting panel system, insulated and ventilated) B Vorgehängte Platten – Mörtelanker (Mounted panels – mortar anchors) C Vorgehängte Platten – Dübelanker (Mounted panels – dowel anchors) D Vorgehängte Platten – Schienensysteme mit Dornlage­ rung (Mounted panels – rail system with dowel mounts) E Vorgehängte Platten – Schienensysteme, geschoss­ überspannende Konstruktionen mit Hinterschnittbe­ festigung (Mounted panels – rail systems, multistorey constructions with undercut anchoring) F Vorgehängte Platten – Schienensystem für Steinriemen (Mounted panels – rail systems for stone strips) Merkblätter Mauerwerk (Leaflets on Masonry Walls) by Naturstein-Verband Schweiz (NVS): A Nichttragendes Verblendmauerwerk (Non-bearing adhered masonry veneers) B Zweischalenmauerwerk, mit Luftschicht und gedämmt (Insulated cavity walls) C Mittragendes Mischmauerwerk (Semi-bearing mixed masonry walls) D Massivfassade, gedämmt (Insulated solid facade) E Massivfassade, traditionell (Traditional solid facade) F Selbsttragende Vorsatzschale aus Natursteinmauer­ werk, beim gedämmten Zweischalenmauerwerk, ohne Hinterlüftung (Self-supporting anchored stone masonry veneer in insulated double-leaf masonry walls with no rear ventilation)

Bibliography Acocella, Alfonso: Stone Architecture: Ancient and Modern Construction Skills. Lucca / Milan 2006 Deplazes, Andrea (ed.): Architektur konstruieren. Vom Rohmaterial zum Bauwerk. Ein Handbuch. 4th edition. Basel 2013 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband (eds.): Naturstein und Architektur. Fassaden, Innenräume, Außenanlagen, Steintechnik. Munich 2000 Germann, Albrecht; Kownatzki, Ralf; Mehling, Günther (eds.): Naturstein Lexikon. 5th edition. Munich 2003 Hugues, Theodor; Steiger, Ludwig; Weber, Johann: Naturwerkstein: Gesteinsarten, Details, Beispiele. Munich 2002 Mäckler, Christoph (ed.): Werkstoff Stein. Material, ­Konstruktion, zeitgenössische Architektur. Basel 2004 Schröder, Johannes H. (ed.): Steine in deutschen Städten. 18 Entdeckungsrouten in Architektur und Stadtgeschichte. Berlin 2009 Schulz, Ansgar; Schulz, Benedikt: Perfect Scale. Archi­ tektonisches Entwerfen und Konstruieren. 2nd edition. Munich 2016 Regierungspräsidium Freiburg, Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau (eds.): Naturwerksteine aus Baden-Württemberg. Vorkommen, Beschaffenheit und Nutzung. Freiburg 2013

219


Picture credits The authors and the publisher would like to extend their sincere thanks to everyone who contributed to the production of this book by providing images, granting permission to reproduce their work and supplying other ­information. All of the drawings in this book were custom-­ created by the publisher. The authors and their staff created those graphics and tables for which no other source is credited. Photographs for which no photographer is credited are architectural or work photos or come from the archives of DETAIL magazine. Despite intensive efforts, we have been unable to iden­ tify the copyright holders of some images. However, their claim to the copyright remains unaffected. In these cases, we ask to be notified. The numbers are the figure numbers.

Introduction Peter Franke / punctum The Final Stone – The Future Is Set in Stone 1 timeflies1955/Pixabay 3 a Mies van der Rohe, Vorbild und Vermächt­ nis, DAM Frankfurt / Main, Stuttgart 1986, p. 88 /7 3 b travelpix /Alamy Stock Photo; © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 4 Luca Casonato 5 Damiano Steccanella 6 Waldo Miguez on Pixabay 7 Invisigoth67 / CC BY-SA 2.5 8, 9 Alberto Campo Baeza 10, 11 Javier Callejas

Part A – Production Thomas Geiger / Franken-Schotter GmbH & Co. KG A 1.1 irairaira /adobe.stock.com A 1.2 Helmut /adobe.stock.com A 1.3 Schulz und Schulz, Graphic: Romina Streffing A 1.4 according to DIN 18300 A 1.5, A 1.6  Schulz und Schulz, Graphic: Romina Streffing A 1.7 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. A 1.8 Schulz und Schulz, Graphic: Romina Streffing A 1.9 Peter Probst /Alamy Stock Photo A 1.10 Meria z Geoian / CC BY-SA 3.0 A 1.11 fotografiche.eu /adobe.stock.com A 1.12, A 1.13  Landesinnungsverband des Bayerischen Steinmetz- und Steinbildhauerhandwerks A 1.14 Lauster Steinbau, W.-D. Gericke A 1:15 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. A 1:16 Schulz und Schulz, Graphic: Romina Streffing A 1.17 Zimmerman, Claire: Mies van der Rohe. ­Cologne 2006, p. 43; © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 A 1.18 – A 1.22  Romina Streffing A 1.23, A 1.24  Hofmann Naturstein GmbH A 1.25 Bamberger Natursteinwerk Hermann Graser GmbH A 1.26, A 1.27  Hofmann Naturstein GmbH A 1.28 Roland Halbe A 1.29 Hofmann Naturstein GmbH A 1.30 Romina Streffing A 1.31 jonastone GmbH & Co. KG A 1.32 stux /pixabay

220

Part B – Construction

Filippo Simonetti

B 1.1 Schulz und Schulz B 1.2 Alfonso Acocella B 1.3 Paul Raftery / VIEW /artur B 1.4 Sergio Grazia B 1.5 Lauster Steinbau, W.-D. Gericke B 1.6 Hans-Christian Schink / punctum B 1.7 Florian Holzherr B 1.8 Duccio Malagamba B 1.9 FG+SG fotografia de arquitectura B 1.10 Stefan Müller-Naumann B 1.11 Stefan Müller B 1.12 FORGET-GAUTIER / SAGAPHOTO.COM / Alamy Stock Photo B 1.13 according to DIN 12058, p. 11 B 1.14 – B 1.16  Schulz und Schulz B 1.17 Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna B 1.18 – B 1.20  Schulz und Schulz B 1.21 arranged by Schulz und Schulz B 1.22 D Mz /pixabay B 1.23 pixabay B 1.24 José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro / CC BY-SA 4.0 B 1.25 Eduardo Souto de Moura, Photo: Alessandra Chemollo B 1.26 according to BTI 1.1 of the Deutscher ­Naturwerkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.27 Schulz und Schulz B 1.34, B 1.35  Alfonso Acocella B 1.36 Manos Meisen B 1.37 Alfonso Acocella B 1.39 Brückner & Brückner B 1.40 Serge Demailly B 1.41 Schulz und Schulz B 1.42 a Locutus Borg, on Wikipedia, public domain B 1.42 b Mats Halldin / CC BY-SA 3.0 B 1.42 c according to Wikipedia, public domain B 1.43 according to Stone Architecture by Alfonso Acocella, Skira editore, Milan, 2006, drawing no 933 (top), p. 344, drawing no. 937 (top left), p. 345 B 1.44 Steffi Lenzen B 1.45 Office of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfram Jäger, ­Radebeul B 1.46, B 1.47  Schulz und Schulz B 1.48 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.2 Massive Bauteile aus Naturstein, p. 24, illustration 21, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.41 Schulz und Schulz B 1.50 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.1 Mauerwerk, p. 17, ­illustration 19, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-­Verband e.  V. B 1.51 Schulz und Schulz B 1.52 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.1 Mauerwerk, p. 20, ­illustration 24, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-­Verband e.  V. B 1.53 Schulz und Schulz B 1.54 according to DIN EN 1996-2/NA:2012-01, ­diagram p. 9, top B 1.55, B 1.56  Schulz und Schulz B 1.57 Michael Rasche B 1.58 Stefan Müller B 1.59 Roland Halbe B 1.60 Stefan Müller B 1.61, B 1.62  Schulz und Schulz B 1.63 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 22, illustration 7, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.64 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 22, illustration 7, published by Deutscher

Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.65 according to DIN 18 516-3:2018-03, p. 14, ­illustration 1 B 1.66 according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 33, ­illustration 22, published by Deutscher Natur­ werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.67 according to DIN 18 516-3:2018-03, p. 18, ­illustration 4 B 1.68 according to DIN 18 516-3:2018-03, p. 20, ­illustration 5 B 1.69 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 49, illustration 71, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.70 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 38, illustration 34, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.71 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 33, illustration 23, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.72 M. + A. Filberti B 1.73 Werner Huthmacher B 1.74 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 32, illustration 21 (right and bottom left), published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-­ Verband e. V. B 1.75 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 26, illustration 15, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B1.76 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 32, illustration 20, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.77 Stefan Müller B 1.78 Hofmann Naturstein GmbH B 1.79 Jochen Helle B 1.80 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 56, illustration 83, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.81 Lauster Steinbau, W.-D. Gericke B 1.82 Wolfgang Thaler B 1.83 Thomas Lenzen B 1.84 a according to Mäckler, Christoph: Werkstoff Stein. Basle 2004, diagram no. 3, p. 67 B 1.84 b, ibid. diagram no. 2, p. 76 B 1.84 c, ibid. diagram no. 1, p. 67 B 1.84 d, ibid. diagram no. 4, p. 67 B 1.85 a Schulz und Schulz B 1.85 b Stefan Müller B 1.86 Martino Gamper B 1.87 Henry Pierre Schulz B 1.88 Schulz und Schulz B 1.89 according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 2.1 Fußbodenbeläge, innen, p. 4, table 1.3, published by Deutscher Natur­ werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.90 Schulz und Schulz B 1.91 a according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 2.1 Fußbodenbeläge, innen, p. 16, ­illustration 7, published by Deutscher Natur­ werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.91 b according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 2.1 Fußbodenbeläge, innen, p. 17, ­illustration 8, published by Deutscher Natur­ werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.92, B 1.93  Schulz und Schulz B 1.94 Hotel Burg Falkenberg B 1.95 according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, p. 10, system sketch 3, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V.


B 1.96 according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, p. 11, system sketch 7, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.97 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, p. 12, system sketch 8, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.98 Stefan Meyer B 1.99 a according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, p. 11, system sketch 6, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.99 b according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, combination of p. 10, system sketch 2 and p. 11, system sketch 6, published by Deutscher Natur­ werkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.99 c according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.4 Bodenbeläge, außen, p. 12, system sketch 8, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.100 Schulz und Schulz B 1.101 Bautechnische Information Naturwerkstein, 2.2 Treppenbeläge Innen, p. 20, illustration 28, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-­ Verband e. V. B 1.102 Schulz und Schulz B 1.103 Akdo, Produkt Akdolam B 1.104 according to Bautechnische Information ­Naturwerkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, p. 50, illustration 71, published by Deutscher Natur­werkstein-Verband e.  V. B 1.105 Stefan Müller B 1.106 – B 1.110  Schulz und Schulz B 1.111 according to NVS leaflet: Werkstücke aus Naturstein, p. 1, bottom table, published by Naturstein-Verband Schweiz. January 2011 B 1.112 André Mühling B 1.113 Hofmann Naturstein GmbH B 1.114 Prisma by Dukas Presseagentur GmbH / Alamy Stock Photo; © Zabalaga-Leku /  VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 B 1.115 Del dongo / CC BY-SA 4.0 B 1.116 Oberkirchener sandstone B 1.117 according to NVS leaflet: Natursteinver­ färbungen, p. 6, published by Naturstein-­ Verband Schweiz. January 2010 B 1.118 according to Bautechnische Information Natur­ werkstein, 1.5 Fassadenbekleidung, chapter 10, p. 54, illustration 76 in combination with p. 55, illustration 82, published by Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. B 1.119 Torsten Zech / Franken-Schotter GmbH & Co. KG

Part C – Computer Technologies

Tek To Nik Architekten

C 1.1 C 1.2 C 1.3 a C 1.3 b C 1.4 C 1.5 C 1.6 C 1.7 C 1.8 C 1.9 C 1.10 a C 1.10 b C 1.10 c

Hanne-Birgit Wiederhold Hofmann Naturstein GmbH Oistein Overberg Hofmann Naturstein GmbH Michel Denancé Iwan Baan Tek To Nik Architekten Santi Caleca Hofmann Naturstein GmbH Matter Design, 2017 Aman Johnson David Escobedo Iwan Baan

Part D – Sustainability

katja / Pixabay

D 1.1 according to the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development: Leitfaden nachhaltiges Bauen. Berlin 2001, ­Appendix 6 D 1.2 Richard Weston, Cardiff (GB) D 1.3 from Hegger, Manfred et al.: Baustoffatlas: fig B 10.1, p. 100 D 1.4 according to DIN EN 15 804 D 1.5 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V.(eds): Nachhaltigkeitsstudie. Ökobilanzen von Boden­ belägen. Würzburg 2018 D 1.6 from Zeumer, Martin; El Khouli, Sebastian; John, Viola: Nachhaltig konstruieren. Munich 2014, fig. 3.8, p. 46 D 1.7 F. Eveleens / CC BY 3.0 D 1.8 from Hegger, Manfred et al.: Energieatlas. ­Munich 2007, fig. B 5.87, p. 172 D 1.9 according to ÖKOBAUDAT 2018 D 1.10 according to BNB BN 2015 D 1.11 from Hegger, Manfred et al.: Energieatlas. ­Munich 2007, fig. B 5.62, p. 164 D 1.12 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband e. V. (eds): Nachhaltigkeitsstudie. Ökobilanzen von Boden­ belägen. Würzburg 2018 D 1.13 Geibel, Daphne: “Ökologische Sensitivi­ tätsanalyse planerischer Tätigkeit am Projekt St. Trinitatis, Leipzig.” Master’s thesis. Darmstadt 2014 D 1.14 – D 1.16  from Zeumer, Martin; El Khouli, Sebastian; John, Viola: Nachhaltig konstruieren. Munich 2014, p. 92, 98, 100 D 1.17 St Trinitatis Catholic Church (eds.): “Ganz­ heitliche Optimierung und Umsetzung des Neubaus der Propsteipfarrei St. Trinitatis in Leipzig als ökologisches Modellvorhaben.” Entwicklungen in den Leistungsphasen 6 – 9 (HOAI). Darmstadt / Leipzig 2016 D 1.18 Geogene Schadstoffe in Böden. Handlungs­ empfehlungen der Landkreise Rottweil, ­Waldshut und Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, ­Landratsämter Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, Landkreis Rottweil, Landkreis Waldshut, ­Regierungspräsidium Freiburg 2017 D 1.19 expanded according to Bayerische Architekten­kammer (eds.): Nachhaltigkeit ­gestalten, M ­ unich 2018 D 1.20 XertifiX; Fair Stone; EU Flower D 1.21 expanded according to Bayerische Architekten­kammer (eds.): Nachhaltigkeit ­gestalten, M ­ unich 2018

p. 138 –141 Hannes Henz p. 142 –145 Javier Callejas p. 147 Peter Manev p. 148, 149 André Mühling p. 150 –154 Roland Halbe p. 155, 156 bottom Ducio Malagamba p. 156 top, centre David Frutos p. 157 Fernando Carrasco p. 158, 159 Siegfried Wameser p. 160 centre Siegfried Wameser p. 160 bottom Thomas Margaretha p. 161 Thomas Koller p. 162 –165 Hélène Binet p. 166 Michel Denancé p. 167 top, centre Michel Denancé p. 167 bottom, 168 Mario Carrieri p. 169 centre RPBW p. 169 bottom M. + A. Filberti p. 170 centre Michel Denancé p. 170 bottom Cyril Sancereau p. 171–173 Federico Cairoli p. 174 –177 Stefan Müller p. 179 Ducio Malagamba p. 180 Joao Morgado p. 181 Luis Ferreira Alves p. 182 Juan Solano / Longhi Architects p. 183 top CHOlon Photography / Longhi ­Architects p. 183 centre, bottom Juan Solano / Longhi Architects p. 184 –185 CHOlon Photography / Longhi ­Architects p. 186  –187 HGEsch p. 189 Stefan Müller p. 190 HGEsch p. 191–195 Ben Blossom p. 196 –199 Adolf Bereuter p. 200 – 203 Paul Crosby Photography p. 204 Georg Aerni p. 205 top Office Haratori p. 205 centre, bottom Georg Aerni p. 206 Office Haratori p. 207 Georg Aerni p. 208 – 211 FG+SG fotografia de arquitectura p. 212 – 215 Tamas Bujnovszky

Part E – Detailed Guidelines

Joachim Brohm

Part F – Example Builds

Federico Cairoli

p. 124, 125 centre p. 125 top, bottom p. 126 p. 127 top p. 127 bottom p. 128 p. 129 p. 131 p. 132, 133 p. 135, 136 p. 137

Stefan Müller Frank Kaltenbach Stefan Müller Simon Menges Schulz und Schulz Frank Kaltenbach Stefan Müller Anastasia Hermann Werner Huthmacher Giaime Meloni Maxime Delvaux

221


Subject Index 5-axis milling machines

82, 84

A abrasion resistance 58 accommodating tolerances 53 acid-treated finish 24 adhered masonry veneer 46 agraffes 53 air layer 46f. anchor plates 53 anchored veneer 31, 46ff., 101 anchoring to backing wall 50 anchors, dowel anchors 39, 51ff., 67 angle support bracket 101 anti-graffiti coating 72 applications 58, 84f. arches 42f. ashlar 16 attaching cladding to columns 52 attachments at wall and well hole 65f. automation in production 77f. axed finish 23 B balcony and roof terrace paving 62f. barrier-free (handicapped-accessible) 45ff., 64ff. batted finish 22 Bautechnische Information Naturwerkstein 36 beams 42 bearing structure 46 bed of stone chippings 63 bending line 120 bishop’s hats 65f. blasted finish 23 boulder masonry 39 breaking load 34, 52, 67 brushed finish 23 building corners 19 building tolerances 51 built-in components 68f. bush-hammered finish 23 butterfly cut 57 butterfly method 18 C calibrated tiles 60f. care and maintenance 70ff. cavity wall 46f., 47, 51, 72, 101ff. CE mark 15 ceiling cladding 66ff. ceilings and roofs 44f. certifications 97 chipped finish 21 circular saws 19 cladding of tiles or facing stones fixed   in mortar 56f. cladding on reinforced concrete stairs 64f. cladding panels 50 cleaning 72f., 91 cleaning intervals 91 cleft finish 21 CNC machines 78, 166 column 42 comb-chiselled finish 23 composite seals 61f. computer technologies 78ff. construction space 100 core insulation 48 corners 49ff., 55f. cramp anchors 52f. custom-made components 70 cut against the vein 18 cut with the vein 18 cyclopean masonry 39 D design and production tools design methodology

222

78f. 36ff.

Detailed Guidelines 99 Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband (DNV) 36 Deutsches Natursteinarchiv (DNSA) 36 diamond gang saw 18 digital design tools 80 dimension stone 17 dimensionally stable stone 40 disc saws 19 door frames 19 double-leaf wall 46f. drainage 48 drainage mat 62 drainage mortar 48, 62, 118 dummy joints 55 durability 90 E ease of cleaning 91 eaves with no overhang 107, 115 eaves with overhang 106 ecological footprint 89 edge processing 25f. efficiency strategies 83f. elevated supports 62f. emissions 95 environmental impacts 89ff., 92 execution planning 37 expansion bolt anchors 51 expansion joints 48f. exterior design 93 exterior wall cladding 31 exterior windowsill 102, 110 F facade appearance 54f. facade cladding 15 facade cleaning 73 facades 92f. fieldstone 14 fire barrier 54 fire protection 54 flamed finish 21, 23 floating screed 60 floating stairs 45 floor covering 15, 18, 58ff., 92, 116 floor panels 64 floor systems 60, 117 flooring in wet areas 61f. free-form chiselled finish 23 G German Natural Stone Archive   ∫ see Deutsches Natursteinarchiv (DNSA) German Natural Stone Association   ∫ see Deutscher Naturwerkstein-Verband (DNV) grooved or furrowed finish ground finish grout-in anchor

23 23 52f.

H hazardous substances heating screed heavy metals honed finish

95f. 60 95f. 24

I igneous rock individual structural certification individual workpieces information gathering interior ceiling cladding interior veneers interior wall cladding irregular coursed masonry J jack arch

13 39, 42 68ff. 36 68 50 57f., 93 40 43

K kitchen countertops and tabletops

32

L laser finished 24 layered constructions 48f., 59f., 66f. laying floor tiles 59f. laying tiles in mortar 59 life cycle assessment 35 lifting equipment 26 limit samples 34 lintel 42 load distribution 47, 51f., 67 load-bearing anchors 51 longevity 90 M magmatic rock maintenance maintenance cleaning manufacturing and assembly planning masonry bonds and joints material-preserving construction medium bed metamorphic rock micro-peened finish mill block modes of transport mortar bed multi-wire saws N natural stone panels Naturstein-Verband Schweiz (NVS)

13f. 72, 90, 93 72 37 48 72f. 116 13f. 24 17 26 62f., 116 18 84 36

P panel and motion tolerances 54 panel arrangements and joints 60f., 67f. panel format 55 panels 18f., 62f. parapet with concealed sheet metal coping 113 parapet with exposed sheet metal coping 112 parapet with sheet metal coping 104 parapet with stone coping 105, 114 petrographic designation 15 petrographic identification 13 petrography 12f. petrology 12 pillars 42 pitched finish 21 plans for facade panel mounting 38 plinth 49, 55f. 101 plinth and corners 49, 55f. plinth embedded in ground 109 plinth slab 56 plinth stone 19, 49 plinth with ground clearance 108 pointed finish 22 polished finish 23 prefabrication and industrial production 78 prestressing 42 product standards or norms for natural stone 36 production and design parameters 80 profile rails 53 Q quality label 97 quarry 15 quarry block 17 R rainproof 53 range of fluctuation 34 raw materials 17 rear-ventilated curtain facade 51, 56, 100, 108 rear-ventilated exterior wall cladding 50 regular coursed masonry 40 regulatory details 93ff.


regulatory framework 36 reinforcement 42 requirements for systematised design 80 resin finished 24 resistance to frost and de-icing salt 49 restraint anchor 51 reveals 55, 103, 111 risk of slipping 61 rough blocks 15, 17 rough slabs or panels 15, 17 rough-hewn (quarry-split) 21 rough-sawn panels 19 round arch 43 rubblestone masonry 39 rubblestone 14 S sample facade 34 sawn finish 21 scabbled finish 22 screw anchors 53 sedimentary rock 13, 14 segmental arch 43 semicircular arch 43 service lifetimes 92 shear dowel anchors 51 shower tray 61f. signs of ageing 70f. skirting 61 slabs 18f. slate facades 50 slate tiles 50 slip resistance 34, 61 slope 54, 62f. social standards 97 spiral stairs 45 split finish 21 stair cladding 64f. stairs 44f., 64 stairs, bottom 120 stairs, top 121 step blocks 15, 19 stone selection 32ff. stone surface 20ff. stooled windowsill 103 stringer (or cheek) stairs 44, 45 structural building components 39ff. subsequent use 92 support construction 47 support surfaces 50 supporting-bolt stairs 44 supports 42f. surface finish 56, 61, 65 surface processing 21ff. sustainability 87ff. sustainability assessment 96 Swiss Natural Stone Association   ∫ see Naturstein-Verband Schweiz (NVS)

V ventilated curtain wall (VCW) 31, 51, 100, 108 Vereinigung Österreichischer Natursteinwerke (VÖN) 36 W wall 39ff. wall cladding 18, 50ff. water accumulation 72 water drainage 53f. weathering 70 weep holes 48 weld-on anchors 53 well hole 65f. wet area 117 wild bond 124 window lintel 102, 110 window posts 15, 19 window reveals 102f., 111 windowsill 54, 102f. wire wall ties 47ff. workpieces 19f. X Xertifix 97

T texturing 25 thermal insulation 46f., 51 thick bed mortar 92 thin-set 60, 92, 116 tiles and panels 58 tiles fixed with mortar 50 tolerances 51 tooth-chiselled finish 22 trade name 15 transport 26 transportation energy 89 tread slabs 44 trimmed finish 22 tumbled finish 24 U undercut anchors undersides of building overhangs upkeep

52f., 67, 191 212 73, 90, 93

223


The authors and the publisher wish to thank the following company for their sponsorship of this publication:

ssg-solnhofen.com

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Manual of Natural Stone  

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Manual of Natural Stone  

A traditional material in a contemporary context. Order now: https://bit.ly/3jdnpLD

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