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Islanders

Environmental Refugees/Migrants Controversy Marco Agosta, Elisa Angelico, Michele Crivellaro, Federica D’ Urzo, Elisa Raciti

Laboratorio di sintesi finale Politecnico di Milano A.Y. 2011/2011 M.Sc. Comunication Design Section c3

Laboratorio di sintesi finale Politecnico di Milano A.Y. 2011/2011 M.Sc. Comunication Design Section c3 Paolo Ciuccarelli Stefano Mandato Donato Ricci Tommaso Venturini Salvatore ZIngale


Summary

Islanders story

Environmental Refugees vs Environmental Migrants Controversy timeline Controversy observations

09 10 13

Aim

Questions Protocol

17 18

Url analysis Corpus Crawl Issue Geographer

Alchemy

Keywords and Entities Distribution of Keywords and Entities Keywords Polar axis Comparison Qualitative Comparison Quantitave Comparison

26 28 34

Entities Polar axis Comparison Qualitative Comparison Country Quantitave Comparison Country Qualitative Comparison Organization Quantitave Comparison Organization Qualitative Comparison Person Quantitative Comparison Person

41 45 46 48 50

58 60 62 64 66 68

Answers

Common sites analysis Are the islands talking about themselves? Which Organizations talk about the controversy? Who Talks about the controversy?

Conclusions Conclusion

38

52 54

72 74 76 78

83


Islanders Story


Environmental refugees vs environmental migrants

Environmental Refugee

Environmental Migrant

“A fundamental difficulty in dealing with this topic, however, is that there is still no agreed definition and typology of environmental refugees or migrants – and even less so in the case of the so-called climate refugees. Some events or phenomena relating to the environment that may lead to migration and provide the basis for a typology, include the following: natural disasters/ sudden disasters; gradual environmental degradation/slow-onset disasters; environmental conflicts; environmental destruction as a consequence of or as a weapon in conflicts; environment conservation; development projects (such as dam construction); industrial accidents (such as Bhopal and Chernobyl). There may be even further sub-categories based on distinctions such as: human-made or natural change; climate change-induced or all environmental change; temporary or permanent environmental change, temporary or permanent migration, internal or international/crossborder migration. Of course, it matters little for the people affected if a disaster is related to human-induced climate change or not, but for some research and policy purposes this may be a useful distinction.”

“People who have been forced to leave their traditional habitat, temporarily or permanently, because of a marked environmental disruption (natural and/or triggered by people) that jeopardised their existence and/or seriously affected the quality of their life. By environmental disruption in this definition is meant any physical, chemical and/or biological changes in the ecosystem (or resource base) that render it, temporarily or permanently, unsuitable to support human life.”

Npr, 2010

El-Hinnawi, 1985

“Persons who no longer gain a secure livelihood in their traditional homelands because of what are primarily environmental factors of unusual scope.”

Myers and Kent, 1995

9


Controversy timeline Mustafa Tolba Jodi Jacobson 10

Mustafa Tolba, Executive Director of UNEP, was claiming that “as many as 50 million people could become environmental refugees” if the world did not act to support sustainable development.

Norman Myers

IPCC IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that the greatest single consequence of climate change could be migration, ”with millions of people displaced by shoreline erosion, coastal flooding and severe drought”.

Jodi Jacobson is cited as the first researcher to enumerate the issue, stating that there were already up to 10 million environmental refugees. Drawing on worst case scenarios about sea-level rise, she argued that all forms of environmental refugees would be six times as numerous as political refugees

Richard Black

88

89

19

76

19

He is a United States environmental analyst, founded the Worldwatch Institute, the first research institute devoted to the analysis of global environmental issues. He introduces for the first time the term of enviromnental refugees.

90

19

19

Lester Brown

Norman Myers stated that there were 25 million environmental refugees in the mid1990s, and claiming that this figure could double by 2010, with an upper limit of 200 million by 2050. He also hypothesised that displacement would amount to 30m in China, 30m in India, 15m in Bangladesh, 14m in Egypt, 10m in other delta areas and coastal zones, 1m in island states, and with otherwise agriculturally displaced people totalling 50m.

Nivanga Boat Australian government donated the Nivanga boat to the Tuvaluan government migration and movement between the different atolls has considerably expanded. International support was provided for the establishment of numerous facilities, including a new administrative building, a hospital, a telecommunication centre, a wharf, and the development of the maritime school just outside of Funafuti. Migration from the outer islands to Funafuti boomed.

95

19

98

19

Richard Black for first criticized Myers’ prediction and stated that “this notion of environmental refugees hardly tallies with arguments about recent destruction of the ecological balance by modern society; rather, migration is again perhaps better seen as a customary coping strategy.”


Jane McAdam

06

20

07

20

Gavin Atkins

UNEP

Jane McAdam is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow, and the Director of Research in the Faculty of Law. She works widely in the area of international refugee law, in particular on complementary protection and climate change-related displacement. She argued that “climate change-induced migration and displacement are real. But it is too simplistic to suggest that the impacts of climate change on human settlements will spur mass migration, and it could feed panic about the security implications of human movement”.

UNEP its web site the map that shows the places most at risk for what concerns environmental refugees including the very sensitive low lying islands of the Pacific and Caribbean.

08

20

09

20

10

20

Carteret Storm

PAC Tulele Peisa The low-lying Carteret Islands form a local NGO called Tulele Peisa, which in the local vernacular means Sailing the Waves on Our Own. It was decided that the Carterets people needed their own indigenous organisation to plan and implement a voluntary relocation program for the next 5-10 years.

Tuvalu is the first country in which residents have been forced to evacuate because of rising sea levels. Nearly 3000 Tuvaluans have already left their homelands. In support of their crisis, the New Zealand government has established an immigration program called the Pacific Access Category, which currently sees seventy-five residents migrate to NZ each year. The PAC also allows 75 citizens of Kiribati, 250 citizens of Tonga, and 250 citizens of Fiji to emigrate to New Zealand each year.

11

11

20

The island

Sun Come Up is released. A film about displaced Carteret islanders.

Nasheed

November 11 Mohamed Nasheed is the first democratically elected Maldives president. He pledged to set an example by making the Maldives carbon-neutral within a decade by moving to wind and solar power. As part of a campaign, publicizing the threats of climate change and its effects on the Maldives, Nasheed presided over the world’s first underwater cabinet meeting on Oct. 17, 2009. Nasheed presided over the foundation of the Climate Vulnerable Forum.

President

The Island President is released. A film about Mohammed Nasheed and his war against climate change.

Sun come up

Carterets Islands were badly damaged by king tides and violent storm surges. Some ilanders were forced to move to Bougainville.

Mohammed

Gavin Atkins a journalist of the Asian corrispondent asked “What happened to the climate refugees?”. After the story was picked up by news outlets around the world such as Investor News, American Spectator and was cited in the Australian newspaper. It was also a report on Fox News..

Mangrooves Kiribati government planted mangroove trees as a way to try to protect his coastal environments.


Controversy Observations

The debate developed around environmental migration topic, even if relatively new, has evolved quite quickly in the last few years. There are different opinions about the topic: those who focus on which are the reasons of the migration argue that the real motivation is related more to economic problems than environmental one. Others focus on what could be the solution to the problem, trying to define reception plans from refugees. Still others engage debates about which term is more appropriate, migrants or refugees. In the meanwhile, the islanders have to face the matter, fighting against what is becoming an everyday problem. Because of its multiple facets, it has been really interesting analyze the controversy on the Web, paying particularly attention to four small islands (Carteret Islands, Kiribati, Maldives and Tuvalu), that in the last decade experienced the problem to their own cost, and trying to understand if the situation they have to live today will be experienced by someone else tomorrow.

13


Aim


Questions

Who Talks About The Controversy? Which Islands Talks About The Controversy? What Are The Actors Talking About? What Are The Islands Talking About? Are The Islands Talking About Themselves? Are There Some Differences If The Debate Is About Migrants Rather Than Refugees? 17


Protocol

Corpus construction

18

The first step of this research was to create a single corpus, composed by one hundred websites, to analyze. To have a point of view as much heterogeneous as possible, it was chosen to use the terminological controversy between migrants and refugees querying both words on Google. These two words were combined with four terms that could have been associated with themselves (climate, environmental, forced and eco). Furthermore, these resulting five queries were combined with the names of the four islands chosen. In the end, to obtain a comparison between the way the controversy is discussed in the islands and the way the controversy is discussed from a global point of view, the previous queries were combined with a non-geographical research. The following step was to filter the obtained results. At first, the hosts in common to the ten lists were selected using the Triangulation Tool. To check if the websites selected were actually talking about the topic, they were scraped with Google Scraper Tool. The first ten results of each of the Scrape were joined together to create the final corpus made up by 50 websites on the migrants side and 50 websites on the refugees’ side. The hosts were then divided into five categories: Mainstream News, Independent News, Governmental Organizations, NonGovernmental Organizations and Academic Research. These five categories became the actors of the controversy, the subjects of this research. Basing on the mutual comparison between the two corpus, it have been used three

different tools. At first, to visualize the interconnections between the websites and their respective weight on the Web space, it has been done an outlink Crawler. The result was visualized on Gephi, first, and manually re-composed on Illustrator. Then, always considering the linguistic limitation deriving from the only use of English language in the research, to see if there was a geographical correspondence between small islands local problems and the Web debate, it has been used Issue Geographer Tool.


Google search url

“island”

Carteret Islands Kiribati Maldives Tuvalu

+ “adjective + refugees” climate environmental forced eco

+ “adjective + migrants” climate environmental forced eco

Organization for actor mainstream news indipendent news governative non governative organization academic research

10 most relevant URLs for each islandv

G

“Carteret Islands” “refugees” “Carteret Islands” “climate refugees” “Carteret Islands” “environmental refugees” “Carteret Islands” “forced refugees” “Carteret Islands” “eco refugees”

C

“Kiribati” “refugees” “Kiribati” “climate refugees” “Kiribati” “environmental refugees” “Kiribati” “forced refugees” “Kiribati” “eco refugees”

K

K

“Maldives” “refugees” “Maldives” “climate refugees” “Maldives” “environmental refugees” “Maldives” “forced refugees” “Maldives” “eco refugees”

M

M

“migrants” “climate migrants” “environmental migrants” “forced migrants” “eco migrants”

Carteret Islands Kiribati Maldives Tuvalu

Common to 5 Common to 4 Common to 3 Common to 2

Scrape

“refugees” “climate refugees” “environmental refugees” “forced refugees” “eco refugees”

“Tuvalu” “refugees” “Tuvalu” “climate refugees” “Tuvalu” “environmental refugees” “Tuvalu” “forced refugees” “Tuvalu” “eco refugees”

“island”

Triangulation

“Carteret Islands” “migrants” “Carteret Islands” “climate migrants” “Carteret Islands” “environmental migrants” “Carteret Islands” “forced migrants” “Carteret Islands” “eco migrants” “Kiribati” “migrants” “Kiribati” “climate migrants” “Kiribati” “environmental migrants” “Kiribati” “forced migrants” “Kiribati” “eco migrants” “Maldives” “migrants” “Maldives” “climate migrants” “Maldives” “environmental migrants” “Maldives” “forced migrants” “Maldives” “eco migrants” “Tuvalu” “migrants” “Tuvalu” “climate migrants” “Tuvalu” “environmental migrants” “Tuvalu” “forced migrants” “Tuvalu” “eco migrants”

MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR

G

C

19 T

T

MN

G G

C C

K

M

T

K

M

T

IN

GO

NGO

AR


Corpus analysis

20

In the end, to make a semantic analysis of the corpus in aim to examine the words used in the debate, it has been used Alchemy Tool. The final results put in evidence the entities (Important people, Organizations and Countries) and the keywords. The last ones were then selected by relevance (minimum value: 0.70), grouped together by meaning into ten categories: administration, climate change, movie, global warming, islands, migrants, refugees, sea level, population and extreme events. Alchemy’s results were then combined with the actors, defining their position in the controversy.

Excel Gephi Illustrator Scriptographer Clash Bipartite Graph

Toolbox


Crawler

Issue Geographer

outlink division for island division for actor

division for island division for actor

Alchemy

Selection

Entities selection

Relevance ≼ 0,70

Country Person Organisation

Entities Keywords

Keywords organization Administration Climate change Movie Extreme events Islands Migrants Refugees Sea Level Population

AR

Corpus Refugees Corpus Migrants

21


URLs analysis


Legenda

All the information about a single page found in the research are visualized as a box, in which the long side represent the classification of the url (by actor or by island) and the short side represent the unit of a single page.

24


Corpus

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

MN Mainstream News

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus

Island

Name of url

Unit

25

Actor

Refugees

G General

MN Mainstream News

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Name of keyword or entities Relevance

Unit


URL

abc.net.au Australian Broadcasting Corporation, is an information local network acp-eucourier.info The Courier, is an information global network. 26

allafrica.com AllAfrica Global Media is a multi-media content service provider, systems technology developer and the largest electronic distributor of African news and information worldwide. AllAfrica is one of a family of companies that aggregate, produce and distribute news from across Africa to tens of millions of end users. allvoices.com The world’s premier platform for citizen journalism, Allvoices is committed to delivering a community-driven platform for open, global news and idea exchange. banabanvoice.ning.com Indipendent information network. The Banabans are the Forgotten People of the Pacific who have suffered from one of the greatest ecological and environmental disasters over the past century. bluepeacemaldives.org The organization is made up of concerned individuals who wish to ensure that the natural environment is used wisely and continues to be available for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations. Bluepeace is the

oldest environmental Non-Governmental Organization in the Maldives. Its mission is to create environmental awareness through its many campaigns and activities. brookings.edu The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington, DC. It conducts high-quality, independent research and provide innovative, practical recommendations. climate.aib.org.uk Indipendent blog that talks about environment and green thinking. current.com Network founded by Al Gore. It makes and shows exhaustive analysis about climate change and its thorny problems. economist.com An English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. ehs.unu.edu Worldwide network of Research and Training Institutes. Research about: vulnerability assessment, resilience analysis, risk management and adaptation strategies within linked human-environment systems; and Internal displacement and transboundary migration due to environmental push-factors.

staff, including a rolling news service. ejfoundation.org Environmental Justice Foundation, charity helping people deal with environmental abuses, finding peaceful ways of preventing them. fm-cab.blogspot.com Forced Migration - Current Awareness. Service that highlights web research and information relating to refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons and other forced migrants. foe.org.au Australian grassroots environmental organization. goodplanet.info It provides information about ecologic issues. greenleft.org.au Australia’s leading source of local, national and international news, analysis, and discussion and debate to strengthen the anti-capitalist movements. grist.org Idependent green news network. guardian.co.ukg Formerly known as Guardian Unlimited, is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. It contains nearly all of the content of the newspapers The Guardian and The Observer, as well as a substantial body of web-only work produced by its own

huffingtonpost.com The Huffington Post is an American news website and content-aggregating blog founded by Arianna Huffington,Kenneth Lerer, and Jonah Peretti, featuring liberal minded columnists and various news sources. The site offers coverage of politics, theology, media, business, entertainment, living, style, the green movement, world news, and comedy, and has news, blogs, and original content. ipsnews.net Inter Press Service is a global news agency. Its main focus is the production of independent news and analysis about events and processes affecting economic, social and political development. The agency has established a niche in the international mediascape, not only by providing professional reporting on the Global South, civil society, and globalization, but also by covering topics in a more in-depth way than is common in the mainstream news. irinnews.org Integrated Regional Information Networks acts as a news agency focusing on humanitarian stories in regions that are often forgotten, under-reported, misunderstood or ignored. The main purpose of this project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is to create greater awareness and understanding of regional issues and events, and to con-

tribute to better informed and more effective humanitarian action, media coverage and advocacy. islandsbusiness.com Multimedia publishing company based in Suva, Fiji. With correspondents throughout Oceania, it describes itself as the “premier publishing group in the Pacific Islands region”, with fourteen outlets in digital and video media as well as printed magazines. The latter include current affairs and business magazines, in-flight magazines for three of the region’s airlines, including Cathay Pacific, and four special-interest industry publications. judithcurry.com Forum that engages discussions about topics related to the climate science and the science-policy interface.

migrantsatsea.wordpress.com A blog that focuses on the subjects of maritime immigration enforcement, rescue at sea, and refugee and migrant rights and protections. motherjones.com A nonprofit news organization that specializes in investigative, political, and social justice reporting. mseumvictoria.com.au The largest public museums organization in Australia. It is responsible for the state’s scientific and cultural collections, providing public access through three museums. news.bbc.co.uk BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production. The website is the most popular news website in the United Kingdom and forms a major part of BBC Online (bbc.co.uk).

khaleejtimes.com The Khaleej Times is a daily English language newspaper published in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Traditionally perceived as the second most popular newspaper in the UAE, Khaleej Times has struggled to keep up its circulation and entered 2011 with a print run of just under 40,000 copies.

npr.org National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States.

mediamatters.org No-profit organization center dedicated to comprehensively monitoring, analyzing, and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S. media.

opendemocracy.net openDemocracy publishes high quality news analysis, debates and blogs about the world and the way we govern ourselves. outlookindia.com Outlook is one of India’s four top-selling

oikoumene.org Worldwide fellowship of churches.


English weekly newsmagazines. pacific.scoop.co.nz Network that collects news from the pacific islands. parl.gc.ca Parliament of Canada. pina.com.fj The Pacific Islands News Association is the premier regional organisation representing the interests of media professionals in the Pacific region. It links radio, television, newspapers, magazines, online services, national associations and journalism schools in 23 Pacific Island. praer.org Program to Relocate and Assist Environmental Refugees. It recognizes the legal status of those displaced by Climate Change so that they may seek asylum as refugees. reliefweb.int Relief Web is an on-line gateway to information on humanitarian emergencies and disasters. An independent vehicle of information, designed specifically to assist the international humanitarian community in effective delivery of emergency assistance, it provides information as events unfold, while emphasizing the coverage of forgotten emergencies at the same time. reuters.com Information network for businesses and professionals.

rsc.ox.ac.uk University of Oxford’s Refugee Studies Centre. sfu.ca Canadian University website. smh.com.au The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. spiegel.de Spiegel Online, the online version of German weekly news magazine Der Spiegel, is one the most visited news websites written in the German language. sprep.org Regional organization established by the governments and administrations of the Pacific region to look after its environment. suprememastertv.com Satellite channel website. takepart.com A community website focused on socially conscious media and issues. theage.com.au The Age is a daily broadsheet newspaper which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. The Age primarily serves Victoria but is also available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital

Territory and border regions of South Australia and southern New South Wales. thedailystar.net The Daily Star is the largest circulating English daily newspaper in Bangladesh. theecologist.org The Ecologist is a British environmental publication. It addresses a wide range of environmental subjects and promotes an ecological systems thinking approach. time.com Time is the world’s largest weekly news magazine. towardsrecognition.org Toward Recognition is a blog with the primary goal of raising awareness of environmental migrants. treehugger.com TreeHugger is a sustainability website. It was rated the top sustainability blog of 2007 by Nielsen Netratings, and was included in Time Magazine’s 2009 blog index as one of the top twenty-five blogs. uk.oneworld.net Engaged to innovate people’s media for a fairer and greener worlds. uk.reuters.com see reuters.com un.org

United Nation website. unfpa.org United Nations Population Fund website. unhcr.org UN refugees Agency website. unicef.org United Nations Children’s Fund website. unicef-irc.or Unicef Innocenti research centre website. wn.com World news “delivers breaking news from all over the world in 43 Languages”. pulitzercenter.org The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting is an innovative award-winning non-profit journalism organization dedicated to supporting the independent international journalism.

Urls in common beetween actors guardian.co.uk unhcr.org towardsrecognition.org npr.org takepart.com ipsnews.net allvoices.com news.bbc.co.uk

27


Corpus

Refugees

28

In the tables the hosts in the corpus are divided by actors and geographical belonging. The squares near to the hosts’ names represent the single page found. Therefore, in some cases, there can be multiple pages of the same host. From this partition, there are two things that could be immediately noticed: the first one is the total lack of websites in Academic Research category in Refugees corpus. The second one is the presence of eight hosts in common to the two corpus (highlighted in bold).

MN

G

C

K

IN

guardian.co.uk ipsnews.net huffingtonpost.com smh.com.au theage.com.au time.com treehugger.com uk.oneworld.net uk.reuters.com

NGO

reliefweb.int

suprememastertv.com theecologist.org treehugger.com

climate.aib.org.uk pulitzercenter.org takepart.com towardsrecognition.org wn.com

suprememastertv.com

allvoices.com banabanvoice.ning.com

ipsnews.net

GO

theage.com.au treehugger.com

npr.org

grist.org

M

guardian.co.uk news.bbc.co.uk uk.oneworld.net dailymail.co.uk

T

abc.net.au current.com goodplanet.info ipsnews.net spiegel.de

greenleft.org.au motherjones.com pacific.scoop.co.nz

foe.org.au

reliefweb.int

oikoumene.org unicef.org

bluepeacemaldives.org ejfoundation.org

praer.org

reliefweb.int unhcr.org

AR


Migrants MN

G

economist.com guardian.co.uk news.bbc.co.uk reuters.com

IN allvoices.com allafrica.com migrantsatsea.wordpress.com opendemocracy.net

GO

NGO

AR irinnews.org

un.org

29

guardian.co.uk

C

K

judithcurry.com

acp-eucourier.info guardian.co.uk islandsbusiness.com pina.com.fj

npr.org

guardian.co.uk

M

T

ehs.unu.edu

sprep.org

rsc.ox.ac.uk

mediamatters.org takepart.com towardsrecognition.org

khaleejtimes.com outlookindia.com thedailystar.net

guardian.co.uk ipsnews.net

fm-cab.blogspot.com towardsrecognition.org

unhcr.org

parl.gc.ca un.org unhcr.org

brookings.edu

unfpa.org

unicef-irc.org

sfu.ca

museumvictoria.com.au


Percent of actors

30

As shown here, the division of the websites of the two corpus aggregated by actors has both similar than different characteristics. In both of them Mainstream News have the highest percentage of presence, while the ratio between the Non-Governmental Organizations and the Governmental Organizations are far different: it looks like NGOs tend to use more the term refugees rather than migrants. Governmental Organizations, instead, act exactly as the opposite. The other relevant observation, as said before, is the total lack of Academic Research in Refugees’ corpus, as to suggest the nonscientific nature of the word refugee.


academic research

non governative organization

governative organization

independent news

mainstream news

31

Migrants

Refugees


Crawler

Corpus

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

Migrants

C Carteret K Kiribati M Maldives T Tuvalu

32

Corpus

Island

MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News

After the corpus was divided into categories, the next step was to look for the links Governative betweenGOwebsites. TheOrganization one hundred websites list was processed by Issue Crawler that, searching inNon the governamental single pages outlinks, was NGO Organization able to determine which were the outlinks of the websites in the corpus and if they AR Academic Research were connected one to another. The first visualization made with Gephi showed that most of the outlinks were not in common with the webpages of the corpus. Furthermore, the biggest part of the outlinks were from Mainstream News websites. With the aim of visualize the crawling in a more readable way than Gephi’s graphic, the data were copied on Illustrator and the graphics were drawn in a different way. For a more complete visualization, see the attached poster.

Actor

Refugees

G General

MN Mainstream News

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

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BANABANV

tio

igra

edm

forc

M

ESS.CO

SBUSIN

ISLAND

g n.or

SUPR

.int

iom

PINA.COM

COM REUTERS.

S.COM

KHALEEJTIME

UNHCR.ORG

.uk

imi.ox.ac

33 t.org

internal-displacemen

Migrants

forcedmigrationguide.pbworks.com

A.COM

.COM

G UN.OR

OM G ICES.C RS.OR ALLVO MATTE MEDIA

fweb

RDPRESS

ATSEA.WO

ALLAFRIC

MIGRANTS

UNFPA.ORG relie

BROOKINGS.EDU

fmreview.or g

TO

WAR

DS

RE

CO

GN

ITIO N.OR G

.int

ORG

NPR.

A SFU.C A L.GC.C PAR .ORG F-IRC OM.AU ORIA.C MVICT

JUD

ITHCU

es.com

OT.COM

nytim

onkey.com

law.ox .ac.uk

UNICE

MUSEU

.BLOGSP

FM-CAB

om g.c

dig

g pg.or

ic.com

gm

att autom

surveym

ohchr.org

RRY.C OM

n am

.int

est

uk

independent.co.uk

dailymail.co.

on igrati

u

ET

IPSNEWS.N

.org

a.e

J PINA.COM.F

dm force

REUTERS.COM

UNHCR.ORG

imi.ox.ac.uk

theregister.co.uk

internal-displacement.org

wattsupwiththat.com

ACP-EUCOURIER.INFO

forcedmigrationguide.pbworks.com

NEWS.BBC.CO.UK theecologist.org

OUTLOOKINDIA.COM

fmreview.org

.org

realclimate

UNFPA.ORG

org rogress.

climatep

reliefw

RSC

.OX.A C

.UK

m

.co

his

am

nitu re

.co

m

addt

eb.int

om

y.o nest

dailymail.co.uk

independent.co.uk

abc.net.au

wiley.com

springerlink .com

rg

onlinelibrary.

RSC.O X.AC.U

K

UK .CO.

DIAN

GU

AR

IRINNEWS.ORG

SPREP.O

RG

U

U.ED

S.UN

EH

OM TAKEPART.C

ECONOMIST.COM

OPENDEMOCRACY.NET

EH U

.ED NU

S.U

RT.COM

TAKEPA

Y.NET OPENDEMOCRAC

ECONOMIST.COM

IRINNEWS.ORG

nk.com

rg y.o

abc.ne t.au

COM

ISLANDSB

OM KHALEEJTIMES.C

om ary.wiley.c onlinelibr

springerli

rop

THEDAILYS TAR.NET

USINESS.

iom

ec.eu


Issue Geographer

Actor

ral

MN Mainstream News

eret

dives

u

Unit

34

With Issue Geographer it has been analyzed the geographical source of the websites in GO Governative Organization the corpus. Since Google queries were found setting EnglishNGO as language, the final result is not Non governamental Organization to be considered very relevant, because only the Anglophone Countries appear on the map. AR Academic Research Every square represent a site and is classified by actor. In the refugees’ corpus the type of site are homogeneous divided in every continent. In the migrants’ corpus, instead, there more differences.

K

M

C T

Actor

ral

MN Mainstream News

eret

IN Indipendent News

ati

GO Governative Organization

u

Name of url

IN Indipendent News

ati

dives

Refugees

Name of keyword or entities Relevance

NGO Non governamental Organization AR Academic Research

Unit


Migrants

35

K

M

C T


Alchemy


Legenda

Keywords and entities

All the information about a single keyword found in the research are visualized as a disk, in which the one side represent the name of the keyword, the other side represent the unit of a single match and the thickness of the disk is the relevance. 38

Qualitative comparison

The qualitative comparison has been made to make easier to compare common Keywords and Entities between the two lists. There are two type of graph: divided by actor and divided by island. This is useful to make clear the differences between the two lists and to understand deeply the connection between one certain actor or island and the words it uses.

Quantitative comparison

In quantitative graphs, alchemy’s relevance has been used to find out how much actors and islands talks about these topics.

Polar axis

This graphic shows the general distribution of the keywords in the corpus. Made with Clash Tool, the position of the keywords is determined by their presence in the Refugees’ corpus instead of Migrants’ one. The areas of the circles changes depending on the number of websites using the keyword while the position is given by an arithmetic mean of the websites in Refugees’ corpus and the websites in Migrants’ corpus containing the word.


Corpus

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

MN Mainstream News

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Name of url

Unit

39

Corpus

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

MN Mainstream News

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Name of keyword or entities Relevance

Unit


Distribution of Keywords and Entities

This graph represent how all the keyword and all the entities are distributed. The first column represent the islands (General, Carteret, Kiribati, Maldives, Tuvalu); the second column represent the actors (Mainstream News, Indipendent News, Governmental Organizations, Non Governmental Organizations). In the third column, in the lower side there are the keywords, and in the upper side there are the classification of Entities, all written in the fourth column. The main difference between the refugees’ corpus and the migrants’ one is the number and variety of both Keywords and Entities. The pages who use the word refugees, tend to talk about less argument, naming fewer people, countries and organizations than the pages who use migrants do.

41


Refugees

Australia Carteret Islands Kiribati Maldives Country

G

Papua New Guinea Tunisia Tuvalu

42

C

MN

COIN

Org

EJF IPCC

Person

UN administration

K climate change

IN film

M

islands refugees

NGO

Jane McAdam Lewis Gordon Pugh Alex de Sherbinin Ali Rilwan

GO T

WCC Janos Bogardi Michael Nash Maclellan Mr Maroni

population sea level migrants


Migrants Australia Burundi Canada Congo Fiji India Italy Kenya Kiribati Maldives Mexico Pakistan Papua New Guinea Singapore

Country

G

MN

US AU EJF

Org

IPCC UN UNHCR

Person

C IN

administration

K

climate change

M

GO migrants

NGO T

AR

extreme events film islands refugees population sea level

GMG IOM NHRI SBCJ UNU Janos Bogardi Francois Gemenne Andrea Gallina Harold Haig Jonathan Leake Vaughan Lowe Nicole Marshall Margaret Okeke Michael Oppenheimer Raquel Rolnik Anna Rushworth Cecilia Tacoli Tullio Treves Mohammad Zaman

43


Keywords

Administration government, meetings, adaptation plans, humanitarian policy, human rights, right of asylum. Climate change global warming, climate change. Extreme events floods and cyclones. Movie Sun Come Up. Islands Low lying islands, coral, nature. Migrants Forced migration, resettlement, mass migration, climate migrants, enviroment-related migration. Population Peoples, islanders, community. Refugees Climate refugees, environmental refugees. Sea level Sea lever rise.

45


Polar axis comparison

What can be noticed is that words like “climate change”, “extreme events” and “administration” (which indicates adaptation plans) are nearer to Migrants than to Refugees. This could suggest that this word is probably used the most in scientific and humanitarian discussions, while “refugees” could be considered as a more generic word. 46


refugees

Refugees

Islands

Movie

Climate change Population

Migrants Extreme events

migrants

Sea level

Administration

47


Qualitative comparison

48

This graph shows how both the Refugees’ and Migrants’ corpus talk about the same things in Mainstream News and in General (the top rows of both graph). Watching the actor’s graph, the main differences are in the Non Governmental Organizations, in which pages with refugees talks about more arguments and in Academic Research, non present in the refugees’ corpus. More in general, Migrants’ corpus talks more about administration and, obviously, migrants.


MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR

Refugees

Refugees

Migrants

Migrants

G

Refugees G

Refugees

MN administration

administration

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

climate change

climate change

movie

movie

extreme events

extreme events

film

film

islands

islands

islands

islands

migrants

migrants

migrants

migrants

migrants

migrants

refugees

refugees

refugees

population

population

sea level

sea level

sea level

refugees

refugees

sea level

sea level

IN

climate change

climate change

movie

movie

islands

islands

population

population

refugees

refugees

sea level

sea level

GO

climate change

climate change

islands

islands

population

population

refugees

refugees

NGO

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

islands

islands

population

population

sea level

sea level

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

movie

movie

migrants

migrants

population

population

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

islands

islands

extreme events

extreme events

migrants

migrants

population

population

refugees

refugees

administration

administration

C

K

M

T

AR administration

administration

climate change

climate change

Migrants

Migrants

administration

administration

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

climate change

climate change

film

film

migrants

migrants

refugees

refugees

refugees

sea level

sea level

sea level

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

film

film

migrants

migrants

C

climate change

climate change

film

film

islands

islands

population

population

refugees

refugees

population

population

sea level

sea level

sea level

sea level

K

administration

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

climate change

administration 49 climate change

islands

islands

islands

islands

migrants

migrants

migrants

migrants

refugees

refugees

refugees

refugees

population

population

sea level

sea level

M

climate change

climate change

administration

administration

islands

islands

climate change

climate change

refugees

refugees

global warming

global warming

sea level

sea level

migrants

migrants

sea level

sea level

T

administration

administration

administration

administration

climate change

climate change

climate change

climate change

islands

islands

extreme events

extreme events

population

population

islands

islands

refugees

refugees

migrants

migrants

sea level

sea level

population

population

sea level

sea level


Quantitative comparison

Keywords relevance (histogram)

50

Actor

Both corpus talk a lot about climate change, but migrants talk louder than refugees in movie, administration, migrants, population and refugees. Furthermore, they’re the only one who talk about extreme events. To the opposite, refugees talk louder on islands and sea level. This means, for us, that migrants’ speech is more varied, because it deals with a broader range of arguments than refugees.

Corpus

General view Mainstream and indipendent news talk a lot about nearly everything, to the contrary of academic reserarch, that talks less that the other two. Corpus crosses In particular there are crosses with almost the same relevanceCorpus between migrants and refugees in mainstream Refugees news (climate change, migrants, islands and sea level), in indipendent news (climate change and Migrants organipopulation) and in non governative zations (administration).

Corpus crosses Refugees

G General

Migrants

C Carteret

Actor

Refugees

G General

M

Migrants

C Carteret

IN

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

A

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Island

Islands General view Islands, in a broad view, talk a lot about everything, but there is a little less speech about movie and extreme events. Corpus Island

Island

Actor

Actor MN Mainstream News

Full crosses for climate change, in all the islands.

IN Indipendent News

Corpus

Island

Actor

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization Refugees G General

M

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization Migrants C Carteret

IN

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus

Island

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

A

Actor

Refugees

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News


Movie Admninstration Islands Migrants Population Refugees Sea level

Admninstration Islands Migrants Population Refugees Sea level

T

Movie

M Extreme events

K

Extreme events

C Climate change

G

Climate change

MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR 51


Entities

Country Australia Is politically involved into the refugees problem. A strong resettlement program continues to provide durable solutions for refugees from the region and around the world. 52

Burundi During ‘90s Burundi had a bloody civil war beetween etnies. After these conflicts, intense fluxes of refugees moved to near nations. This fact started a long serie of crossed military interventions. The return of displaced persons begun beetween 2002-2003. Canada Canada’s current humanitarian immigration program comprises various streams, the main one being refugees. Refugees come to Canada one of two ways: either they are selected abroad to receive a permanent resident visa to come to Canada or they come to Canada on their own and claim protection once here. Congo The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is still contending with ongoing conflict in its troubled east. Approximately 2 million people remain internally displaced and there are more than 450,000 Congolese refugees in neighboring countries. Fiji Refugee advocates say increasing numbers

of Fijians are seeking asylum in Australia to escape persecution at the hands of Fijian military government, and they say these people are the most vulnerable to the scam artists. India Though India has not ratified the 1951 United Nations (UN) and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, it provides shelter to over 300,000 refugees from neighboring countries. Italy According to Human Right Watch, since Italy established its new interdiction and summary return policy on May 6. 2008, about 500 migrants and asylum seekers have been interdicted by Italian security forces and their boats towed to Libya. Kenya The drought situation in the eastern Horn of Africa is deteriorating and it is unlikely to improve until next year, the humanitarian organization CARE International warns. More than 1,000 Somali refugees are arriving daily at the refugee settlements of Daadab in northern Kenya. Kiribati The island nation of Kiribati is preparing for the possibility that sea level rise could render large parts of the country uninhabitable: A program that’s training i-Kiribati people as nurses to help them move comfortably to Australia. Anote Tong, Kiribati’s

president, calls the strategy “migrating with dignity.” Maldives The Maldives plans to move money from tourism to purchase land in case of climate disaster. The country’s new president also envisions a sovereign wealth fund for the island nation’s relocation and investments in alternative energy technologies. The vice president said the Maldives would seek international support to reinforce natural coral barriers. Pakistan The number of refugees in Pakistan keeps growing. United Nations officials are putting the number at one and a half million people this month. They are fleeing the region where Pakistan’s army is trying to put down the Taliban. Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea is a signatory to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol. Organization EJF EJF is a registered charity established in 2000 to empower people who suffer most from environmental abuses to find peaceful ways of preventing them. IPCC

The IPCC assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of humaninduced climate change. UN The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

UNU United nation university contributes, through research and education, to efforts to resolve pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare.

Persons Andrea Gallina Assistant Professor at the Department of Social Sciences at Roskilde University, Denmark.

GMG The Global Migration Group (GMG) is a group consisting of fourteen UN agencies, the World Bank and the International Organisation for Migration that work in cooperation to address global migration issues. It was created in 2006 by then UN SecretaryGeneral Kofi Annan, in order to better coordinate multilateral migration governance initiatives.

Anna Rushworth Press Secretary at New Zealand Parliament

IOM The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organization. It was initially established in 1951 as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II.

Francois Gemenne Research fellow at the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI).

NHRI The research institute for the Department of Health, Taiwan.

Cecilia Tacoli Researcher at International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Chair Vaughan Lowe Chichele Professor of Public International Law at Oxford University.

Harold Haig Secretary of the International Child Migrants Association. Janos Bogardi Director of the United Nations University - Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS).

Jonathan Leake Science and Environment Editor at the Sunday Times. Margaret Okeke A cyclone tore through the Bay of Bengal leaving hundreds of thousands homeless. She and her family are some of those called environmental refgees. Michael Oppenheimer Director of the Program in Science, Technology and Environmental Policy (STEP) at the Woodrow Wilson School and Faculty Associate of the Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences Program, Princeton Environmental Institute, and the Princeton Institute for International and Regional Studies. Mohammad Zaman Executive director of Society for Bangladesh Climate Justice. Nicole Marshall Graduate student at University of Alberta. Research interests: environmental migration, forced migration and political philosophy. Raquel Rolnik professor at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism  of the University of Sao Paolo and is the author of several books and articles on the urban issue. Tullio Treves Professor at the University of Milano and


Judge of the International Tribunal for the Law of Sea. Alex de Sherbinin Senior Staff Associate for Research at the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). Ali Rilwan Executive director of local environmental NGO Blue Peace, from the Maldives. Jane McAdam Director of Research in the Faculty of Law. Director of the International Refugee and Migration Law project at the Gilbert &Tobin Centre of Public Law and convenor of the Faculty’s Refugee Law and Policy Group. Lewis Gordon Pugh Environmental campaigner and maritime lawyer. Maclellan Worked as a journalist at the Pacific Islands Forum in 1997 in Rarotonga. Michael Nash American film director, screenwriter and producer. Author of the film “Climate refugees”. Mr Maroni A member of the Northern League, an italian party known for its strong anti-immigrant stance.

53


Polar axis Comparison

54

These graphics work in the same way of the previous polar axis comparison made with the keywords. The objects analyzed are the entities, divided into three categories: Countries, Organizations and Persons. The first comparison shows the names of all the Countries involved in the controversy. It’s interesting to highlight the presence of three of the Islands queried, Maldives, Kiribati and Tuvalu, while Carteret is totally missing. This could be a consequence of the media phenomenon related to Kiribati and the Maldives. In the second one, the distinction between Organizations involved is quite amazing: only two Organizations are totally aligned with the Refugees’ side. One of them is environmentalist, the other one is a Christian charity. The other Organizations, on the Migrants’ side, are all big ones. What can be deduced is that, maybe, “migrants” is a word used preferably in institutional texts. The third one shows two distinct factions. Except for Janos Bogardi, the director of United Nations University, whose name is quite in the middle of the graphic, the other names are definitely divided. On the refugees side there are activists, a journalist and the director of the movie “Climate refugees”. On the other side there are all the people belonging to scientific or institutional Organizations. This could be another proof of the fact that the word “migrants” is preferred to the word “refugees” because of its being more technical, more ‘politically correct’.


Mexico Kenya India

Tuvalu

Canada

Tunisia

Carteret

Fiji Papua New Guinea

migrants

Maldives

refugees

Kiribati

Australia

Congo Burundi US Singapore Pakistan Italy GMG IOM

WCC

UNU IPCC

migrants

refugees

EJF

UN

COIN

AU UNHCR NHRIs SBCJ Andrea Gallina Anna Rushworth Tullio Treves Nicole Marshall Mr Maroni

Raquel Rolnik

Jane McAdam

Mohammad Zaman

Lewis Gordon Pugh

Vaughan Lowe

Michael Nash Maclellan Alex de Sherbinin Ali Rilwan

migrants

refugees

Janos Bogardi

Cecilia Tacoli Francois Gemenne Harold Haig Jonathan Leake Margaret Okeke Michael Oppenheimer

55


Polar axis Comparison

The following graphics are the same of the previous one. The only difference is that this one shows what the actual number of words in the corpus really is, instead of counting the number of websites. That’s why the circles are generally bigger than the other ones.

56


Burundi

REFUGEES

Singapore MIGRANTS Congo Mexico

Carteret Islands

Fiji

Tuvalu

REFUGEES

MIGRANTS Burundi

Australia

Refugees Carteret Islands Tunisia

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea

Maldives

Tuvalu

Carteret Islands Australia Tuvalu Tunisia

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea

Maldives

Kiribati

Migrants

Fiji Usa Burundi Kenya Singapore Italy CongoCanada Pakistan Mexico Fiji India Usa KenyaCanada

Australia Tunisia

Canada Singapore Congo Mexico India

Papua New Guinea

Maldives

Italy Pakistan India Usa Kenya NHRIs Italy GMG Pakistan AU

COIN

UNHCR

WCC EJF

IPCC

SBCJ NHRIs IOM GMG

UN

AU

COIN WCC EJF

UNHCR NHRIs

IPCC

SBCJ GMG IOM AU

UN

COIN

UNHCR

WCC EJF

IPCC

SBCJ

UN

IOM Rushworth Anna Jonathan Leake Andrea Gallina Michael Oppenheimer Cecilia Tacoli

Michael Nash

Mohammad Zaman Anna Rushworth

Mr Maroni

Jonathan Leake Andrea Gallina Haig MichaelHarold Oppenheimer

Jane McAdam Ali Rilwan Michael Nash Maclellan Mr Maroni Lewis Gordon Pugh

Janos Bogardi

Jane McAdam Ali Rilwan Michael Nash Mr Maroni Maclellan

Janos Bogardi

Jane McAdam Lewis Gordon Pugh Ali Rilwan Maclellan Lewis Gordon Pugh

Janos Bogardi

Cecilia Tacoli Anna Rushworth Jonathan LeakeZaman Mohammad Margaret Okeke Andrea Gallina Michael Oppenheimer Francois Gemenne CeciliaHarold Tacoli Haig Nicole Marshall Mohammad Zaman Alex de Sherbinin Raquel Rolnik Margaret Okeke Tullio Treves Harold Haig Vaughan Lowe Francois Gemenne Nicole Marshall Margaret Okeke Alex de Sherbinin Raquel Rolnik Francois Gemenne Tullio Treves Vaughan Lowe Nicole Marshall Alex de Sherbinin

57


Qualitative Comparison Country

Common Country Papua New Guinea Low-lying carteret islands are within Papua Nuova Guinea's jurisdiction.

58

Kiribati Very affected by the environmental degradation linked to the climate change, they are the first ones who try to protect coastal environment by planting mangroves. Australia Australian government has been helping the local governments of the Pacific Islands since the problem of migration has become worrying. Maldives The question of Maldivians' adaptation to climate change is brought on the screen thanks to the movie "The island President".


NGO

K EJF

IPCC

UN

NHRIs

WCC

WCC

UNHCR

EJF

M

AR

SBCJ UN

SBCJ

UN

IPCC

UNU

NHRIs

EJF

AU

IPCC

Refugees

MN

UNHCR

Bogardi

T IPCC UN

Bogardi

EJF GMC

Maroni Nash

IOM

Sherbinin Pugh

MN

Refugees

Migrants

Carteret Islands Kiribati Maldives

IN

Rushworth

Pakistan

Treves

Kiribati

Italy

Vaughan Lowe

Papua New Guinea

Kiribati Tuvalu

GO

Kenya

Kenya Pakistan

Carteret Islands

Tuvalu

Italy

C

Papua New Guinea K

Carteret Islands AR

Congo

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea

Tuvalu

Kiribati

Carteret Islands

Maldives

Kiribati

Canada

Australia

Australia

Congo

Maldives Australia

Zaman

Burundi Congo Kiribati Fiji Papua New Guinea

M

Maldives

Canada Maldives

Congo

India United States

Maldives

T Australia

Rolnik

Australia

Kiribati

AR

United States

Rilwan

Burundi

United States Carteret Islands

Mc Adam

NGO

Mexico

Kiribati

Mexico

GO

Singapore

Maldives

NGO

Marshall

India

Tuvalu

Australia

Leake Oppenheimer

Tunisia Papua New Guinea

Haig

Singapore

Fiji

Australia

G

Migrants

Mc Adam

Gemenne

Tacoli

Maclellan

Refugees

Gallina

Okeke

Janos Bogardi IN

Migrants

Tuvalu Australia Maldives Carteret Islands Papua New Guinea Kiribati

59


Quantitative Comparison Country

Keywords relevance (histogram)

60

Actor

Corpus

General view The biggest thing here is that mainstream news talk really loud about a lot of countries.

In Burundi, Fiji, India, Italy, Mexico, Pakistan, Singapore and US migrants is the only talker and it’s prevalent in Kiribati and the Papua New Guinea. Instead, refugees are the only talker in Tunisia, Tuvalu and Carteret Islands; but they are predominant in Australia and the Maldives.

Corpus crosses The only cross is in mainstream news about Kiribati and papua New Guinea. Corpus

Islands

Refugees

Corpus crosses Kiribati talk about itself, but the Carteret islands talk about Maldives.

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

M

Migrants

C Carteret

IN

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

A

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Island

General view Migrants The curious thing is that the main talker here are the general corpus and the tuvalu's one.

Corpus

Island

Actor

Actor

Refugees

G General

Migrants

C Carteret

MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News

Corpus

Island

Actor

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization Refugees G General

M

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization Migrants C Carteret

IN

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus

Island

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

A

Actor

Refugees

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News


Tunisia Tuvalu US

Tunisia Tuvalu US

Mexico

Maldives

Kiribati

Kenya

Italy

India

Fiji

Congo

Carteret Islands

Canada

Burundi

Australia

Singapore

T

Singapore

M Papua New Guinea

K

Papua New Guinea

C Pakistan

G

Pakistan

Mexico

Maldives

Kiribati

Kenya

Italy

India

Fiji

Congo

Carteret Islands

Canada

Burundi

Australia

MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR

61


Qualitative comparison Organization

Common Organization

62

EJF Environmental Justice Foundation, is a registered charity established in 2000 to empower people who suffer most from environmental abuses to find peaceful ways of preventing them. EJF has argued that the people who will be forced to move due to climate change currently have no adequate recognition in international law. The EJF contends that a new multilateral legal instrument is required to specifically address the needs of climate refugees in order to confer protection to those fleeing environmental degradation and climate change. IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific intergovernmental body which provides comprehensive assessments of current scientific, technical and socio-economic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity, its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, and possible options for adapting to these consequences or mitigating the effects. Thousands of scientists and other experts contribute (on a voluntary basis, without payment from the IPCC) to writing and reviewing reports, which are reviewed by representatives from all the governments, with summaries for policy makers being subject to line-by-line approval by all participating governments. Typically this involves the governments of more than 120 countries.

UN The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.


MN

Refugees

Migrants

COIN

EJF

EJF

G

Refugees

Migrants AU IPCC UN

IPCC

UN

IN

C IPCC

GMC IOM

UN

UN

IPCC

NGO

K

IPCC

UN WCC

EJF

UN UNU IPCC

UN

IPCC

.

GO

IPCC COIN

UNHCR

EJF

UNHCR

M EJF WCC

AR

AU IPCC

NHRIs SBCJ IPCC UNHCR

EJF UN

NHRIs

T

SBCJ

MN

UN

IPCC UN

EJF GMC IOM

Refugees Bogardi

UNU

Maroni

Refugees Carteret Islands Kiribati Maldives

IN

Pakistan

Marshall

Fiji

Italy

Oppenheimer

India

Mexico

Rushworth

Kenya

United States

Treves

Kiribati

Australia

Vaughan Lowe

Congo

Rolnik

Papua New Guinea

Kiribati

C

Singapore Italy Mexico

Papua New Guinea

Tacoli

Mc Adam

Tunisia

Carteret Islands

Okeke

Leake

Pakistan

Australia

Migrants Kenya

Tuvalu Papua New Guinea

Janos Bogardi Maclellan

Migrants

Australia

Haig

Pugh

Singapore

IN MN

Bogardi Gemenne

Sherbinin

G

Migrants Gallina

Nash

Refugees

63

GO

Carteret Islands

NGO

K AR

Mc Adam

Papua New Guinea

Kiribati Rilwan Tuvalu

Carteret Islands Kiribati

Kiribati Maldives

Burundi Congo Kiribati

Zaman


Quantitative Comparison Organization

Keywords relevance (histogram)

Actor

Corpus

General view Organizations, indipendent news and Academic research talk more that the others, in general the topic distribution a far varied and it focus on many organizations.

Only refugees talk about WWC and COIN, instead in AU, GMG, IOM, NHRIs, SBCJ, UNJCR and UNU there’s only migrants who talk about them. In EJF and UN, migrants talks more that refugees.

Corpus crosses The only cross is Ejf in mainstream news. Corpus

64

Islands

Island

Refugees

G General

M

Migrants

C Carteret

IN

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

A

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Island

Refugees

General view Migrants The general and carteret island corpus are those who talk more and about more different actors. Corpus crosses Non present.

Actor

Actor

Keywords relevance (histogram) Corpus

Island

Actor

Refugees

G General

Migrants

C Carteret

MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News

Corpus

Island

Actor

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization Refugees G General

M

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization Migrants C Carteret

IN

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus

Island

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

A

Actor

Refugees

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News


IOM

IOM

WCC

UNU

UNHCR

UN

SBCJ

NHRIs

WCC

UNU

UNHCR

UN

SBCJ

NHRIs

IPCC

GMG

GMG

IPCC

EJF

T

EJF

M COIN

K

COIN

C AU

G

AU

MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR 65


Qualitative Comparison Person

Common Person

66

Jane Mcadam Professor Jane McAdam is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow, and the Director of Research in the Faculty of Law. She is also the Director of the International Refugee and Migration Law project at the Gilbert&Tobin Centre of Public Law and the convenor of the Faculty’s Refugee Law and Policy Group. She is a Research Associate at the University of Oxford’s Refugee Studies Centre, and was the Director of its International Summer School in Forced Migration in 2008. (Vedi timeline pag 10) Janos Bogardi Janos Bogardi has been the Director of the United Nations University - Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNUEHS) since 2003. Simultaneously he is also Vice-Rector a.i. of the Vice Rectorate in Europe since May 2007. Janos Bogardi started his UN career in 1995 with the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris, France, as a Senior Programme Specialist and soon became the Chief of the Section on Sustainable Water


Refugees

Migrants AU IPCC UN UN

IPCC COIN

UN WCC

MN

UN IPCC

UNHCR

EJF

Refugees

EJF

Bogardi

UN

Maroni Nash Sherbinin Pugh

IPCC UN

IN

UNU IPCC

Migrants NHRIs SBCJ IPCC UNHCR

Bogardi

G

Nash

Marshall

NGO

Mc Adam Rilwan

AR

Pakistan

K

Congo

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea

Tuvalu

Kiribati

Carteret Islands Kiribati Australia

Maldives Australia

Burundi Congo Kiribati Fiji Papua New Guinea

Maldives

Canada Maldives India United States

Tuvalu Australia Maldives Carteret Islands Papua New Guinea Kiribati

Mclellan McAdam

M

Vaughan Lowe Rolnik

Janos Bogardi

Gallina Haig Gemenne

Pugh

Rolnik

Rilwan

Okeke Zaman

T

Mexico Australia

Carteret Islands

Treves

Italy United States

Tacoli

C

Rushworth

Kenya

Oppenheimer Treves

Oppenheimer

GO

Rushworth

Tacoli

Mc Adam

Singapore

Vaughan Lowe

Sherbinir

Okeke

Leake

Migrants

Leake Maroni

Gemenne

Maclellan

Refugees

Migrants

Bogardi

Gallina Haig

EJF JanosGMC Bogardi IOM

Refugees

Zaman

Bogardi McAdam

Gemenne Marshall

67


Quantitative Comparison Person

Keywords relevance (histogram)

68

Actor

Corpus

General view Mainstream news, followed by indipendent news talk about he wider range of people.

There is only migrants in: Gallina, Rushworth, Tacoli, Lowe, Gemenne, Haig, Leake, Okeke, Oppenheimer, Zaman, Marshall, Rolnik, Treves. instead there is only refugees in far less people: Rilwan, Sherbinin, McAdam, Pugh, Maclellan, Nash, Maroni. Despite that, Refugees is louder in Bogardi.

Island

Refugees

G General

M

Migrants

C Carteret

IN

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

A

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus crosses The only cross between the two corpus of migrants and refugees is Janos Bogardi.

Islands

Corpus

Island

Refugees

General view The Maldives and the general are the main Migrants talker. Corpus crosses No crosses.

Corpus

Island

Actor

Actor

Actor

Refugees

G General

Migrants

C Carteret

MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News

Corpus

Island

Actor

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization Refugees G General

M

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization Migrants C Carteret

IN

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Corpus

Island

K Kiribati

G

M Maldives

N

A

Actor

Refugees

G General

Mainstream News T MN Tuvalu

Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News


Nicole Marshall Raquel Rolnik Tullio Treves

Nicole Marshall Raquel Rolnik Tullio Treves

Michael Nash

Margaret Okeke

Maclellan

Lewis Gordon Pugh

Jonathan Leake

Janos Bogardi

Jane McAdam

Harold Haig

Francois Gemenne

Chair Vaughan Lowe

Cecilia Tacoli

Anna Rushworth

Andrea Gallina

Ali Rilwan

Alex de Sherbinin

Mr Maroni

T

Mr Maroni

M Mohammad Zaman

K

Mohammad Zaman

C Michael Oppenheimer

G

Michael Oppenheimer

Michael Nash

Margaret Okeke

Maclellan

Lewis Gordon Pugh

Jonathan Leake

Janos Bogardi

Jane McAdam

Harold Haig

Francois Gemenne

Chair Vaughan Lowe

Cecilia Tacoli

Anna Rushworth

Andrea Gallina

Ali Rilwan

Alex de Sherbinin

MN

IN

GO

NGO

AR

69


Answers


Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Common sites analysis

72

the percentage of arguCorpus This graphs showsIsland ments discusses in the common sites beRefugees General corpus. tween the refugees’ and G migrants’ The dimension of the pie charts is given by the number of pages of the site found in Migrants C Carteret both the corpus. It has to be noticed that the common sites are only from three types K Kiribati of actor: Mainstream News, Indipendent News e Governative Organization. Every site, except takepart.com talk about climate M Maldives change. T Tuvalu

Actor MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News GO Governative Organization

Rele NGO Non governamental Organization AR Academic Research


n s

Migrants

Refuge

C Chlimat an e ge

ds

an Isl

s

gee

Refu

nds

Mig

ds

an

guardian.co.uk

ipsnews.net

M

es

Administration Mo vie

npr.org

ge

ate Climnge a h C Movie

takepart.com

towardsrecognition.org

73

n

tio

fu

ra n

ts

Climate Change

news.bbc.co.uk

Re

ig

Islands

s

nd

Isla

ran t

s

Isl

allvoices.com

Isla

s

es

e at im nge l C ha C

Isla nd

C Ch lima an te ge

l ve Le

ation

Clim Chan ate ge

ee

a Se

Popu l

inist

ratio

el Lev

fug

Adm

Sea

Re

in

m

Ad

ra ist

C Chlima an te ge

unhcr.org


Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Are the Islands talking about themselves?

74

These graphics showCorpus the division by islands’ websites of the Countries found in the AlRefugees chemy’s research. The main difference between Refugees and Migrants could be noticed Migrants from the different size of the slices in the pie charts dedicated to the islands: in the first one the percentage is 81.5%, while in the second one it’s only 11.8%. Migrants’ websites seem to be more sensitive than Refugees’ to all the Countries having migration problems. Another interesting thing is the difference between the percentages of the islands: in the first one, Kiribati reaches the biggest value. This difference could be explained by the media phenomenon built around Kiribati’s situation. In Migrants it’s quite the opposite: there is not such a difference in the localization of the islands, since the biggest part of the results come from websites belonging to general’s set.

Island

Actor G General

MN Mainstream News

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organ

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research


refugees refugees

migrants migrants

Refugees

Migrants Au

Au

lia

a str ies untr d co e v ol 1,1 % 1 Inv

lia

a str ies untr d co e v ol 1,1 % 1 Inv

o

ng

Canada

a

Italy

Canada

Fiji

a

Indi

Kenya

Mexico Pakistan

Papua

Sing

Ki

M

al

rib

di

ve s

ati

ret

Isl

an

ds

1 1 ,8 Is l a % nds

1 1 ,8 Is l a % nds ti

ds

iba

an

Kir

ve s

Isl

lu va Tu

lu va Tu

di

ret

Ma ldi ve s

al

ati

rte

ti

M

rib

Ca

iba

Ki

run

Kir

rte

New G

uinea

apo

Bu

Ca

Fiji

a

Indi

Involved c ount 29,4 % ries

Italy

Aus trali

Ma ldi ve s

Tunisia

a

Involved c ount 29,4 % ries

ea

Aus trali

81 Isl ,5 % and s

Tunisia

Guin

81 Isl ,5 % and s

ea

New

Other contries with e migra tion 7,4 %

Papu a

Guin

US

ries with emigration r cont Othe 58,8 %

New

US

o

ng

Co

ries with emigration r cont Othe 58,8 %

Papu a

Other contries with e migra tion 7,4 %

Co

di

re

Kenya 75

Mexico Pakistan

Papua

Sing

New G

uinea

Bu

apo

run

di

re


Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Which Organizations talk about the controversy?

76

the distribution of the Corpus This pie chart shows Island Organizations divided by actor. The most Refugees G General relevant thing is the massive presence of Governmental Organizations in Migrants’ corpus, almost the doubleCofCarteret Refugees’. This Migrants and the fact that almost half of the words are from Academic Research set, further K Kiribati demonstrates that the word “migrants” is considered as more technical of the word “refugees” and it’s used above all in scientifM Maldives ic field. The presence of the WCC (World Council of Churches) in Refugees’ corpus T Tuvalu shows how this side of the topic, instead, tends to integrate variegated points of view.

Actor MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News GO Governative Organization

Rele NGO Non governamental Organization AR Academic Research


refugees

refugees

migrants

Refugees

migrants

Migrants UN

U

Go ve UN

zations gani e or tiv % rna 33,3

77

COIN

EJF

WC C

COIN

EJF

WC C

on

s

F EJ

on

UN

UN

a ti v 6 0 % e o rg a niz a

RIs

UN

UN

HC

R

GMG

IOM

NH

e rn

e rn

s

IOM

NH

G ov

S

ti

F EJ

% niz a 1 3 , 3 o rg a e a ti v

S

J BC

ti

rn a 4 4,4 % ti ve o rg a n i z a t i o n s

ve r n

ove

% niz a 1 3 , 3 o rg a e a ti v

ve r n

rn a 4 4,4 % ti ve o rg a n i z a t i o n s

J BC

a ti v 6 0 % e o rg a niz a

N on go

N on go

ove

ng

No

No

ng

GMG

AU

tio n s

AU

tio n s

U

ons ati niz

CC

G ov

Res ear ch 2

ons zati ani g r o 2% 2, N

zations gani e or tiv % rna 33,3

Res ear ch 2

Go ve

U

IP

Res ear ch o 26, rga 7%

CC

IP

CC

IP

ons zati ani g r o 2% 2,

CC

Res ear ch o 26, rga 7%

IP

UN

ons ati niz

HC

R

RIs


Migrants

C Carteret

IN Indipendent News

K Kiribati

GO Governative Organization

M Maldives

NGO Non governamental Organization

T Tuvalu

AR Academic Research

Who talks about the controversy?

78

the division by actors Corpus This pie chart shows Island of the people found in Alchemy research. Refugees G GeneralpercentWhat can be seen is the different age of researcher in Migrants’ corpus and in Refugees’ one: in the first Ccase, the percentMigrants Carteret age reaches the 66.7% of the total amount, outnumbering the amount of researchers in K Kiribati Refugees. Another interesting difference is the presence of a new category in Refugees’ corpus, “film maker”, while Migrants apM in Maldives pears the name of Margaret Okeke, a migrant. T Tuvalu

Actor MN Mainstream News IN Indipendent News GO Governative Organization

Rele NGO Non governamental Organization AR Academic Research


Pu

n

rd on Go s

s

Go

Ali

rd on

Ril wa

Pu

n Le wi

Le wi

Ril wa Ali

al

l

er

pp

N

gh a air Va u

ae ich

qu

el

Ann

a Ru

shw orth

Ra

qu

Ro

ow e

im

M

Ra

al

sh ar

lO

ow e

le ico

gh a

nL

en he

im

er

Tu

s ve Tre

nL

A

en he

G ea ndr

llio

air Va u Ch

ich

i

ae

lO

aron

pp

10 % s ian Po l i t i c

M

n

lina

Ch

urn % a li s ts

Jo

10

lla

Mr M

i

aron

Mr M

Gal rea Ma s And cve Tre lella o i n ll ll a Tu sh r a M le co Ni

coli lia Ta

Ceci

M

Researchers 50 %

10 urn % a li s ts

cle

e Margaret Okek

Politic ians 6,7 %

10 % s ian Po l i t i c

lina

ath

Jon

e Margaret Okek

menne

e Francois G rs c he e ar Res 6,7 % 6

coli lia Ta

Jo

Researchers 50 %

menne

e Francois G Ceci

Ma

Michael Nash

Janos Bogardi

ke

ea

L an

Migrants 6,7 %

Janos Bogardi

Migrants 6,7 %

in

Sherbin

ath

Pol i t i c i a ns 6,7 % rs c he e ar Res 6,7 % 6

Alex de

Michael Nash

Filmmakers 10 %

in

Sherbin

Jane McAdam

ke

ea

L an

Jon

Bogar di Filmmakers 10 %

Jane McAdam

Alex de

Janos

Bogar di

Act iv 20 % ists

Activ is 13,3 ts %

lists rna Jou ,7 % 6

Janos

Activ is 13,3 ts %

lists rna Jou ,7 % 6

Act iv 20 % ists

gh

Migrants gh

Refugees

Moh amm ad Z ama n Ha rol dH aig

Refugees

Migrants

Moh amm ad Z ama n Ha rol dH aig

Refugees

Migrants

ln

ik

el

Ann

Ro

a Ru

ln

ik

shw orth

79


80


Conclusions

81


Conclusion

From the research came out the informations expected. Medias use more the term “refugees” and maybe because of its impact on the feelings of the reader and its capacity to attract the attention to the fact that those people are forced to leave their homes. But under this use there is a lack of a broader view of the problem, favouring sensationalism to the detriment of the complexity of the topic. Migrants’ websites put the debate under both governmental and scientific points of view, focusing mostly on adaptation plans. To better develop the topic in order to continue this research in the future, it could be useful to integrate the English queries with the same ones translated into other languages. Furthermore, the top results could be analyzed with a deeper semantic research (taking, for instance, all the results with a relevance lower than 0.70) and .pdf files found with Google’s research could be included in the analysis.

83

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Islanders  

DensityDesign Research Lab. A.Y. 2011-2012. Integrated Course Final Synthesis Studio. Credits: Marco Agosta, Elisa Angelico, Michele Crivel...

Islanders  

DensityDesign Research Lab. A.Y. 2011-2012. Integrated Course Final Synthesis Studio. Credits: Marco Agosta, Elisa Angelico, Michele Crivel...

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