The Singapore Engineer February 2024 (World Engineering Day - Sustainability Issue)

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PLUS GREEN TOWNS: Raising sustainability levels of HDB towns INDUSTRIAL ESTATES: The red dot’s race to a green future MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT: Setting sail towards net-zero THE MAGAZINE OF THE INSTITUTION OF ENGINEERS, SINGAPORE SINGAPORE THE ENGINEER Singapore engineers leading the way to a greener built environment SPECIAL EDITION ON SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING Celebrating UNESCO’s World Engineering Day for Sustainable Development 2024 February 2024 | MCI (P) 002/03/2024
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12 Message From The President of The Institution of Engineers, Singapore

14 Message From The President of The World Federation of Engineering Organizations COVER STORY

22 Singapore engineers leading the way to a greener built environment


26 Raising sustainability levels of HDB towns


30 Singapore’s built environment traps heat in surprising places INDUSTRIAL


32 The red dot’s race to a green future


34 CFD for the Built Environment – a critical & necessary step in Singapore’s Net Zero Journey

President Mr Dalson Chung

Chief Editor

T Bhaskaran

Publications Manager Desmond Teo

Publications Executive

Nuraini Ahmad

Editorial Panel

Dr Chandra Segaran

Dr Ang Keng Been

Dr Aaron Sham

A/Prof Yuzhu Pearl Li

Mr Jaime Vega Bautista Jr

Dr Victor Sim

Mr Soon Ren Jun

Dr Alexander Wiegand

Media Representatives For The Special

Trevor Teh


CONTENTS FEATURES 22 26 32 Design & layout by 2EZ Asia Pte Ltd Cover designed by Irin Kuah Cover image by Shaw Towers Realty Private Limited Published by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore 70 Bukit Tinggi Road, Singapore 289758 Tel: 6469 5000 I Fax: 6467 1108 Printed in Singapore
Communications (2000) Pte


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36 Shining a light on how buildings can hit the green mark

38 Strategic approaches to address the Mandatory Energy Improvement directive

40 Innovative water treatment systems for cooling towers


42 Azbil’s global sustainability charge through automation


44 Solutions for a broad range of industries and geographies

45 Accelerating energy transition in Southeast Asia

46 Plant digital twins for sustainable energy generation


48 A sustainable approach to pipeline integrity management


50 A multi-faceted approach to sustainable development in Singapore

52 The unexpected tale of carbon dioxide in the built environment

53 Lightweight green aggregate for sustainability in the building and construction industry

45 50 53 36


54 Make the difference, one bag after another: A Mapei Sustainability Project

56 Towards achieving net-zero emissions


58 Setting sail towards net-zero


60 A sustainable smart port


64 Temasek Polytechnic’s progressive strides towards a sustainable future

66 The role of higher education in a sustainable future

68 Supporting the nation’s sustainable development plans



The Singapore Engineer is published monthly by The Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES). The publication is distributed free-of-charge to IES members and affiliates. Views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or IES. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine shall be reproduced, mechanically or electronically, without the prior consent of IES. Whilst every care is taken to ensure accuracy of the content at press time, IES will not be liable for any discrepancies. Unsolicited contributions are welcome but their inclusion in the magazine is at the discretion of the Editor.

60 64 54

Message from Mr Dalson Chung, President, The Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES)

Dear Friends,

As the global engineering community celebrates the annual World Engineering Day (WED) for Sustainable Development on 4 March 2024, the Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES) will once again join in to celebrate the contributions of our engineers for a better and sustainable world.

Through this special edition of ‘The Singapore Engineer’, we wish to spotlight the ubiquitous, extraordinary work of engineers that not only safeguards our environment but also fosters economic growth and social inclusion. The ingenuity of engineers continuously pushes technological advancements in artificial intelligence (AI), photovoltaics, water technology and more, into new frontiers, promoting better food and water security, renewable energy, better waste and resource management, job creation, economic resilience and more.

Engineering is also a key enabler of efforts to mitigate the worsening climate change. IES, as the national society of engineers in Singapore, launched the IES Green Plan 2030 in January 2023 to initiate and amplify engineering actions to support and realise Singapore’s ambitious but vital climate targets under the Singapore Green Plan 2030.

We have made notable progress since then. One of the milestones is the presentation of the inaugural IES Sustainability Awards during our Annual Dinner on 9 November

2023, to recognise outstanding engineering accomplishments incorporating sustainability practices and designs for sustainability.

Another exciting accomplishment in 2023 is the installation of two electric vehicle (EV) chargers at the IES Building carpark. This might be a small but a firm step by IES to support efforts by Singapore’s government to encourage EV adoption and facilitate the transition towards cleaner transport.

Since the start of 2024, IES has continued to press on with our efforts to accelerate Singapore’s sustainable development agenda through our ongoing collaborations with over 30 government agencies, industry partners and academia, to develop and implement sustainable engineering practices across different sectors.

WED 2024 provides another impetus to elevate our efforts. We will hold the inaugural Charles Rudd Distinguished Global Lectures on 4 March to celebrate WED. On the back of many successful editions of local lectures, it is timely for IES to bring this lecture series to international fora, as IES’ contribution towards the global sustainability movement.

This international lecture features global experts who will discuss topics of significant interest and attract participants from diverse backgrounds across borders to engage in meaningful dialogues.

IES will also continue to lead by example to green the built environment. Our two IES buildings are in the process of adopting transformative measures to achieve net-zero emissions.

This will involve investments in advanced energy-efficient technologies, renewable energy sources and innovative building materials.

In addition, IES will continue to nurture interest amongst our youths to engineer a sustainable future for Singapore through the National Engineers Day (NED) in the third quarter of 2024.

Let us continue to keep the gears turning to create a thriving, sustainable future.

Mr Dalson Chung

Message from Engr. Mustafa B. Shehu, President, World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)

Dear Colleagues,

It gives me great pleasure to give a message to the engineering community in Singapore, during the celebration of the 2024 World Engineering Day (WED) which marks the 5th in the series of WED celebrations, having started in 2020.

The Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES) is one of the National Member organisations in WFEO, that I have high respect for, since the time I attended the World Engineers Summit and WFEO General Assembly hosted by IES in 2013, in my capacity as the President of the Nigerian Society of Engineers (NSE).

That has been so because, since then, I have observed with keen interest the Institution’s high-level participation in all WFEO activities, as well as in promoting engineering and engineers not only in their jurisdiction but in other jurisdictions, through collaborations and knowledge exchange.

You have also answered the call from WFEO to ensure that WEDs are celebrated widely within your country by engineering institutions, academia and industries.

These, I believe, are part of the cumulative efforts that resulted in the election victory of my good friend, Seng Chuan Tan as the President-elect of WFEO at the last General Assembly, held on 14th October 2023 in Prague, the Czech Republic.

I therefore use this opportunity to congratulate Seng Chuan Tan and the entire membership of the IES for this victory which will provide wider opportunity for IES to serve the global engineering community.

The theme of this year’s WED, ‘Engineering Solutions for a Sustainable World’, could not have come at a better time than now, when the world is faced with unprecedented challenges from climate change to disasters such as floods and earthquakes, to unsolicited conflicts and wars. All these result in loss of lives, destruction of infrastructure and properties, and displacement of people from their homes, towns and settlements. Their solutions are rooted in engineering.

As engineers, the solutions we

should bring to these challenges have to be people-centred, environmentally considerate, economically sustainable as well as ethical. However, getting solutions to satisfy these criteria entails engineers getting multi-disciplinary training and (or) working collaboratively with other engineers and professionals, towards getting a solution.

In today’s world therefore, we need, as a matter of necessity, to be continuously learning not only the various disciplines of engineering but also other disciplines like law, economics, sustainability, business administration and the like.

In conclusion, while congratulating you on this momentous occasion of celebrating the 2024 World Engineering Day, I urge all of you to keep in touch with the WFEO through constantly visiting the website for information on developments taking place, for your professional development.

You should also feel free to comment on our activities through the leadership of IES that attends our Executive Council meetings and (or) General Assemblies. That feedback loop is important for us, to serve you better.

Looking forward to seeing you in one of the WFEO or IES programmes / activities.

Engr. Mustafa B. Shehu

Purtop® System

COP28 Agreement signals ‘beginning of the end’ of the fossil fuel era

The United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP28) closed on 13 December 2023, with an agreement that signals the ‘beginning of the end’ of the fossil fuel era, by laying the ground for a swift, just and equitable transition, underpinned by deep emissions cuts and scaled-up finance.

In a demonstration of global solidarity, negotiators from nearly 200 Parties came together in Dubai with a decision on the world’s first ‘global stocktake’ to ratchet up climate action before the end of the decade –with the overarching aim to keep the global temperature limit of 1.5 °C within reach.

“Whilst we didn’t turn the page on the fossil fuel era in Dubai, this outcome is the beginning of the end. Now all governments and businesses need to turn these pledges into real-economy outcomes, without delay,” said UN Climate Change Executive Secretary Simon Stiell in his closing speech.

The global stocktake is considered the central outcome of COP28 – as it contains every element that was under negotiation and can now be used by countries to develop stronger climate action plans due by 2025.

The stocktake recognises the science that indicates global green-

house gas emissions need to be cut 43% by 2030, compared to 2019 levels, to limit global warming to 1.5 °C. But it notes Parties are off track when it comes to meeting their Paris Agreement goals.

The stocktake calls on Parties to take actions towards achieving, at a global scale, a tripling of renewable energy capacity and doubling energy efficiency improvements by 2030. The list also includes accelerating efforts towards the phasedown of unabated coal power, phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies, and other measures that drive the transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems, in a just, orderly and equitable manner, with developed countries continuing to take the lead.

In the short-term, Parties are encouraged to come forward with ambitious, economy-wide emission reduction targets, covering all greenhouse gases, sectors and categories, and aligned with the 1.5 °C limit in their next round of climate action plans (known as nationally determined contributions) by 2025.

Strengthening resilience to the effects of climate change

The two-week-long conference got underway with the World Climate Action Summit, which brought to-

gether 154 Heads of States and Government. Parties reached a historic agreement on the operationalisation of the loss and damage fund and funding arrangements – the first time a substantive decision was adopted on the first day of the conference.

Commitments to the fund started coming in moments after the decision was gavelled, totalling more than USD 700 million to-date.

There was more progress on the loss and damage agenda with an agreement also reached that the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and the UN Office for Project Services will host the secretariat of the Santiago Network for Loss and Damage. This platform will catalyse technical assistance to developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

Parties agreed on targets for the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) and its framework, which identify where the world needs to get to in order to be resilient to the impacts of a changing climate and to assess countries’ efforts.

The GGA framework reflects a global consensus on adaptation targets and the need for finance, technology and capacity-building support to achieve them.

Negotiators from nearly 200 Parties came together in Dubai with a decision on the world’s first ‘global stocktake’ to ratchet up climate action before the end of the decade. Image: UN Climate Change / Kiara Worth.

Increasing climate finance

Climate finance took centre stage at the conference, with Stiell repeatedly calling it the “great enabler of climate action.”

Event participation and inclusivity

World leaders at COP28 were joined by civil society, business, Indigenous Peoples, youth, philanthropy, and international organisations, in a spirit of shared determination to close the gaps to 2030. Some 85,000 participants attended COP28 to share ideas and solutions, and build partnerships and coalitions.

Strengthening collaboration

In parallel with the formal negoti-

ations, the Global Climate Action space at COP28 provided a platform for governments, businesses and civil society to collaborate and showcase climate solutions.

The conference also saw several announcements to boost the resilience of food and public health systems, and to reduce emissions related to agriculture and methane.

“We must get on with the job of putting the Paris Agreement fully to work. In early 2025, countries must deliver new nationally determined contributions. Every single commitment – on finance, adaptation, and mitigation – must bring us in line with a 1.5-degree world,” said Mr Stiell.

“My final message is to ordinary people everywhere raising their voices for change. Every one of you is making a real difference. In the crucial coming years, your voices and determination will be more important than ever. I urge you never to relent. We are still in this race. We will be with you every single step of the way,” he added.

“The world needed to find a new way. By following our North Star, we have found that path. We have worked very hard to secure a better future for our people and our planet. We should be proud of our historic achievement,” said COP28 President, Dr Sultan Al Jaber, during his closing speech.


Showcasing a robust ecosystem for accelerating collective climate action

The Singapore Pavilion at the 28th Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP28) demonstrated and reaffirmed Singapore’s climate solutions, uniting players across sectors, domains and geographical regions.

Themed ‘Accelerating Collective Climate Action’, the programmes at the pavilion showcased Singapore’s commitment to global climate goals, emphasised the citystate’s vision to achieve net zero by 2050 and highlighted innovative and collaborative solutions, backed by a strong ecosystem of partners across the private and people sectors, international organisations and governments.

The pavilion attracted in-person visitorship of more than 6,000, along with nearly 60,000 unique online visitors, across its 12 days of programming. The diverse range of programmes – involving around 100 partner entities and including panel discussions, workshops, fireside chats as well as ‘pitch days’ – covered multifaceted climate issues and provided attendees with opportunities for knowledge exchange and partnership development.

Numerous noteworthy announcements, launches and Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) signings took place at the pavilion, as well as key announcements demonstrating the concrete action Singapore is taking to support and accelerate the green transition in the region and beyond.

These include the FAST-P (Financing Asia’s Transition Partnership), Singapore-Asia Taxonomy and the Transition Credits Coalition (TRACTION). In addition, Singapore signed its first Implementation Agreement with Papua New Guinea on carbon credits cooperation under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.

During the pavilion’s closing ceremony, Minister for Sustainability

and the Environment Ms Grace Fu said, “I am heartened by the ‘bias to action’ that we have witnessed here at the pavilion. Many new climate initiatives and partnerships have been unveiled on this stage, by the Singapore government as well as our partners. Like Singapore itself, our pavilion has been ‘small, but mighty’. It is not about size, but impact. It is not about quantity, but quality. And it is not about making a once-off splash, but a sustained commitment with follow-through actions.”

Among the visitors to the Singa-

pore Pavilion were foreign dignitaries, organisational and business leaders and key change-makers in the global climate ecosystem, reflecting Singapore’s position as a trusted regional and international partner that facilitates climate collaborations and the development of solutions.

The pavilion provided a space for the private, public and people sectors, from various countries and backgrounds, to gather and work towards advancing climate action and building a better and more sustainable future for all.

The Singapore Pavilion at COP28 demonstrated and reaffirmed Singapore’s climate solutions. Images: COP28 Singapore Pavilion.

Surbana Jurong (SJ) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Invest Sarawak, an entity under the State Government of Sarawak’s Ministry of International Trade, Industry and Investment (MINTRED Sarawak) to develop cooperation and partnership opportunities to pursue industrial transformation, energy transition and industrial decarbonisation, CCUS (carbon capture, utilisation and storage), and industrial park development and management, in Sarawak.

The key aims of the cooperation include identifying challenges and opportunities present in Sarawak’s industrial landscape, such as green economy opportunities, and enhancing and developing skillsets to equip the people of Sarawak for new opportunities, as well as implementing energy transition and industrial decarbonisation projects integrated with greenfield and brownfield industrial activities.

The partners will identify carbon capture opportunities especially in the power generation sector, such

as potential carbon utilisation and sequestration projects.

One of the key features of the partnership is the joint establishment of an industrial park venture to implement best-in-class standards in the planning, development and future management of greenfield industrial parks that prioritises decarbonisation and sustainable power sources.

This is the second partnership between SJ and MINTRED Sarawak, following its first partnership agreement signed in 2021.

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Surbana Jurong and Invest Sarawak sign MoU to deepen sustainability initiatives

Clean energy transition picks up momentum

Global electricity demand is expected to grow at a faster rate over the next three years as the clean energy transition gathers speed, with all the additional demand forecast to be covered by technologies that produce low-emissions electricity, according to a new report from the IEA (International Energy Agency).

Electricity 2024 is the latest edition of the IEA’s annual analysis of electricity market developments and policies, providing forecasts for demand, supply and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the sector through 2026.

The report finds that while global growth in electricity demand eased slightly to 2.2% in 2023 due to falling electricity consumption in advanced economies, it is projected to accelerate to an average of 3.4% from 2024 through 2026. About 85% of the increase in the world’s electricity demand through 2026 is expected to come from outside advanced economies – most notably China, India and countries in Southeast Asia.

However, record-setting electricity generation from low-emissions sources – comprising renewables, such as solar, wind and hydro, as well as nuclear power – should reduce the role of fossil fuels in providing power for homes and businesses. Low-emissions sources are expected to account for almost half of the world’s electricity generation by 2026, up from a share of just under 40% in 2023.

Renewables are set to make up more than one-third of total electricity generation by early 2025, overtaking coal. By 2025, nuclear power generation is also forecast to reach an all-time high globally as output from France climbs, several plants in Japan come back online, and new reactors begin commercial operations in many markets, including in China, India, Korea and Europe. When the share of fossil fuels in global generation falls beneath 60%, this will mark the first time it has gone below this threshold in IEA records, dating back

more than five decades.

“The power sector currently produces more CO2 emissions than any other in the world economy, so it’s encouraging that the rapid growth of renewables and a steady expansion of nuclear power are together on course to match all the increase in global electricity demand over the next three years,” said IEA Executive Director Dr Fatih Birol.

“This is largely thanks to the huge momentum behind renewables, with ever cheaper solar leading the way, and support from the important comeback of nuclear power, whose generation is set to reach a historic high by 2025. While more progress is needed, and fast, these are very promising trends,” he added.

The report finds that the increase in electricity generation from renewables and nuclear appears to be pushing the power sector’s emissions into structural decline. Global emissions from electricity generation are expected to decrease by 2.4% in 2024, followed by smaller declines in 2025 and 2026.

The decoupling of global electricity demand and emissions would be significant, given the energy sector’s increasing electrification, with more consumers using technologies such as electric vehicles and heat pumps. Electricity accounted for 20% of final energy consumption in 2023, up from 18% in 2015, though meeting the world’s climate goals would require electrification to advance significantly faster in the coming years. Although demand for electricity in Europe and the United States declined in 2023, many emerging and developing economies recorded robust growth that is set to continue through 2026 in response to increasing populations and industrialisation.

During the outlook period, China is expected to account for the largest share of the global increase in electricity demand in terms of volume, even as its economic growth slows and becomes less reliant on heavy industry. Meanwhile, India is set to see electricity demand rise the fast-

est among major economies, with demand added over the next three years forecast to be roughly equivalent to the current electricity consumption of the United Kingdom.

As a region, Africa remains an outlier in electricity demand trends, according to the report’s analysis. While electricity use per capita in India and Southeast Asia has risen rapidly, it has been effectively stagnant in Africa for more than three decades.

“Electricity use is a key indicator of economic development in any country, and it’s a grim sign that it has flatlined in Africa on a per capita basis for over three decades. Access to reliable, affordable and sustainable energy for all citizens is essential for African countries to achieve their economic and climate goals. The international community needs to work together with African governments to enable the urgent progress that is needed,” said Dr Birol.

Net zero implementation and decarbonisation in Asia

In a memo written by investors for investors, 16 investors managing over USD 6 trillion in assets under management shared rare candid insights on the realities and challenges of addressing the climate crisis in their investment portfolios.

This follows a series of closed-door dialogues that the Asia Investor Group on Climate Change (AIGCC) organised in 2023 amongst institutional investors. Each dialogue included perspectives from both asset owners and asset managers, either regionally headquartered in Asia or internationally headquartered with large investments in Asia.


Singapore engineers leading the way to a greener built environment

The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) provides an update on the efforts and achievements.

As global citizens, everyone, including the Built Environment sector, has a role to play to mitigate the effect of climate change. In Singapore, we have raised our national climate target to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.

With buildings accounting for about 20% of Singapore’s carbon emissions, green buildings are key in our transition to a low-carbon and climate resilient future. The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) launched the Singapore Green

Building Masterplan (SGBMP) 2021, which is part of the Singapore Green Plan 2030. It charts out our collective commitment to pursue more ambitious sustainability standards in our Built Environment.

The SGBMP aims to deliver the three key targets of ‘80-80-80 in 2030’. While we are working with industry stakeholders to green 80% of our buildings and make Super Low Energy (SLE) buildings more mainstream by 2030, we are also pushing technological boundaries to achieve

80% energy efficiency over the 2005 baseline in 2030. This includes driving more passive design strategies through naturally ventilated design and alternative cooling strategies such as hybrid cooling.


Green Mark buildings with higher ratings are the new normal. The launch of the BCA Green Mark scheme in 2005 formed the backbone of Singapore’s first Green Building Masterplan. Over 2,500 unique

Progress of the SGBMP

buildings have since been issued Green Mark (GM) certifications.

Following the introduction of the SLE programme in 2018, an increasing number of buildings are achieving higher GM certification standards. About 65% of the 120 GM SLE, Zero Energy and Positive Energy buildings were certified in the last three years.

Moreover, green buildings, especially GM SLE buildings, are a smart investment, with good payoffs derived from energy savings over the building lifecycle. For instance, a newly-built office, with 350,000 m2 GFA and with SLE rating, will save 4.0 GWh of energy per year. The corresponding carbon abatement is equivalent to having around 970 hectares of forest or removing 360 non-electric cars from the road annually.


As we continue to push the boundaries of environmental sustainability, engineers play an instrumental role in our efforts to decarbonise the built environment. By developing and implementing energy-efficient systems and technologies, they help to transform the built en-

vironment into one that is liveable and sustainable. With Green Mark SLE buildings fast becoming mainstream, the entire built environment value chain must step up or risk getting left behind.


Shaw Tower Redevelopment

The Shaw Tower Redevelopment project was certified GM Platinum SLE in 2022. The building incorporates an energy-efficient, dual temperature, water-cooled chilled water plant and hybrid air-conditioning system with active chilled beams, in addition to an energy-efficient air distribution system with EC fans for all Air Handling Units (AHUs). Shaw Tower Redevelopment has also obtained the Intelligence, Health & Wellbeing, and Maintainability Badges under the GM 2021 scheme.

The Shaw Tower Redevelopment is one of the recent projects undertaken by Ms Irene Yong, Technical Director of Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner (S.E. Asia) Pte Ltd.

Ms Yong has numerous achievements to her credit, in incorporating sustainability in the built environ-

ment. As a Green Mark Advanced Accredited Professional (GMAAP), she has completed more than 80 GM projects to-date, including projects within the Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore) campus, DUO and Marina One.

A Green Mark Advanced Accredited Professional (GMAAP) is the top-tier accreditation for technical professionals in the built environment industry with more than five years of experience in Green Mark projects. A GMAAP possesses deep technical expertise and is able to carry out detailed design, prediction and enhancement of building performance for Green Mark certification.

Ms Yong has helped clients to conceptualise targets to achieve top-tier sustainability awards including the GM Platinum STAR Champion Award, GM Platinum Award for Districts and GM Platinum Award for New Parks.

She has also been involved in several R&D projects as Principal Investigator and Industry Collaborator on green building technologies and ESD-related research work, in collaboration with NTU Singapore and University of California, Berkeley,

Shaw Tower Redevelopment. Image: Shaw Towers Realty Private Limited.

USA. In recognition of her exemplary leadership and contributions, she was conferred the Professional Leadership in Sustainability Award at the SGBC-BCA Leadership in Sustainability Awards, in 2022.

Dulwich College (Singapore)The Greenhouse

The school uses extensive on-site Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) on the building façade and roof, as well as off-site photovoltaics within the campus, and Passive Displacement Cooling. Smart technologies are utilised to improve the building performance, building management process and user experience.

A Smart IDD / Digital Twin platform is developed to monitor energy efficiency metrics, remote control of equipment and real-time zonal demand control using IoT (IAQ and Occupancy) sensors. The digital twin platform also incorporates smart FM capabilities including building analytics for system optimisation and predictive performance, as well as integration across different sub-systems for incident management, which improves the maintenance process during operation.

This project is the first new building and first international school to attain GM Platinum Zero Energy and the Intelligence, Health & Wellbeing, and Maintainability Badges under the GM 2021 scheme.

Paya Lebar Green

The building incorporates multiple green building technologies such as an energy-efficient, dual temperature, water-cooled chilled water plant and hybrid air-conditioning system with active chilled beams, as well as energy-efficient air distribution system with Electronically Commutated (EC) fans for all AHUs.

The building also comprises technologies like smart LED systems with demand control, real-time performance and monitoring of the building’s energy and indoor air quality, and smart facilities management capabilities including building analytics for predictive maintenance to achieve sustainability goals. The

building attained GM Platinum Super Low Energy and is also the first in Singapore to obtain all five sustainability badges under the GM 2021 scheme.

Both Dulwich College and Paya Lebar Green are higher-tier GM projects certified in 2023. They are among the 25 GM projects completed by Er. Yong Siew Onn, Director of DP Sustainable Design Pte Ltd.

Er. Yong is a GMAAP who has made significant contributions in Environmentally Sustainable Design (ESD), including contributions to alternative cooling. He received the Green Engineer Award at the SGBC-BCA Leadership in Sustainability Awards 2019 for his extensive involvement and achievements in advancing a green and sustainable built environment.

Er. Yong and his ESD team are responsible for ensuring that green building design elements go handin-hand with the overall concept design of a building. He works closely with design architects and

engineers to enhance the sustainable design process and ensure that passive design and energy-efficient M&E solutions are integrated into the building’s environmental design, while still reflecting the aesthetics and functional needs of a building.


Engineers will continue to play an important role in shaping the next phase of green buildings. With their technical expertise, they can help to advise developers and building owners to strive for the highest GM SLE, Zero Energy or Positive Energy standards for new projects and for their existing building portfolios.

With the continued urgency to tackle climate change, stakeholders in the Built Environment value chain, including developers, architects, consultants and contractors, need to work towards greening our buildings – both new and from the existing stock.

Dulwich College (Singapore) – The Greenhouse. Image: Dulwich College (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Paya Lebar Green. Image: DBS Trustee Limited (as trustee of Certis & Lendlease Property Trust).
JustDimension Just Dimension Pte Ltd 118 Tuas South Ave 2 Singapore 637164

Raising sustainability levels of HDB towns

The Green Towns Programme includes the implementation of several features.

As the master developer of public housing in Singapore, the Housing & Development Board (HDB) plays a key role in supporting the nation’s commitment to sustainable devel opment. In 2020, HDB announced the Green Towns Programme, a 10year plan that aims to bring sustain able living to all existing HDB towns, with large-scale implementation of green features to improve resi dents’ quality of life.

Through the Green Towns Pro gramme, HDB aims to reduce ener gy consumption by 15% from 2020’s levels, by 2030. The programme focuses on reducing energy consumption, recycling rainwater, cooling HDB towns, promoting green commute and reducing waste. It brings together initiatives that have already been implemented or trialled successfully in some HDB towns/estates, as well as new initiatives that have the potential for scaling up.

announced a new solar target of 540 MWp by 2030. The new target could potentially generate 648 GWh of clean energy annually, contributing towards the national solar targets of 1.5 gigawatt-peak (GWp) by 2025, and 2 GWp by 2030, as set out under the Singapore Green Plan.


Solar Panels

Launched in 2014, the SolarNova Programme is a Whole-of-Government effort led by the Economic Development Board (EDB) and HDB, to accelerate the deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in Singapore. Under the SolarNova programme, HDB aggregates public sector demand for the installation of solar panels across HDB blocks and government sites.

In HDB towns, solar energy that is harnessed is first used to power common services (e.g. lifts, lights and water pumps), with the excess solar energy then channelled back to Singapore’s electrical grid. On average, HDB blocks are able to achieve net-zero energy consumption for the common areas.

Having surpassed the earlier solar target of 220 megawatt-peak (MWp) by 2020, HDB had, in 2019,

In February 2024, HDB awarded the eighth and largest SolarNova tender, covering the installation of solar panels across 1,075 HDB blocks and 104 government sites. Including the eighth SolarNova tender, HDB has committed a total solar capacity of 455 MWp. This is almost 85% of the solar target and is equivalent to powering 114,000 4-room flats.

HDB aims to install solar panels on as many blocks as possible. To-date, solar panels have been installed on about 3,900 HDB blocks. Solar panels for the remaining HDB blocks, where feasible, will be progressively installed, in batches, over the next three years. Actual installation of the solar panels will be determined based on the feasibility assessment of the site conditions for each block.

Smart LED Lighting

To reduce energy consumption in the common areas of HDB estates, HDB will work with the Town Coun-

cils to replace existing lighting for the common areas with Smart LED Lighting, from 2024. The common areas include common corridors, stairwells, void decks, carparks, linkways and playgrounds.

The system is equipped with sensors and smart analytics to automatically adjust the luminosity of LED lights in response to detected motion. It also collects and analyses data on lighting performance, enabling the prediction of potential faults and proactive maintenance to be carried out. Smart LED Lighting can potentially help to reduce energy consumption by up to 60%, as compared to conventional LED lighting.

Elevator Energy Regeneration System

To further reduce energy consumption in HDB estates, HDB will work with the Town Councils to retrofit 4,000 lifts, islandwide, with the Elevator Energy Regeneration System (EERS), from 2024.

The EERS recovers energy generated during lift motions and braking operations, to power other services within the lift such as lighting, ventilation and functioning of the lift display panel. With the EERS, lift energy consumption can be reduced by an average of 20%.

HDB aims to install solar panels on as many blocks as possible. Image: HDB.



Cool Coatings

A key consideration in creating a more liveable and sustainable living environment is to improve thermal comfort for residents, thereby mitigating the Urban Heat Island effects due to climate change. In 2021, HDB and Tampines Town Council announced a pilot study on the effectiveness of cool coatings in reducing ambient temperature by up to 2 °C. The pilot will see 130 HDB blocks in Tampines applied with cool coatings.

As compared to conventional paints, cool coatings contain pigments that reflect the heat of the sun. Surfaces treated with cool coat-

ings will absorb less heat during the day and, as a result, will emit less heat at night, thereby cooling the environment. This pilot project will also enable HDB to conduct a comprehensive study on:

• The effect of cool coatings on various block heights, layouts and orientations.

• The effect of surrounding greenery on the performance of cool paints.

• The market readiness for widescale implementation of cool coatings.

Since painting works began in October 2022, the first 42 blocks have been painted. The pilot, including its findings, is expected to conclude by end-2024.

Greenery Intensification

Over the years, HDB has provided a myriad of green spaces in every housing development, so that residents can enjoy greenery at their doorsteps. Besides offering visual and spatial relief for residents in a high-rise living environment, the greenery also helps to cool and enhance the liveability of the estates.

To further green HDB blocks, HDB will introduce greenery to the top decks of more Multi-Storey Carparks (MSCPs), by repurposing them for extensive greenery, by using the Prefabricated Extensive Green (PEG) Roof Tray system or through allotment or community gardening, where feasible.



The PEG roof system is a green roof solution developed by HDB. Portable and easily adopted by var ious building types, the PEG Roof System is a convenient and cost-ef fective system that suits Singapore’s tropical climate and uses suitable local plants. It comprises innovative modular and lightweight green roof trays that are easily installed on site, simply by connecting one to anoth er, using locking plugs. No hacking or heavy construction works are re quired.

Thus far, HDB has completed the installation of PEG trays at nine MSCPs. One of the MSCPs, at Ju rong, has been converted to HDB’s first allotment garden where resi dents can plant herbs, vegetables or any other ornamental plants in the plot, while the remaining eight MSCPs have been covered with ex tensive greenery, of which six come with community gardens.

In 2024, HDB will commence in stallation of PEG trays at four more MSCPs.


UrbanWater Harvesting

As part of efforts to conserve water, HDB developed the UrbanWater Harvesting System (UWHS) to har vest rainwater for non-potable uses like washing of common areas.

The UWHS collects rainwater and stores it in an underground harvesting tank. The harvested rainwater is treated before being recycled for washing of common areas and irrigation. In this way, the use of potable water (drinking water) for washing of common areas and irrigation can be reduced by more than 50%. The UWHS also slows down the discharge of storm water to the drainage system, thus helping to mitigate flood risk.

commute. Cycling also enhances the first-mile and last-mile connectivity from residential estates to public transport nodes as well as helps reduce CO2 emissions.

Since 2020, HDB has installed more than 18,000 dual bicycle racks and up to 30,000 such racks will be installed islandwide by 2025.

Electric Vehicle Chargers

In 2022, HDB announced that the UWHS will be rolled out to existing estates through a pilot project in Yishun and Jurong. Approximately 12 UWHS systems will be installed at Yishun and Jurong, from 2024, potentially reaping water savings of about 14,000 m3 per year, or the average yearly consumption of pota-

HDB is supporting the Land Transport Authority (LTA) in the nationwide deployment of Electric Vehicle (EV) chargers in HDB carparks, by ensuring that the infrastructure (in terms of electrical capacity) is ready for EV charger deployment.

Since 2022, more than 1,600 EV chargers have been installed at 504 carparks. By 2025, EV chargers will

be installed at nearly 2,000 HDB carparks, which will help to reduce the carbon footprint in Singapore.


E-waste Recycling Bins

The deployment of e-waste recycling bins is mainly in shopping malls and Community Clubs. The locations of these bins may not be convenient for residents to recycle their bulky e-waste. Hence, HDB has worked with the National Environment Agency (NEA) to pilot the deployment of e-waste recycling bins at three different HDB precincts – Hong Kah North, Punggol Clover, and Fengshan Mulberry – to increase convenience for residents to recycle their e-waste.

Dual bicycle racks are being installed islandwide. Image: HDB. HDB will introduce greenery to the top decks of more Multi-Storey Carparks. Image: HDB.
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Singapore’s built environment traps heat in surprising places

Arup's digital heat analytics tool reveals ‘hot spots’.

A new study by Arup, a global sustainable development consultancy, has revealed Singapore’s heat island ‘hot spots’, highlighting the areas of the city’s urban centre where temperatures are highest compared to their rural surroundings. These are also known as Urban Heat Island (UHI) hot spots.

Arup’s Urban Heat Snapshot has identified a large cluster within the Singapore Central Business District (CBD) – including not only high-rise areas but also historical low-rise streets – as the most extreme ‘hot spots’ in Singapore, experiencing temperatures 6 °C higher than their rural surroundings. Using AI and satellite images, the research compared Singapore to the urban centres of six other cities - Cairo, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Mumbai, and New York – on the hottest day

they experienced last year.

The study mapped the whole of Singapore, with a particular focus on a 150 km2 snapshot of Singapore’s urban centre, using Arup’s digital heat analytics tool UHeat. The tool has the ability to take a rapid snapshot of an area and model solutions to reduce the impact of its hot spots. The tool brings together advanced academic models, real-world scenarios and technology.

Singapore’s hottest and coolest locations

While the cluster of hot spots included obvious locations with hard, impermeable surfaces or tall, closely packed buildings like Raffles Place, Shenton Way and Lau Pa Sat, other surprising locations included historical low-rise streets like Telok Ayer and Amoy Street. Despite

these streets having low-rise development, green spaces and close proximity to Marina Bay, crucial elements are intensifying heat.

The once coastal roads are now surrounded by high-rise urban developments that block the cooling effect from the nearby coast. The adjoining shophouses on the streets also have dark terracotta roofs that reach very high temperatures due to solar radiation. This heat is transferred to the air around the buildings, which is more impactful for low-rise areas close to pedestrian height.

Other neighbourhoods experiencing a temperature difference of above 5 °C compared to their rural surroundings, included industrial zones like Kampong Ubi, areas with high population density in Rochor and Marine Parade, and areas within Orchard as well as Sembawang.

Arup’s report recommends essential urban design solutions to cool cities including increasing tree canopy cover, creating more permeable surfaces, and using every space possible like white or reflective roofs to passively cool the buildings themselves and reduce the need for air conditioning.

Scan the QR code to download Arup’s Urban Heat Snapshot to find out more.

For more information, please contact Tony Chan, Planning Business Leader Southeast Asia, Arup at

Using UHeat, a digital heat analytics tool, Arup analysed the entire city, in detail.

The red dot’s race to a green future

Mr Poon Ek Whye, Project Manager at JTC and former JTC Undergraduate Scholar, shares a young person’s vision.

Singapore stepped on the accelerator of climate change goals when we declared net-zero emissions by 2050. It is a bold commitment that will take the effort of many stakeholders. With industry and buildings collectively contributing 45% to primary carbon emissions and 30% to secondary emissions, industrial estates play a huge role.

Since the 2005 launch of the Green Building Master Plan, industrial estates have made significant progress on environmental sustainability. In fact, Green Mark certifications are the norm among industrial buildings today, even though industrial buildings present unique energy efficiency challenges rarely seen in residential or commercial typologies.

Think cold rooms or server rooms that run 24/7, or cleanrooms with very high air change rates and air filtration, all of which are energy-intensive to operate. Achieving the highest certifications in industrial buildings therefore requires a strategic combination of technology and design solutions, such as highly efficient district cooling plants complemented by buildings designed to minimise heat transfer and optimise natural ventilation.

For industrial estates to be future-ready and to punch above their own weight, three interrelated paradigm shifts are crucial.

The first shift is to adopt a wholelife carbon accounting mindset. This means looking beyond just operational carbon emissions, to also the upstream embodied carbon emissions rising from the manufacture, transportation and installation of building materials, and the downstream emissions such as those from commute, waste treatment and disposal.

The adoption of mass engineered timber by JTC for the development of Tower 4 in Punggol Digital District brought about drastic savings in em-

bodied carbon. For buildings with higher floor loading requirements, such as factories, scrap-produced steel could help avoid an estimated 63% of embodied carbon emissions from concrete reinforcements. We are also constructing building facades with reused materials from carefully and gently deconstructed older buildings.

Waste accountability ties in closely with the second paradigm shift – the move towards residue-to-resource circular economies. In the city of Kalundborg in Denmark, the local power station forms the ‘heart’ of an organically developed circular economy. Process steam generated by the station contributes to 15% of the city’s oil refinery’s needs and 100% of a pharmaceutical company’s needs. Gypsum residue is also delivered to a plasterboard company.

In other places, a matchmaker that maps out resource flows and identifies potential synergies may be a necessary catalyst.

Perhaps Singapore’s industrial estates could develop an online estate-wide platform with a Materials Marketplace that serves as a ‘clearing house’ for trading residue products – from scrap metal to construction and demolition waste, to even used office stationery – between companies.

Finally, there is a need to harness

the Internet of Things (IoT) to optimise sustainability performance. Sensors could be integrated with a building management system, to enable the adjustment of air-conditioning, fresh air and lighting, in a responsive manner, based on occupant demands and weather conditions.

Yet even with the trifecta in place, there is still a need to close the gap to net-zero further. While the baseload power requirements of the industrial estate continues to draw from the national grid, peak demands could be bridged by a combination of solar energy, stored in battery-like storage systems to eliminate intermittency even on a cloudy day, as well as on-site ammonia or hydrogen fuel cells.

We can realise more carbon abatement potential if breakthroughs can be achieved not just technologically, but also in the way we master plan our industrial estates and its ecosystem, with life-cycle thinking in mind. As corporate sustainability rapidly shifts from choice to critical necessity, the hope is that green premiums will become more widely accepted with the aid of sustainability grants, and the eventual affordability of green technologies.

(The article is adapted from a story first produced in JTC’s publication, Dream Factories)

Tower 4 at Punggol Digital District is a Green Mark Platinum Super Low Energy Building (SLEB) constructed with mass-engineered timber (MET), a highly renewable material. The use of MET neutralises 1,248 tonnes of embodied carbon and enables significant savings of around 50% to 60% in manpower and construction time.

CFD for the Built Environment – a critical & necessary step in Singapore’s Net Zero Journey

The Built Environment is at the junction of energy needs, policy and a changing climate. CFD can provide an accurate, meaningful insight into the dynamic relationship between the three.

Extensive urbanisation since the mid-1970s has led to Singapore rapidly heating up. According to the Meteorological Service Singapore, the island is warming up twice as fast as the rest of the world, at 0.25 °C per decade.

Last year (2023) was the fourth warmest year on record for Singapore, tied with 1997 and 2015. At the Changi climate station, the last nine months of the year saw above average temperatures, with record-breaking temperatures in May and October.

Singapore’s equatorial climate necessitates air-conditioning in almost 99% of condominiums.

A standard 2 kW AC unit, switched on for 8 hours a day for 20 days a month, to cool a 20 m2 room, produces 1.4 tonnes of carbon emissions annually. Four such AC units, in a home, will generate about 5.6 tonnes of carbon emissions annually.

Singapore faces the dual problem of increasing energy consumption and increasing carbon emissions.

It also impacts the island nation’s energy security.

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool available to today’s designers in the AEC sector, to help them make the right energy-efficient choices, ahead of time, throughout the lifetime of the asset.

Complex systems involving fluid flow phenomena are commonly found along the energy value chain. CFD is a tool that can be used to predict fluid flow phenomena using numerical algorithms.

Various combinations of HVAC systems, microclimatic conditions

(wind direction, wind load etc), shading, occupancy levels etc, can be simulated, providing AEC professionals with usable results.

Today’s commercial CFD solutions, can model thermal comfort and internal air quality for different occupancy levels while considering planned HVAC capacity and different ventilation schemes.

CFD is a powerful tool available to today’s designers in the AEC sector, helping them to make the right energy-efficient choices ahead of time.

This will help Singapore achieve the goals of reduced emissions to 60 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030, Net Zero emissions by 2050 and Improved Energy Security.

Singapore Climate 2023: Average temperature for each year. Meteorological Service Singapore. Mr Amit Deshpande Mr Vivek Parawati Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions can help designers, architects and engineers create energy-efficient buildings.

Shining a light on how buildings can hit the green mark

An important contribution can be made by lighting systems.

Come 1 June 2024, all building projects in Singapore will be assessed using the second edition of the Green Mark 2021 (GM 2021) scheme developed by the Building and Construction Authority (BCA).

BCA’s intent for the tightened scheme is clear – to accelerate the elevation of sustainability standards for Singapore’s built environment, by enhancing overall environmental performance and driving decarbonisation.

As the built environment enters the last phase of preparation for this significant change, it is of paramount importance to examine if you have maximised the potential of lighting – a key enabler in achieving the refreshed certification standards – and are doing well in the revised scoring framework.

To fully comprehend and embrace the transformative capabilities of lighting, in fulfilling the GM 2021 criteria, Signify, the world leader in lighting, breaks the key considerations for you in four critical areas –Energy Efficiency, Intelligence, Health and Well-being, and Maintainability.


In the second edition of GM 2021, energy efficiency (EE), via demand reduction in watts/square metre (W/m2) and consumption reduction in kilowatts hours (KWhrs), has become the singular determinant of a building’s rating.

According to research conducted by Signify, lighting, on average, constitutes between 20% and 40% of a municipality’s electricity consumption. Cities use about 78% of the world’s energy and account for more than 60% of its greenhouse gas emissions. These statistics un-

derscore the importance of harnessing lighting technologies to enhance energy efficiency for buildings.

Supported by rapid technological advancements, incorporation of improvements in lighting has become the quickest path to a greener and smarter built environment. LED lighting can cut 50% of a city’s lighting energy consumption, while connected LED lighting can reduce it by 70%, according to Signify’s research.

In fact, if all cities flip the switch to LED lighting, the world could save around 1.4 billion tonnes of CO2 by 2030. For Singapore, the annual savings would amount to 1 million tonnes of CO2 emissions and SGD 700 million in energy costs.

But how does good lighting actually help a building to score well in GM 2021? Let us find out.

Demand reduction

Achieving the targeted Lighting Power Density (LPD) in GM 2021 is a challenging endeavour, whether it is for developing a new building or retrofitting an existing one.

It is hard to achieve these LPDs while maintaining the required uniformity and glare limit. The solution lies in incorporating high-efficiency LED luminaires, such as Signify’s ultra-efficient luminaires that are capable of delivering LPDs of less than 3.5 W/m2 with more than 180 lumens per watt (lm/W), with sophisticated optics and control systems.

Consumption reduction

To significantly reduce consumption, dimming or switching off lights, through intelligent sensors that detect occupancy and daylight penetration, is key. This can be accomplished through a retrofit-ready wireless control system to enable multi-site management and monitoring of lighting infrastructure suitable for large spaces.

Employing such a system makes it possible to monitor temperature, air quality, noise level and relative humidity, to optimise the environment for end-users. Another feature of the system is guiding employees to uncrowded areas of a building, allowing them to reserve spaces based on acceptable occupancy levels while maintaining physical distance. There are standalone control systems designed for small- and medium-sized offices or retail set-ups.


Apart from the mandatory energy efficiency, the new standard also recognises sustainable parameters via badges for Intelligence, Health and Well-being, and Maintainability, as well as for Whole Life Carbon performance and for Resilience.

Buildings can obtain a sustainability badge in each of the above categories, by achieving a score of 10 points in that particular category.


A way in which you could raise your score, in the category of Intelligence, is through the deployment of smart lighting control systems.

It is advisable to use LED luminaires and control systems as they help buildings achieve over 70%

36 MEP
Green Mark Award LPD in Watts (W) /m2 Super Low Energy Building 5.0 Platinum 5.5 GoldPLUS 6.0

savings in Building Operating Expenses (OPEX). They provide facility managers with peace of mind, as such luminaires have a lifetime of more than 50,000 hours, equivalent to about 14 years in an office, with little maintenance expense.

Tapping on the power of data, smart lighting (intelligent wireless lighting), ‘light on demand’ solutions, as well as sensors (to determine occupancy levels, energy use breakdown, and space utilisation), can enable you to gain 1 point under each section or a total of 4 points to your score.

Employing lighting technology such as Signify’s Interact IoT platform enables businesses to use embedded sensors, IoT devices and software, to make more effective decisions and actions, delivering new operational efficiencies, customer benefits and services.

Health and Well-being

Lighting is a proven tool for better health and well-being. The power of light can transform indoor spaces, where we spend 90% of our time, into happier and healthier places.

The internal clock in our brain, which synchronises physiological functions with dynamic lighting levels, can be disturbed when we are inside a building because of non-exposure to direct daylight.

Signify’s ‘NatureConnect’ lighting, which uses BioUp technology, simulates the daily patterns of sunlight, using light recipes that boost our energy and productivity levels, while helping indoor spaces feel in sync with nature.

Having good natural daylight indoors generates a high Melanopic Daylight Efficiency Ratio (MDER) and stimulates certain photoreceptors in the eye that influence our internal body clock. Circadian rhythms are 24-hour cycles that are part of the body’s internal clock, with an important role of giving us good sleep quality, cognitive performance and immune systems.

Additionally, solutions such as the BioUp technology, used in good quality lighting, fine-tune specific wavelengths in the LED light spec-

trum, enhancing the biological impact of light without changing its visual colour or intensity. It supports your circadian rhythm, improving daytime engagement and promoting good sleep quality at night.

Lighting is linked to the stimulation of the hormone, cortisol, which helps to deal with stress and avoid the sleep-inducing effects of melatonin. In doing so, we can stay more alert during work hours and sleep better at night. By balancing the correct type of light, through replicating natural variations in colour temperature at the correct time of day, our energy levels and overall well-being will be boosted.

By opting for high-quality artificial lighting such as Signify’s NatureConnect with colour rendering index and responsive light control, as well as circadian light for all lighting, including task lighting, you will be on your way to scoring 2.5 out of 10 points in this category.


It is extremely important to opt for high-quality lighting products. Pay attention to these factors – lifespan and failure rate, absence of light flickering and minimum colour shift –as together they contribute to 2 out of 10 points. Go for lighting technology with a long lifespan, using sustainable materials that limit wastage, facilitate recycling and automatically contribute to a circular economy.


While scoring well in the GM 2021 framework is of practical concern, it is also important to not just do the minimum but strive to continuously attain higher standards to make a building as green, healthy and sustainable, as possible.

Let lighting, a vital part of any building or structure, be the primary and quickest strategy for you to make a mark in the transition to a net-zero future.

Signify’s NatureConnect lighting system uses BioUp technology which mimics the natural patterns of daylight indoors. Signify’s Ultra Efficient LEDtubes with 20 years of lifespan.

Strategic approaches to address the Mandatory Energy Improvement directive

Retrofitting ACMV systems with EC fans.

To bring Singapore closer to its goal of greening 80% of its buildings by 2030, BCA will be introducing the Mandatory Energy Improvement (MEI) regime by the end of this year. The directive aims to support existing buildings with a Gross Floor Area of 5,000 m2 and above, that have poor energy performance, to reduce their energy consumption.

To reduce a building’s energy consumption, the first step is to analyse the building’s energy consumption profile. For most buildings in tropical Singapore, the ACMV systems tend to consume the most energy. Examples include air handling units (AHUs), fan coil units (FCUs), cooling towers and more.

According to a BCA study, up to 70% of the energy consumed in a typical office building can be due to the the cooling (60%) and ventilation systems (10%). And within the ACMV systems, fans account for 35% of the energy consumption, according to a National Climate Change Secretariat (NCCS) study.

By reducing overall ACMV energy consumption through retrofitting fans, the overall energy consumption of the building can be reduced.

Why EC technology?

The conventional fan solution typically refers to belt-driven Alternating Current (AC) fans. But these are known to be inefficient and require frequent maintenance with high operating costs. In contrast, Electronically Commutated (EC) fans utilise integrated electronics to enable precise control of speed, leading to improved energy efficiency.

The latest generation 3 EC motors have efficiency levels above IE5 efficiency requirements and feature advanced electronics that boast a configurable control interface, allowing a 0 to 10 volt DC (VDC) control signal for smoothly adjustable speed.

With MODBUS-RTU compatibility, seamless integration into building management systems can be facilitated, enabling data-driven facilities management (FM) which allows the FM team to make smarter decisions that can further reduce energy consumption.

Other key features encompass integrated resonance detection, protective measures like locked rotor and thermal overload protection, and environment-resistant cable glands – all contributing to enhanced operational reliability.

Last but not least, a vibration sensor can be installed in EC centrifugal

fans, enabling resonance detection. This ensures the prevention of operations within critical ranges. This sensor not only monitors the fan’s health, but also enables preventive maintenance, optimises performance and ultimately prolongs the fan’s lifespan.

Reducing the energy consumption of existing buildings can be challenging, especially since there is no ‘one size fits all’ plan. However, through collaborations with various stakeholders such as consultants, contractors and suppliers, it is possible to take an existing building’s efficiency to greener heights.

38 MEP
In a typical office building, fans account for 35% of the energy consumption by ACMV systems. EC fans utilise integrated electronics to enable precise control of speed, leading to improved energy efficiency.

Innovative water treatment systems for cooling towers

Saving water and energy.

In today’s water stressed society, over 1 billion people lack access to fresh drinking water. With climate change challenges, the availability of fresh water is becoming scarcer and scarcer. Looking at the ever increasing population across the globe and the rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, saving water is very crucial.

Centrally air-conditioned buildings, data centres and industries that use water-cooled chillers, consume huge amounts of water for the cooling towers. Further, owing to the water quality challenges in cooling towers, chemical dosing is done in order to reduce scaling, biofouling and corrosion, resulting in tons of water being wasted as blowdown. The harmful chemicals cause environmental hazards.

Innovative technologies based on electrolysis have proven to be very promising, for treating the cooling tower circulation water without using any chemicals, and yet reducing blowdown water consumption substantially, thereby resulting in saving precious fresh water. Using such technologies not only helps to save water but also results in a substantial reduction in energy consumption, thereby helping to reduce the carbon footprint significantly.

What sets Ecomax Solutions apart is their comprehensive approach to sustainability. Their solutions span across diverse industries – from hospitality and pharmaceuticals to manufacturing and utilities – with each benefitting from the commitment to reducing the carbon footprint. The innovative products not only enhance energy efficiency but also significantly cut down on operational and maintenance costs.

A leading delivery and logistics

company, with their headquarters in USA, has implemented an Electrolysis based Water Treatment System for a 4800 TR Cooling Tower for their office and data centre building in India, as part of their sustainability drive. For them, cooling, being a major energy consumer, presented an opportunity to enhance water efficiency, energy efficiency and sustainability, while reducing operational costs.

The adoption of this innovative technology in existing and new cooling circuits exemplifies how innovative and sustainable solutions can

significantly enhance the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of existing and new projects for any company. This is one way of managing the trifecta of energy, water and cost savings.

Ecomax Solutions enables its clients to achieve the benefits of sustainability and cost reduction, as their contribution to Singapore’s Green Plan 2030 and global sustainability. Ecomax Solutions commits to creating a sustainable and resilient future, and setting a benchmark in the industry, that will inspire others to follow in their footsteps.

Installation of the electrolytic water treatment system.
Parameters With Chemical Treatment With ECOMax-CT Benefits pH 8.5 8.2 pH is maintained in the range Total Dissolved Solids, TDS (ppm) 2607 1905 Reduced TDS Total Hardness, TH (ppm) 90 38 Reduced TH Blowdown, m3/ day 55 15 >70% Reduction in Blowdown Water Consumption Chemical Cost, USD 3,000 Per Month 0 ZERO Chemical Consumption Performance of the electrolytic water treatment system

Azbil’s global sustainability charge through automation

An expanded role to achieve carbon neutrality.

As a global leader in the field of automation technology, the azbil Group (azbil) has been shaping its legacy over 118 years and defining a sustainable future for tomorrow. Guided by its group philosophy of human-centred automation, azbil is dedicated to perfecting its measurement and control technology to create new value through automation and contribute to the sustainability of industry and society.

azbil’s commitment to sustainability includes its proactive efforts to reduce CO2 emissions at customer sites. By 2030, azbil targets an annual effective reduction of 3.40 million metric tons of CO2 at customers’ sites, under one of its essential goals of the azbil Group for the SDGs – Environment and Energy.

Leveraging its three business segments – Building Automation, Advanced Automation, and Life Automation – azbil provides its unique value to customers in offices, production sites and in daily life. These segments strive to enhance the quality of indoor spaces and productivity while efficiently controlling the energy and resource consumption in buildings, factories and lifeline utilities.

Embracing changes in the business environment, marked by globalisation, social responsibility,

technological innovation and societal shifts, automation is increasingly demanded for its expanded role in achieving carbon neutrality.

Prioritising the three growth fields

– new automation, environment and energy, and life-cycle solutions – at the core, azbil leverages its unique technologies, products and services, to accelerate transformation, driving global development and business field initiatives.

• New automation: Solving new challenges with new and innovative products and services.

• Environment and energy: Applying proven strengths in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

• Life-cycle solutions: Supporting customers’ assets over the long term.

The azbil Group targets JPY 400 billion in sales by 2030, with a substantial JPY 100 billion from global markets. This fuels strategic expansion in key markets through partnerships worldwide, working towards the carbon-neutral future.

Outside Japan, Azbil Corporation established its Strategic Planning & Development Office for Southeast Asia in Singapore, spearheading business promotion, strategic plans and business management in the region. The office further functions as an additional research and development base, linking collaborative technology development across Japan, the Americas and Asia.

For more information, visit: www.

Takayuki Yokota is responsible for business management, finance and sustainability. Azbil’s sustainability initiatives.

Solutions for a broad range of industries and geographies

A commitment to sustainability.

As the world continues its sustainability journey, Honeywell is committed to providing unique insights to gauge how climate change is tangibly affecting corporate actions to reduce the environmental impact of their operations.

Environmental sustainability remains a top priority, both in the solutions Honeywell provides its own customers and in its own operations. Honeywell is ready now to equip customers with innovative tools to fight the effects of climate change and become more sustainable. By continuing to spend approximately 60% of its research and development funding on ESG-oriented solutions, the company is introducing cutting-edge offerings for a vast number of global markets and industries and helping to solve some of the world’s most complex challenges.

Honeywell has ‘ready now solutions’ to support environmental, safety, security and productivity objectives. Five key areas where companies are investing now, for sustainability, are:

• Tackling Emissions: Methane is about 27 to 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide and there were a lot of discussions at COP28 about reducing methane emissions faster. Both voluntary and mandatory reduction efforts are being implemented (e.g. IRA Waste Emission Charge, Global Methane Initiative and Global Methane Pledge). Honeywell has outcome-based offerings enabled by enterprise emissions management software-as-a-service, fixed and portable connected gas detectors (Signal Scout), Rebellion gas visualisation cameras and Flare Gas Recovery Systems, as well as

the Emissions 360 services program.

• Expanding SAF Availability: The challenge to Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF) implementation is availability of sufficient amounts of feedstocks. Honeywell is diversifying feedstocks, using Ecofining, ethanol-to-jet (ETJ) fuel, biomass and eFuel technologies, to open up production pathways, and has flexible catalysts that support co-processing – a low-cost bridge towards full SAF production, that can meet today’s blending requirements.

• Scaling Carbon Capture and Hydrogen: Honeywell currently has 1100+ installations of H2 purification technologies around the world. Retrofitting existing hydrogen production assets with carbon capture technology is a ready-now, commercially proven, and significant step towards carbon neutrality. The company is working on the world’s largest Blue hydrogen plant (XOM Baytown), which is being designed to capture 98% of the CO2 produced for CCS. This plant will sequester 7 million t/y of CO2 and eliminate 30% of the Scope 1 and 2 emissions of one of the largest refineries in the US.

• Encouraging Development of Microgrids and Energy-Efficient Buildings: The creation of microgrids is taking place in pockets around the world, where power from renewable resources is delivered to commercial and industrial buildings with a goal of reaching net-zero. Honeywell Forge Performance+ for Buildings and Honeywell Power Manager give building managers and eco-industrial parks a comprehensive view of building operations and the ability to manage both supply and demand of electricity while minimising

operating costs and guaranteeing reliable power supply.

• Finding Synergies Between Digitalisation, Automation and Sustainability: Beyond yield optimisation and on-stream availability benefits, digitalisation has become the first step in the energy sector’s sustainability. Honeywell’s Forge Sustainability+ software gives real-time insights into the biggest sources of Scope 1 and 2 emissions from a company’s operations and helps map the most effective path to net zero.

Honeywell is the partner of choice based on the company’s track record of producing USD 9 billion of savings in over 3,400 projects to-date, in buildings including commercial buildings, airports, universities and hospitals, as well as pioneering the production of sustainable fuels.


Honeywell is an integrated operating company serving a broad range of industries and geographies around the world. The company’s business is aligned with three powerful megatrends – automation, the future of aviation, and energy transition – underpinned by the Honeywell Accelerator operating system and Honeywell Connected Enterprise integrated software platform. As a trusted partner, the company helps organisations solve the world’s toughest, most complex challenges, providing actionable solutions and innovations that help make the world smarter, safer and more sustainable.

More news and information on Honeywell can be obtained from



Accelerating energy transition in Southeast Asia

Electric vehicle charging and district cooling solutions.

Headquartered in Paris, ENGIE is a global reference in low-carbon energy and services. The company’s purpose is to help accelerate the transition towards a carbon-neutral world, through reduced energy consumption and more environmentally-friendly solutions for industry, real estate and data centres.

In Singapore, ENGIE is driving sustainability in the transport sector with ComfortDelGro and cooling the nation’s first smart business district at Punggol Digital District (PDD).

The company’s joint venture with ComfortDelGro strives to not only decarbonise ComfortDelGro’s vehicle fleets but also deploy Electric Vehicle (EV) chargers at scale. As of end-2023, over 5,000 EV charging points have been secured in Singapore. ENGIE has expanded its charging network cross-border, through a collaboration with a Malaysian EV charging provider, paving the way for greater EV adoption by local communities.

In a project with JTC and Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT), ENGIE will build, own and operate a district cooling system (DCS) for PDD. The underground plant has a cooling capacity of close to 30,000 refrigeration-tons (RT), equivalent to cooling 8,000 4-room HDB flats [1].

With 4 km of centralised piping network, the DCS is expected to reduce 3,700 tons of CO2 emissions per year at full development and achieve up to 30% reduction of energy consumption, compared to standard commercial buildings.

Expanding access to energy-efficient cooling in the region ENGIE’s key market includes Malaysia and the Philippines, where the company actively seeks, builds and leverages partnerships to scale solutions for retail, commercial and mixed-use estates. ENGIE has formed JVs with

notable conglomerates such as Sunway and Filinvest, to provide a total end-to-end value proposition for district cooling solutions, covering engineering, financing, construction, operation and maintenance, both for greenfield and brownfield development projects.

Charting the path ahead

Together with its business units –ENGIE Impact, ENGIE Global Energy Management & Sales, ENGIE Factory APAC, ENGIE Lab Singapore, RED Engineering, and ENGIE’s Renewables Global Business Unit – ENGIE has helped the region avoid nearly 400 k tonnes of CO2 emissions in just the past decade.

So much more remains to be done. Lessons that are learnt here, in this small but intrinsically important region, will provide key markers in the roadmap towards global carbon neutrality.

More information can be obtained from

Note [1] A refrigeration ton (RT) is a unit of power used to describe the heat-extraction capacity of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. It is defined as the rate of heat transfer that results in the freezing / melting of 1 short ton (2,000 lb / 907 kg) of pure water / ice at 0 °C (32 °F) in 24 hours.

CDG ENGIE electric vehicle charging point in use in Singapore. Aerial view of Punggol Digital District. Filinvest City, a 244 hectare central business district in southern Metro Manila, is one of the many locations, across the Philippines, where ENGIE and Filinvest are deploying sustainable energy solutions (artist’s rendering). Sunway South Quay Commercial Precinct 2 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, will have a district cooling system to sustainably aircondition the mixed-use development for 25 years (artist’s rendering).

Plant digital twins for sustainable energy generation

A transformative strategy in maximising plant efficiency.

The global commitment to address climate change has surged with 123 nations committing, during COP28, to the Global Renewables and Energy Efficiency Pledge, aiming to triple the world’s renewable energy (RE) capacity and double global energy efficiency (EE).

The synergy between RE and EE is recognised as a potent force, potentially addressing up to 90% of the climate mitigation needed to limit global warming to well below 2 °C. This combined effort reduces CO2 emissions and overall energy demand, providing a timely and economically viable approach to achieving global climate goals.

The integration of digital twin (DT) technology has emerged as a transformative strategy for RE and EE deployment, particularly in power plants and energy-intensive industries. Plant DTs act as virtual replicas of the actual plant processes, offering real-time data that facilitates advanced data management, information processing, and sophisticated plant modelling and simulation.

Digital twin for plant performance monitoring

For performance monitoring in sustainable energy generation, the marriage of a real-time performance monitoring system with thermodynamic simulation software becomes paramount. This integration allows for a meticulous evaluation of plant conditions, optimising power generation efficiency.

The real-time performance monitoring system continually observes and assesses current plant operations, providing insights into ongoing performance by comparing it with the currently feasible optimum. When coupled with ther-

modynamic simulation software, the simulation model, grounded in thermodynamic equations, ensures accuracy even in scenarios that may not have occurred before, ensuring robust performance evaluation.

Digital twin for plant anomalies detection

DT also plays a crucial role in the early detection of anomalies in power plant conditions. Functioning as thermodynamic models and data-driven AI models, DT illustrates the dependencies of crucial process parameters on plant ambient conditions and actuating variables.

Whether derived from fundamental knowledge about plant context or constructed through machine learning (ML) using historical data, DTs enable the proactive identification of subtle changes. The predictive analytics system, utilising a combination of expert knowledge and ML, constructs accurate DTs

with pre-defined key performance indicators (KPIs), ensuring high sensitivity and minimal false alarms.

The incorporation of DTs in sustainable energy aligns with the urgent need for sustainability improvement. As the world strives towards a more sustainable industry, the deployment of DTs in sustainable energy generation is poised for rapid growth. This technology, powered by predictive analytics, not only predicts maintenance needs in sustainable energy systems but also facilitates timely and cost-effective maintenance.

This foresight enhances unit availability, reduces overall maintenance costs, and contributes significantly to the global movement towards carbon neutrality and a greener future.

EES Consultants possesses the expertise in employing DTs for plant performance monitoring and anomalies detection. EES Consultants and its partner, Iqony Solutions GmbH champion the synergy of RE and EE.

Digital twins for plant performance monitoring using an online monitoring system and thermodynamic models.

A sustainable approach to pipeline integrity management

Ensuring safe and reliable operations, and enabling repurposing for future applications.

Pipelines are the arteries of a nation’s energy and utility infrastructure. These networks, which are buried underground and are therefore out of sight for most of us, keep the economy in motion. Any disruption to their functioning would be catastrophic.

Energy pipelines include both hazardous liquid and gas pipelines. They convey crude oil, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, propane, butane, ethylene and natural gas (methane). Utility pipelines include those carrying water for domestic and industrial use, stormwater pipelines, domestic and industrial wastewater pipelines, as well as sewage pipelines.

A pipeline’s life cycle encompasses different stages, from design, fabrication, construction, operation, deactivation or reactivation, life extension and retirement. A comprehensive Sustainable Pipeline Integrity Management System is paramount to see through this life cycle.

Pipeline integrity management

The primary purpose of a Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS) is to protect people and the environment along the pipeline route, by providing a safe, reliable and sustainable fluid transportation system.

Thus, the development of a PIMS should start at the very beginning, during the conceptual design phase, and continue throughout the life cycle of the pipeline. So, what is a PIMS? It may be defined as a systematically planned, comprehensive, well-structured and documented programme to ensure the safe, reliable and sustainable operation of the pipeline for its whole life cycle.

Elements of an Integrity Management Programme

Pipeline Integrity Management Programmes can be classified as either based on prescriptive rules or performance risk-based rules, or a combination of both. A prescriptive method incorporates the regulator’s detailed requirements and referenced standards. It is more rigid, with less data and analytics.

A performance risk-based method, however, requires extensive knowledge of the pipeline, is data-intensive and more flexible, with more options. Overall, it is acknowledged in the industry, that the results of a performance risk-based approach must meet or exceed the results of a prescriptive programme and that there is no single ‘best’ approach applicable to all pipeline systems for all situations.

Threat identification and classification

In all instances, integrity threat identification is the starting point. Without a good appreciation of the constantly changing potential threats to the integrity of a pipeline system, it would be challenging to develop a pragmatic Pipeline Integrity Management Programme.

The ASME B31.8S standard for gas pipelines identifies nine categories of threats, according to their time factors and failure modes. As for utility water pipelines, some researchers have classified the potential threats as distress indicators and failure modes. These factors have been classified into three categories – physical, environmental and operational – and further divided into static and dynamic or time-independent.

Data gathering, integration and analysis

Data is the most critical component for any Pipeline Integrity Management System. Gathering relevant, correct and reliable data can be challenging and time-consuming. In many instances, there is a lack of data, necessary for reliable analytics. It is thus normal to perform additional tests and inspections specifically to acquire the essential data for analysis, to ascertain the condition of the pipeline.

Risk assessment

Risk assessment supervenes data analytics and the methodologies can vary substantially, depending on the complexity of the analysis, from the most common qualitative and quantitative to dynamic and numerical simulations.

The primary objective herein is to appreciate the potential threat and its effects on the integrity of a pipeline segment. It is critical that risk reassessments are carried out regularly, factoring in the most recent changes and operating parameters, to establish the status of the pipeline.


Singapore’s Green Plan seeks to reduce the country’s greenhouse gas emissions to around 60 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2030 and to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. This ambitious target will require a substantial deployment of renewable energy, preferably using the existing energy and utility infrastructure. Thus, conversion and repurposing the existing pipeline infrastructure, for the transportation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, should be evaluated.




Who We Are

We are GreenScience, a leading independent specialist engineering firm providing responsive, sustainable and pragmatic asset integrity management engineering programs. Our core competence is in developing holistic solutions for our clients, both public and private, to improve the safe operational performance of engineering assets and enhance their value and life span.

Industries We Serve










GreenScience Technologies (S) Pte Ltd

Block 1003 Bukit Merah Central, #04-26, Singapore 159836.

T: +65-62527248

M: +65-90117484


What We Do

• Pipeline Integrity Management System

• Pipeline Direct Assessments

• External Corrosion (ECDA)

• Internal Corrosion (ICDA)

• Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCCDA)

• Pipeline Life Extension and Optimization

• Water Pipeline Condition Assessment

• Cathodic Corrosion Protection

• Stray Interference Current Mitigation

• Concrete Corrosion Management

• Remote Corrosion Monitoring and Control Systems

Years of Engineering Experience

Delivering Safe, Reliable and Sustainable Solutions

Pipeline Integrity Consulting Engineers Pte Ltd 1 Harbourfront Avenue, Level 13 Keppel Bay Tower, Singapore 098632

T: +65-62527200

M: +65-98284592



A multi-faceted approach to sustainable development in Singapore

Development of plastic waste asphalt and low-noise asphalt.

Samwoh Corporation Pte Ltd, a leading engineering and construction firm in Singapore, is setting new standards for sustainable practices in the construction industry. Recognised with the ASEAN Energy Award and BCA Green Mark Platinum Award, for its recent headquarters development, the Samwoh Smart Hub, the company is taking strides in sustainable construction initiatives.

The Samwoh Smart Hub, located in the Sungei Kadut Eco-District, is Singapore’s first positive energy industrial building. Covering 16,707 m2 and adorned with solar panels, it generates an impressive 25% energy surplus, and is capable of powering up to 300 HDB four-room flats every month.

Inaugurated on 6 December 2022 by Mr Heng Swee Keat, Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore, the hub not only showcases Singapore's advancements in sustainable construction but also serves as an inspiration to over 1,600 visitors, promoting sustainable construction practices.

Expanding beyond the hub, Samwoh is actively involved in the development of green road materials using recycled materials, aligning with Singapore’s circular economy goals.

One of them is asphalt mix containing recycled plastic waste, which can provide better durability than conventional asphalt, by about 30%. A live road at Jalan Buroh was paved using the recycled plastic waste asphalt and the performance was monitored over 12 months under actual traffic and local weather conditions, and in compliance with regulatory requirements.

The project was conducted together with the Land Transport Authority (LTA); National Environment

Agency (NEA); PUB, Singapore’s National Water Agency; as well as Singapore Polytechnic. The development of the recycled plastic waste asphalt demonstrated Samwoh's commitment to environmental sustainability and continuous improvement in road infrastructure.

Another significant, sustainable initiative by Samwoh is the implementation of low noise asphalt, aimed at reducing noise pollution near residential communities, for a more sustainable and liveable urban environment. This practice has

been integrated into various projects, including the transformation of Pan-Island Expressway (PIE) Exit 26A. Recognising the proximity to residential communities, Samwoh utilised low noise asphalt in its sustainable road surfacing solutions, aiming to enhance living conditions by minimising noise disturbances.

This adoption of low noise asphalt aligns with sustainability principles by mitigating noise pollution (reducing environmental impact) and enhancing living conditions (giving importance to social considerations).

Recycled plastic waste asphalt can provide better durability than conventional asphalt. Samwoh deployed low-noise asphalt in the transformation of Pan-Island Expressway (PIE) Exit 26A.

The unexpected tale of carbon dioxide in the built environment

Whole Life Carbon comprises two components – embodied and operational.

The terms ‘energy-efficient’ and ‘LED lighting’ are frequently associated with sustainability efforts in the built environment. Such initiatives are focused on reducing carbon arising from the day-to-day operations of buildings, such as by lowering energy consumption for air-conditioning and lighting.

But did you know, embodied carbon is an equally, if not more, important component of total carbon emissions?

‘Embodied carbon’ refers to carbon that is emitted during construction. It is ‘locked in’ once the building is completed and cannot be subsequently reduced. Hence, there is an urgent need to pay more attention to this ‘lesser-known twin’ contributor to the carbon footprint.

In Singapore, embodied carbon represents up to 40% of total carbon emissions across a building’s lifespan. This is higher than the global average of about 30%, due to the faster rate of urban renewal on the island.

A Whole Life Carbon Approach (WLCA), measuring both operational and embodied carbon, is therefore key to reducing lifetime emissions. Incorporating WLCA during planning gives a truer picture of a building’s carbon footprint. WLCA enables developers to identify op-

portunities to reduce total carbon emissions such as through the selection of greener materials.

CO2 Mineralised Concrete (CMC)

Pan-United’s signature Carbon dioxide (CO2) Mineralised Concrete (CMC), a low-carbon product, leverages carbon mineralisation technology to sequester industrial waste CO2 within concrete. This process not only prevents the release of industrial waste CO2 but also strengthens the resultant concrete.

There is growing interest for Pan-United’s low-carbon concrete. Today, the company supplies CMC to major projects, such as Tuas Port,

the North-South Corridor and public housing projects, amongst others.

Pan-United is also constantly innovating new mixes to address pertinent climate change issues. For example, the company is exploring the development of lightweight, thermal-insulated concrete which can help to reduce heat loss and improve the energy efficiency of buildings.

Pan-United is also Asia’s first concrete company offering on-demand Environmental Product Declaration certificates (EPDs), providing third-party verified environmental data for its entire portfolio of specialised concrete.

Pan-United supplies CO2 Mineralised Concrete to major projects such as Tuas Port. Carbon dioxide generation in the built environment industry. Source: Carbon Leadership Forum.


Lightweight green aggregate for sustainability in the building and construction industry

Made from recycled waste, they help to lower carbon emissions.

Manufactured by JOE Green Pte Ltd, LiGrA (Lightweight Green Aggregate) sets itself apart from commercially available lightweight aggregates (LWA), as it is exclusively produced from solid waste materials. LiGrA can be produced from broken ceramic tiles, waste glass, coal power plant bottom ash, bauxite residue (red mud), marine clay and other waste containing suitable minerals. LiGrA serves as a sustainable substitute for sand and granite aggregate in concrete, providing a lighter concrete, without compromising its properties.

In addressing the challenge of aggregate procurement, particularly in countries like Singapore, LiGrA presents a sustainable solution, by utilising solid waste to create lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). This approach not only aids in reducing exploitation of natural minerals but also helps reduce landfill space needs.

The large volume of concrete used in construction demands a substantial supply of aggregates, and with abundant solid waste available, the adoption of LiGrA appears feasible and sustainable, with the diversion of waste from incineration and landfills, thus lowering carbon emissions and achieving a greener and lower carbon footprint for the built environment.

However, challenges arise, particularly in addressing potential toxicity of recycled waste. Recent research indicates that the sintering process used in LiGrA production can encapsulate and prevent leaching of heavy metals, thus eliminating the need for additional measures when using LiGrA.

The inception of polycarboxylate ether (PCE) in 1980 revolutionised concrete technology, enabling the production of ultra-high strength lightweight concrete with strengths of up to 80 MPa, surpassing the de-

mand for most construction needs.

It therefore became an attractive material due to its lightness and high thermal insulation. With the increasing demand for LWAC, there is a corresponding surge in demand for LWA. LiGrA, made from recycling waste, stands out as a sustainable solution to meet this rising demand.

Research, since 1980, has demonstrated that LWAC outperforms normal weight concrete (NWC) in terms of durability and strength increase, over time. The superiority of LWAC extends beyond its lightness and thermal insulation, making it a more favorable construction material than NWC. The availability of highstrength LWAC prompted a revision of the European Standards for reinforced concrete design (EUROCODE

2) to include reinforced LWAC for structural purposes.

LiGrA’s applications extend to the production of floating concrete, addressing challenges such as land scarcity and rising sea levels. In floating structures, LWAC proves superior in buoyancy and durability compared to NWC, steel and even HDPE. As the world leans towards building structures on water bodies, LiGrA emerges as a promising material for various floating applications, including solar cell floaters, barges, pontoons, jetties, resorts and islands.

Another novelty is incorporating fines of LiGrA into plastic or resins to reduce cost, increase thermal insulation and reduce weight. The application of the Plastic LiGrA composite is only limited by one’s imagination.

The use of lightweight aggregate concrete enabled the construction of the long, main span of the Nordhordlands Bridge in Norway, while its use for the pontoons ensured their buoyancy. The Gramata Fordea factory in Johor produces Lightweight Green Aggregate from solid waste.

Make the difference, one bag after another: A Mapei Sustainability Project

A pilot project is underway to salvage paper bags at the end of their life cycle.

Sustainability at Mapei is reflected not only in the great work that the Research & Development department is doing to optimise products with increasingly low environmental impact, while maintaining high quality and durability, but also in the packaging of the products themselves.

In recent years, we have been working on replacing virgin plastic with recycled plastic, as in the case of the Mapei wall coatings range

which is now packed in drums certified with the ‘plastic second life’ eco-label.

With circularity in mind, we are also carrying out numerous studies into the end-of-life of our products and packaging.

Headquartered in Italy, Mapei is among the world’s leading manufacturers of chemical products for the building and construction industry.

For the past few years, all multi-

layer packaging (comprising paper, PE middle ply, and paper) of powdered products has been analysed, in accordance with Italian standard UNI 11743 and the actual recyclability has been assessed using the Aticelca 501 evaluation system.

Aticelca is the Italian Association that brings together technicians and experts working in the paper industry. The UNI standard analyses both process parameters (pulping, coarse waste, flakes and adhesive particles

PAPER MILL NEW PACKAGING USE THE PRODUCTS KEEP THE BAG RETURN TO THE RETAILER Paper packaging waste (amongst the most abundant in Europe) is recovered rather than lost with circularity in mind.

below 2.0 mm) and product quality (sheet formation and optical non-homogeneities).

In accordance with this standard, paper packaging is treated as it would be in a paper mill. The ensuing result is then assessed to ensure every aspect of the packaging, at the end of its life cycle (i.e. emptied of any dust it might contain), is compatible with current recycling processes and can guarantee a sufficient yield in terms of recovered fibres, to make it useful for making new paper.

A virtuous example of circularity

All of Mapei multilayer packaging was found to be class A and B, i.e. ‘recyclable paper’, according to the Aticelca classification, producing yields of up to 90% and 80%, respectively, as well as incorporating a very low content, in terms of glue and other substances that might disrupt recycling.

Unfortunately, this kind of packaging is not salvaged yet, which is why the paper industry is deprived of many tonnes of material that could be recycled into new packaging and paper products. Multilayer bags are rarely disposed of properly. Very often, they are just dumped in with the undifferentiated waste.

So, after being contacted by one of the most virtuous paper mills in

Northern Italy, Cartiere SACI, we started to think about a way of retrieving packaging that was classified as recyclable. This immediately turned out to be an uphill challenge. A third party had to be found that could act as a collection centre for the packaging. So, with the help of several Mapei SpA’s departments, i.e. Sales, Purchasing, Research & Development, and Packaging, we managed to come up with a solution.

We decided to join the REC Consortium (Recupero Edilizia Circolare), a project organised by FEDERCOMATED (the Italian National Federation of Building Material Retailers). This is the first consortium of building material retailers for the collection of building / demolition waste.

The REC consortium brings together building material retailers interested in promoting the recovery of construction & demolition (C&D) waste. Consortium retailers can set up dedicated areas called Preliminary Collection Centres, where they collect waste based on simplified ‘Temporary Storage’ procedures.

With circularity in mind, this ensures that the waste (amongst the most abundant in Europe) is recovered, rather than lost. Moreover, this project also means lots of the

An award for the eco-design of packaging

For the fourth year running, Mapei has been awarded a prize in the Ecopack competition, organised by CONAI in the field of ecodesign.

CONAI, the National Packaging Consortium, is a private non-profit consortium with a membership of more than 750,000 companies that produce or use packaging. Since 2014, it has been awarding prizes to Italian companies that have adapted their packaging to

make it more sustainable and reduce its impact on the environment.

Mapei entered the competition, presenting two best practices:

• Replacing pallet packaging sheets made of 100% virgin LDPE polymer with sheets made of 40% LDPE and 60% PCR (second life plastic).

• Replacing IBCs (intermediate bulk containers) made of 100% virgin HDPE polyethylene for holding liquids, with containers

retailers’ customers do not have to travel as far in their lorries – to the benefit of the environment.

As in the case of C&D waste, we have decided to use the same collection method for end-of-life multilayer packaging. This kind of packaging, recovered from distributors belonging to the REC consortium, will then be sorted in collection centres and sent off to the paper mill for recycling.

Thanks to cooperation along the entire chain involving the key players of the sector (REC consortium, Cartiere SACI, Assocarta, Comieco, Assografici and Gipsac which is the Group of Italian manufacturers of paper packaging), we are currently launching a pilot project for the recovery of end-of-life packaging.

Once the project is launched, we will monitor the quantities of packaging destined for recycling. The hope is to extend this virtuous example of circularity and cooperation along the supply chain right across Italy, and later on, right across other countries.

made of 30% recycled polyethylene.

Mapei’s entry and those from other companies were analysed using the CONAI EcoTool which allows the effects of eco-design operations implemented by companies on packaging to be calculated, based on a simplified analysis of the entire life cycle, by means of a before-after comparison, in terms of water and energy savings and reduction of CO₂ emissions.

editorial feature is based on an article from Realtà MAPEI INTERNATIONAL ISSUE 96. Image by Mapei.

Towards achieving net-zero emissions

Bruno Forissier, CEO of Veolia South East Asia, a leader in the provision of water, waste and energy solutions, answers a few questions.

Q: Singapore has committed to achieve ‘net zero emissions by 2050’. In your opinion, how does this affect industrial activity in Singapore?

A: The transition to net zero emissions in Singapore will have a significant impact on industrial activity. This transition will require a shift to cleaner and renewable energy sources, affecting industries reliant on fossil fuels. Singapore is taking the lead regionally on carbon pricing mechanisms and has introduced a Carbon Tax.

With an increase of rate from SGD 25 per tonne of emissions in 2024 to SGD 45 per tonne in 2026, the carbon tax will accelerate the need for decarbonisation of the industries. Industries can reduce carbon emissions with energy-efficient methods such as recovered heating, heat pumps and electric heating, as well as switching to renewable energy when possible.

Q: How does Veolia contribute to this decarbonisation commitment?

A: Veolia’s hazardous waste treatment plant in Tuas View Circuit contributes to decarbonisation efforts by incorporating energy recovery. While the primary purpose of these facilities is to safely treat hazardous waste, they can also generate energy as a byproduct of the treatment process. This energy can be used to power the facility itself displacing the need for energy from conventional fossil fuel sources.

Veolia is also currently supporting industrial clients in Singapore regarding their on-site water and wastewater management, with the aim to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water treatment processes.

Veolia is committed to innovation and this enables us to deploy the latest technologies and solutions for our clients. For instance, we have implemented carbon capture technology in India which allows us to capture 5 tonnes of CO2 per day from the blast furnace of a steel mill for reuse on site.

Veolia is capable of supporting our clients in the decarbonisation of Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions. This will be an ongoing journey as around 50% of the solutions to achieve net zero already exist while the other 50% remains to be invented. Veolia contributes to taking action today while continuously developing solutions for the future.

Q: What are the immediate hurdles a corporation encounters when beginning the process of decarbonisation?

A: Veolia faced the same challenges as every industrial player – a need for comprehensive data on opera-

tions to calculate the extent of carbon emissions as well as drafting a roadmap that includes pragmatic and workable solutions in the short term and potential future development for the long term.

Committed to working tirelessly to support our customers in their ecological transformation, Veolia is also acting to reduce our own environmental footprint by intensifying our efforts towards Net Zero Carbon by 2050.

In our journey in decarbonisation, we have developed the ‘Hubgrade Carbon Footprint’ tool. This tool has proven to be highly effective, and we are now offering it to our industrial clients. By utilising the Hubgrade Carbon Footprint tool, our clients can reduce their emissions by up to 80%. It provides a comprehensive mapping of a site footprint and includes a portfolio of 100 water, waste and energy solutions for decarbonisation, de-pollution, resource saving and regeneration.

While the primary purpose of hazardous waste treatment facilities is to safely treat the hazardous waste, they can also generate energy as a byproduct of the treatment process. Mr Bruno Forissier

Setting sail towards net-zero

The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) is raising ambition to accelerate decarbonisation on all fronts.

Climate change has significant implications for the shipping industry.

As a low-lying island nation, Singapore is particularly susceptible to rising sea levels which pose a threat to coastal areas and infrastructure. Urgent action is crucial to safeguard the environment as well as protect the well-being and livelihoods of current and future generations.

As the steward of the country’s global hub port and international maritime centre, the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) plays a pivotal role in maritime decarbonisation at three levels.

International Collaborations

Internationally, MPA collaborates with Member States of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to shape global measures to achieve net-zero emissions by around 2050. MPA is also working with governments and port authorities to align efforts across stakeholders in the value chain, such as establishing Green and Digital Shipping Corridors with international partners to

facilitate the transition to low- and zero-carbon fuels.

Maritime Singapore

To support the decarbonisationof Maritime Singapore, MPA is accelerating efforts with industry and research partners to trial and pilot low- and zero-carbon fuels. This includes developing fuel and bunkering standards and building the supply chain and infrastructure for bunkering such fuels.

MPA is also leading the electrification of the domestic harbour craft sector, which includes coalescing research and technical know-how for a new, greener generation of harbour craft, and establishing the charging infrastructure masterplan for electric harbour craft. Moreover, MPA is spearheading initiatives with industry and unions to equip the Maritime Singapore workforce with the necessary skills for the green transition.

Embracing Sustainability

As an organisation, MPA is commit-

ted to achieve the public sector’s target to peak emissions around 2025 and achieve net-zero emissions by 2045 under the GreenGov. SG initiative. MPA is optimising the deployment of operational assets and exploring the use of biofuels and renewables to reduce emissions. Additionally, MPA is developing a renewable energy generation masterplan which includes harnessing a combination of solar, wind and tidal sources.

MPA is actively fostering a sustainability culture within the organisation through various communications, events and training, to instil eco mindsets and habits in staff.

Addressing the impact of climate change in the maritime sector requires collective commitment and innovation. It is thus imperative for all stakeholders to collaborate and take decisive steps towards a greener and more resilient future.

Together, we can make a meaningful difference in safeguarding our environment for generations to come.

The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) has selected the Pyxis Energy Pte Ltd, Pyxis Maritime Pte Ltd and SP Mobility Pte Ltd partnership, Seatrium O&G (International) Pte Ltd, and Yinson Electric Pte Ltd, for their vessel charging concepts to be piloted in Singapore.

A sustainable smart port

The state-of-the-art Tuas Port was officially opened in 2022. When completed in the 2040s, Tuas Port will be the largest automated container terminal in the world, powered by smart technology and green energy, with an annual handling capacity of 65 million TEUs.

Automated fully electric equipment and integrated operations systems are deployed to operate this next generation smart and green port. Plying the yard are automated guided vehicles powered by electricity in place of less environmentally friendly manned trucks.

Tuas’s berth and yard are built using green concrete, a PSA standard in civil construction, saving an estimated 1.4 million tonnes CO2e when completed.

Beyond handling containers, Tuas Port is envisaged to be a key node of a wider supply chain ecosystem that links future industries and their supply chains physically and digitally. Proximity and partnerships with synergistic industries will complement the build-up of cargo solutions. PSA Singapore’s vision is to form a holistic ecosystem that will bring goods anywhere in the world faster and more reliably.

Driven by a purpose and com-

mitment towards sustainable value creation, PSA Singapore’s decarbonisation efforts cover the entire value chain, and the targets that have been set to reduce emissions are aligned with Singapore’s climate ambitions. PSA Singapore will reduce its port greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 50% by 2030, against a 2019 baseline, and achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.

Alongside the official opening of Tuas Port, a key milestone in PSA’s sustainability journey was the completion of Tuas Maintenance Base which received the BCA Green Mark Platinum for Super Low Energy – a first in PSA.

With adoption of innovative technologies like Building Applied Photovoltaics (BaPV), Enhanced Passive Displacement Cooling (EDPC), hybrid evaporative cooling, thermal breaks and the use of a smart building management system for control optimisation, it allows the building to achieve a higher level of energy efficiency.

The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) has verified that the building achieved a stellar performance of more than 57% in energy savings.

The Tuas Maintenance Base has

won several prestigious awards, with the two most recent awards being the Institution of Engineers, Singapore (IES) Sustainability Award given out at the World Engineer’s Summit 2023, and the ASEAN Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award presented during the 41st Conference of the ASEAN Federation of Engineering Organisations.

These awards acknowledge PSA’s achievements in engineering projects and initiatives that promote sustainability, not just within Singapore but in the ASEAN region as well.

PSA Singapore also implements many other initiatives to reduce the carbon footprint and promote environmental responsibility, such as the electrification of port equipment, the use of alternative fuels, and the adoption of digital technologies to optimise operational efficiency and reduce waste.

PSA Singapore’s sustainability efforts are not limited to environmental aspects alone. A strong emphasis is placed on the social dimensions of sustainability – where green thinking is a key part of the company culture and ensuring that all operations contribute positively to neighbouring communities.

PSA Singapore operates the world’s largest transhipment hub. Tuas Port was officially opened in 2022. When completed in the 2040s, it will be the largest automated container terminal in the world, powered by smart technology and green energy.

Temasek Polytechnic’s progressive strides towards a sustainable future

Achieving the objective through diverse initiatives.


As we navigate the complexities of the 21st century, it is increasingly evident that innovation and sustainability are not just buzzwords. Temasek Polytechnic (TP) exemplifies sustainability through its diverse initiatives that merge technological advancement with environmental consciousness.


TP’s integrated approach to sustainability is based on the understanding that the challenges we face require diverse solutions. TP has established key partnerships with organisations to navigate and walk with companies on their sustainability journeys – providing green skills training and working on solutions. We hope to uplift and assist the wider industry and community more effectively.


In April 2023, TP introduced ‘Sustainability & Climate Action’ into

our Pre-employment & Training (PET) curriculum. A compulsory subject for all TP students, it covers regional and global practices and explores solutions through emerging technologies.

Through the subject, TP students gain cross-sectoral skills in life cy-

cle analysis and sustainable design, plus specialised training in areas like sustainable finance, green building and architecture, and green software principles.

The PET student experience is complemented by firsthand training in facilities like the TP Advanced

Mr Wallace Lim TP has adopted an integrated approach to sustainability. Student experience is complemented by firsthand training in facilities like the TP Advanced Manufacturing Centre.

plies the understanding of human behaviour.

Lithium-ion battery life extension and recycling

Manufacturing Centre and Chemical Pilot Plant, enhancing their proficiency in sustainability.

TP currently provides over 54 Continuing Education & Training (CET) courses across various sustainability areas. Our CET catalogue includes Specialist Diploma programmes in key areas such as Sustainable Aquaculture, Energy Management, Sustainable Fashion, Water Technology, Built Environment, and Sustainable Reporting. These CET courses reflect TP’s commitment to helping career professionals and practitioners of these crucial sustainability sectors in their lifelong learning journey.


TP’s focus on integrating technology, education, and community involvement demonstrates that sustainability is not a one-dimensional challenge but a multifaceted opportunity. TP blends innovation and strategic partnership, and ap-

TP’s Clean Energy Research Centre achieved significant advancements in lithium-ion battery recycling. A novel recycling process, operating under ambient conditions without additional chemicals or secondary waste, cuts costs by 30% to 40% and generates hydrogen as a by-product. Projects like these work towards reducing our ecological footprint and transitioning to cleaner energy sources.

Cleaning service management

TP’s recent project introduces an IoT-based Cleaning Service Management System, transforming traditional cleaning methods. This system, particularly effective in commercial building maintenance like smart toilet cleaning, optimises resource use and boosts productivity, embodying a tech-driven, sustainable approach towards environmental management.

Eco-Park Bench initiative

In collaboration with Tampines Town Council, the Centre for Urban Sustainability at TP has manufactured an Eco-Park Bench using recycled plastic waste and cement-based materials. Using recycled plastic waste to create functional park benches, TP seamlessly integrates sustainability into urban living.

With a vision to furnish every local park and garden with these benches within five years, the Tampines Town Council is expanding its recycling efforts to include educational institutions in the vicinity to foster a community-driven approach to sustainability. Such initiatives empower communities, demonstrating that everyone’s efforts contribute to a larger environmental goal.

Promoting sustainability through behavioural science

Additionally, TP uses behavioural science to advance sustainability through the Centre for Applied Behavioural Sciences (CABS) at TP. In collaboration with the National Environment Agency (NEA), CABS studies recycling behaviours to develop strategies encouraging eco-friendly habits, particularly among youth. CABS’ collaborations with the hospitality industry also aim to implement behavioural nudges, promoting sustainability among staff and guests, thus minimising environmental impacts.

TP’s commitment to sustainability is not just about technological advancements. It is about building a community where everyone participates in creating a lasting, positive impact on the environment. We invite you to join us in this endeavour.

Ready to take the next step with us? Connect with us at

TP offers Specialist Diploma programmes in key areas such as Sustainable Fashion. TP uses behavioural science to advance sustainability. The Centre for Urban Sustainability at TP has manufactured park benches using recycled plastic waste and cement-based materials.

The role of higher education in a sustainable future

Empowering minds through undergraduate and postgraduate education, while elevating professionals through upskilling.

The challenge posed by climate change is massive. According to the United Nations Environment Programme’s 2023 Emissions Gap Report, the predicted 2030 greenhouse gas emissions must fall by 42% to limit temperature rise to 1.5 °C compared to pre-industrial levels.

It is quite evident that, while it is important to educate our youths on sustainability, we cannot wait for undergraduate education to develop our sustainability professionals of tomorrow. Rather, we need postgraduate and continuing education to upskill our working professionals of today, especially those who are far enough along in their careers to provide the leadership that is needed for organisation-wide sustainability transformation and to effect meaningful change.

This would be consistent with a greater proportion of job roles being greening roles rather than green roles. LinkedIn reported that only 1% of global hires in 2021 are green

jobs, which it defines as occupations that demand extensive knowledge of green skills, whereas greening jobs and greening potential jobs, which it defines as those that typically require some level of green skills, collectively account for 49% of hires.

A challenge of this magnitude also calls for interdisciplinary solutions that transcend functional and sectoral boundaries. The multifaceted nature of climate change also demands holistic solutions that address both technical and business considerations. Business executives should have a stronger understanding of climate science and life cycle assessment approaches, while technical executives should better appreciate the managerial and economic implications of potential technologies.

It is also important that sustainability education be highly contextualised to a country’s activities in terms of their contribution to GDP and greenhouse gas emissions. As

an example of the latter, the built environment features prominently in land-scarce Singapore, with buildings accounting for 12.6% of 2021 secondary greenhouse gas emissions, according to the country’s National Climate Change Secretariat.

Notably, the 2022 Skills Demand for the Future Economy Report finds that demand for green skills in facilities management has increased by 23 times over the last four years.

Sustainability professionals will need to acquire a myriad of new skills to help their organisations mitigate and adapt to the physical and transition risks of climate change, ranging from energy management and audit, and renewable energy systems to sustainability reporting and the circular economy. Together with the fast-evolving nature of sustainability, strong collaboration between schools within institutions of higher learning and, indeed, between institutions of higher learning is likely to be more important than ever.

Greening skills are in high demand.

Supporting the nation’s sustainable development plans

Through an academic curriculum and R&D projects, the Singapore Institute of Technology (SIT) is equipping students, researchers and industry professionals with the knowledge skillsets, and infrastructure to find solutions to the challenges of sustainable development.

Associate Professor Ethan Chong, Head of Sustainability (Education & Research), Provost Office, Singapore Institute of Technology, explains.

The Singapore Engineer (TSE): Could you elaborate on the academic programmes offered by SIT that demonstrate its commitment to developing sustainability talent?

Associate Professor Ethan Chong (EC): With the growing urgency in finding solutions for sustainability issues, SIT is committed to developing a sustainability talent pipeline through its innovative and holistic approach to curriculum design and experiential learning.

In SIT, a baseline sustainability education is compulsory for all undergraduates of SIT and joint-degree programmes. A micro-module is designed to introduce students to key concepts of sustainability, including the definition, importance and multi-disciplinary nature of sustainable development. The module also serves to motivate young minds and initiate their actions. Students will get a chance to learn the key challenges in Singapore and benefit from industry insiders sharing their experiences and highlighting the needs of the industry.

Sustainability principles are also taught to and applied by students across disciplines. This is to foster a deeper understanding of the environmental, social and economic considerations in various domains. For example, SIT offers undergraduate and postgraduate degree programmes in Sustainable Built Environment and Electrical Power Engineering (EPE).

The former includes modules on renewable energy for building technologies and their applications, as

well as building energy simulations and assessments. The latter covers areas such as renewable energy systems, smart grids, transportation electrification, industry automation and applications. The programmes are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills needed to design and implement sustainable solutions.

At the undergraduate level, for students who want to deepen their knowledge in sustainability, SIT offers a Minor in Environmental Sustainability (MES) for a range of programmes. The Minor includes discipline-specific modules as well as sustainability core modules which cover a variety of topics such as life cycle assessment, sustainability re-

Associate Professor Ethan Chong, Head of Sustainability for Education and Research at SIT, conducting a sustainability class for working professionals. Image: Ethan Chong. Sci Dpl Glenn S Banaguas, renowned scientist, diplomat and one of the leading experts on the environment, climate change and disaster risks in Asia, sharing his experience on sustainability with SIT students. Image: SIT/Yeap Lay Huay.

porting and the circular economy.

These core modules impart contents that are horizontally applicable to all sectors, providing learners with the fundamentals to address different domain-specific sustainability challenges. Students will go through deeper learning through applying their acquired sustainability knowledge and skillsets in a project module specially curated with the industry. In addition, students taking the MES will be given opportunities to participate in sustainability activities such as volunteering for campaigns.

TSE: Do students have opportunities to gain exposure to actual industry challenges?

EC: SIT works with industry partners such as ENGIE and Singapore Power (SP) to train sustainability talent. For instance, the District Cooling System (DCS) within SIT’s new Punggol Campus, which will provide chilled water for air-conditioning throughout the campus while reducing the carbon footprint, is designed and built by ENGIE. The DCS facility will be a teaching and training ground for students to learn about DCS and aspects of maintenance and energy efficiency in real-world conditions. Through SIT’s collaboration with SP, the EPE faculty will be training students on smart grid technologies by leveraging the Multi-Energy Microgrid (MEMG). As a result, students undergoing Pre-Employment Training (PET) or Continuing Education Training (CET) can pick up much-needed skills such as data-driven optimisation, DCS decarbonisation and predictive maintenance learning, and conceptualisation of distributed energy systems.

TSE: How is SIT assisting industry professionals to keep abreast of new developments in the area of sustainability?

EC: SIT offers upskilling opportunities to empower professionals who are keen to explore the latest sustainability developments, best practices and technologies in their specific areas (such as Energy Efficiency

Design, Audit and Analysis, Energy Sustainability, Maritime Decarbonisation etc) and horizontal capabilities such as sustainability reporting.

For instance, we have the Energy Efficiency Upskilling programme covering effective energy management and sustainability practices, which are critical for industrial organisations to reduce operation costs, comply with regulatory requirements and mitigate environmental impact to meet global energy sustainability and environmental challenges. Some of the key skills that would be gained via the course include the ability to identify energy-saving opportunities and set targets.

We also run a course titled ‘Introduction to Sustainability for Businesses’. This course, which is developed in collaboration with ASME (Association of Small & Medium Enterprises), will address key questions and guide learners on actions for positive impacts on the environment and their business. The application-oriented course brings participants through a process of identifying potential risks and opportunities that come with their company’s transition to the green economy.

TSE: Will SIT be introducing new academic programmes relating to sustainability?

EC: SIT is launching an Agritech and Aquaculture Specialisation, under the BEng (Hons) in Sustainable Built Environment (SBE) programme in Academic Year 2024. This is in anticipation of the transformation in the agri-food sector and the growing global demand for green talent. The new specialisation will cover a wide range of topics, including Agritech systems and Aquaculture economics.

With this new specialisation, the SBE degree programme will have three distinct specialisation baskets – Integrated Facilities Management, Green Building Design, and Agritech and Aquaculture.

SIT is also launching a new Specialist Certificate in Environmental Sustainability Measurement and Management programme, tailored for working professionals, to support the industry’s growing sustain-

ability reporting and management needs.

The inaugural intake for the Specialist Certificate starts in the Academic Year 2024. The course provides learners with a comprehensive understanding of sustainability, by presenting various approaches to managing and advancing sustainability. This includes circularity, adaptation, mitigation, financing and policymaking. Learners will develop skillsets in quantifying, articulating and managing environmental sustainability.

TSE: How will SIT’s upcoming Punggol campus serve as a living laboratory for sustainability research?

EC: Our students will gain exposure to the unique infrastructure of the Punggol campus, with its several innovative features, whilst also enabling government agencies, industry and our ‘SITizens’ to deploy and test-bed solutions, before scaling them up for national adoption.

The DCS at SIT’s new campus, which will be designed and built by ENGIE, as mentioned earlier, will provide training for our PET and CET students to learn about DCS and introduce aspects of maintenance and energy efficiency, as well as opportunities for them to work on projects such as DCS digital twins.

A Passive Displacement Ventilation (PDV) system, an innovative cooling system that uses natural convection instead of mechanical

Associate Professor An Hui, Programme Leader for the SBE degree programme (far left), shares about the setup of the UrbanMetabolic Farming-Module, a novel farming method that utilises unused spaces to grow vegetables, to visitors at SIT@Dover. Image: SIT/Lim Wei Jun.

fans, will be implemented in the SIT Punggol Campus. The PDV system was co-developed by a research team from SIT, in collaboration with Er. Neo Poh Hong from Shinhan Tech-Engineering Pte Ltd and Mr George Ng from MET Engineering Pte Ltd. It is estimated that the PDV system is able to lower energy consumption by 20% compared to traditional air-conditioning systems.

Further, the SIT Punggol Campus will be powered by the Internet of Things (IoT) and have an Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) that controls campus-wide systems such as lighting, lifts and security.

The IBMS is supported by a campus-wide network of over 20,000 sensors that provide real-time data on ambient temperature, light and human presence to the IBMS which will use it to optimise energy usage throughout the campus. This data will also offer opportunities for students and partners to develop and implement solutions to enhance campus experience and workspace efficiency.

Also, SIT has partnered with Singapore Power (SP) to build the first Multi-Energy Microgrid (MEMG) on campus in Southeast Asia, which will also be the largest private MEMG in Singapore. It can integrate electricity from the national grid, renewable sources and energy storage in a unified smart energy network, to support applied learning and applied research. The MEMG will have approximately 10,000 m2 of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. These will provide more than 2000 MWh of electricity annually, meeting about 4% of the total energy needs of the campus.

TSE: What are some of the other sustainability-related research initiatives undertaken by SIT?

EC: SIT and the National Environment Agency (NEA) have launched the Energy Efficiency Technology Centre (EETC) at SIT to support local Small & Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in energy assessment and energy efficiencyrelated applied research projects, and in upskilling industry professionals in industrial energy efficiency.


Arup Singapore Pte Ltd ––––––––––––––––––– Page 31

ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge –––– Page 19

Atlas Copco (South-East Asia) –––––– Inside Front Cover Pte Ltd

Azbil Corporation Singapore Branch ––––––––– Page 43

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BIM Engineering & ––––––––––––– Page Facing Inside Construction Pte Ltd Front Cover

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Ecomax Solutions Private Limited –––––––––––– Page 41

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ENGIE South East Asia –––––––––––––––––––––Page 09

GEA Westfalia Separator (SEA) Pte Ltd ––––––– Page 03

Glaxo Wellcome Manufacturing –––––––––––– Page 02 Pte Ltd (GSK)

GreenScience Technologies (S) Pte Ltd ––––––– Page 49

Honeywell Pte Ltd ––––––––––––––––––––––– Page 13

IES Academy ––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Page 05


SIT is also working with partners to explore the testing of EVs on the grid, including Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging and the potential effects on EV batteries. This is in line with the government’s plans to electrify our transport system.

And with the objective of developing foods for the future, SIT and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) have secured funding to create a first-in-Asia testbed platform for researching plant-based proteins.

IES Chartered Engineer ––––––––––––––––––– Page 04

JOE Green Marketing Pte Ltd –––– Outside Back Cover

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Mapei Far East Pte Ltd –––––––––––––––––––– Page 15

Maritime and Port Authority –––––––––––––– Page 59 of Singapore

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NS BlueScope Lysaght Singapore Pte Ltd ––––– Page 21

Pan-United Concrete Pte Ltd –––––– Inside Back Cover

PSA Corporation Limited –––––––––––––––––– Page 61

Samwoh Corporation Pte Ltd –––––––––––––– Page 51

SCx Solutions Pte Ltd –––––––––––– Page Facing Inside Back Cover

Signify Singapore Pte Ltd –––––––––––––––––– Page 35

Singapore Institute of Technology ––––––––––– Page 71

Singapore University of Social Sciences ––––––– Page 67

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Temasek Polytechnic ––––––––––––– Pages 62 and 63

Veolia Energy Asia Pte Ltd ––––––––––––––––– Page 57

left, EETC team members Abid Ali, Nur Umairah Binte Omar and Professor Lock Kai Sang analysing data collected from an ultrasonic flowmeter. Image: Keng Photography/Tan Eng Keng.
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