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Issue 2 • 2015

The Hub Trevi Hong Kong works on the

PIC Sky View Piling Industry Canada

Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities


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Downtown Miami www.pilingindustrycanada.com gets iconic new tower

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D E C AT U R , A L






In this issue

Published by DEL Communications Inc. Suite 300, 6 Roslyn Road Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada R3L 0G5 President & CEO: David Langstaff Publisher: Jason Stefanik

Piling Industry News 6


Sky View – Downtown Piling Industry Canada Miami gets iconic new tower and breaks a world piling record 14


Performance Piling – New Children’s Hospital of Saskatchewan www.pilingindustrycanada.com puts piling to the test 18

Tall Timbers – The University of British Columbia is set to build Canada’s tallest wooden building 20

Patented Sonic Pile – Anchors Set to Revolutionize Building Foundations 24

The Hub – Trevi Hong Kong works on the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities 28

No Substitute for Hard Work and Dedication – Davide Trevisani takes home DFI’s DaVinci Legends Award 32

LRFD versus ASD for Driven Piles – The code

Managing Editor: Carly Peters carlypeters@mts.net

drives the methodology 36

Sales Manager: Dayna Oulion dayna@delcommunications.com

Design-Build – Optimizing value

Advertising Account Executives: Jennifer Hebert Michelle Raike

and foundations in the commercial, infrastructure, and industrial markets 38

Stir It Up – ABI rigs utilized in soil mixing 42

A Level Playing Field? – Not necessarily so for telescopic boom crawler crane design and lifting performance 44

Money 101 – Improving your financial literacy can improve your business 48

Index to Advertisers 49 Free Directory Listing Form 50

Production services provided by: S.G. Bennett Marketing Services www.sgbennett.com Art Director/Design: Kathy Cable Advertising Art: Sheri Kidd, Joel Gunter, Dana Jensen © Copyright 2015, DEL Communications Inc. All rights reserved.The contents of this pub­lica­tion may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without prior written consent of the publisher. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein and the reliability of the source, the publisher­in no way guarantees nor warrants the information and is not responsible for errors, omissions or statements made by advertisers. Opinions and recommendations made by contributors or advertisers are not necessarily those of the publisher, its directors, officers or employees. Publications mail agreement #40934510 Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: DEL Communications Inc. Suite 300, 6 Roslyn Road Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3L 0G5 Email: david@delcommunications.com Printed in Canada 12/2015

4 PIC Magazine • December 2015




Piling Industry News

CIS drives subsea piles in 160 minutes on Alvheim development Conductor Installation Services Ltd. (CIS), an Acteon company that provides hammer services to install conductors and drive piles, announced that it successfully completed its second subsea piling campaign for Technip in Norway.  CIS used its remotely operated Subsea Piling System, which makes it possible to drive piles as large as 36 inches in diameter, in water depths to 300 metres. In August 2015, the piles were driven remotely to secure the subsea Boa Extension Manifold, which makes up an integral part of the Alvheim development, approximately 225 kilometres west of Stavanger.  The development, which transports oil to the UK Scottish Area Gas Evacuation System, is designed to increase oil recovery by enhancing current production rates via three new subsea well step-outs at East Kameleon, Kneler A and Boa.

Subsea piling installation completed in seven hours Once rigorous testing of all equipment was completed, the CIS team mobilized with piling and pile-lifting equipment to the Alvheim field. Working from the Skandi Arctic dive support vessel in maximum water depths of 130 metres, CIS successfully drove the four 30inch manifold piles.  Although the seemingly impenetrable soil formation encountered at the Alvheim manifold site made the final five metres of each individual driving operation more difficult than a previous operation carried out on nearby Bøyla field, the Subsea Piling System performed flawlessly. Each pile was successfully driven into the seabed to its respective target depth of 11.25 metres.  The subsea operation was successfully completed in seven hours in half of the time originally planned. All four piles were driven with a 90kJ hydraulic hammer in just 160 minutes.

Reliable technology + proactive personnel = winning combination For Technip, the Alvheim Boa campaign illustrated the effectiveness of the piling system, as well as the professionalism of CIS. “CIS delivered a well-maintained spread, and personnel who were very proactive during the run-up to the campaign and offshore,” says Mark Underhill, project manager for Technip Norge AS.  “Based on the performance on Boa, I would have no reservation in recommending their services for future projects for Technip.” “Our Subsea Piling System performed reliably, allowing us to drive the piles subsea very efficiently,” says Andy Penman, Group Managing Director of CIS. “We have now completed two successful subsea piling campaigns for Technip in just 14 months: one on Alvheim and another on Bøyla field last year. Looking ahead, we hope to be in a position to drive more subsea piles for Technip as our relationship continues to develop.”

Subsea piling system The subsea piling process is carried out by an experienced CIS engineer from a control unit and monitoring system located onboard a nearby vessel. A hydraulic hammer, connected via an electronic umbilical cable to the control system, is lowered into the water and placed 6 PIC Magazine • December 2015

directly over the subsea pile. Once it is accurately positioned, the pile will be driven into the seabed by the hammer until it reaches its target depth. CIS, a member of Acteon’s Conductors, Risers and Flowlines group, provides conductor and pile installation services associated with construction projects carried out in the global oil and gas industry. These services are carried out both onshore and offshore to, for example, create foundations for new wells, platforms, bridges and jetties.  The range of services provided by CIS supports the Acteon Group’s commitment to defining subsea services across a range of interconnected disciplines.

About Conductor Installation Services Conductor Installation Services Ltd (CIS), an Acteon Company, is the only company that is solely dedicated to the process of installing conductors and piles. CIS takes responsibility for full project management for installing conductors anywhere in the world.  The company’s primary objective is to employ hammer services to install conductors and drive piles with the highest standard of structural integrity, reliably and safely. CIS also strives to reduce the cost of conductor and pile installation by developing more efficient work processes and using the latest state-of-the-art technology, including its remotely operated Subsea Piling System that the company developed to drive piles as large as 36-inches in diameter in water depths to 300 metres. Since it was founded in Great Yarmouth, England in 2005, CIS has built an impressive track record of successful operations carried out in every major oil and gas-producing region.  In recognition of the fact that it had not incurred a single lost time incident (LTI) for 10 consecutive years, CIS was awarded its second consecutive Gold Medal for Occupational Health and Safety in 2015 from the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA).  It is the highest award for safety in the United Kingdom.  Learn more at www.c-i-services.com.

About Acteon Acteon companies provide mooring, foundation, riser, conductor, flowline, and marine electronics products and services supported by strong engineering and project management capabilities. Acteon’s companies are 2H Offshore, Aquatic, Claxton, Conductor Installation Services (CIS), Core Grouting Services, Fluke Subsea, InterAct, InterMoor, J2 Subsea, Large Diameter Drilling (LDD), LM Handling, Menck, Mirage Machines, NCS Survey, Offshore Installation Services (OIS), Probe, Pulse Structural Monitoring, Seatronics, Subsea Riser Products (SRP) and TEAM Energy Resources.  Learn more at www.acteon.com.

About subsea services Subsea services are defined as the provision of specialist equipment, services and personnel that can operate from any fit-for-purpose vessel or platform. Acteon’s subsea service offering is unique and addresses operational requirements that support oil and gas asset owners, construction and drilling companies, and vessel owners.

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Your True Project Partner Skyline Steel is a premier steel foundation supplier with an extensive network of manufacturing and stocking locations. Our wide range of products include H-piles, Pipe Piles, Steel Sheet Piles, Threaded Bar, Micropiles, Piling Accessories, and Structural Sections. See how Skyline Steel can help with your next project. Visit skylinesteel.com or call. In Western Canada (BC, AB, SK, MB, YT, NT, and NU), call 1-780-460-8363; In Eastern Canada (ON, NB, NS, QC, PE, and NL.), call 1-866-461-6366.

Š 2015 Skyline Steel, LLC. Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of steel in the United States.

Piling Industry News

ECA earns coveted BAUER Service Award Equipment Corporation of America (ECA), a leading distributor of foundation construction equipment, received the BAUER Manufacturing Service Partner Certification Award at the BAUER Parts and Service Initiative Meeting in Conroe, Texas. ECA is an exclusive BAUER distributor covering the eastern United States and eastern Canada. This coveted award certifies that ECA meets all BAUER Manufacturing standards, including stocking and supplying factory-authorized parts; employing factory-trained technicians; and complying with all health, safety and environmental mandates common to the United States and Canadian foundation drilling industry. ECA earned the certification by successfully undergoing a rigid audit process at each of its six service facilities. The review included an inventory of tools and testing equipment; employee and customer technical training; service trucks; adequate maintenance and storage facilities; updated safety equipment; and compliance with oil and hazardous materials storage, handling, and disposal requirements. “ECA is honoured to accept this coveted award from BAUER, one of the dominant global manufacturers of foundation construction equipment,” says Executive Vice-President Ben Dutton, whom accepted the award from Walter Froehlich, BAUER’s Director of After

Market Parts and Service. “It is a testament to the diligence and professionalism of the entire ECA team from our Parts and Service Department to the executive level.”

About Equipment Corporation of America ECA has been a leading supplier of foundation construction equipment in the eastern United States and eastern Canada for nearly a century. They are exclusive distributors for BAUER Drills, Klemm Anchor and Micropile Drills, RTG Piling Rigs, Pileco Diesel Pile Hammers, HPSI Vibratory Pile Hammers, Word International Drill Attachments, Dawson Construction Products, and Grizzly Side Grip Vibros. ECA offers sales, rentals, service, and parts from nine facilities throughout the eastern U.S. and eastern Canadian provinces.

Fraser River Pile & Dredge (GP) Inc.

As Canada’s largest Marine Construction, Land Foundations and Dredging contractor, FRPD is a recognized leader that employs state of the art methods and equipment. FRPD’s versatile fleet is ready to complete all scope and size Marine Construction, Environmental Remediation, Dredging and Land Foundation projects. Established in 1911 as Fraser River Pile Driving Company and incorporated in 2008 as Fraser River Pile & Dredge (GP) Inc., FRPD’s team of highly skilled professionals brings more than 100 years of experience and commitment to exceeding expectations. 1830 River Drive, New Westminster, B.C. V3M 2A8 Phone: 604-522-7971 (24/7) www.frpd.com info@frpd.com

8 PIC Magazine • December 2015

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Piling Industry News

Pile Dynamics releases complimentary update of GRLWEAP program GRLWEAP – Wave Equation Analysis of Piles – is the most widely used software for the simulation of the pile driving process and for establishing the driving criterion. For each assumed pile capacity, it calculates the corresponding driving resistance (blow count) and stresses during driving. It also helps check the adequacy of pile driving equipment. GRLWEAP is also helpful for designing dynamic load tests on drilled foundations. The program is taught in advanced foundation engineering courses around the globe. A key feature of GRLWEAP is its database of almost 1,000 pre-programmed pile driving hammers. Pile Dynamics recently performed a major update of the database, working closely with hammer manufacturers to incorporate the latest information on efficiency and other important characteristics. The latest database is part of GRLWEAP 2010-6, which includes other improvements to the software and help functions as well. The upgrade to version 2010-6 is complimentary for those with licenses of GRLWEAP-2010 (either standard or Offshore Wave versions).

A detailed description of the upgrade, and the maintenance upgrade itself, are available on www.pile.com/grlweap. All users are encouraged to use the latest version of this software. In addition to the GRLWEAP software program Pile Dynamics produces several

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Piling Industry News

Liebherr piling rig in major infrastructure project in Denmark A Liebherr piling rig was recently used for foundation works for the construction of future apartment buildings in the Danish capital of Copenhagen. Some 300 piles had to be installed by the LRH 100 belonging to the Danish construction company M.J. Eriksson A/S. In a major infrastructure project under the name “Frederiks Brygge” a waterfront area in the Southern docklands of Copenhagen is currently redeveloped. On a total area of 120,000 square metres approximately 1,200 apartments are built together with retail and commercial space. The Liebherr piling rig of the type LRH 100 was used for the installation of about 300 concrete piles with a diameter of 300 millimetres and total lengths between eight and 13 metres. Thanks to its unrivalled performance strength and it great flexibility the LRH 100 was able to complete this job within just 15 working days – a considerable time before schedule. A major criterion on the jobsite was the sometimes narrow work space, offering just little leeway for the piling rig to move in any direction. Here, the innovative parallel kinematics of the machine’s leader system with its great operational range proved to be an immense benefit for the customer. It allows radii of up to 8.75 metres and inclinations of maximum 18 degrees in all directions. Thanks to this feature the operator was able to change the position of the leader in all directions without moving the undercarriage. “We are overall happy with the performance of the LRH 100. Its ability to install the piles in different angles and in any direction as well as its long outreach massively contributed to the fast completion of the piling works at the jobsite,” explains Kave Yazdani, engineer at M.J. Eriksson A/S. 12 PIC Magazine • December 2015

The LRH 100 is based on the proven LB 20 carrier machine of the Liebherr LB series of rotary drilling rigs. It is equipped with a powerful and emission-optimized 270 kW /362 hp Liebherr diesel engine and can be transported in one piece with the hammer mounted. The compact design of the carrier

machine with three metre transport width allows for quick and cost-effective transportation. The LRH 100 from Liebherr also offers a wide range of powerful equipment. This assures that the excellent performance of the basic machine is ideally converted into high productivity. l

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Sky View Downtown Miami gets iconic new tower and breaks a world piling record By Melanie Franner The bright and eclectic landscape of downtown Miami is changing thanks to the addition of a bold and innovative residential tower from world-renowned architect Zaha Hadid. The first of her architectural celebrations in the Western Hemisphere, One Thousand Museum by Zaha Hadid Architects will be a cutting-edge, contemporary, luxury residential tower that will rise more than 62 storeys high to encompass a total of 83 residences in 30,000 square feet. Hadid’s signature curves are evident in the design, which uses fluidity throughout to combine the building’s exoskeleton with a recessed glass façade. The result is an ambitious and striking landmark tower that will rightfully earn its place on Miami’s rich architectural scene. It is also one that has put the requisite pilings work to the test.

Placement matters The complex design of One Thousand Museum is one that calls for an extra deep foundation to provide the necessary structural support for the towering structure that will rise above ground. “This was an urban in-fill project in Miami, one of the last sites available in the 14 PIC Magazine • December 2015

downtown boulevard,” states Kevin Venger, developer for One Thousand Museum. “This is the missing piece to the luxury condos on that boulevard.” Venger describes Hadid’s designs as using a “geometric curvature” to create buildings that “flow” from a structural standpoint. “We’re rising 700 feet above the ground but to do that, we need to go 155 feet below the ground to put in the support piles,” explains Venger, who opted to use Miami-based HJ Foundations for the installation of augercast piles. “HJ Foundations has perfected the auger drill shaft. They installed 242 piles with 30-inch diameters in 85 working days. That’s unheard of and would have taken us twice the amount of time and double the cost if we were to have done it with traditional caisson piles.” According to Frank Fonseca, president, HJ Foundation, a Keller Company, the company’s “mega piles” (as he refers to them) are the result of 10 years of development in perfecting the craft. It’s one that carries over the efficiencies earned on smaller buildings to taller ones – one that Fonseca describes as having occurred over the course of several years.

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“Traditional caisson piles could have been used on this project but it would have been more expensive and time consuming to install,” he says. “Because of our market share, we have used mega piles in hundreds of buildings in Miami over the years. We have perfected the design and implementation of augercast piles in high-rise towers like this one.” HJ Foundations designs its own proprietary equipment and is able to meet the needs of different developers as a result. “Our equipment is the biggest and most powerful in North America,” he says. “It is custom built to our specifications.” The company is capable of installing piles as large as 42 inches in diameter and as deep as 170 feet, with load capacities as great as 1,800 tonnes per pile. In the case of One Thousand Museum, HJ Foundations used 30-inch diametre augercast piles and went as deep as 160 feet on most of them. There were, however, a few exceptions to the rule. “We broke the world record by going 177 feet deep on this job with a few of the piles,” says Fonseca. The soil conditions were typical of south Miami and posed no significant challenges for the experienced crew. “The soil is intermittent layers of sand and limestone,” explains Fonseca. “We some16 PIC Magazine • December 2015

times hit voids in the limestone formations but we just filled them in and kept going. In all, the project progressed pretty much as we thought it would, thanks to a lot of foresight and planning.” Venger adds that every pile installed took about five truckloads of grout. “It required a lot of careful timing and sequencing,” he says. “But we never had to abandon a pile. At the worst, we had to go back and refill.” According to Fonseca, the work below the ground at One Thousand Museum went relatively smoothly. “We try to break down complex projects that developers create above the earth and make them uniform below the ground,” he explains. “Although the piles in this case were deeper than most, the rest of the job was fairly typical. Our work tends to go unnoticed because it does take place underground. Now that we’re done, the sexy part of building above ground can begin.”

Foundation first Another significant element of One Thousand Museum was the foundation pour required for the project. “We used almost 10,000 yards of concrete for the foundation,” says Venger, who adds that it took about 1,000 truckloads of concrete to complete the 24-hour pour. “We used seven different batch plans and had 170 trucks cycling at any given time. We had

25 off-duty police officers on hand to direct the traffic. We had five pumps per truck and had 10 trucks pumping continuously.” Given all the activity that the foundation pour entailed, it surprisingly went well. “Getting the piling work and the foundation in is a huge milestone for us,” concludes Venger. “Everything else is humanly controllable. We can pre-plan around anything that arises from this point forward, even it entails a hurricane. When it comes to the piling work, you’re up against the unknown. You never know what you’re going to find when you’re digging the hole. We had three wells put in for this project and pumped from two of them. We reached 1,000 gallons of water per minute from a well absorption point of view. We had the third back-up well ready but luckily, we didn’t have to use it. From this point forward, we’re off to the races.” Construction work on the tower proper will begin in early 2016, with a completion date for One Thousand Museum expected in late 2017. When finished, One Thousand Museum will undoubtedly become a landmark building – one that will transform the ambitious creative vision of Zaha Hadid into the stunning reality of luxury living – thanks to the expertise and experience of an industry ready and willing to rise to the challenge. l





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Visit www.skylinesteel.com/nz or call 888.450.4330. Š 2015 Skyline Steel, LLC. Skyline Steel is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Nucor Corporation, the largest producer of steel in the United States.

Performance Piling

New Children’s Hospital of Saskatchewan puts piling to the test By Melanie Franner

The new Children’s Hospital of Saskatchewan (CHS) is currently under construction in Saskatoon. When operational in 2019, it will be the first of its kind in the province – a five-floor, 176-bed facility that will offer specialized medical services for children, teenagers, pregnant women, and mothers. It will also include a pediatric and adult emergency department for both the CHS and the existing Royal University Hospital (RUH), which is located adjacent to the CHS. “Many of the specialized services that are going to be offered by the CHS are currently dispersed throughout the region and at different locations within existing facilities,” explains Craig Ayers, Children’s Hospital of Saskatchewan project director, Saskatoon Health Region. “In some instances, patients currently need to relocate within a department or between facilities. This new facility will allow specialized services to be co-located under one roof. It is a very significant and complex project.”

Site situation Construction of the new CHS is made all the more complex because it is being built on the site of the existing RUH. As such, there was extensive site preparation work involved. This began in 2011, and included the creation of a new entrance to the RUH, expansion of a portion of the parkade and demolition of an area of the parkade in the area of construction of the new facility. “This is a complex project in that it is being integrated into an 18 PIC Magazine • December 2015

existing, live site,” notes Tom Bain, senior project manager, Graham Construction, the general contractor on the project. “The new hospital is located between the existing Royal University Hospital and the parkade. This means we have both operational restrictions and access restrictions.” Not only does the “live” site translate into tight building conditions, it also gives rise to other concerns. “One of the main challenges is logistics,” says Bain. “We have a very limited area – what we call a ‘gap site’ to bring in materials and resources. We’re working in a live hospital environment and have to deal with just-in-time sequencing of materials delivery. We also have to manage the comings and goings of the general public, the physicians and other staff. It’s a tough logistical situation.”

Planned piling The first phase of construction on the CHS involved 240 cast-inplace (CIP) concrete piles. The company charged with the work was Deep Foundations Contractors Inc. They began the job at the end of September 2014, and finished in February 2015. “We worked through the winter but didn’t miss any time due to bad weather,” says David Bradshaw, regional manager, Western Canada, Deep Foundations Contractors Inc. “It just took a bit longer to warm up the equipment when working in minus 25 or minus 30-degree temperatures.”

Despite the extra time required to ready the equipment, Deep Foundations Contractors finished the first phase of piling work slightly ahead of schedule. That’s not to say it was an easy job. “It was quite a complex project,” explains Bradshaw. “The ground conditions varied tremendously across the site. We had to constantly adjust the pile depths that were required.” According to Bradshaw, the geotechnical information provided prior to the start of the project was limited because of the existing RUH parking structure that was located on the same site where the pilings were to be installed. The preliminary test holes were done primarily along the periphery of the site. Additional geotechnical testing was completed once the parking structure was demolished. “We had anticipated a range of depth of between 15 to 20 metres,” says Bradshaw. “We ended up with a range of between 15 and 33 metres.” Fortunately, the company had additional capacity on site to deal with the extra depths required. “We did have to make some modifications to the way we handled the reinforcing cages,” adds Bradshaw. “We constructed a cage handling cradle to deal with the long cages safely. Additional reinforcing was required as well.” The majority of the piles required a “bell” to be constructed at the base, which typically tripled the diametre of the base, in order to increase the bearing area and therefore, the pile capacity. “The pile design was based on a combination of shaft friction and end bearing to develop pile capacity,” adds Bradshaw. “A greater shaft length was required when we encountered a layer of less-consistent material than assumed in the pile design, which meant piles had to be drilled deeper. It was essentially ‘real-time design.’”

Restricted access Another significant aspect of the piling work was the limited access that the crew had to the site. “It was a real challenge,” says Bradshaw. “We were hemmed in on three sides with the access limited to a long, single-lane driveway. Contractual conditions restricted the times of day when construction traffic was allowed to access the site. It took a lot of good site planning to manage this constraint. The adjacent university did not want our supply trucks and equipment traveling through the university grounds during times of peak pedestrian and vehicular traffic as a safety precaution.” Although the restricted access from the “gap” site had the team of 10 people sometimes working into the evening, it didn’t involve night work. And, it didn’t delay the schedule. But the more complex scenario is yet to come. “Phase two will involve about 60 piles,” explains Bradshaw, who adds a new ramp has to be constructed in order to close the existing ramp into the parking structure and maintain continuous access into the parking-structure grounds, as well as allowing for construction of the main hospital building. “Phase two will be very congested. I would estimate that about three quarters of the existing site will be eliminated due to other construction activities. Plus, there will be the added traffic from the trades that will come with the building of the

new hospital. It’s going to be very tight – no doubt about it.” Bradshaw estimates this part of the piling work will begin at the end of February 2016, and run for a couple of months at least. “It would have been a lot easier for us to do the two phases at the same time,” concludes Bradshaw. “But given the fact that the new hospital is being constructed on the existing site of a hospital that needs to remain operational, it just turned out that we had to do it in two phases. The first phase was tight. But the second will be tighter still.” l

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Piling Industry Canada • December 2015 19

Tall Timbers

The University of British Columbia is set to build Canada’s tallest wooden building

The 10 storey height of the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, the world’s first skyscraper built in 1884-1885, pales in comparison to today’s modern mammoth high-rises, but it was a ground-breaking construction that would quickly be repeated and improved upon. Nowadays, high-rises are widespread with major cities depending on them to house the world’s growing population on earth’s limited land. But all those towering structures come with a price; one which the environment is paying. From greenhouse gas emissions to waste disposal, construction is high on the list of industries impacting the environment – in the top 10 according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report. While the need for construction will likely never waver, the need for a more environmentally-friendly industry moving forward is essential. Enter wood construction. While wood is far from a new building material, the ability to create high-rise buildings out of lumber is still fairly innovative, but one that can help change the construction industry for the betterment of the environment.

20 PIC Magazine • December 2015

By Lea Currie

“Wood is a renewable resource, offers flexibility in use, and is a more sustainable building material than concrete or steel in that it sequesters carbon, while the production of concrete and steel releases significant amounts of carbon. Also, a prefabricated wood structure is quick to erect and will result in a cleaner job site and a reduction of construction-related noise,” says John Metras, interim associate vice-president of resources and operations and managing director of infrastructure development for the University of British Columbia (UBC). “The emergence of engineered wood products and advances in connectors has made it feasible to utilize wood-based products and systems as structural elements for wood buildings higher than the traditional four to six storey heights allowed by building code,” continues Metras. “The use of engineered wood materials as a primary structural component in buildings of all types, and high-rise buildings in particular, is currently a strong focus of design and research communities, forest industries and governments seeking to promote



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Tall Timbers continued sustainability, innovation and economic development.” Laying the foundation for this industry advancement, UBC announced it will be breaking ground on a new student residence made primarily of wood. Once erected, Brock Commons is set to be Canada’s tallest wooden building at 18 storeys, as well as one of the tallest in the world. This pioneering facility will be created with Douglas Fir Glulam and Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) columns and SPF (spruce-pinefir) Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) panels. A total of four 64-millimetre double-corrosion protected soil anchors with 1250kN tension capacity will be used on the south side of each core footing. As the wooden structure will be lighter than concrete, the seismic loads are smaller, which impacts the core footing sizes. The foundation, as well as the elevator and stairwell cores, will be constructed with concrete. The core foundations are designed as capacity protected foundations with soil anchors to prevent overturning where required. Metras explains that the reason for use of mass timber as the primary structural material stems from UBC’s desire to demonstrate the practical use of a sustainable, locally-relevant construction material in a high-rise building application. “UBC has constructed a number of two to five-storey buildings over the past five years utilizing mass timber structures. This project represents the next step in the evolution of mass timber construction,” says Bernhard Gafner of Fast + Epp, structural engineer of Brock Commons. While provincial regulations only allow for wooden buildings of six storeys or less, the Government of British Columbia issued a site specific regulation to allow UBC to construct with mass timber beyond the current building code limits. The significant height of the wooden facility required that several structural design needs be addressed. Naturally when working with timber, shrinkage was considered. “Providing column-to-column detail relying on end grain to end grain load transfer only is crucial. By avoiding timber members loaded perpendicular to grain, the vertical shrinkage of the wood structure is almost eliminated,” says Gafner. Another concern was the structural robustness and disproportionate collapse. While this issue is of utmost importance in some international codes, the Canadian building codes are vague and general. Given the innovative structure, the design team used the Eurocode EN-1991 as well as the Practical Guide to Structural Robustness and Disproprotionate Collapse in Buildings as expert reference documentation. Finally, the axial column shortening, present in all structures regardless of materials used, needed to be considered and quantified in order to be addressed by the Mechanical Electrical Plumbing (MEP) consultants to avoid potential long-term serviceability issues. “UBC is comfortable moving forward with development of this unique building given the careful design process and rigorous design 22 PIC Magazine • December 2015

review by the Provincial Building & Safety Standards Branch, including review by a panel of independent building experts, to ensure that the facility will be safe, functional and sustainable,” says Metras. The student residence will also be the province’s first building to be specified to the new 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) for seismic design. This resulted in higher seismic loads compared to the 2012 British Columbia Building Code due to the increased spectral response accelerations (Sa), explains Gafner. “The use of the 2015 NBCC did not directly address or change the design of the wood components of the building, but as a result of the higher seismic forces, the CLT diaphragm needed to be designed to withstand these increased seismic loads,” says Gafner. The building’s safety measures will include enhanced fire protections and backup systems, a building-monitoring system, and an upgraded building core.

Learning opportunity While the Brock Commons student residence will primarily function as living quarters for 400 students, once construction is completed in the summer of 2017, the building will also provide a unique learning opportunity. As part of the UBC Campus as a Living Laboratory initiative, students and faculty will research the design, construction, evaluation and monitoring of advanced mass timber structural systems. As well, sensors will be incorporated in the structure to measure building vibrations, moisture levels and vertical settlement as researchers monitor the building’s performance long-term, states Metras. B.C.’s forest industry is also using this as a learning opportunity. A primary objective of the project is to determine the economic feasibility of using mass timber in a high-rise application. A favourable construction could result in long-term positive growth for the industry if wood demand increases. As this is one of the first projects of its kind at this height, additional costs were incurred for design, design review and approval, as well as risk mitigation during construction. Despite these extras, the cost differential compared to a standard concrete building was only eight per cent, says Metras. Several external agencies (Natural Resources Canada, BC Ministry of Forests, Forest Innovation Investment and the Binational Softwood Lumber Council) provided funding to cover the additional costs of this innovative project so the university does not incur a premium to build the facility. As the use of mass timber structure systems in high-rise buildings becomes more commonplace, these cost differences are expected to decline substantially. As the world’s population continues to stretch the earth’s limits and bigger and taller buildings help ensure land-strapped cities can continue to house their residents, the wood-based high-rise will assist in reducing the negative impact on earth. UBC’s Brock Commons will be a strong root in the growth of the construction industry. l

Patented Sonic Pile-Anchors Set to Revolutionize Building Foundations By Nancy Argyle

Option one: sonic pile with end cap (building rests on).

It’s been a long time coming. In fact, it’s taken more than 50 years for sonic drilling research to come full circle – back to one of its earliest uses as a pile driver. Now, however, the technology is far superior and set to revolutionize the piling industry with a just-patented method. But, first, a little history on how we got here. Back in the 1960s, an early sonic pile driving rig enjoyed a small measure of success using two WWII army tank engines that generated a whooping 1,000 hp. but, despite much effort and a fair bit of money, by the 1980s, sonic pile driving research had fizzled out with little to show for 20 years of effort. That’s about the time that Ray Roussy, a Canadian engineer, entered the picture. His work on sonic drilling had suddenly ended when his employer, Hawker Siddeley, a British aerospace company, decided to abandon sonic research. Roussy was convinced the technology was viable – not so much as a pile driver – but, instead, as a drilling rig that could offer faster speeds and the much-appreciated ability to drill through mixed soils where other rigs would jam up. He decided to continue the research but on his own and with no financing. It was not an easy road but, with 24 PIC Magazine • December 2015

perseverance, Roussy patented and successfully commercialized modern sonic drilling technology as we know it today. After 35 years of effort, Roussy’s awardwinning patented technology is now used in almost all drilling applications and around the world on six continents. Drilling three to five times faster through mixed soils, using no drilling mud (so less mess to clean up) and able to provide continuous core samples, sonic drilling technology has been embraced by many industries including mining, geothermal, and environmental. Now, in the coming months, a new twist on this technology will be introduced to the construction industry – a move that has been anticipated for nearly a year but was kept secret until patents could be filed. “It’s been a time-consuming but exciting project to finally realize the piling installation potential in sonic drilling technology,” says Roussy. Although Roussy spent the better part of his life and career perfecting his sonic drilling technology, that didn’t stop him from reflecting on its earliest roots in pile driving. “I always believed the sonic drill would, one day, find its original niche in building foundations,” says Roussy.

Roussy, who is president of the Sonic Drill Corporation (which manufactures his patented sonic drill rigs) and Sonic Drilling Ltd. (which owns a fleet of sonic rigs that are used for contracting purposes), first used the newly-patented pile-anchor method on his own offices for Sonic Drilling Ltd. “One of the main advantages of using a sonic to install pile-anchors is that it can be done efficiently, with no pounding, in tight spaces and without impacting adjacent structures,” he says. “Plus, on larger piling installations, there’s no need for cranes or heavy equipment while smaller projects can be quickly and easily completed…lots of opportunity to save on costs.” Sonic pile-anchors also provide exceptional earthquake protection by preventing the building from shifting or separating from its foundation – a significant cause of damage and death in seismic shake-ups and building collapses. Only sonic rigs produced by the Sonic Drill Corporation can use this new method which offers three patented options: 1.  Sonic rigs can install formed-in-place composite piles (which are a combination of concrete and steel) and are topped with a pile end cap which the building rests upon (see option one photo).

2.  Sonic rigs can install an anchor top which the building does not rest on but is anchored to (see option two photo). 3. Sonic rigs can install a pile-anchor which allows the building to rest on it as well as be bolted and anchored to it (see option three). Sonic pile-anchors can be customized for high-loading capacity and can be installed quickly, given the faster speed of the sonic drill. Sonic Drilling Ltd. is now actively quoting on pile anchoring projects as word has spread locally about the advantages of the new technique. And, like the adoption of sonic drilling technology in general, it won’t take long before this new application is in use around the world. l Nancy Argyle is one of Canada’s most experienced disaster communicators. Based in Calgary, she is a university lecturer, former print reporter, and strategic communications consultant who writes on a variety of topics.

Option two: sonic anchor (building doesn’t rest on, but is anchored).

Option three: sonic pile-anchor (building rests on and is anchored at the same time).


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The Hub

Trevi Hong Kong works on the Hong Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities By Claudio Borgatti, operations manager at Trevi S.p.A., and Marco Chiarabelli, corporate sales manager for Soilmec North America Three major cities in China – Hong Kong,

ternational Airport. The landing points for

Macau, and Zhuhai – will soon be connect-

the link roads and tunnels will utilize 20

ed by a series of bridges, tunnels, link roads,

hectares of the island. The remaining 130

and boundary crossing facilities, providing

hectares will be used for the HKBCF cargo,

a new direct link between the east and west

passenger, and vehicle inspection facilities;

banks of the Pearl River Delta for passenger

offices for the immigration, customs, and

and freight land transportation. At the ex-

excise departments; road networks; and a

pected cost of approximately US $10.6 bil-

public transport interchange and traffic con-

lion, the construction of the massive Hong

trol surveillance system.

Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project be-

The artificial island’s sea wall was built using

gan in December 2009 and its completion

a new, non-dredge approach. Large 30-meter-

is planned for late 2016. However, it faces

diameter steel caissons were dropped into the

daunting challenges as they combat nature

sea a few meters apart and joined by a flexible

to build and stabilize an artificial island that

steel wall. As the mud was dug out from the

is central to the project.

middle, each 450-tonne caisson drove itself

A major project component is the Hong

down towards the hard strata. This new recla-

Kong Boundary Crossing Facilities (HK-

mation technique was used instead of the con-

BCF) that will serve as a transportation hub

ventional approach of dredging out the soft

and provide clearance facilities for goods

mud down to the bedrock and replacing it

and passengers using the bridge. The HK-

with marine sand.

BCF is located on a 150-hectare artificial

Additional ground strengthening mea-

island that was reclaimed from open wa-

sures were also needed to help stabilize the

ters just northeast of the Hong Kong In-

island’s soft marine mud before construct-

28 PIC Magazine • December 2015

ing boundary crossing facilities and tunnel landing points. Trevi Hong Kong joined these stabilization efforts by installing jet grout columns in a key area of the island.

Stabilizing with jet grouting Trevi Hong Kong installed 450 jet grout columns with diameters ranging from 1.2 metres to three metres to a depth up to 35 metres. The jet grouting was performed by drilling a hole to the required depth, followed by rotating and extracting the drill rod while simultaneously pumping highpressure fluid through nozzles at the foot of the drill string. A combination of air and cement grout slurry was injected as the breaking-up and consolidation agents, using the TREVIJET T1/S bi-fluid system. Five Soilmec 7T-600J high pressure pumps with four-inch pistons were used to install the large-diameter grout columns and a single Soilmec 7T-505 pump was used for the small-diameter columns. Six Soilmec PSM-20 hydraulic drilling

Above: Constructing jet grout columns on an island had its unique challenges, including needing four barges to deliver cement from the factory in China to the jobsite.

Right: Trevi Hong Kong complete the jet grouting construction in only two months, thanks in part to the reliability of their six Soilmec drilling rigs.

rigs were deployed for this jet grouting construction. The drilling rigs were all equipped with a monitoring system that displayed on a built-in LCD screen and recorded on a dedicated memory disk the main drilling and jetting parameters, including depth, drilling rate, string revolution speed, drilling torque, grout pressure, grout and air flow rate, drilling and jetting time, column deviation, and x and y inclination. The artificial island’s geological conditions challenged the stabilization efforts. The top ground layer of about 8.5 metres of sand fill is followed by approximately 18.5 metres of very soft marine mud. Trevi Hong Kong needed to penetrate through the soft sand fill and marine mud into at least one metre of the Alluvium material that rests below. The Soilmec drilling rigs performed beautifully, helping Trevi Hong Kong maintain an aggressive production schedule of at least eight jet grout columns per day. Piling Industry Canada • December 2015 29

Soilmec PSM-20 rigs jet grouting on an artificial island just northeast of Hong Kong International Airport.

Supplying an island Trevi Hong Kong performed the jet grouting on a very tight schedule within 2.5 months. This translated into a demanding schedule for supply delivery to the island, given the required high rate of cement consumption. Trevi Hong Kong used four barges with a capacity of 1,200 tonnes to transport cement

Trevi Hong Kong depended on Soilmec drilling rigs to install 450 jet grout columns, helping to stabilize an artificial island at the centre of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge project.

from a factory in China to the jobsite on the island in order to prevent any interruption or delay in cement supply. Two additional barges were equipped with 14 horizontal silos, each with a capacity of up to 600 tonnes of cement, and four grout mixing plants. Sea water was used as the water source for drilling and mixing the cement grout. Given this setup, Trevi was able to produce up to 1,200 cubic meters of cement grout per day. Trevi Hong Kong was awarded the subcontract for the jet grouting in the middle of March 2015, and the work was successfully completed ahead of schedule on June 15, 2015. Trevi’s speedy construction of the jet grout columns was greatly appreciated by their client, the main contractor. l 30 PIC Magazine • December 2015

Parked alongside the island, two barges were equipped with 14 silos and four grout mixing plants to keep up with the high consumption rate of cement grout – 1,200 cubic metres per day.



















No Substitute for Hard Work and Dedication Davide Trevisani takes home DFI’s DaVinci Legends Award

Davide Trevisani is the proud recipient of Deep Foundation Institute’s DaVinci Legends Award (2015).

In the current world enamoured with hoodie-wearing CEOs, it’s refreshing to profile a successful business person who not only started his career without cell phones, computers, overnight delivery, or email, but who also still wears a suit and tie to every meeting. It’s been nearly 60 years since Davide Trevisani started his career in the foundation drilling industry. Trevisani’s company, originally named Pali Trevisani, enjoyed its early successes without the help of modern conveniences; it was all hard work, problem-solving, and know-how. He took great care in shaping what is now known as Trevi S.p.A., learning the business from the underground up, working hard to solve project issues and do the job better, growing in careful leaps to the successful, publiclytraded enterprise that it is today. Trevisani is the recipient of several honours and awards including an honorary Doctorate in Civil Engineering from the University of Bologna, the Leonardo Prize for Italian Quality Achievements, and the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year award. His most recent honour came in October 2015, when Davide Trevisani was bestowed one of the Deep Foundation Institute’s highest awards: the DaVinci Legends Award, which honours practitioners that have made significant contributions and advancements to the research, design, construction, manufacturing, and use of deep foundations.

An entrepreneur is born

With a $600 CAD loan from his family, Trevisani purchased his first wooden drilling tripod. 32 PIC Magazine • December 2015

Trevisani was born on January 8, 1937, in Cesena, Italy in the Emilia Romagna region, which is known worldwide for its heritage of excellence in engineering. With the renowned technical program at the University of Bologna at its centre since late in the 11th century, the region is home to the headquarters for Ferrari, Ducati, Lamborghini, and Maserati, to name a few.

By 1967, Pali Trevisani established itself in the Italian and foreign markets.

In 1956, with a high school degree in surveying, he worked for a small construction company. By 1957, Trevisani’s business acumen had already taken shape: he saw a need and made plans to start a company that served the field of special foundations. He purchased his first wooden drilling tripod with a $600 CAD loan from his family. Originally producing small diametre piles using water well equipment, Pali Trevisani grew within 10 years into a company recognized in Italian and foreign markets as a leader in the foundation drilling industry. In the decades that followed, Trevisani would work on some of the most prestigious and complex underground construction projects in the world, including the stabilization of the Tower of Pisa, building 17 new stations for the Copenhagen Cityringen rail line, providing anchors for the righting of the Costa Concordia, and strengthening levees in New Orleans.

Family legacy takes shape and Soilmec is established In 1969, together with his entrepreneurial brother Gianluigi, Trevisani established Soilmec, the renowned equipment engineering and manufacturing arm of the Trevi Group. Since the beginning, Soilmec has incorporated advances and improvements learned from Trevi’s onsite construction experience, bringing the most cutting edge technological upgrades to solve ever-evolving foundation drilling challenges. This consistent effort to provide the best foundation equipment on the market has made Soilmec, with its long list of successful innovations, an international

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Piling Industry Canada • December 2015 33

Soilmec’s R-12 is developed as one of the first, self-erecting, hydraulic operated, compact drill rigs for bored piles.

drilling equipment both onshore and off. Soilmec also recently acquired two well-established foundation drilling companies: PSM to augment its micro piling and tunnelling line, and American-based Watson which offers a wide range of customizable drill rigs.

The best is yet to come The Trevi Group impact goes beyond its engineered equipment, 36 direct branches and 7,500 employees. Davide Trevisani and his brothers, Gianluigi and Cesare, take great pride in their charitable organization, Social Value, which is aimed at supporting solidarity initiatives, mainly to address children’s issues at the local, national, and international level. Some of their projects include donating a complete system for groundwater exploration in Central Africa to combat drought, ongoing commitments to the Nuestra Senora del Valle orphanage in Argentina, and building a nutrition centre in Cite Soleil in Haiti.

Start ups take note – this is how it’s done A career like Davide Trevisani’s is not only worthy of the many awards it has earned, but it also deserves to be a model for entrepreneurs everywhere for its thoughtful growth, innovative contributions, consistent dedication to solving industry needs, and superior service to the communities it serves. The strength of Trevi S.p.A., Soilmec and all of the companies within the Trevi Group is the direct product of building on experience. From Trevisani’s first days of drilling in his early 20s he constantly looked ahead to what was next, what could be done better, and how he could perform the best possible work. Nearly 60 years later, Trevisani continues to serve the foundation and drilling indusleader in the fields of ground and civil engineering. In 1981, Soilmec manufactured the R-12, which was one of the first self-erecting, crawler-mounted, hydraulic rigs for bored piles. The R-12 also adopted a trapezoidal system for vertical approaches to the drilling point, saving many crawler movements and thereby increasing efficiency on job sites. By 1990, Soilmec sold its first rig on North American soil to the Hub Foundation Company. Soilmec’s most recent decade of innovation has produced an exceptional line of cranes and crane attachments that offer specific solutions for submerged foundation work, improved lift, and reduced weight for cost-effective transport. Adding to its repertoire of cutting-edge technology, Soilmec unveiled its computer-based Drilling Mate System (DMS) in 2005, which allows operators to monitor the overall operation of the machine and “see underground” with drilling data including depth inclination, rotary speeds and crowd pressure. Over the years, Soilmec has grown from being a small equipment manufacturer on 35 acres to a 150-acre global leader in the fields of geotechnical engineering and special foundations. Under the direction of Davide’s son Simone, Soilmec is known for its unmatched experience and noteworthy accomplishments such as the development of its branch, Drillmec, specializing in oil, gas, and deep water 34 PIC Magazine • December 2015

tries with the same hard work and dedication he offered from the very start. l

Soilmec S.p.A. manufacturing plant is established (1969).

LRFD versus ASD for Driven Piles The code drives the methodology By Gerald Verbeek, Allnamics Pile Testing Experts BV Whether Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) or Allowable Stress Design (ASD) is used to design driven pile foundations in the U.S. could seem to depend on the project owner. In the case of public transportation jobs, the former is used almost exclusively, just as the latter is almost always used for private jobs. In reality, it depends of course on the design code. The bridge design code published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has used LRFD for some time, while the International Building Code (IBC), which has been generally adopted as the basis for the applicable building code throughout the U.S., still uses ASD. In Canada, the situation is different since both the Bridge Code and the National Building Code are based on LRFD. As a result ASD, or “Working Stress Design” as this method is generally referred to in Canada, is seldom used these days. In Europe, the Eurocode 7, the European standard for the design of geotechnical structures, also prescribes a factored design methodology, albeit not the same as the LRFD approach used in the U.S. From this it could be concluded that the IBC is out of step, and it is

likely to remain that way for some time. As part of the GeoCoalition, the DFI Codes and Standards Committee is currently reviewing the 2015 version of the IBC, and developing a set of proposed changes to be incorporated in the 2018 version of this code. However, there is no indication that a transition to LRFD is going to be part of the proposed changes, which means that more than likely ASD will continue to be used in the U.S. for foundations on non-transportation jobs for at least another six years (since the IBC is updated every three years). However, this continued use of ASD should not be used as a justification to exclude LRFD from the geotechnical courses at universities and colleges in the U.S. While many institutions have not yet incorporated LRFD in their geotechnical courses, factored design will eventually be the method that is applied on all projects, and geotechnical design practitioners should be ready to do so. l Reprinted with permission from the Deep Foundations Institute. Originally published in the May/June issue of Deep Foundations magazine.

Factored design will eventually be the method that is applied on all projects, and geotechnical design practitioners should be ready. 36 PIC Magazine • December 2015

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Design-Build Optimizing value and foundations in the commercial, infrastructure, and industrial markets Submitted by Keller Canada Much has been written about value engineering, constructability and collaboration in the early stages of a project. At Keller Canada, we live it. “We are looking for ways to save our clients’ money, not spend it,” says Shaun Arnault, regional manager for Keller Foundations. “Our in-house engineers offer cost-effective design-build services for safe, high-quality, constructible solutions. The result? Keller offers the lowest installed cost and optimal value to our clients at the same time.” Our mission, vision, and competitive advantage have always focused on value for money. As Keller holds expertise in all piling, earth retention, and ground improvement techniques and technologies, we seek to optimize value by offering truly unbiased technical recommendations; made possible by evaluating all available options and relying on proven load tests, experience and prior performance.

Collaboration and trust – building on our strengths Construction owners need to carefully evaluate a contractor’s record of proven results on similar projects to gain confidence with solutions they may not be familiar with. “Open and honest communication early on helps establish trust, allowing our clients to identify opportunities to build on our past successes. Hiring Keller to collaborate with your construction, geo-

38 PIC Magazine • December 2015


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Pioneering and mastering innovations Pioneering new techniques and technologies requires mastering their productive application and managing market acceptance. At Keller Canada, we work exceptionally hard on optimizing our applications and execution techniques. This includes working closely with the geo-technical community, equipment manufacturers, and subcontractors on design modifications and execution methods to improve safety, quality and productivity. Keller Canada has been leading foundation innovations in the Canadian marketplace for over 30 years. These innovations have enhanced our clients’ approach to their foundation challenges across all commercial, industrial and infrastructure projects. “We introduced continuous flight auger (CFA) piling a decade ago, and our clients have been experiencing a substantial 20 to 40 per cent savings,” says Barry Evans, senior project manager. technical, civil and structural engineering teams in the pre-design stages will be key to your project’s success,” says Stephen Olney, director of Business Development for Keller Canada. Collaborative models that aim to maximize value engineering often draw on contracting methods that may differ from the traditional “three bids and a buy” approach that can hamper innovation.

Keller is also increasing applications for cased secant piling (CSP), drilled displacement steel piling (DDSP), earth/subsurface retention and cut-off wall technologies, as well as ground improvement technologies for soil mixing, subsurface grouting, slope stabilization, rigid inclusions and stone columns.

The Keller Group – world leaders and getting stronger

Although Keller is awarded the majority of our work through com-

The Keller Group bolstered client value once again with the

petitive bidding, early collaboration, value engineering, risk/reward

acquisition of North American Caisson Ltd, a division of North

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Stir It Up ABI rigs utilized in soil mixing Submitted by Hammer and Steel, Inc. Soil mixing is used as a shoring (trench and pit shoring) alternative to the conventional methods such as beam and wooden lagging or soldier piles, sheet piles, or jet grouting walls. It is also used to consolidate contaminated materials. Soil mixing is a vibration free, very low noise method of shoring and is ideal in granular soils where other classic methods are not applicable due to vibration and noise emissions. Soil mixing is also very economical when compared to other forms of shoring, given the right soil conditions. Cost factors in favour of soil mixing are the high-production rates, absence of aggregate such as sand or gravel in the grout mix, and the fact that no spoils are generated for removal. It is also common practice to combine soil mixing with conventional shoring techniques. An example of this is the secant-pile-wall installation where the primary piles are mixed and the secondary piles are cast-in-situ concrete bored piles, or vice versa, whatever is required. Utilizing advanced ground improvement techniques, American Drilling in Palo Alto, California recently rented an ABI Mobilram TM 18/22 B to construct shoring for the foundation of a five-storey high-rise. The project included a parking garage below grade, and an

ABI twin soil mixing system supplied by Hammer and Steel, Inc. was used to build a waterproof soil-cement wall for excavation support during its construction. Soil mixing was specified as it is a faster and less expensive method relative to traditional beam and wooden lagging retention systems, in addition to vibration-free and low noise installation, which was required due to the close proximity of residents and the San Francisco Zoo. To accomplish this, the rig was supplied with multipleaxis twin mix drill head. Attached to the drill head were twin mixing tools 30 inches in diameter complete with extension drill rods to drill to a depth of 26 feet. During construction, the mixing tools overlapped with the previous soil mix columns, referred to as primary piles and drilling the secondary piles, to create a continuous soil-cement wall. The primary piles were reinforced with H-beams, which were 28 feet in length. Once the retaining wall was exposed after excavation, the contractor scraped along the wall to create a flat, smooth surface. This allowed water proofing without gunite, saving time and money. In addition to the ABI Mobilram, a fully-automated Scheltzke MPS 510 grout plant with G&H monitoring system was used. The MPS 510 was able to provide the required volume of grout for the

Utilizing advanced ground improvement techniques, American Drilling in Palo Alto, California recently rented an ABI Mobilram TM 18/22 B to construct shoring for the foundation of a five-storey high-rise. 42 PIC Magazine • December 2015

Load Cells job using a separate silo to feed cement. The monitoring system was able to record all soil mixing data, such as grout flow, grout volume, drill depth and drill head RPM. From there the operator was able to observe all data in real time from the cab, which enabled him to alter tooling penetration speed as needed. In addition, he was able to adjust grout volumes directly with the grout plant via radio remote. No operator was needed for the grout plant, other than to start the unit and clean it at the end of the day. By using the ABI twin mix rotary, superior mixing is accomplished as the two drill heads rotate in opposite directions at higher RPMs. Mixing is so efficient that only one column is injected with grout, yet no difference is seen in the cement mixed columns when exposed. On this jobsite, with only four crew, they were able to drill an average of 30 pairs of holes per day, equivalent to 1,560 linear feet of columns. With a twin mix system production rates doubled relative to a single axis auger not only because of the use of two augers, but because the mixing process itself was dramatically improved. Coupled with the additional speed, this setup was the perfect solution for the job. l

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Piling Industry Canada • December 2015 43

A Level Playing Field? Not necessarily so for telescopic boom crawler crane design and lifting performance By Ed Hisrich, Tadano Mantis Corporation Telescopic boom crawler cranes continue to gain popularity and market acceptance as a mainstream crane type. Spandeck, Inc. first began North American production of the Mantis telescopic boom crawler crane product line in 1979; Tadano purchased Mantis in 2008, and today, the influence of Tadano is clearly evident in the Mantis telescopic boom crawler crane. The Tadano Mantis cranes produced today incorporate the core competencies of the heavy-duty Mantis product along with the quality and technology of Tadano. The key criteria behind the design concept of the Tadano Mantis cranes is they are designed from the ground up to be used in level or out of level lifting conditions, and that they can pick-and-carry the full load chart. The “purpose built” design of the Tadano Mantis crane also lends itself to be a very functional crane that can perform a variety of manufacturer approved foundation applications, including vibratory pile extraction, CFA drilling work, and an optional vertical-travel lead system for pile driving. There are two schools of thought on telescopic boom crawler crane design. The first is the “purpose built” crane, where all of the design considerations include the different forces imparted by out of level and pick-and-carry lifting that influence a cranes structural and stability operating and lifting performance. The second, a hybrid design concept, utilizes crane components - boom, upper rotating structure, slewing ring, etc. - taken from mobile cranes that were designed to work on outriggers in perfectly level conditions. Components designed for stationary, level operation, generally lack some of the load design criteria, both dynamic and static, because of their intended application. While these hybrid design cranes offer good “level” ground lifting charts, their lifting performance is often de-rated significantly as “out of level” operation is encountered. Many manufacturers of telescopic crawlers advertise out of level lifting capabilities, often up to four degrees out of level. Operating through 360 degree rotation at four degrees out of level impacts the crane structure and lifting performance by one or more of the following factors: Load radius is increased while operating “downhill”, load radius is decreased when operating “uphill”, and side loading is inherently introduced into the telescopic boom when the crane is in any other position than directly “uphill” or

44 PIC Magazine • December 2015


“downhill”. The load chart for the telescopic boom crawler is often segmented at various degrees out of level for lifting performance de-rates. The purpose built new Tadano Mantis GTC-1200, 130 tonne capacity crane utilizes load charts that have three out of level load chart ranges. These charts are 0-1.5 degree slope – which is the “level ground” chart, up to 2.5 degree slope, and up to four degree slope. Multiple manufacturers limit their “level ground” chart to 0.3 degree slope, before having two degree and four degree slope charts for out of level operation. To put the 0.3 degree slope into perspective and compare it to 1.5 degrees: 0.3 degrees equates to 1.3 inches change in elevation over 20 feet (which is the approximate width of a 110 to 130 tonne telescopic boom crawler crane) while 1.5 degrees is of course five times as much or 6.5 inches. Unfortunately, most parking lots that provide adequate water drainage have a slope greater than 0.3 degrees, so this type of “level” lifting performance with a crawler crane is often challenging to attain without extensive grading and levelling efforts. Thus the crane with a 0.3 degree level chart is generally outside of the operating limits of that chart in most real world job sites. Switching to a two degree or four degree slope load chart, is not all that competitive either, as the capacities of the cranes drops significantly; as much as 20 to 30 per cent less than the purpose designed Tadano Mantis. Tadano Mantis also provides load charts for operation with the standard bi-fold jib erected: 220 feet (67 metre tip height) at up to 1.5 de-


grees out of level. Most other telescopic boom crawlers limit jib lifting load charts at 0.3 degrees out of level.


A true evaluation of a telescopic boom crawler crane performance should go deeper than the brochure load charts. An understanding of the out of level lifting limitations (that may not be specifically identified in the brochures) should be developed. Strict limitations to the crane “level” ground load charts may be beneficial for developing strong comparison load charts, but in reality they are impractical. Providing perfectly level lifting surfaces on job sites is both costly and time consuming and that diminishes productivity and profitability. The key features that are driving the growth in the market for telescopic boom crawler cranes are: the

The Permeation Grout Monitor System is a low-cost & non-invasive method that provides operators and engineers a “near-real-time” display and recording of key grouting parameters to enhance the understanding of site conditions.

ity for the crane to work out of level, the ability of the crane to pick and carry its full load chart, and the ability for the crane to


RST also offers technical assistance and other instruments for monitoring deep foundations and piling projects:

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46 PIC Magazine • December 2015

move from location to location and make lifts with minimal setup

Tension Measuring Gauges Piezometers Borehole Packers Datalogging Systems Inclinometer Casing Vibration and Overpressure Readouts


time and effort. The Tadano Mantis GTC-1200 provides these key features through a purpose built design and the strongest out of level load charts on the market. The idea that the earth isn’t flat has MIG0185B


ability for the crane to move quickly from truck to work, the abil-


been embraced for thousands of years - it is evident on many job sites - but all cranes are not developed with this reality as a design criterion. l

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Money 101 Improving your financial literacy can improve your business Boosting financial literacy is one of the most important things small businesses can do to improve their odds of long-term success. The single biggest reason that more small businesses don’t succeed is that they lack the financial literacy skills needed to navigate obstacles. Evidence of this comes directly from small business owners themselves. Intuit, provider of business, financial and tax management solutions for small and mid-sized businesses across Canada, asked 500 Canadian small business owners to take a 10 question financial literacy quiz. The quiz included basic questions, such as: “What is the role of the balance sheet? What is the definition of accruals? How can short-term cash-flow be improved?” The results show there is a real need to

help Canadian small businesses with their financial literacy and knowledge: • Only two per cent scored great (nine to 10 correct answers) • 16 per cent had a good score (seven to eight) • 39 per cent received a passing grade (five to six) • 44 per cent failed (one to four) The study also uncovered a likely root cause. Half of small businesses surveyed realized they needed to spend time on financial management. However, very few of them sought professional help and resources. “It is crucial for small business owners to have a close relationship with their accountant and banker as they are professionals who understand all financial situations and

can foresee the evolution of an organization,” explains Nick Foisy, Ag/Business Service Team Manager from Manitoba-based Vanguard Credit Union. “Often business owners aren’t able to spend the time reviewing their current financial situation which can lead to unnecessary issues and setbacks. Establishing good communication can allow for full financial understanding and provide the ability to seek assistance and advice.” Money management becomes even more important when cash is flowing into the business and to the owner. Although handling business accounting and taxes may be within the capabilities of most business owners, professional help is highly recommended. The complexity of business bookkeeping increases with each client, employee,

Other quick tips to improving your financial literacy as a business owner courtesy of The Globe and Mail include: • Bone-up on the basics (at the very least). Even if you have a professional helping you with your finances, you still need to understand them. Know how to read – and make use of – income statements and balance sheets, understand your inventories, and learn how to manage your cash flow and supply chain. • Embrace technology. Intuit’s most recent study on small business success found a sizeable majority (86 per cent) of Canadian entrepreneurs believe the contributing value technology adds to their business is worth the cost. By using mobile devices and tools like financial management software, online banking, and secure cloud-based document storage, entrepreneurs can work effectively from anywhere, making life as a business owner easier, faster, and more enjoyable. • Do the math. Do you know how much money it takes to run your business? Determine the true costs of your products and services, including labour, transportation, rent, marketing, insurance, phone, Internet, utilities, taxes, and whatever else you require to function. That’s just the beginning. You need to learn how to effectively track

48 PIC Magazine • December 2015

money in and out of your business, a first step of which would be setting invoicing periods. • Uncover your hidden costs. Have you ever needed to obtain a permit? Or get a license? The expense of these things can start adding up, especially when you factor in the cost of legal services, your own salary, return on investor capital, and capital for future expansion. Don’t forget to add the cost of borrowing money and the interest and debt you may have already accrued. Then start thinking ahead: once you can put numbers to everything that takes money out of your business, you can plan how much you will need to grow going forward. • Establish priorities. Making a profit is an obvious goal, but what else should you aim to accomplish? Do you want to see your product on every shelf or only in select boutique stores? Do you want to expand or franchise your services or keep your company small in order to provide customized experiences to those willing to pay for them? Identifying your priorities will help determine the future course of your business, and the correct costs for your products or services.

Money management becomes even more important when cash is flowing into the business and to the owner. sale and inventory order therefore seeking professional direction can provide solutions and encouragement for success. “Not understanding finances can limit the growth potential of the business and its’ future. The business could become unsuccessful before it has a real opportunity. Both the business and the owner could lose funds

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through poorly managed financial decisions, improper budgeting due to not understanding the business’s cash flow, and allocating funds to the wrong expenses,” explains Foisy. “There’s a greater potential of lacking the ability to plan for unexpected situations, poor years, future expenses and growth. This also opens up for paying more for account-

ing and bookkeeping as these services would need to be outsourced.” Noisy suggests business owners utilize local and online colleges that offer basic accounting and management courses that provide a good starting point for better financial understanding. l


American Piledriving Equipment...........................31 Arntzen Corporation...............................................40 Bay Shore Systems, Inc.....................................11, 41 Bermingham Foundation Solutions.........................9 Canadian Pile Driving Equipment Inc.....................37 Dominion Pipe & Piling.........................................IFC Equipment Corporation of America..................26, 27 Fraser River Pile & Dredge (GP) Inc...........................8 Geokon, Incorporated.............................................43 Hammer & Steel, Inc............................................ OBC HCM Contractors, Inc..............................................13

Drilling & Piles Ltd. Fort Macleod, Alberta Ph: (403) 553-4084 | Fax: (403) 553-2834 info@westcodrilling.ca

Helly Hansen Canada..............................................25 Hercules Machinery Corporation............................21 Independence Tube Corporation..............................3 Junttan Oy..............................................................23 Keller Canada..........................................................39 Liebherr Canada Ltd...............................................35 Loadtest..................................................................33 Northstar Inc.............................................................5 Pengo Corporation..................................................47 Pile Dynamics, Inc...................................................19 Pile Drivers Local Union 2404.................................10 Platinum Grover International Inc..........................45 Roll Form Group......................................................15 RST Instruments Ltd...............................................46 Selix Equipment Inc...............................................IBC Skyline Steel.......................................................7, 17 Soilmec North America.....................................OFC, 4 Waterloo Barrier Inc................................................29 Westco Drilling & Piles Ltd......................................49

Piling Industry Canada • December 2015 49

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Toll Free Fax: 1.866.711.5282 50 PIC Magazine • December 2015 54 PIC Magazine • Spring/Summer 2010

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Piling Industry Canada Issue #2 2015  

Piling Industry Canada Issue #2 2015