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International DesignCamp2012 DESIGNING POSITIVE BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE Pilots | Talks | Projects | Cases


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

DesignCamp2012 Nudge – Designing Positive Behavioural Change First edition, first printing 2013 Editor in Chief: Head of Culture and Communication Mette Strømgaard Dalby Editor: Marianne Baggesen Hilger Editorial staff: Anette Flinck, Jan Ulrik Saksø Juhl, Katrine Worsøe Kristensen Project Manager Design2innovate: Karsten Bech Project Coordinator DesignCamp2012: Karen Feder Cover and layout: OddFischlein Photos and video: Jonas Drotner Mouritsen Published by Kolding School of Design ISBN: 978-87-90775-42-1 Paper: Munken Print White Printed at: Zeuner Grafisk Copyright: Kolding School of Design Kolding School of Design Aagade 10 DK-6000 Kolding www.dskd.dk Design2innovate www.design2innovate.dk All rights reserved Photographic, mechanical, digital or any other form of reproduction from this book is permitted only in accordance with the agreement between Copy-Dan and the Ministry of Education. Any other usage without the written consent of the publisher is prohibited by applicable Copyright Act. Exceptions to this are extracts for use in reviews and discussions. DesignCamp2012 was organised by Kolding School of Design and Design2innovate in collaboration with the Danish Nudging Network.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Content 07 08

14 16 18 21

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Diversity is the Father of Invention —by Mette Strømgaard Dalby The Campfire Meal Pilots Piloting and the Myth of the Final Presentation —by Cordy Swope Stretching Out To Design Designing New Meal Concepts Design Leads the Way Talks What is Nudge? —by Pelle Guldborg Hansen Innovation with Behaviour in Mind —by Rani Saad A Guide to Insight Generation and Customer Stories —by Marcus Gabrielsson Projects Nutrition and Public Health City, Society and Architecture Education and Play Cases Buffet Serving – a Nightmare of Choices —by Gitte Laub Hansen Nudge Changes Littering Behaviour —by Susanne Brøgger Participants Recipes

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“Experiencing the attitude Kolding School of Design has towards design and how it can be applied to the community is interesting. It seems that they project a lot of optimism. They teach the mindset that you can change things” Julia Davids, Stanford University, USA


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“The DesignCamp is an optimal way of working. It’s not just a conference that you attend and then you go home. Because we work in integrated groups, we get maximum outcome. We’ll be back for the next DesignCamp – for sure” Mads Kyed, Health Coordinator, Kolding Municipality, Social and Health Care Services

Introduction


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Introduction

Diversity is the Father of Invention By Mette Strømgaard Dalby Head of Culture and Communication, Kolding School of Design

’Necessity is the Mother of invention’, they say. But who is the Father? For the fourth year in a row, the Kolding School of Design DesignCamp claims: diversity. This is why companies can benefit greatly from participating in this annual design event.

A lot has been written about innovation: We must live off innovative labour. Schools must teach our children to be innovative and industrious. Companies cannot base their existence on producing and selling yesterday’s commodities and services alone; they must create innovative products. The prerequisite for innovation is cultural and cognitive diversity. In other words, we shouldn’t be too much alike, neither in thinking nor in background. The DesignCamp lives up to this in every way: Hand-picked Danish and international design students, researchers and experts, companies and NGOs, each standing on a burning platform or facing a meta-challenge work alongside each other to come up with the right questions and create solutions to the challenges and problems that have been selected. Still, why should a company invest time in a DesignCamp when everyone knows that dayto-day running and development activities take up plenty of space on the company agenda? Because research shows that small and medium-sized companies need to be challenged on their habitual and innovative thinking alike. On page one of every management book it says that building common values and creating a mutual basis for understanding these are essential in order for a company to be successful. Sometimes this is taken to the

next level in a common code of conduct. Of course, this makes sense; the only downside is that it can create a uniformity which does not promote innovative thinking. Indeed, research from Aarhus University, Business and Social Sciences, shows that employees who think alike tend not to seek external knowledge and expertise but rather to assert each other’s assumptions. Naturally, this is dangerous for a small or medium-sized company which cannot possibly cover all competencies. Thinking that you cannot learn from others got a name of its own in the 1960s: the NIH syndrome. NIH stands for Not Invented Here and basically means that you would rather reinvent the wheel than learn from others. It goes without saying that this is an ineffective and risky strategy. A paradigm example of the NIH syndrome occurred at Kodak when they faced the same transition as everyone else in the business of going from paper to digital photography. The top management at Kodak recognised digital photo technology as being the way forward but the middle managers resisted and today, the result speaks for itself. Due to Kodak’s failure to adjust to the new technological era, the company ended up having to dismiss 80 % of its workers and file for bankruptcy. The fact that the employees were not susceptible to outside knowledge was one of the reasons why the company was not able to switch over in time.

The annual DesignCamp isn’t likely to save companies from bankruptcy. However, we can offer anything but uniformity. Indeed, a large part of the ingredients in the DesignCamp pot are the many different people who each play a part in the innovative solutions that are created to the challenges of the year. To that we add a little bit of spice in the form of expert input, design methodology teaching and encountering other nationalities. Clearly, the more time you spend at the Camp, the more you will gain. And even though we make a great effort to get the DesignCamp the publicity it deserves, this does not mean that we suffer from the Not Invented Here syndrome. On the contrary, we are pleased with the fact that the individual groups present their challenges, suggestions and solutions publically. The ideas must get out there and do the job. We realise that implementing the ideas takes hard work and that the companies are the ones to do it. Hence, our message for small and medium-sized companies is clear: Participating in the DesignCamp isn’t just fun; it’s a really good idea if you want to create an organisation where employees don’t just invent the wheel but openly include outside knowledge and experience.

— Source: Ana Luiza Burcharth, PhD and Assistant Professor, Aarhus University, www.ledelseidag.dk #1/2012

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Camp model

The

Campfire Meal The DesignCamp is internationally recognised for successfully establishing a space for companies, experts and design students to come together and engage in the creation of new concepts. This is our recipe.

The DesignCamp revolves around a current topic that relates to design. It brings together international experts, experienced designers, companies and design students from the World’s leading universities to exchange and develop new knowledge around specific challenges. Different ingredients are mixed together inside an ideal space for creative development where specific challenges that face the partner companies undergo an intense design process facilitated by experienced design teachers. The design process applies methods for collaboration, design methods for gathering and recapitulating knowledge, and methods for ideation and concept development. The international encounter, the unique Danish culture and the creative setting at Kolding School of Design constitute the perfect starting point for innovation. The design process is kindled by a two-day conference and workshop after which the professional designers start their further training programme and design students become immersed in their projects. After two weeks of intense work, the results of the Camp are ready to be presented. And the outcome is multifarious. A number of companies begin working directly with the concepts. New business opportunities appear. Design methods become integrated in the companies. New forms of collaborations emerge. Companies hand-pick students to complete assignments or internships. New knowledge is shared with the rest of the World through articles and via students, and the design profession evolves. Dinner is served!

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“They say ‘you can’t make a cake without breaking eggs’. But we don’t break eggs – we make them! That is what Camp is all about!” Barnabas Wetton, Teacher and Facilitator, Kolding School of Design


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

camp model

INTERNATIONAL DESIGNCAMP THE MODEL

Hot topic Companies and their present challenges Design students from the World’s top universities International experts Professional designers

New thoughts and ideas

Space for development: Creative knowledge institution Experienced design teachers Danish culture The design process

High intensity

Workshop Conference

Project work Further training

New knowledge

Design concepts

New forms of collaboration

DesignCamp Since 2009, the DesignCamp has evolved into an international development platform creating design concepts for its partner companies and new knowledge for the design profession based on global, societal challenges.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“Being able to be in an environment where you could just learn, learn, learn all day long, and meet people from around the world that wanted to be there just as much as I did. I made friends for life, and am better for going on this amazing journey� Bree Galbraith, Emily Carr University, Canada


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“Like an incredible designer Noah’s Ark social experiment – unlike anything you will ever have the chance to experience again” Prianka Sisodiya, Kingston University, Great Britain


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots #1: #2: #3: #4:

Piloting and The Myth of the Final Presentation Stretching Out to Design Designing New Meal Concepts Design Leads the Way

“We have learned so much about what design can do and we will definitely keep on exploring” Mads Kyed, Health Coordinator, Kolding Municipality, Social and Health Care Services

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Pilots


Pilots

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Real Questions and Real Answers

A key element of the DesignCamp is that the student projects link to the real world. The Camp wants to teach students to engage in the surrounding society and also wants to show companies how to apply design processes and design methods to a specific development area. Presented with 24 cases by the collaborating partners of the Camp, 15 groups of students selected one case each that they wanted to work with based on the overall topics of Nutrition and Public Health, City, Society and Architecture, and Education and Play. Each case represents a general societal challenge as well as a specific problem and links directly to one of the collaborating partners. The students worked together in cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary teams and were able to consult and research their partner throughout the duration of the Camp. The partners are free to use the concepts.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots

Piloting and The Myth of the Final Presentation By Cordy Swope Design Strategist and Facilitator, the DesignCamp2012

Cordy Swope, Design Strategist and Facilitator of the DesignCamp, headed the final day piloting workshop. He addresses the challenge that always faces practicing innovators: How do organisations implement the ideas so that they reach the right audiences?

For the fourth DesignCamp in a row, students spent the night before the final presentations as usual – staying up late, putting the finishing touches on their projects for their big presentations and hoping for both adulation and cocktails. And again for the fourth year in a row as usual, managers from sponsoring organisations (both for-profit and non-profit ones) turned up early on the last morning for coffee and fresh Danish bread, to see finished work, network, and maybe find a few crumbs of fresh opportunity for their organisations. For the fourth year in a row as usual, the faculty had the benefit of sleep – along with the duty to acknowledge, critique and elevate the work one last time. However, this year’s final presentations were going to turn out differently.

one useful idea emerges from these sessions.” His comments also reflected my experience as a consultant. The teams of innovation consultants I have managed have emerged often from final presentations with the satisfaction of having delivered a great idea, the hope that the client will „get it“ enough to implement the idea exactly as presented, and the completely understandable urge to celebrate their hard work over beers. In reality, what usually happens all too often, with almost all new ideas is that after the “Final Presentation,” they struggle to get out of the drawer they are filed in, let alone to become implemented. Designers want to create impact with their work. An architect wants to see her design built in the real environment, and not just in models. An industrial designer wants to see millions of mass-produced artifacts of her design. An interaction designer wants similar levels of traffic. Everyone else desires their own versions of impact too. For-profit organisations want to grow and profit. Non-profit organisations want to meaningfully change the world. “Final Presentations” by definition, work against these aspirations. The term offers a false promise that the work is finished. In reality, a “Final Presentation” is merely

a waypoint along a long journey of conversations, negotiations, and iterations between designers, sponsoring organisations and their internal and external stakeholders. That is why, after three years of

“Final Presentations,” this year’s DesignCamp added something new to the end of the program – a piloting workshop. Years ago, during a long project, a somewhat jaded client at BMW explained to me his frustration at doing innovation work, “We spend all day brainstorming, feeling creative and then go home patting ourselves on the back, saying that we have been so innovative today, but in reality we are lucky if even

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The two weeks of “DesignCamp2012: Nudging” had asked the participants and sponsors to answer the question “How might we.....?” (HMW) For example, HMW nudge isolated members of a community to engage with each other? HMW


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots

“The uncreative mind can spot wrong answers, but it takes a very creative mind to spot wrong questions” Antony Jay, British Writer (born 1930)

nudge customers to make healthier choices in fast food environments? The answers were presented, often beautifully, at the end of the two weeks. But instead of patting ourselves on the back at the pub for answering the HMW questions, each team took their ideas (for example a giant picture frame to guide visitors to the city centre of Kolding) and began to ask, “What has to be true for this idea to be actually built and tested?” What has to be true to get backing from the city, from the citizens? Are there other stakeholders, laws and safety issues that must be examined? How will it be manufactured? Answering these questions demand a new phase of work for most of the student projects, which in many cases, the visiting international students would be unable to complete once they returned to their home countries in a few days’ time. However, these questions, and some initial answers to them, quickly brainstormed in the piloting workshop, provided local organisations tremendous value “on Monday morning” when they went back into the office with a solution and a draft of a plan for piloting it. The piloting workshop reflects exactly how ideas are developed in the most innovative corporations and start-ups alike.

The need for a piloting workshop instead of a “Final Presentation” acknowledges an unspoken truth about practicing innovation: it is relatively easy to excite others with

an idea – it can be original, it can solve a burning need, it can be beautifully sketched and presented – however it is exponentially more difficult to get that idea implemented by the organisation so that it reaches the audience it is meant to address. While “How might we?” solves for an audience, “What has to be true?” solves for the organisation. Piloting an idea, or even a small aspect of a new idea asks often for the first time “what has to be true?”

After this year’s final presentations, the students still received adulation over a drink. They earned it. The companies still networked, drank coffee and ate nice bread. What was different was that through piloting, they left with both great solutions and no-nonsense plans for implementing them, and thus the continued possibility of making impact. The final presentation is just the beginning.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots

Stretching Out to Design Office work at Kolding Municipality is sedentary and the employees don’t move enough. The municipality wants to change this and decided to take the challenge to the DesignCamp2012: How can we get employees to sit less and move more during a day of work? Tom Bonamici from Pratt Institute, New York, Tom Even from Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem, Birkir Gudmundsson and Signe Mårbjerg Thomsen, both from Kolding School of Design, had two weeks to come up with a concept that would meet the challenge.

”The most common complaints in the office are stiff shoulders, necks and wrists,” explains Mads Kyed, Health Coordinator at the Health and Social Services Department at Kolding Municipality. And even though, Kolding Municipality has already started a project aiming to make citizens and workers become more active, the DesignCamp presented new possibilities for taking the project further, and the unique way of collaborating with design students across nationalities and disciplines resulted in specific solutions to a sore problem.

Optimal Way of Working With the motto ”Hands up – loosen up” the design team finished two weeks of intense work. And they got the job done. Kolding Municipality was pleased: ”I’m thrilled about it.

I think they’ve made a great job. I can easily see that designers have a different approach, and that is something we can use. I see a great potential for us in the Health Department for working with designers, using nudging” says Tina Sauvr, Health Communicator, Kolding Municipality.

Lo-fi and Easy to Install Based on observations and analyses of the department offices, the design team came up with a different approach but it was not an easy challenge: ”It’s tough, we have to figure out how much we want to challenge the infrastructure of the office. Do we want to say: Oh, everyone has to sit on the floor. That would make people more active, but it would also make people unhappy,” Tom Bonamici explains. By focusing on the specific work processes of a regular workday, the students discovered that the employees hardly ever perform any of the exercises that are recommended by the municipality to prevent pain and stiffness in the neck and shoulders. Mostly because they are embarrassed to stretch in public. So, the team decided to look for areas where the employees can stretch and avoid what they perceive as censorious glances from their colleagues. “The more public the space, the smaller the movement should be, so that they don’t feel silly or don’t feel like they are performing too much,” Tom Bonamici says. The design students identified three stretching areas: at the copy machine, in the bathroom, and in the coffee room and came up with a solution for each of these. A circular crossword puzzle placed on the wall next to the copy machine forcing you to turn your head in different angles in order to read it and write the words. Exercises printed onto the toilet roll allowing you to stretch without being disturbed. And imprints of a hand cut from soft foam material and fixed to the table in the coffee room inviting you to stretch your wrists. ”Our interventions are lo-fi and easy to install, designed to evoke intuitive curiosity that gently promotes a regular stretching routine,” Tom Bonamici says.  

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Seeing the benefits of working with design and designers, Kolding Municipality has decided to integrate design even further in future projects and initiatives. Health Coordinator Mads Kyed says: ”We have learned so much about what design can do and we will definitely keep on exploring.” The DesignCamp has also inspired Kolding Municipality to work with creating results through relations and direct involvement. ”The DesignCamp is an optimal way of

working. It’s not just a conference that you attend and then you go home. Because we work in integrated groups, we get maximum outcome. We’ll be back for the next DesignCamp – for sure,”

Mads Kyed ends.


Pilots

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“We benefitted greatly from the Camp and collaborating with the students on different cases. Working closely with the students and tracking their process all the way to the final concepts is inspirational and educational. We will definitely follow up on some of their ideas� Tina Sauvr, Health Communicator, Kolding Municipality Social and Health Care Services

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots

Designing New Meal Concepts

The convenience food company EasyFood has a continuous goal of coming up with new concepts and selling take away food for busy people who value quality. As one of the partners of the DesignCamp2012, the company was able to work on these objectives with design students from across the World; and the results greatly exceeded their expectations. Not only did the company get suggestions for how to meet a number of challenges, they became so inspired by other Camp concepts that they ended up further developing one of them.

EasyFood came to the DesignCamp wanting to uncover a paradoxical behaviour among consumers. Despite the fact that most people have the intention of leading a healthy life, few actually do. “The customers want wholewheat alternatives, but it is not what they buy,” says Kirsten Møller Jensen, Innovation Manager at EasyFood. At petrol stations many people take the easy way out and satisfy their hunger with an unhealthy meal. EasyFood wants to change this. ”We want to change the behaviour of people buying unhealthy food at petrol stations. Often, people already know what they want to buy when they arrive at the petrol station. Even if a healthier alternative is available, people still tend to buy the unhealthy product. The challenge is to change the behaviour of people before they enter the shop,” says Kirsten Møller Jensen.

Power Man Taking a specific target group, the trucker, as their point of departure, the design group that worked with EasyFood, Sophie Abboud from London College of Fashion, Angelica Fontana from Tongji University and Politecnico de Milano, Nina Wasland and Melle Zijlstra both from Kolding School of Design, launched the concept ”Refuel Yourself”. They invented “Søren” and his best friend, ”the truck”, and discovered that the best way to change Søren’s behaviour towards a healthier way of living would be to make him associate the selection of foods with something powerful and manly – just like himself. It is not in relation to the choice itself that Søren ends up eating healthily but rather, his behaviour is determined by the association of something powerful. Thus, the solution was to create a counterpart to the conventional burger: the Power Burger. The Power Burger is bigger and looks like your regular, unhealthy burger but actually is not. After a few months of eating the Power Burger and unconsciously going for the nutritious alternative, Søren will start feeling more healthy. EasyFood was excited about the project from the start:

”I’m really impressed by the students’ dedication and how much they have accomplished in the short period of time they have had to solve the problem. I’m sure, that we want to present these cases to some of our customers to show them that this is also a way of making development”, says Kirsten Møller Jensen. Since the DesignCamp, EasyFood has presented the concept to the Statoil Group hoping that it will add to their assignments for Statoil.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Pilots

”I believe that designers make innovation three-dimensional. They add an extra dimension which regular developers don’t. As a company we learned how to integrate height and depth into our assignments” Kirsten Møller Jensen, Innovation Manager, EasyFood A/S

Refuel Yourself

Take Care of Your Friends Originally, the design concept ”Play On” was developed in collaboration with Kolding Municipality. However, EasyFood was so excited by the project that they decided to adopt it and work to launch it. The objective of the project is to change the food culture in sports halls and make athletes eat healthily after sports. In their research, the design group, Sari Dayan from Bezalel Academy of Art & Design, Ai Xi from Tongji University, Heike Hilpert and Lars Majlund Mørk both from Kolding School of Design, focused on sustaining the team spirit after sports by creating a healthy food product that you can share with friends. Using the motto: ”Sharing a cup of health”, they hope to change the behaviour of the athletes. ”We want to make a product where you buy healthily and bring food to your team and friends”, the design group says. EasyFood hopes to continue working with one of the design students in the future. Kirsten Møller Jensen says: ”We’ve come quite a way and will probably offer an internship to one of the students so he can develop the concept further.” Yes Please, To Next Year’s DesignCamp Before the DesignCamp, EasyFood was already familiar with how to incorporate design processes in business development. Still, the DesignCamp revealed new ways of how to think design. ”I believe that designers make innovation three-dimensional. They add an extra dimension which regular developers don’t. As a company we learned how to integrate height and depth into our assignments,” says Kirsten Møller Jensen and adds that EasyFood will definitely be part of next year’s DesignCamp.

Play On

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

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Pilots


Pilots

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Design Leads the Way Abandoned shops, clearance sales and closed doors are not exactly an invitation to enjoy the city streets; on the contrary. Often, visitors who are not familiar with Kolding must ask directions in the area surrounding the train and bus station because they cannot find the way to the city centre. Simple measures can change this.

Design City Kolding is a completely new part of town based on sustainability, new forms of collaboration and innovation through design. However, the area is cut off from the inner city by the busy road Søndre Ringvej. Therefore, the ambition is to merge Design City with the Kolding centre in order to create synergy between city life and the new campus area surrounding the University of Southern Denmark and Kolding School of Design. ”Long story short, the goal is to activate the passive waiting time and create an active storytelling.” This was the challenge that Design City presented to the young design students at the DesignCamp. Kolding Municipality also wants to create more flow and city pulse. ”There is a common perception that the city centre is dying, that the shops are empty, that there is not enough activity,” says Malene Leerberg from the Kolding Municipality City and Development Department. The common wish for more synergy has resulted in a post-Camp collaboration between Design City and Kolding Municipality. By including several of the DesignCamp results they are now focusing on a joint approach to the problems and solutions of Kolding city life. Spaces of Opportunity Outsiders often have to ask directions when they arrive at the Kolding train and bus station because the way to the centre is not clear. With ”Gems of Kolding” the design group, comprising Lisa Langmantel from Pforzheim University, Solveig Johannessen from Emily Carr University, Jacqueline De Abrew and Giuseppe Formica, both from Kolding School of Design, aims to draw people towards the city centre using simple measures. ”By using graphic gems to highlight available spaces, we aim to nudge people into seeing them as spaces of opportunity rather than unused spaces. On each gem there will be a link to a website which will enable people to connect to a network with incentives encouraging them to establish businesses here,” the students say. Specifically, they created orange, diamond-shaped stickers and large picture frames as recurring and hard-to-miss motifs in the townscape. The group encourages Kolding Municipality and local estate agents to engage in a proactive collaboration. ”A network of collaboration and incentives will enable people to get involved,” the students claim.

Choosing a Different Direction ”Box City” applies a similar approach to way-finding, namely that of graphic elements in the townscape. ”We’ve created a way-finding experience using geometric perspective localised paintings”, explains the design group comprising Julia Davids from Stanford University, Svabu Kohli from Srishti School of Art, Christina Melchior Juhl from Kolding School of Design/ University of Southern Denmark and Olav Kristoffer Markussen Johannessen from Kolding School of Design. If you go in the right direction, you will experience geometrical elements in the shape of cubes throughout the townscape which together form a pathway to the Design City. The idea is for the cubes to excite the curiosity of drivers and pedestrians making them want to discover where the cubes lead. ”A majority of people will see the cubes and instinctively understand that they form a pathway to something interesting. People will find their way to Design City with little effort, and a new pathway will be established,” the group explains. Over time, the new pathway will become just as integrated as the additional infrastructure of the city, and Design City will no longer be isolated. ”The cube path becomes an iconic symbol of Kolding itself and establishes it as a premiere design hotspot. Design City is connected to the city centre,” conclude the students.

”The concepts are so great that we can basically just take them as they are and apply them,” says Project Developer at Design City Tina Thomsen, who was thrilled to work with the students. “Their talents were at a surprisingly high level. I’m surprised at the enthusiasm and readiness with which they approached the task.” Tina Thomsen adds that DesignCity is working on another project from the DesignCamp, which will most likely be launched when the other two have been implemented. “I encourage

more companies and organisations to include designers when they want to innovate and create business development. In a relatively short time, the DesignCamp offers valuable insight into the potential of design; what it can do and how to apply it. The objective of the DesignCamp is clear. Therefore, as a company, we have no hesitation becoming involved and directing our energy this way,” Tina Thomsen concludes.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“Awesome, learningful, meaningful, fun and network” Raymond Reints, Utrecht School of the Arts, The Netherlands


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Talks #1: #2: #3:

What is Nudge? Innovation with Behaviour in Mind A Guide to Insight Generation and Customer Stories

“Nudging is not something separate; it’s not an academic discipline solely. It’s tools that we’re putting down into this dirty machine that is design” Barnabas Wetton, Teacher and Facilitator, Kolding School of Design

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talks


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

talks

Input

Invited international speakers inspired and educated students, partners and additional participants on Nudging and Design. On Monday, the Camp welcomed students from across the world. On Tuesday, the conference opened presenting speakers Rani Saad from ideas42, Polle de Maagt from the Netherlands, who has used nudging in his marketing work for Nike and KLM Airlines, and Sweden’s much respected Ergonomy (now Veryday) Designer Marcus Gabrielsson who talked about nudge in relation to user studies. Among the day’s speakers was also Pelle Guldborg Hansen, Chairman of the Danish Nudging Network. The first conference day ended with a workshop focusing on how to work across backgrounds and professions to combine design and nudge with the challenges of real life. Real problems were discussed and confronted and nudge principles and design methods were applied to the process of ideation.

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What International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

is Nudge?

By Pelle Guldborg Hansen PhD, Behavioural Scientist, Chairman of the Danish Nudging Network, Director of the Initiative for Science, Society and Policy

?

People’s actions do not always correspond with their attitudes and they might benefit from a friendly nudge in the right direction. Chairman of the Danish Nudging Network Pelle Guldborg Hansen introduces the concept of nudge.

Each and every day people act in ways that directly or indirectly affect their health, wealth and welfare negatively. Paradoxically, such behaviour is often carried out despite the fact that we know better, or had reason to know better. However, the paradox dissolves when recognising that we fail to act on this knowledge and these reasons since much of our behaviour is based on ingrained habits, losing out to temptation, lack of time to reason to the consequences, and the difficulty of acting in accordance with our long-term wishes. To counter such negative consequences one may try to nudge behaviour.

A nudge is any attempt to influence choice without limiting the choice set or making alternatives appreciably more costly in terms of time, trouble, social sanctions, and so forth. Nudges are called for because of flaws in individual decision-making, and work by making use of or by-passing those flaws. Nudging is made possible by state of the art knowledge about human decision making and behaviour accumulated in psychology, social psychology and behavioural economics. A paradigm example of a nudge is ‘the fly in the urinal’. This simple nudge has been observed to decrease “waste” with up to 80 % and thereby also decrease costs and increase hygiene. In particular, the nudge succeeds in doing this without limiting choices or imposing cost on the individual being nudged.

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Thus, it is not surprising to find that nudging has received a lot of interest from a broad array of stakeholders. In particular, inspired by the book Nudge: Improving Decisions about Wealth, Health and Happiness (2008) by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, nudging has been quick to spread as a new policy paradigm for influencing public behaviour in a seemingly uncontroversial way.

As for any other use of complex and potentially powerful knowledge, nudging requires developing skills as well as maintaining careful attention to possible consequences and implications. Yet, the purpose of nudging is not to manipulate. Instead, it is to create an environment where people make choices in accordance with their reflected preferences without limiting their choice-set. A good nudge helps people; it does not try to mislead them.

Talks


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

talks

Innovation with Behaviour in Mind By Rani Saad Serial Entrepreneur, Venture Partner, ideas42

Why do people not always act on their intentions? What could stand in their way and create this chasm between intention and action? How can solutions be designed to help them bridge this chasm and act on their intentions? Is their innovation in designing with a behaviourally informed approach? Can it be successful? Serial Entrepreneur and Venture Partner Rani Saad shares his perspective and experience and discusses one approach to innovative solution design.

Whether designing a product, service, policy, or a holistic experience, understanding what motivates and what hinders behaviour is critical. Furthermore, behavioural science is particularly useful in attempting to align actions with intentions.

Once the possible obstacles are identified hypothetically, behavioural interventions to counter them would then be determined and designed into the offering. This would directly draw on behavioural science.

We generally have the right intentions. We want, for example, to be financially prudent, be active, and eat healthily. Our intentions are clear and pure. But in many instances, we do not act on these intentions, or we do not sustain the right actions. We falter. This is sometimes referred to as the intention-action gap. And many factors feed this gap. Some factors are related to us; others are related to the environment or the offering itself. Designing with behaviour in mind aims to deal with these factors, with the goal of closing the intention-action gap. It involves a series of iterative steps. The first is that of defining the problem without presumptions, biases, or restrictions on scope and scale. This would allow the clear determination of the desired behaviour. Next is diagnosis of the full experience spectrum that the desired behaviour would entail. This should cover the different possible

The designed offering would then be prototyped and tested. There could be multiple prototypes produced to test different hypotheses, within or across segments and/or contexts. Efficacy, side-effects, and consequences would be observed. Reiterations with refinements or modifications would ensue.

In many instances, the behavioural intervention is of negligible or no marginal cost. In contrast, its impact could be massive, if the behavioural obstacle is identified correctly and the intervention designed well. A good example of this impact is the dramatic increase witnessed in participation in a type of US retirement savings accounts, 401(k)’s, when the default of the enrolment process was changed. 401(k)’s offer financial incentives to participants, including tax exemptions and, in many cases, employer matches. Typically, employees, upon hire, are required to “opt in” the 401(k) program at their employer. This would require filling forms and

submitting them. And the forms would require financial decisions on savings rate and investment vehicles. A study showed that despite incentives, participation rates remained below 60 %, for an observed period of 48 months after hire, when employees were required to undergo the process of opting in. When the default was switched, so that employees were automatically enrolled into the program, hence removing the behavioural obstacles associated with the opt-in process, the participation rate jumped to over 80 % in the first year of hire, and remained consistently above 80 % in the observed 48 months after hire. (Choi, Laibson, Madrian, and Metrick, 2004)

scenarios in granular detail, so as to reveal possible obstacles to the desired behaviour. The obstacles could be related to the decisionmaking process or to the action-taking one.

401(k) Participation by Tenure Upper: automatic (opt-out) enrollment Lower: opt-in enrollment

Informing the design process with deep knowledge from behavioural science promises to increase, at times radically, the potency of the designed offering.

To avoid manipulation, it is imperative that, upon introducing interventions, the designer makes their purpose and mechanism clearly known. Moreover, the ability to consciously and easily reject or disable the intervention should be provided. In such a case, where the default is changed, clear and simple instructions to opt out would be offered.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Guide to Insight Generation and Customer Stories By Marcus Gabrielsson Design Strategist, Researcher, Partner, Veryday (formerly Ergonomidesign)

Genuine insight is key to true innovation, but a great idea or concept often fails on its way to the market unless visually brought to life and narrated in a way understandable to people that are not designers. Design Strategist Marcus Gabrielsson shares some ground rules on insight methods. To Veryday everything starts and ends with the user. What we do is people-driven innovation. Uncovering genuine user insights that incorporate emotional, cognitive and physical aspects is the key to true innovation. Insights based on what people really need, feel and desire give rise to new opportunities and improve the total user experience. During the many years that we have been working with design and innovation, our tools and methods have continuously been refined. This article shares our many learnings from these years. The Challenge A great idea or concept often fails on its way to the market, unless visually brought to life and narrated in a way that is understandable to non-designers within the client organisation. Our role, as designers, is to advocate the importance of true insights throughout the entire design process. The approach is to tell a compelling story that supports and links together the design concept and the business case. A compelling story gives the designers’ work more grounding and creates an organisational buy-in during the client’s decision and implementation processes.

A great idea based on true user insights accompanied by a great story are the designers’ most powerful tool in the quest for true behavioural change both within organisations and among the people using the final products and services.

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Talks


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

talks

The Process of Generating Change Theory is one thing, real life is a different story … This is the Veryday way of doing things …

Right Recruitment All insight processes commence with identifying the relevant interviewee profiles. The trick is to start recruiting early on, since this task tends to take more time than first anticipated. Cohort definition is not always easy and should always be done in collaboration with the client. Additionally, this requires you to limit the scope, many times a challenge so early on in the process, but you cannot hope for a fine catch if not fishing with the right tackle. Also, if you gather too much data, the analysis will be a chore. Be attentive to the personality profiles of your interviewee recruits. Personality has great impact on consumer behaviour. Be sure to screen for a mix of personalities as the outcomes may differ immensely. Insight & Analysis Strategy Your research set up should always be guided by your research focus and what you want to find out. Where, when, how, for how long and why are you doing the research? Equally as important as setting the research approach is to plan the research data analysis framework. In doing so, you will better stay on target during the actual research execution as well as make the analysis more efficient. Research Methods & Tools When your research strategy is in place, you will most likely realise what methods and tools you need. There is no right or wrong, be inventive but careful, and let your insight & analysis strategy guide you. Consider both generative tools like interview guides, card sorting and boundary work tools, as well as documentation methods: pictures, notes, post-its etc. The methods and tools should help you build insights and tell the story, not weigh you down. Note that one hour of video takes at least two hours to process. User/Consumer Interaction Once on site it is time for you to roll up your sleeves and get to work. Make sure to make the most of your field

research time. When the time is out, you can’t go back. It is important that you get what you came for.

The number one rule is to be curious and social. If you like people, you are very likely to have a great time when doing your interviews and you will learn a lot by just hanging out! If possible, try to get your client to join in the field work. Identify a role for the client, such as documenting or being in charge of an exercise. This will give the project greater strength when the ideas and concepts are further developed and implemented internally. Remember, your client has the potential of becoming the ambassador of the new ideas and concepts

generated from the process. An internal person promoting your insights and telling the story from their perspective is a true asset. Collaborative Analysis Processing research data should preferably be done in collaboration with the client. However, before processing and building insight, the data needs to be made presentable and understandable for non-designers. Just showing your client the generated raw data may be counterproductive and intimidating. An effective method is to cluster and illustrate your findings with pictures and short stories to make it intriguing and ‘alive’. Throughout the project it is important to involve your client, host insight workshops and identify insight themes with true potential and relevance for business. Innovation Brief Once the insight themes are in place and prioritised, it is valuable to turn them into visualised innovation briefs before going into ideation. The brief should be summarised on a sheet of A3 paper, at the most, and should include the following:

• Theme Title + Theme Description • Supporting Insights • Business Relevance • Connection to other Business Units • Design Principles • Early Ideas, etc.

Co-Creation & Ideation Starting out from the brief, which is clearly linked to the insights and the consumer stories, invite your team and client to generate concepts. Traditional ideation with experts is one thing, but do not forget the opportunity of co-creating concepts together with consumers. Designing your co-creation exercise is similar to designing your tool-kit for the research phase. During such a session it is important to be flexible and responsive. Use probes and provide the users with tools that help them tell their story or illustrate their idea; interview them and sketch out their ideas. Visualisation and Prototyping Needless to say, it is important to visualise, illustrate, mock up and test your ideas all along the way. At the final stage, revisit your interviewees, yet again, and get them to evaluate and refine the prototype. If adapting this process you will be well equipped with concepts, insights and user stories that will, most certainly, nudge both people and organisations into positive change!

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“I feel that I’ve got a chance to partake in something different from what I know; I’ve got so many “tools” in a short time. It was a fascinating and instructive experience. Toda Raba (thank you)” Tom Even, Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Israel


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Projects #1: Nutrition and Public Health #2: City, Society and Architecture #3: Education and Play

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Projects


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Projects

Two Weeks and 15 Projects

Combining the principles of nudging with design methods, the students designed anything from structure and surroundings to the perception of specific situations of choice making it easier for people to make the right decisions. The process involved phases of behavioural research, idea generation, prototyping, testing, and measuring and for two weeks, the students worked relentlessly on creating just the right nudges.

“I would say that it has been eye-opening working with design methods in depth. A lot of the methods I already use, but I have never really spent the time considering how and why I use the different methods. Looking back I can see that at times I have applied them in the wrong order, which can lead to blocking oneself. I have learnt how necessary it is to reframe a certain problem and rather than thinking how can I solve the problem, you must think about why the problem exists� Raymond Reints, Utrecht School of the Arts, The Netherlands

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Projects – Nutrition and Public Health

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: EasyFood

Be Good to Yourself Group 1 David M. Smith Case Western Reserve University, USA Christian Bo Michelsen Roskilde University, Denmark Jonas Prip Thorsen Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we encourage individuals to choose whole grains and other healthy food products at convenience stores?

A large proportion of convenience store purchases are impulse buys. Be Good to Yourself provides an incentive program and a visual reminder system at the point of weakness to encourage consumers to choose snacks more consistently with their long-term health and lifestyle goals. A display near the checkout counter keeps a running tally of whole grain products purchased and includes a card for customers to take. This card includes a sheet of stickers as well as a discount for whole grain purchases. Customers place the reminder stickers of their choosing on their credit cards and then see these visual cues every time they are about to buy a product.

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Projects – Nutrition and Public Health

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: EasyFood

Re-fuel Yourself Group 2 Angelica Fontana Tongji University and Politecnico di Milano, Italy Sophie Abboud London College of Fashion, Great Britain Melle Zijlstra Kolding School of Design, Denmark Nina Wasland Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we make people re-fuel themselves like they re-fuel their cars? Re-fuel Yourself wants to try to change customers’ habits at petrol stations by presenting them with healthier choices than the usual unhealthy options. Customers seem to intend to buy healthy food; however they don’t, once they are at the petrol station. Not changing the appearance of traditional petrol station food and rethinking the ingredients in making them healthier can unconsciously lead to healthier purchases. The largest portions are replaced with the healthy option, thus not influencing the customer’s freedom of choice. The project involves a new EasyFood product line called “Re-fuel Food” complimented by a proper ad campaign.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Projects – Nutrition and Public Health

Partner: Kolding Municipality, Social and Health Care Services

Colour Your Teeth Clean Group 3 Prianka Sisodiya Kingston University, Great Britain Simone Pastring London College of Fashion, Great Britain Nanna Sigaard Kolding School of Design, Denmark Sylvester Agerbæk Hansen Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we make young people want to take care of their teeth?

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The project wants to give young people ages 12-18 a new relationship to brushing their teeth by putting dental hygiene into a new context by placing it in the school. At the back of each classroom there will be a ”Comfort Zone”; a place where brushing teeth is considered fun. This will hopefully create a routine that will spill over into the teens’ daily lives. The teens will still have monthly check-ups at the dentist who will measure the progress of the child.


Projects – Nutrition and Public Health

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Kolding Municipality, Social and Health Care Services

Hands Up Group 4 Tom Bonamici Pratt Institute, USA Tom Even Bezalel Academy of Art & Design, Israel Birkir Gudmundsson Kolding School of Design, Denmark Signe Mårbjerg Thomsen Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we promote simple stretches for office workers by nudging them at in-between moments in the workday? Hands Up aims to introduce lo-fi, low-profile nudges that will offer a friendly reminder to the office workers, encouraging them to stretch more often during the workday. These stretches are not extreme – just tilting your head to read this text is beneficial! Since healthful stretching can make a worker feel silly, the group watched the Kolding Municipality office to find moments in the workday where workers might feel more comfortable. The coffee station, the copy room, the toilet; these are more private, transitional places where the worker is less exposed and more likely to try new behaviour.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Projects – Nutrition and Public Health

Partner: Kolding Municipality, Social and Health Care Services

Play On Group 5: Ai Xi Tongji University, China Sari Dayan Bezalel Academy of Art & Design, Israel Heike Hilpert Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lars Majlund Mørk Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we get people to make a healthy food choice after sports?

The unhealthy choice is often the easiest and most appealing. It is healthy to do sports, but if you combine it with an unhealthy snack, you will lose the advantage. The customers need a positive alternative to the unhealthy choice which can compete with the branded snacks in terms of visual appeal and taste. Play On is a product that will nudge people to choose the healthiest food after sports and share it thus continuing the team spirit. It will be available to buy at the sports hall cafeterias and is designed to be used by a variety of people. The togetherness feeling and sharing with others will give a great satisfaction which will replace the individual’s craving for unhealthy food.

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Projects – City, Society and Architecture

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Design City

Box City Group 6: Julia Anne Davids Stanford University, USA Svabu Kohli Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, India Christina Melchior Juhl Kolding School of Design and University of Southern Denmark, Denmark Olav Kristoffer Markussen Johannessen Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we create a navigational experience to reach Design City?

Design City is constructing a temporary structure out of cargo boxes. It is meant to involve the Kolding community to come together in a space where various activities can be conducted. Design City is located far from the city centre, and there is no definitive path that leads from the established part of Kolding to Design City. Box City is a way-finding experience using geometric perspective localised paintings. When you are on the correct path, you see images of floating cubes leading to Design City.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Design City

Trees Know Our Story Group 7: Oana Camelia Guraliuc Politecnico di Milano, Italy Peta-Gaye Martin Aalto University, Finland Christian Leth Kolding School of Design, Denmark Nynne Boje Sander Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we nudge citizens to actively participate in the new city district “Design City”?

The original challenge was to find a way for citizens of Kolding to discover, accept and involve the new city district with Kolding city centre. In reality, what was needed was a meaningful link, a solution that would give citizens a feeling of ownership and a sense of community. In other words, a reason to venture to Design City, to interact with the surroundings, and to return regularly. Trees Know Our Story is an interaction concept which engages citizens by concentrating on a series of experiences to excite curiosity, and to encourage active participation in a space that will ultimately become their own.

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Projects – City, Society and Architecture


Projects – City, Society and Architecture

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: DONG Energy

Take Charge Group 8: Faraz Ahmed Khan Aalto University, Finland Mariel Lanas Stanford University, USA Cecilie Marie Skov Kolding School of Design, Denmark Eva Sofia Aude Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we encourage users of portable electronics to change their charging habits?

Portable devices are becoming more prevalent in our everyday lives, and most of us are accustomed to leaving them plugged in overnight for much longer than they need to charge. Take Charge is a system of conveniently-located charging stations that provide users with the opportunity to charge their devices during the day, thus reducing the need to plug in at night, and giving them a better sense of how little it actually takes to charge a portable device. The interface also gives DONG Energy an opportunity to interact with their customers and offer additional information about the different energy sources behind everyday electricity.

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Projects – City, Society and Architecture

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: DONG Energy

Equilibrium Group 9: Matte Nyberg Pratt Institute, USA Matthew Price Greenside Design Center, South Africa Mikail Pehlivan Utrecht School of the Arts, The Netherlands Lola Le Berre Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we encourage families to use their major appliances at the right time?

Equilibrium aims to nudge energy consumers to use energy efficiently by encouraging them to use their major appliances at the right time. That is when the supply of energy is high and the demand for energy is low. By balancing the use of energy over the course of a day there will be less strain on the energy infrastructure and the outcome will be consumption equilibrium and lower environmental impact. Equilibrium is a smart device that is designed to press the start button of a washer, dryer, or dish washer. The button allows the user to go through the same behaviour pattern as usual, packing and setting the appliance as necessary. Finally, a time period is specified on the smart device for when the user would like the task to be completed. The smart device will then press the start button of the appliance when the energy price is acceptably low. The smart device receives information on the energy price and data from the smart grid within the specified time period, allowing users to consume energy conveniently and for less money.

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Projects – City, Society and Architecture

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Kolding Municipality

Gems of Kolding Group 10: Lisa Langmantel Pforzheim University, Germany Solveig Johannessen Emily Carr University, Canada Giuseppe Formica Kolding School of Design, Denmark Jacqueline De Abrew Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we draw people into Kolding’s spaces of opportunity?

Starting from the natural city entry point of Kolding train station, Gems of Kolding is a regular visual treasure hunt of the city’s possibilities. Abandoned storefronts, closure signs and closure sales evoke a feeling of a ”dying town”. By using graphic gems to highlight available spaces, people are nudged into seeing them as spaces of opportunity rather than unused spaces. On each gem there is a link to a website which will enable people to connect to a network with incentives encouraging them to establish businesses there.

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Projects – Education and Play

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Area Secretariat, Boligkontoret Fredericia and Boli.nu

Nudge Toolbox Group 11: Victoria Cullen University College London, Great Britain Benjamin Buus Pedersen Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lene Drachmann Sørensen Kolding School of Design, Denmark Louise Henriette Werge Kolding School of Design and University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

How might we get more residents in Sønderparken, Fredericia to organise community activities together at their Pavilion?

The World needs easy tools to create communities. The Nudge Toolbox project comprises a weekly ‘socialising and planning activities’ event for parents and children in the area as well as a toolbox of communication products based on ”nudge” and intervention experiments conducted by the group during the Camp. The Nudge Toolbox is to be used by the social organisation, the Area Secretariat, to facilitate behaviours of involvement, co-creation and dedication. In order to visualise the impact of the different nudge techniques, a pin board measuring tool is set up in the Pavilion to measure how many new versus returning participants and volunteers attend each of the activities over time.

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Partner: Area Secretariat, Boligkontoret Fredericia and Boli.nu

Tear & Share Group 13: Claire Markotter Greenside Design Center, South Africa Matthew Marshall Kingston University, Great Britain Lasse Breinholm Skovlund Kolding School of Design, Denmark Rickey Lindberg Jensen Kolding School of Design and University of Southern Denmark, Denmark How might we nudge the residents of Sønderparken and Korskærparken to share their skills and interact with each other?

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Tear & Share is a project that focuses on development of people’s competencies in regards to the realisation of their own existing skills as well as the opportunity to learn new skills and share these with others. The design solution is perforated business cards which are given out to the residents of the area. The solution also includes a network board on which the cards are placed. In addition to this, visual aids have been designed to nudge residents to use the cards and connect these to the board. By providing a platform that invites people to share details about themselves, the designers expect to see an increased amount of interaction between residents. A network of local professionals will become role models to those who may not be utilising their skills and inspire them to achieve their own goals. The proposed solution can be implemented anywhere, anytime and with little cost.


Projects – Education and Play

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Area Secretariat, Boligkontoret Fredericia and Boli.nu

Nabolag Picnic Group 12: Ariana Tae Koblitz Stanford University, USA Georgia Gaye Pforzheim University, Germany Helen Jarvis Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand Patrick Bennekov Bomholt Johansen Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we raise a sense of community through a shared meal?

A shared meal is the catalyst to creating an environment in which residents are encouraged to come together and interact meaningfully. Nudge strategies guide the design interventions at particular moments leading up to the shared meal. Initially, each household receives an invitation package to attend the Nabolag Picnic. The invitation encourages interaction as the residents have to actively and publically RSVP. This RSVP will act as a visual reminder to other residents and play on the broken window effect influencing others to also RSVP and subsequently attend. On the day of the picnic there will be flags set up which are identical to those on the invitation. There will also be music to cue people to come down to the communal space. The aim is to actively engage residents in positive interactions that cause subsequent constructive action. This constructive action could be attending workshops together, creating new community activities, or increased participation in existing community activities/volunteer events.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Projects – Education and Play

Partner: Middelfart Sparekasse

Målkort Group 14: Aman Randhawa Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, India Bree Galbraith Emily Carr University, Canada Raymond Reints Utrecht School of the Arts, The Netherlands Lyuba Halacheva Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we open appropriate channels of communication to increase interaction between the user and the bank?

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MÅLKORT is a bank card that allows you to put a certain percentage of the price of your purchases into a savings account. The goal is to use an existing channel of communication, offered by the bank, to engage youth (18 and above) to come into the bank, speak to a representative and learn more about their finances. The users are presented with a choice to save money every time they use their Målkort. The first nudge is directed at the bank; to have them recognise the existing habits of the user group and offer them a product that they are familiar with. The second nudge is for the user group; they are presented with a choice that allows them to save for a goal that they have set for themselves.


Projects – Education and Play

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Partner: Middelfart Sparekasse

Touch Card Group 15: Amie Holman Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand Dongjin Song Tongji University, China Sara Mesing Case Western University, USA Katrine Terese Nielsen Kolding School of Design, Denmark Phan Thao Benno Dang Kolding School of Design, Denmark

How might we make banking services more tangible?

Online banking today makes services invisible and renders money intangible. Customers are less loyal and the bank loses recognition. The Touch Card offers an immediate, real-time, tactile reading of high/low account balance directly on your credit card in the moment of purchase. This restores the physicality of money in your account growing and depleting. It reunites the feeling of physical money with your plastic payment card. And it invokes curiosity about exact balance, nudging you to launch the bank’s app to check your account. A small haptic actuator is placed on your credit card that communicates with your bank and reacts according to your purchases.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“I encourage more companies and organisations to include designers when they want to innovate and create business development. In a relatively short time, the DesignCamp offers valuable insight into the potential of design; what it can do and how to apply it. The objective of the DesignCamp is clear. Therefore, as a company, we have no hesitation becoming involved and directing our energy this way� Tina Thomsen, Project Developer, Design City


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Cases #1: Buffet Serving – a Nightmare of Choices #2: Nudge Changes Littering Behaviour

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Cases


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Cases

ACTION

Invited speakers shared their perspective and experience of working with nudging in practice. Among the speakers were Executive Project Manager Gitte Laub Hansen from the Danish Cancer Society and Project Manager Susanne Brøgger from Keep Denmark Clean (Hold Danmark Rent). The second conference day was also day two of the workshop focusing on how to work across backgrounds and professions to combine design and nudge with the challenges of real life. On the second day, the process of ideation was followed by prototypes and solutions.

“Nudging doesn’t restrict the freedom of choice; rather it offers options and not just information. And presenting simple options is mostly far cheaper than creating information campaigns and bans. Companies spend far too many resources on making what they think is the right diagnosis and far too much money on implementing a solution that will not prove effective because the diagnosis was wrong to begin with” Sille Krukow, MA Visual Communication Design, inudgeyou.com

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Cases

Buffet Serving – a Nightmare of Choices By Gitte Laub Hansen Executive Project Manager, Danish Cancer Society

For the last two years, the Danish Cancer Society has tested several nudges primarily focusing on promoting healthy food choices in out of home settings: workplace canteens, restaurants, food outlets and supermarkets. Executive Project Manager Gitte Laub Hansen tells about the project.

Research shows that the more different foods we are offered, the more we eat. This is important because an increasing part of Danish meals are eaten out of home and thus, this can potentially contribute to overeating and overweight. More than 50 % of the population in the developed countries are overweight or obese to a degree that it threatens their health, welfare and quality of life and represents a massive burden on society. We see similar situations in the developing countries, but they, in addition, experience the double burden of inequality in health – obesity along with malnutrition. It is estimated that 6-26 % of cancer incidences in developed countries could have been prevented if we ate healthily, were physically active and maintained a healthy normal weight. Choice Architecture in Out of Home Buffet Servings Chefs and canteen operators can be called choice architects. They are responsible for the foods available at buffets and how these foods are presented. Choice architects

can’t rely on customers to read their mind, and they can’t expect that customers exercise constraints by personal strategies to limit intake. That is why it is important to disclose the intentions with the meal to the customer to promote not only healthy eating behaviour, but also ensure the culinary quality and profits. Luckily several measures have been identified to ensure that.

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Layout of Buffet Area Where customers enter the buffet area, lines cueing and check out influence food choice. In a short term intervention we placed green arrows on the floor suggesting customers to start at the salad buffet instead of the hot dish. This doubled the consumption of greens, reduced meat consumption insignificantly and did not affect plate waste. Intelligent layout also ensures quick and smooth execution of the buffet and no queuing. Order of Presentation We know that customers are affected by the order of presentation. They pick significantly more from the foods that are presented first compared to the foods they meet later in a lunch line. In a worksite canteen a chef complained that the customers didn’t eat bread with the soup. Moving a bread basket next to the soup bowl ensured that the customers picked the bread as well. Healthy Displays Combinations of foods, serving sizes, attractive serving dishes can seriously affect food choice. It is important to move the healthy food up front and if possible focus a spotlight on it! In a student’s canteen in USA placing nutritious foods like broccoli at the beginning of the lunch line, rather than in the middle, increased the amount that customers purchased by 10-15 %. Besides putting the healthy food at eyesight, it is effective to make the less healthy choices less visible. Lights and manor of presentation can seriously affect our choices. E.g. putting

Basic principles in buffet design that can promote healthy choices 1. A layout of the buffet area 2. Arrange the order of presentation of dishes 3. The way you display the foods 4. Communications and promotion 5. Plate size/colour, cutlery, serving sizes, trays 6. Payment methods


Cases

apples and oranges in a fruit bowl rather than a stainless steel container doubles the fruit sales. When you cut the fruit and vegetables into bite size the sales will triple. Communication and Promotion Labeling, name of the food or dish, menus, signs can be effective measures in promoting healthy sales. Just asking the customers neutrally whether they want a food will promote sales. In the USA they got an additional sale of 20 % just by asking whether customers wanted a salad. One way of enhancing communication is by giving the dishes more descriptive names; also using narratives helps promote the healthy options.

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

To read the full article go to:

http://designcamp2012.dskd.dk/ about/articles/buffet-serving-anightmare-of-choices/

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Reduce Plate Size Decreasing the size of bowls from 18 ounces to 14 ounces reduced the size of the average cereal serving at breakfast by 24 % in the USA. When you reduce plate size you reduce not only the mean portion size but also plate waste. If the canteen doesn’t want to omit a less healthy food completely and the customers demand it, you can assist the customer by serving it in smaller portions. For instance, a reduction of the size of the serving bowl of feta decreased the mean consumption from 60 to 15 grams per customer. Payment Methods Creating a speedy ”healthy express” checkout line for customers who don’t buy desserts, chips and candy can double sales of healthy dishes. When students can only pay cash for unhealthy food and the healthy food is paid with lunch tickets or with staff cards, it will reduce sales of cookies and candy and increase sales of fruit and healthy foods.

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Cases

Nudge Changes Littering Behaviour By Susanne Brøgger Project Manager, Keep Denmark Clean

Keep Denmark Clean wants to alter people’s littering habits and apply nudging to achieve their objective. Now they have created a nudge catalogue for a residential area in Kolding. Project Manager Susanne Brøgger shares the story.

Doing the right thing should be easy; and where to get rid of you waste should be obvious. Nudging flows with the

behavioural current rather than swim against it.

It does not have to cost millions in public funding or largescale efforts to reduce the amount of litter in recreational or housing areas. With care, understanding and a friendly push, we are able to change littering behaviour. The method is called ”nudging”. Simple and Effective Nudging is a new, effective and easier way of thinking because oftentimes it does not require a lot to change a certain behaviour. Are there many cigarette stubs on the ground? Place a large tube of sand at that spot. Are the bin bags dumped outside the recycling centres at night? Lay down flags and mark where to put the bags. Are the playgrounds filled with litter? Put up rubbish bins that become part of the game. These simple pieces of advice make up just a small part of the input given to 4,000 tenancies at the AAB housing area Skovparken in Kolding after creating a so-called nudging catalogue in collaboration with the network organisation Keep Denmark Clean.

Dorte Radik mentions one episode during summer when the children started urinating in the basement because they could not make it home from the playing field. Setting up a urinal solved the problem that you would otherwise traditionally have tried to surveil your way out of. “We believe that with small means, we are able to create circumspection. Social norms and obligations will change behaviour; not threats and taxes,” says Dorte Radik. The nudging catalogue for AAB was created based on an inspection of the entire area and has resulted in 22 recommendations or nudges that Skovparken is now pursuing. Nudging for Everyone The Keep Denmark Clean toolbox ”Our Neighbourhood” (“Vores kvarter”) has worked as the basis for creating the nudge catalogue which offers simple solutions for reducing littering. The toolbox is used nation-wide by housing associations. Keep Denmark Clean hopes the nudging catalogue will become equally popular.

To read the full article go to: Bovia manages the Skovparken housing area on behalf of AAB Kolding. Head of Residents’ Service Dorte Radik used to be operational manager of a local government where she often had to deal with waste effort issues: “At the time, it was common to place bans. However, that’s not what it’s about at all. We want to change the be-

haviour of the tenants by giving them a friendly push. Specific behaviour is rarely due to ill will.”

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http://designcamp2012.dskd.dk/about/articles/ nudge-changes-littering-behaviour/


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Cases

Andreas Maaløe Jespersen, Research Assistant, The Initiative for Science Society and Policy

“Nudge is a cue for attention. It creates awareness; it doesn’t try to steal awareness. Nudge is about observing and knowing human behaviour and then creating a simple solution that will alter this behaviour. Often, companies and policy makers tend to work against the human psychology rather than with it. When you create a really complicated process for filing a complaint, you deliberately wear out your customers and eventually alienate them. However, creating an easy process you work with the human mechanisms and you get happy customers. Sometimes it is as simple as that. Nudge for good is part of the philosophy. That is why nudge lends itself particularly well to areas of health, energy, environment, and economy because here personal interests and preferences are not challenged by opposing concerns”


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“Thank you for a fantastic Camp! This is the best, most well-organised event I’ve ever been a part of. I’ve learned a lot and am eager to integrate design further in our activities at EasyFood” Kirsten Møller Jensen, Innovation Manager, EasyFood A/S

Participants


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Participants

Partners

Kolding Municipality Social and Health Care Services Department for Health Promotion and Prevention Nytorv 11 6000 Kolding Jane Kudsk Diet Coordinator

Kolding Municipality Department for City and Development Nytorv 11 6000 Kolding Morten Harder Hougaard Head of Department for Planning and Malene Leerberg Development Consultant

EasyFood A/S Albuen 39 6000 Kolding Kirsten Møller Jensen Innovation Manager

DesignCity

DONG Energy

Middelfart Savings Bank

Kolding Åpark 2 6000 Kolding

Kraftværksvej 53, Skærbæk, 7000 Fredericia

Havnegade 21 5500 Middelfart

Tina Thomsen Project Developer

Louise Buch Løgstrup Industrial PhD student

Kristian Gren Head of IT, Communication and Marketing and Troels Emborg Communication Consultant

Area Secretariat, Boligkontoret Fredericia and Boli.nu Sønderparken and Korskærparken Ullerupdalvej 9 7000 Fredericia Anni Lindum Education Consultant

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International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Students

Bree Diana Galbraith, Emily Carr University, Canada Solveig Catherine Buckle Johannessen, Emily Carr University, Canada Thomas Henley Bonamici, Pratt Institute, USA Matte Berit Nyberg, Pratt Institute, USA Mariel Lanas, Stanford University, USA Ariana Tae Koblitz, Stanford University, USA Julia Anne Davids, Stanford University, USA David M. Smith, Case Western University, USA Sara Mesing, Case Western University, USA Claire Markotter, Greenside Design Center, South Africa Matthew Price, Greenside Design Center, South Africa Tom Even Even, Bezalel Academy of Art & Design, Israel Sari Dayan, Bezalel Academy of Art & Design, Israel Svabhu Kohli, Sristhi School of Art, Design and Technology, India Aman Kaur Randhawa, Sristhi School of Art, Design and Technology, India Ai Xi, Tongji University, China Dongjin Song, Tongji University, China Angelica Fontana, Tongji University/Politecnico di Milano, Chine/Italy Amie Holman, Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand Helen Jarvis, Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand Mikail Pehlivan, Utrecht School of the Arts, Holland Raymond Reints, Utrecht School of the Arts, Holland Lisa Vera Langmantel, Pforzheim University, Germany Georgia Gaye, Pforzheim University, Germany Prianka Sisodiya, Kingston University, Great Britain Matthew Marshall, Kingston University, Great Britain Simone Pastring, London College of Fashion, Great Britain Sophie Abboud, London College of Fashion, Great Britain Faraz Ahmed Khan, Aalto University, Finland Peta-Gaye Martin, Aalto University, Finland Oana Camelia Guraliuc, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Christian Bo Michelsen, Roskilde Universitets Center, Danmark Victoria Cullen, University College London, England Rickey Lindberg Jensen, SDU - Design Management, Denmark Christina Melchior Juhl , SDU - Design Management, Denmark Louise Henriette Werge, SDU - Design Management, Denmark Melle Zijlstra, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Christian Leth, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Giuseppe Formica, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lars Majlund Mørk, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lasse Breinholm Skovlund, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Phan Thao Benn Dang, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Jacqueline Frances De Abrew, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Patrick Bennekov Bomholt Johansen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lyuba Tsancheva Halacheva, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lola Le Berre, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Eva Sofia Aude, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Heike Hilpert, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Katrine Terese Nielsen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Olav Kristoffer Markussen Johannessen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Nynne Nadja Boje Sander, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Nanna Rosalia Sigaard, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Lene Drachmann Sørensen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Cecilie Marie Skov, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Birkir Gudmundsson, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Sylvester Agerbæk Hansen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Nina Wasland, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Jonas Prip Thorsen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Benjamin Buus Pedersen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark Signe Mårbjerg Thomsen, Kolding School of Design, Denmark

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Participants


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Participants

“I say it was the greatest opportunity ever, and that I felt like a superstar with the amount of effort that was put into making me feel welcome, informed and included. I have never been in an institution where it feels like what you are doing makes a difference� Bree Galbraith, Emily Carr University, Canada


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change


International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

Recipes

Campfire Meal Recipes Mette Thrane Frandsen Food Designer and Canteen Manager, Kolding School of Design

Lamb Curry Servings: 5-6

Flat Bread with Herbs

Chocolate Fondue Servings: 6

1 bundle of coriander 3 sprigs of mint 1 green chili 1 ½ tablespoons of ginger, grated or finely chopped ½ dl of coconut milk 30 grams of cashew nuts ½ dl of water 700-800 grams of lamb meat, leg or shoulder 2 onions 2 garlic cloves 2 tablespoons of olive oil ¼ stick of cinnamon, roughly smashed 5 cardamom capsules, roughly smashed 4 whole cloves, roughly smashed ½ teaspoon of mustard seeds ½ teaspoon of turmeric ½ litre of water 200 grams of spinach, thawed 3 dl of whole milk natural yoghurt

Basic white bread, e.g.: 5 dl of flour 2 dl of milk 1 tablespoon of oil 2 teaspoons of salt 25 grams of yeast 200 grams of chopped ground elder, onion cress, dandelion, wood sorrel, water mint, beech leaves, birch leaves (as you prefer)

500 grams of sugar strawberries oranges grapes pitted prunes preserved ginger 2 dl of cream 2 tablespoons of brandy or rum 250 grams of chocolate

Some extra oil and flour

Rinse the strawberries and allow the water to drip off the grapes using a strainer. Peel the oranges and cut them into fillets. Rinse the grapes and remove the stems. Break the chocolate into smaller pieces and let them melt in a thick-bottomed pot at low temperature on the embers. Pour in the cream and stir the chocolate paste until it becomes shiny. Add brandy or rum and pour the fondue into a small fondue pot.

Chop the coriander and pick the leaves from the mint sprigs. Cut the green chili in half and remove the seeds. Finely chop fresh coriander, mint, chili, ginger, coconut milk, cashew nuts. Cut the lamb into cubes (2 by 2 cm). Peel and chop the onions and slice the garlic cloves. Roughly crush the spices: cinnamon, cardamom and cloves in a mortar. Heat a pot with olive oil on the fire and roast the spices for approx. 20 seconds; then add the onions and let them cook until they are tender and slightly golden. Add the lamb and make sure to brown it on all sides. Add the green coconut paste with the cashew nuts along with the mustard seeds and the turmeric and let it cook for 1 minute with the meat. Pour 1 litre of water with the meat (or until the water covers 2/3 of the meat) and cook the dish for 50-60 minutes at low temperature. Be sure to stir once in a while. When 20 minutes remain, add the spinach and the yoghurt and mix it well with the other ingredients. Keep cooking until the lamb is tender and the sauce is tasty. The dish serves well with Basmati rice, chutney and bread.

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Warm up the milk, stir in the yeast and add oil, salt and flour. Knead the dough and set it to rise for minimum half an hour. You can prepare the dough in advance and put it in a plastic bag that is not completely “inflated” and place it inside another bag to allow the dough to rise without the bags bursting. Knock the air out. Roughly chop the herbs and put them into the dough. Knead the dough into very flat, round pieces of bread that fit the pan. Fry them in a little bit of oil over a hot fire. Dust the pan with flour first to prevent the bread from sticking.

Stick the fruits onto the fondue forks and dip them in the chocolate. Reheat the fondue if it becomes too cold.

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! y o j n


Recipes

International DesignCamp2012 – Designing positive behavioural change

“I really enjoyed meeting people from different countries and different backgrounds and working with them. It was great to see what we could come up with when put into this situation. The food was amazing!” Prianka Sisodiya, Kingston University, Great Britain

Side 63


The LEGO Group

International DesignCamp2012 was organised by Kolding School of Design and Design2innovate in collaboration with the Danish Nudging Network

INTERNATIONAL DESIGNCAMP2012 NUDGE – DESIGNING POSITIVE BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE

The DesignCamp2012 topic was nudging – that is designing positive behavioural change – within Nutrition and Public Health, City, Society and Architecture, and Education and Play. How might we nudge customers to make healthier choices in fast food environments? How might we nudge isolated members of a community to engage with each other? Students from universities in Asia, USA, Canada, New Zealand, The Middle East and Europe teamed up with companies and public authorities to answer these and many other real-life questions focusing on ways for companies to include nudging in their products and services – to benefit the individual as well as the community – and how to equip designers to perform this work. This publication presents student suggestions of how to address specific challenges facing companies and societies at large and offers valuable insight into the work methods of contemporary design students and design experts.

“When designers employ nudging as an alternative to traditional information campaigns it is an attempt to change behaviour without imposing new rules or restricting user options. Instead, the designers use their knowledge from related professions such as anthropology, psychology, and sociology to design for the human decision processes” Mette Strømgaard Dalby, Head of Culture and Communication at Kolding School of Design

Read more on designcamp2012.dskd.dk


International DesignCamp2012 Nudge