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THE LADIES’ »

COMPLETE GUIDE TO

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY.


4

LADIES’

E

COMPLETE GUIDE TO

NEEDLE-WORK AND CONTAINING

CLEAR AND PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS WHEREBY ANY ONE CAN EASILY LEARN HOW TO DO ALL KINDS OF PLAIN AND FANCY Needlework, Tapestry-work, Turkish Work, Persian Work,

Stitches, all kinds,

Bead Work,

Lace Imitations, Mosaic Canvas, Canvas Work,

Russian Crochet, Edgings, Laces,

Slippers, etc.

Fringes,

China Purses, Braiding and Applique,

Chenille, Braid, etc. Crochet,

Scarfs,

Implements,

Berlin Patterns,

Shawls,

Varieties of Silk,

Collars,

Materials,

Embroidery,

Knitting, Netting,

etc., etc.

WITH ONE HONORED AND THIRTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS AND DIAGRAMS, ILLUSTRATIVE OF ALL THE VARIOUS STITCHES IN THOSE USEFUL AND FASHIONABLE EMPJ.OYMENTS, SHOWING AT A GLANCE TO ALL HOW TO MAKE ANY ONE OR ALL OF THE THOUSANDS OF ARTICLES, IN ALL KINDS OF NEEDLE-WORK, EMBROIDERIES, ETC., DESCRIBED IN THIS WORK.

BY MISS LAMBERT. “ And though our country every where With ladies, and with gentlewomen,

is till’d

skill’d

In this rare art, yet here we may discerne Some things to teach them if they list to learn.”

—JonN

Taylor.

phUairnwiiis: T.

B.

PETERSON AND BROTHERS, 2Q6

CHESTNUT STREET.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

T. In the Clerk’s

Office of

B.

PETERSON,

the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

THE LIBRARY

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH


TO THE

me 9Cl)is

IS

nranreio)

bolutne

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED P\ THE PUBLISHER.


PREFACE.

In

following pages I have

the

those subjects

on Decorative

Treatise

brief historical sketch oi

endeavoured

embra

to

which appeared most worthy of

3

notice in

Needlework, and by combining

a

with a detailed account of the practice

each department, to render them more generally interesting

than a mere Manual of directions and examples. I

am

indebted to

my

husband

for

his assistance in

some

of the historical notices, and again for his permission in

lowing

my

maiden name

being that by which I

to

appear on

am more

the

title-page,

generally recognised in

al-

as

my

avocation. It

years tion;,

may

be

since,

stated, that this

but

occasioned

circumstances its

of the present year.

from

my

volume was commenced (here

three

unnecessary to men-

being laid aside until the commencement It

has been written at intervals snatched

other employments, and I trust that the accuracy

of the details will obtain that indulgence

its

literary merits

cannot demand. F.

S


— —

^

CONTENTS CHAPTER

Introduction

5 7jr

ry reeks and, 0

r,

I.

f Necdle "'°A-The time of Moses-The ancient- Egyptians p Romans— Helen and Penelope— Embroidering of the Peplus— 16 fiddle Ages-The AngIo-Saxons-An|licum opus-St.

T I fT J

Dont ^ Hunstan— Needlework practised by me a— Hangings or veils— Tapestries— Ta Pf Work Qpeen Matilda— Ancient Pall ,

belonging to the Fbfbmo ishmongers Company— English Needlework in the sixteenth century— VaUpa adleS at that eri od— Needlework noticed P by Addison— l Tht laSt Ce tU Coloured Embroideries— Print work— Miss T in 5

^

i

_1 APESTRY

CHAPTER

II.

D ?0rat!on ° f wa,,s with Tapestry-Mentioned byHoP ^rT~ mer-An1;nn;fv ? u u U * nv cntion— the Phrygians omen of Sidon GiTffins a n?] f Vnf S_ the lan Tapestry— Story of Arachne andPhssacia Minerva IntroducLn off T d u TaPcs‘ry the Crusaders— Weaving Tapestry— First ? practisedi in Flanders— Arras— Introduction into England— Patronized bv _ Ma aCt0 ry at Mortlake-Charles andSir FrancL Crane 7 When Manufactured m France Henry IV—IColbert and Louis XIV Manu|cture Royale des Gobelins-History and productions of that Manufacru "Ieo r>-Tapestry for St. Cloud-Evelyn’s DefP° T scriuThm Tapestry-Dyeing Establishment, and Drawing-school Tf tne ot the taobehns Gobelins Th The basse and haute Iisse— Working of Tapestry— InstruS R ffael e TaPestry ° f St. Mary’s Hah, CoventryHampton

W

i

M

r

Court

N

f

Lmwood Impllmen"is

-

^

CHAPTER

s, Materials in General

Material

III.

le ^S^able, and Mineral Kingdoms Various d_Nee< eWOrk the P resent day Materials used by Miss .

n

.

,

KSer

V

"° W

°f P^sed-Variety

of Colours-Paper Patterns-

27


— —

——

— CONTENTS.

X

CHAPTER

IV.

Wool

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — qualities and capabilities — Used Merino — Berlin Wool — Superiority of— Canvas- work and Embroidery — for Knitting, Netting, and Crochet Varieties and duality of German Wool as prepared for Needlework— English Wool—Grounding—Worsteds— Crewels—Yarn—Fleecy— Hamburgh W ool —German Fleecy—Antiquity of the Art of Dyeing — Discovery of the Tyrian Purple —Anecdote relating to 30 Importance Description of Sheep’s Wool the product of Cultivation— History and Preparation Merino, whence derived Invention of Spinning and Weaving mentioned by Moses Linen and woollen cloths of the Egyptians Duties of Women in the Primitive Ages Produce of white Wool Dyeing German Wool Prepared at Gotha Introduction of Merino sheep into Saxony First reared at Stolpen Improvement in the quality of their Wool Different qualities of Wool Employed for Needlework Zephyr Its

its

-Its

for

CHAPTER

V.

Silk

— — — —

Antiquity of its use by the Chinese Silkworms introduced into India and Persia Carried to Constantinople Into Greece Palermo Calabria Italy and Spain Rearing of Silkworms in France The Silkworm of Ceos Quantity of Silk used in England Use of Silk among the Romans Its rarity Sold for its weight in Gold Heliogahalus first wore a Silken RobeGeneral use of Silk at Rome Silkworm described by Pausanias Spinning and weaving Silk introduced into England Marriage of the daughter of Henry III Silk- women in the Reign of Henry IV Silk Stockings worn by Henry VIII Anecdote of Queen Elizabeth Broad Silk manufactured in the time of James I Silk- throwing Mill Improvements of the Manufacture in England Lines, by Cowper, on the Silkworm Varieties of Silk Theii employment in Needlework Mitorse Silk Netting Silk Sewing SilksC rochet Silk Dacca Silk Floss Silk Bourre de Soie Spun Silk Other materials resembling Silk—the Spider— Pinna— Spun Glass 44

— — — — —

— —

— —

— —

CHAPTER

Gold and Silver

— —

— —

...

VI.

Used in the earliest Ages for Embroidery Mentioned in Exodus Invention ascribed to Attalus The Robe of Agrippina The Tunic of Heliogabalus Mantle of th^ statue of Jupiter Vulcan’s Net Remains of ancient wire-

— — — — day manufacture — Mosaic Gold —Wire-drawing practised Nuremrg introduction into England— Manufacture of GoM and Silver I7 Needlework Gold thread of the Chinese— Passing— Gold cord — Gold braid Bullion Spangles Lama and Paillon— Gold beads — Gold fringes— Military embroidery

work—Wire-drawing

supposed to have been known to the Egyptians Gold thread in the time of the Romans Gold and Silver Thread of the present Its

at

first

ItS

for

Tv?

.

„ Chenille,

CHAPTER

56

VII.

Braid, etc.

Derivation of the term Chenille— Chenilles of Silk, and Wool— Its manufacture— AjiplK atmn of— Braids— Their various kinds— Application of— Union raw acre an d Ecaille Velvet Flowers made of Beads Bugles Paillons and Paillettes— Crepe— China Ribbon . . . 64 .

“^


—— —— — — CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

Canvas

XI

yin.

nA V“ -Snr’rr Sdk Canvas— ^\f'7.

io “ S Sizes— How designated— Mosaic Canvas f lexible Canvas— Cotton CanvasEnglish f’rench and ped Canvas-Imitation Silk Canvas-Thread CaAvas-PeneCs Tapestry-stitch-Flattened Canvas-Its use-Woolhm

ofn Canvas— Bolt^g

70

CHAPTER

„ „ Rerun Patterns

IX.

m

Improvements the Art of Needlework since their Introduction— Their consumption in different countnes-Manufacture of-Process of colourirm-AdZ tation for working— Grounding— Defects of these Patterns— The remedy— mm S I es of painting—. Arrangement of Colours— 1 aces ofFimirJr^U° Faces of Figures— Skies— Materials for working them on— Limner Berlin attemS_EnglishWOrk fr° m &rIin Pa tterns— Hfstory of

M™

.

BerZpI^s

CHAPTER

X.

Drawing Patterns for Embroidery, Braiding, etc.— Designing of Patterns— Drawing on paper— Pouncing— Tracing on the maqUI<]~ L ar e P a ‘ terns Re Petition of the same designMethZof'M^f ; |? ot MM. Revel and Regondet— Patterns on muslins, &c.— Changing

-

i

proportions of Patterns— Drawing —designing on the material .

upon various materials

CHAPTER

T Implements Needles— Manufacture of— Their

Satin, Velvet

°&c

XI.

antiquity Knitting Needles and Pin<? Netting ]N eedles and Meshes— Crochet and Tambour Needles— Filiere— Embroidery frames— Large frames— Table frames— Standing frames— Tambour frames— Screw Embroidery frames— D’Oyley and Shawl frames— WOrk P " rse stretchers-PuLZulds-Chdn moulH Fol for achfon

-

Framing

CHAPTER

Work

XII.

—L?ather-ClotlT&^alninS canvas Cloth and canvas- Vclvct-Satin-Silk CHAPTER

Stitches

_

—Tent — German

The working

of stitches

stitch

stitch

stitches

Embroidery

Irish

XIII.

stitch— Cross stitch— Gobelin or Tapestry Imitation of lace Various fancy

stitch

CHAPTER

XIV.

Introduced from the East—the invention of, attributed to Phrygians— Story of Procne— Embroidery mentioned by

Minerva— The Pliny— other ancient


CONTENTS.

xii

— —A

Aholi&b in the authors Homer The embroideries of Helen Andromache time of Moses Embroidery mentioned by Ezekiel Embroidery in gold inlaw of Zaleucus The garments of Tarquiniu* Priscus vented by Attalus Decorative needlework Derivation of the term Embroidery —The Chinese Embroideries from Manilla Embroidery as at present practised in China Indian Embroidery Canadian The negresses of Senegal —The Georgians The Turkish women Modern Greeks The women of Therapia— their extraordinary works— Embroideries of Vienna Milan and Venice France Saxony Nancy and Paris In what the art consists Shaded embroidery Arabesque or Moresque Patterns Flowers Historical subjects, landscapes, and portraits Various materials employed Application of French or flat embroidery Embroidery in chenille Embroidering coats of arms Raised embroidery Raised cut embroidery Embroidery in gold and silver Embroidery in tambour Chain stitch Embroidery by machinery The Weaver’s

— — —

— —

— —

— —

Song

112

CHAPTER XV. Canvas

Work

Rules relating to Right way of the stitch Berlin patterns working from enlarging work from Cross stitch on one thread Mixing of cross and tent stitch Patterns to form a centre Grounding the mode of working various colours for Gobelin stitch Colours Sorting Berlin patterns Flowers Flesh colours Patterns drawn on canvas Crests and coats of arms Introduction of silk with wool Increase and decrease of work from Berlin patterns Illustration of 1^6

CHAPTER

— —

XVI.

Crochet Its varieties

—Stitches —Directions

A sofa pillow, or table cover An easy

Turkish pattern Another Turkish pattern

A table-cover or pillow

....

Working

for

a table cover or pillow for a table cover, etc

for

. . .

. .

Another table-cover

.

Small pine-pattern table-cover

.

Making up

....

crochet table-covers

.

A crochet slipper Chanceliere A plain crochet bag in silk A crochet bag with star-shaped bottom Persian pattern bag A star bottom for a bag with beads A bag with steel or gold beads

. . .

. .

.

Another bag with

An An

steel or gold beads,

and

.

.

silk

of two colours

elegant bag in blue, white, and gold open crochet bag in chenille Other patterns for bags Greek cap in crochet silk Greek cap in coarse chenille penwiper in plain crochet crochet neck chain plain purse in crochet plain crochet purse with square and round ends

A A A A A A

....

. .

. .

. . .

.

.

.

147 149 150 151

152 153 154 155 156 158 159 160 162 162 163 164 164 165 166 167 167 168 168 169 169


CONTENTS.

A plain open crochet purse A short crochet purse A sprigged purse in open and plain crochet Open crochet stitch A purse with beads, in plain and open crochet An

elegant crochet purse with gold Plain double-stitch crochet purse, pine pattern Plain and open crochet purse Another plain and open crochet purse bridal purse short purse or bag in plain stitch double crochet baby’s cradle cover, or a carriage wrapper Another square pattern, with a border . .

A A A A round

xiii

170 170

.... .

.

.

.

171 171 172 173

.174 .175 175 176 177 178

.

.

.

.

.

.179

D’Oyley or mat

180

Travelling bags Explanation of terms used in crochet Hints on crochet

181 181

182

CHAPTER

XVII.

Knitting-

—mentioned the Row— Silk stockings worn by — — Invention of Knitting— The Spaniards—the Scots— Knitting practised in Spain and — Hueen Elizabeth’s stockings — The invention of the stocking frame — amusement the blind — employment the poor— Knitting of the cottage in Ireland —Works on knitting— 184 Unknown in England before the sixteenth century leian Forgeries The first stockings knit in England

in

Henry VIII

Italy

it

affords to

to

girls

An

A

.

easy stitch for light scarfs, shawls, babies’ quilts,

D’Oyley Checked or matted pattern .

Harlequin quilt with Turkish knitting

tufts .

:

Raised knitting Knitted fringe Vandyke border

A scalloped fringe or border Another knitted fringe A spaced fringe for a crochet

table cover, etc.

Knitted insertion

.

A Shetland knitted scarf A Brioche la

Josephine

187 188 188 188 190 190 191 191

Bonnets de nuit d’hommes Double nightcap Opera cap Barege knitting for shawls Shetland shawl patterns

Bourse a

etc,

* .

German purse

A strong knitted purse Open stitch purse with beads Herringbone, or Shetland stitch for a purse.

A pence jug or purse

Star-pattern shawl in two colours Plain ribbed muffatees

2

192 193 193 193 194 194 195 197 198 199 200 201 201 202 202 202 203 204 205


CONTENTS.

XIV

Graham

205 206 207 208 209 209 209 210 210

. * muffatees pair of muffatees Pattern for a chair tidy or D’Oyley Double knitting for comforters, etc. knitted bag, with black or garnet beads Dotted knitting for babies’ shoes, etc. knitted bonnet-cap knitted muff in imitation of sable .

^Another

A A A Another muff A baby’s shoe Another very pretty baby’s shoe A baby’s stocking A double knitted scarf, in two colours

....

Cable knitting Knitted cuffs Cover for an air cushion lish napkin, D’Oyley, or Tidy .

.

211

212 213 214 215 215 216 216 217 217 218 218 219 219 219 220 221 221 222 222

A A knitted mat

Close stitch for a waistcoat, etc. Honeycomb stitch, for a bag Baby’s hood

Long Open

sleeves to stitch for

wear under the dress a light shawl, D’Oyley,

etc.

Jarretieres

Explanation of terms used in knitting

A weaver’s knot Hints on knitting The fez manufactory at Constantinople Barege, Shetland, and Sanquhar knitting

CHAPTER

XVIII,

Netting

Antiquity of the Art The nets of the Egyptians mention of, by Pliny and Herodotus Fishermen’s nets Directions for netting -The netting knot 224 228 Plain netted gentleman’s purse . Lady’s purse 229 Gentleman’s purse with ends of different colours 229 lady’s purse with points 229 A pretty purse with chine silk 230 Netting with beads 230 plain netted purse with a bead mouth 230 pretty seme purse with steel or gold beads 231 An elegant netted purse with steel beads 231 Plain netted mittens 232 knitter’s bag with ring 232 A checked or dice pattern purse 233 Grecian netting or filet rose 233 purse in Grecian netting 234 Mittens in Grecian netting 234 Netted fringe 235 Single diamond netting 235 Treble diamond netting 236 Diamond netting, with five stitches 236

A A

A A

A A

....


CONTENTS. Seme purse, diamond pattern Open plain netting, or filet a Bagaette Fond de Berlin Filet rose Filet a Baton Filet Rond

XV

.

,

.

.

.

.

rompu .•

Netted mittens with silk and wool Netted cuff with silk and wool

CHAPTER

238 239 239 240 240 241 241 242

XIX.

Braiding and Appligiue

— —

Simplicity of braid work executed by the Turks and Greeks braiding in various materials Patterns for working of Introduction of gold cord Groups of flowers in braid Adaptation of braid work— Union cord Silk for sewing on braid finishing of braid work Applique materials of which it is composed its application stamped leather Lames de velours 243 . .

— —

— —

CHAPTER XX. Bead Work German bead work

— application — Glass beads —paucity of their colours bead —Gold and beads — Steel beads — Designs — Introduciion of beads in other works— Tricot— duality of beads— Can247 bead work— Manufacture of glass beads its

Turquoise beads

work

silver

for

vas for

CHAPTER

XXI.

Needlework of the English GIueens and Princesses Edward the Elder — Queen Matilda—Adelais, wife of — Katharine of Arragon —mention by Shakspeare— Sonnet—Anne Boleyn — Lady Jane Grey — Queen Mary — Sonnet — Queen Elizabeth — Sonnet—Mary, Queen of Scots — Queen Mary — Queen Charlotte and the Princesses — The Princess Royal, Queen of Wurtemburg— The Princess Sophia— The Princess Augusta— The Princess Amelia— The Duchess of York — The Duchess of Gloucester— Queen Adelaide — Her Majesty— The

The

four daughters of

Henry

I

of,

II

Duchess of Kent

250

CHAPTER Conclusion

The

wme

—The

XXII.

Praise of the Needle

“ Needle’s Excellency” Poem by John Taylor account of the Water Poet

—rarity

of the work

258


CONTENTS TO

MRS. GAUGAIN.

PAGE

PAGE

in purse cord, (not purse silk,) 291 spider-net 291 Bag, very beautiful shaded 295 Bag, handsome crotchet

Netting, round, for a gentleman’s long purse 302 Netting, honeycomb, for veil 303 Netting, single diamond 306 Netting, leaf..: 307 Purse, long, Queen Victoria 273 Purse, long, pretty open stitch 274 Purse, Prince Albert’s 280 * Purse, beautiful 283 Purse, Russian crotchet- stitch 285 Purse, long net, for a lady 301 Purse, long net, for a lady 301 Purse, very pretty long Grecian net,

Bag

Bed-Cover, Russian crotchet-stitch... Boot, warm and useful for a baby Boot, long Cap for wearing under the bonnet Comfort, scale stitch Comfort. Coverlet, Baby’s, in garter stitch Cuffs, simple and pretty dress knit... Cuff, another very simple, D’oyley’s, set of open square Echarpe, petite net, for the neck

Edging Edging, beautiful lace Eringe Guard, strong, for a lady or gentle-

man Hood, Baby’s, garter-stitch Kettle-holder Muff, Princess Royal’s scale stitch... Muffetees Muffetee, another Muffetee, warm, for boys. Neckerchief, summer Neckerchief, the roy, triangular net, or Coiffure a Neglige Net, Grecian, for a veil Net, dotted Net, French ground

284 288 290 299 277 287 277 282 283 274 294 279 283 278

for

a lady

tambour

Collar, the lace, Collar, lace for,

16

311

Purse, long, diamond of five stitches 306 Purse, long, plain French double tam-

bour

311

300 277 296 276 293

Purse, long, French tambour 312 Purse, open tambour 313 Purse, open tambour stitch 313 Scarf, elegant knit, with coloured

294 294 282

Scollop for borders of veils, collars,

286 305 308 309

waved ends

297

caps, &c Scollop, another, for border Scollop

..

310 310 310

Shawl, Chinee Triangular Wrapping, garter-stitch

Stocking, under or sleeping Tidy, very beautiful

CONTENTS TO MRS. Collar, the lace, Collar, lace for,

304

Purse, long, of open stitch of single

J.

B.

281 290 278

GORE. PAGE

No. No. No. No.

1 1

2 2

322 323 325 326

Shawl, the Shetland Wool Shawl, border for the Shetland Slipper, the Royal Brighton Purse, the China

321

Wool 322 324 327


— ;

CHAPTER

I

Introinution.

ft

if

The

various kinds of needle- work practised

by our mdefatigab

e

grandmothers

enumerated, would astonish even the most industrious of our modern ladies.”

Douce. •

The

use of sewing

exceedingly old.”

is

Taylor.

J.

EEDLEWORK a

pastime

for

occupation, as

W1 ^

appears to have been not only noble

women, from tbe most

we

consult the

earliest

the high

tbe

principal

of pecuniary advantage,

a source

for

found of

but

ladies,

remote periods.

writings,

estimation

in which

this,

one of the most elegant and useful of the imitative

^ —has and

been

held

in

that from time

all

ages,

and

immemorial,

it

every

in

has

If

abundant proof

arts,

country

ever been

the

constant amusement, and solace, of the leisure hours of

royalty

In arts

itself.

the

time of

practised

by

Moses, needlework ranked the

nations of 2 ,

the

East,

high

among

—embroidery

the

with


;

:

:

INTRODUCTION.

2 and with

gold

and with

silver,

frequently mentioned in the allusion

is'

made

had attained remote terior

to

their

work of the tabernacle

this,

;

thousand four hundred years

knowledge.

Our knowledge

whom From

the

the

had

Israelites

East,

doubtless

spread to

art

this

an-

Homer and

acquired

Greece

civilized Europe.

needlework of the Greeks and

of the

principally to be gathered from

of Helen and

Even

since.

and Rome, and from thence over the whole of

is

where

needlework must have been greatly cultivated by

Egyptians, of

the

stones, being

particularly

writings,

a proof that it a considerable degree of perfection at a period so to the

three

as

and precious

silk,

sacred

Pliny.

Romans

The names

Penelope are familiar to every one, as connected

with this subject.

custom among the

There was a memorable

Grecian dames, in accordance with which, they could not accept a

husband, until they had worked the

second

their deceased lords, or his next of kin

grave-clothes

of

and the story of the

fa-

;

mous web of Penelope, fact.

— Penelope

as related

by Plomer,

is

having, as she thought, lost

employed her time in working a shroud

founded upon this

Ulysses at

her husband.

Sweet hopes she gave

to every

youth apart,

With well taught looks, and a deceitful heart A web she wove of many a slender twine, Of curious texture, and perplex’d design :

My youths,

my lord but newly court my widow'd bed,

she cried,

Forbear awhile

to

dead,

Till I have wov’n, as solemn vows require, This web, a shroud for poor Ulysses’ sire. His limbs, when fate the hero’s* soul demands, Shall claim this labour of his daughter’s hands Lest all the dames of Greece my name despise, While the great king without a covering lies.

Thus

she.

Nor

did

my

friends mistrust the guile

All day she sped the long laborious

sea,

she

for Laertes, the father of

toil


;

,

INTRODUCTION.

3

But when the burning lamps supplied the sun.

Each night unravell’d what the day begun. Three live-long summers did the fraud prevail

The

amazing

fourth her maidens told

tale

These eyes beheld, as clos^ I took my stand, The backward labours of her faithless hand Till watch’d at length, and press’d on every side, Her task she ended, and commenced a bride.” ;

The ceremony the

statue

down

and

us as one of

to

embroidering of the peplus or veil for

of the

of Minerva,

the

The

peplus was the work of

best

families

the

young

whom

Athens, over

in ,

battles

of

gods

the

and giants

;

Jupiter hurling his thunderbolts against

Minerva, seated

Typhon

Enceladus.f

or

had been eminent

When

it.

was

her

in

The

Panathenaic

the

brought

chariot,

down

from

worked, into the city

it ;

from the

two

On

of

principal,

it

amongst

The Panathenaic

frieze,

the

was

gods

that rebellious crew, and

appeared

the

virtue

vanquisher

of

who

festival

the

were also embroidered on

was

Acropolis,

the

celebrated,

where

it

had

peplus

been

was then displayed and suspended

a sail to the ship, which, on that day, attended

*

the

was embroidered

names of those Athenians

military

for

been handed

selected

virgins,

Arrephora were superintendents.

called

has

consecration,

its

highest festival* of the Athenians.*

by

as

a numerous

with which Phidias embellished the outside of the

temple of the Parthenon, represented this sacred procession, which was celebrated every

The

fifth

marbles) t

year at Athens in honour of Minerva, the guardian goddess of the

remains of this is

frieze

city.

(one of the principal treasures in the collection of Elgin

preserved in the British

Vide the Hecuba of Euripides,

Museum. act

ii.

where the Trojan females are lamenting

in anticipation the evils they will suffer in the land of the

Greeks

:

— “ In the

city

Athena on the beautiful seat, in the woven peplus I shall yoke colts to painting them in various different coloured threads, or else the race of the

of Pallas, of

a chariot, Titans, flame.”

whom

Zeus, the son of Kronos, puts to sleep in fiery all-surrounding


;

INTRODUCTION. and splendid procession, was conducted through the

and other principal Acropolis

;

exact nature

generally

is

covering

of

the

supposed

suspended

the

circuit

of the

Parthenon, and there

the

to

have

to

the

been statue

;

sort

of

the

goddess.

of Euripides

“Then from the treas’ry of the god he takes The consecrated tap’stry, splendid woof! To clothe with grateful shade the wondrous

but

awning

a

of

covering, but

similar

a

given in the u Ion”

is

has been disputed

peplusf

over

following description of

dimensions,

had made

it

Minerva.*

consecrated to

The

streets, till

was then carried up

it

Ceramicus

it

or

The

more ample

of :

scene.

First o’er the roof he spreads the skirted peplus,

(The

skirts

Spoil of the

on every side hang waving down), Amazons, the votive gift,

That Hercules,

heroic son of Jove,

Return’d from conquest,

On

offer’d to Apollo.

produce of the loom are wrought

this rich

The Heav’ns, The num’rous

within whose spacious azure round host of stars collective shine

down to his western goal The Sun 1ms driven his last expiring beams Draw forth the radiant light of Hesperus His coursers

there,

;

;

Night urges on amain With slacken’d reins her steeds and dusky car The Constellations on their swarthy queen Attend there thro’ the mid heav’ns win their way The Pleiades his sword Orion grasps Above them shines the Bear, circling round In sable

stole

;

;

;

;

'

Heav’n’s golden axis

;

while the full-orb’d Moon,

That halves the varying months,

*

Vide

+

Stuart’s

Athens

,

vol.

ii.

p. 8.

work of Phidias. “ Peplus, a garment and the like

Dory and

darts from

The famous

on high

statue of

Minerva was

oi

gold, the

ment, or to cover something Pepli of Minerva.”

;

that

it

:

the use of

it

is

signifies a covering,

—Pollucis Onomasticon

,

twofold, to

we may

wear

13. For a further and Reliqucz Alticce

lib. vii. c.

of the peplus, vide Meursius in his Panathcenaia

as a gar-

conclude from the

.

description


INTRODUCTION. Her

To

grateful splendor

The

and gloomy in the

;

he

Middle

the

Church,

the

Librarian,*

nificence

wrought

were

and

glittering train.”

Ages, decorative if

we may

and

others,

scarcely

ecclesiastics, the

pearls,

Aurora

east

harbinger of day, that from the sky

Chases night’s

In

there the Hyades,

;

mariners unerring well-known sign,

Appear

of

J

was

be

to

believe

with

the

the

carried

most

palls,

of

service

Anastasius

an excess of

to

vestments

and the

costly

being

stones,

the

for

writings

The

credited.

altar-cloths, the

precious

needlework

veils

materials

;

lavished

with

dynasty,!

the

mag*

of

the

or curtains, gold,

the

silver,

utmost

profusion.

were

ladies

embroider

and English work

their needlework,

for

was long proverbial abroad

their

Saxon

England, during the

In

famous

chambers

exploits ladies ;

of

those

their

of

Greece

husbands

of the highest rank

women were

Anglicum

opus)

The Anglo-Saxon

for its excellence.^

accustomed, like

the

(

and

Rome,

on the hangings thus

to of

occupied their

Vide Anastasius Bibliothecarius, de Vitis Pontificum Romanorum. Edit. ii. p. 127, and numerous other passages. t The art of embroidery appears to have been unknown in England before the seventh century, in fact we find no mention of it, or even of the weaving of figured textures, until about the year 680. At this period, in a book written by Aldhelm, bishop of Shereburn, in praise of virginity, he observes, that chastity alone did not form an amiable and perfect character, but required and this observation to be accompanied and adorned by many other virtues he further illustrates by the following simile taken from the art of weaving “ As it is not a web of one uniform colour and texture, without any variety of figures, that pleaseth the eye and appears beautiful, but one that is woven by shuttles, filled with threads of purple, and many other colours, flying from side to side, and forming a variety of figures and images, in different comparlVirgimtate in Bibliotheca ments, with admirable art.” Vide Aldhelm, de *

Paris, 1G49, vol.

;

Palrum tom. ,

t

xiii.

Gul. Pictavens.

p.

211.

,


:

INTRODUCTION.

0 hours,

leisure

more

also

as

working

in

particularly

various

We

ornaments for the Church, and the vestments of the Clergy. are

told

by William of Malmesbury,

younger days, did not disdain in the drawing of a design

which she

wrought

afterwards

Edward

daughters of

to

for

that

pious and noble lady

assist a

embroidering a sacerdotal

robe,

The

four

in

of

threads

Elder, and

the

Dunstan, in his

St.

gold.

of

sisters

king Athelstan,

were highly praised and distinguished on account of their great assiduity and skill both in spinning, weaving, and needlework;*

accomplishments which, so far

royal maidens, procured for them the princes

widow

in

Europe.

In

of the

her needle the deeds that

her deceased lord.

of

among

the

other

embroidered with the siege

gifts

of

At

church on his birth day.f

a

among

Troy, to

Robert,

abbot of

St.

Albans, to

*

William of Malmesbury,

t

Ingulphus,

p.

b.

ii.

c.

be

later period,

the valuable

his

'

made by

of richly worked sandals, and three mitres, the

abbess of Markgate, were

the

to

Ingulphus, in

Witlaf, king

of Mercia, to the abbey of Croyland, he presented a tain,

greatest

Edelfreda,

find

on which she had depicted with

veil or curtain,

history, mentions

we

duke of Northumberland, presenting

of Brithned,

church of Ely a

addresses

century,

tenth

the

from injuring the fortunes of these

golden cur-

hung up

— 1155,

work of gifts

a

Christina,

presented

Pope Adrian IV.J

in

pair

by

Numerous

5.

487, edit. 159G.

the only Englishman who ever sat in St. Peter’s chair. X Adrian IV. was His name was Nicolas Breakspoar he was born of poor parents at Langley, near St. Alban’s. Henry II. on his promotion to the papal cnair, sent a deputation of an abbot and three bishops to congratulate him on his election upon which occasion he granted considerable privileges to the abbey of St. :

Alban’s.

With

the exception of the presents

other valuable ones cept your

you

gifts,

which were

because

refused me.”

when

To which

I

named

above, he refused

offered him, saying jocosely,

wished to take th

the abbot pertinently

habit

—“

I

all

the

will not

ac-

of your monastery

and smartly

replied,

It,


INTRODUCTION. other

were

might

instances

be

from

cited

used to work

with their

and

mistresses ;

monks, practised decorative needlework.* Reformation,

the

cluded

monkish

the

necessary to enter more fully into

it

of

life

nuns,

Maids the

the

time of

occupation of

the se-

fact, to

various

the

in

historians

subject.

men, especially

In

formed the principal

it

the

the

houses

religious

throughout England.

Hangings

or

such as we have mentioned,

veils,

and

“ tapestry richly wrought

And woven were

the

principally

of

occupied

the

these

may

The

noble residences.

frequently

still

be seen in some

or

silk

with

intermixed

of various

and

gold

groundwork of canvass, or texture of very

different,

Gobelins:

— an

of

fingers

times,

the

fair.

of our royal and

designs were worned, or embroidered, with

with worsted

needle,

and

attention

former

which, in

needlework,

description

Remnants of

a

close.”

however, from

those

colours,

silver

cloth or

either

and not unon

threads, silk,

in

of Flanders,

invention, comparatively speaking, of

a

manner

a

or

modern

the

times,

partaking more of the character of weaving than of needlework,

and of which we

when speaking of

The

shall

in

make more

especial

mention,

general.

celebrated needlework of Bayeux, doubtless the most ancient

specimen in existence,!

was not

hereafter

tapestry

for

us to

is

supposed to have been the work of

oppose the will of Providence, which had destined you for

greater things.” *

The

practice

of

needlework, even

Many

at

the

present

day,

is

not

entirely

men, particularly officers of the army, have not deemed the use of the needle more derogatory than that of the pencil. Most of the best specimens of embroidery done on the continent, more especially tne appendages of the sacerdotal and military dress, are executed by men t We must not omit to mention the pall used at the funeral of Sir William

confined to the softer sex.


INTRODUCTION. William the Conqueror, and

Matilda, queen oi

whom

was presented

it

to the cathedral of

where the canons w ere accustomed

in

Normandy,

people with

to gratify the

r

exhibition on particular occasions.

of a continuous

It consists

by

maidens,*

lier

Bayeux

its

web

of cloth, two hundred and twenty-seven feet in length, and twenty

borders at top and bottom,

inches in width, including the

formed of grotesque figures of

are

which are supposed

birds, animals,

The whole

the bodies of the slain.

worsted, representing the various

Walworth,

In the part

to represent the fables of iEsop.

is

border

lower

pourtraying the battle of Hastings, the

of

connected with the inva-

in the fourth year of Richard II. a. d. 1381.

The ends which

consists

worked or embroidered with

events

This, perhaps the liost

magnificent piece of ancient needlework in existence,

Fishmongers’ Company.

these

some of

&c.,

preserved by the

is still

are exactly similar,

represent

St.

on a throne, clothed in pontificial robes, and crowned with he is giving the benediction with one hand, whilst in the the papal tiara other he holds the keys. On either side of the saint is an angel scattering Peter

seated

;

The

incense from a golden vase.

sides

of the

which are

pall,

also

similar,

Company at either end Peter. The faces of the

are richly decorated with the arms of the Fishmongers’

the centres represent our Saviour giving the keys to figures

(including those of the

merman and mermaid, the supporters of but we would more particularly call

arms) are most beautifully executed

;

attention of those interested in such

may

works

justly be termed a masterpiece of art.

ately

wrought

in

gold,

silver,

;

and

silk,

to the

face of our

The whole

is

pall, it is

has been

lost,

supposed,

and

its

was

place

the stamp of great antiquity.

on a coarse kind of linen cloth;

originally embroidered in the

on a

chief,

relief.

The

top

same manner, but

it

now supplied by a rich brocade of gold, bearing The arms of the Fishmongers’ Company are, azure,

is

three dolphins, naiant in pale, between

crowned, or;

which and elabor-

Saviour,

richly

the ground being composed entirely of gold, with a pattern in

of the

the the

two

pairs of lucies, in salterwise, proper,

gules, three couple of keys, crossed, as the

crowns;

supported on the dexter side by a merman, armed, and on the sinister by a mermaid, holding a mirror in her left hand; crest, two arms sustaining a crown v Motto, “ All worship be to God only. ” ,

* tile

Though Queen Matilda greater part of

at this period, as

it

directed the working of the Bayeux Tapestry, yet was most probably executed by English ladies, who were

we have

before stated, celebrated for their needlework.


-

INTRODUCTION. of England

sion and conquest

9

by tbe Normans

altogether, exclusive of the borders, about five

The

only being females.

figures, three

supposed from the period in which

it

It

comprises

hundred and thirty

may

colours, as

be readily

was executed, are not very

numerous, consisting only of dark and light blue, and green, low,

and

and

buff*

have become considerably faded, whilst the cloth

brown

a

itself

This curious piece of work appears

tinge.

red, yel-

hundred

these, after a lapse of nearly eight

j

years,

has assumed to

have been

wrought without any regard to the natural colours of the subjects depicted,

—the horses being

represented blue, green, red, and yellow,

and many of them have even two of their their

to

bodies

;

for

as

legs of a different colour

and a yellow mane, whilst the hoofs are

The drawing barous,”

of the figures

been

has

has two red legs

horse

instance, a blue

also

of another colour. u

termed

the correct

outline

properly termed

of the

The work

painter.

embroidery;

—the

faces of the

outline

chain

of the

features

Nevertheless,

stitch.

needlework, at the

and

bar-

it

excites

being merely taking

traced

whole

the

of that kind

is

figures,

other parts, are formed of the material composing the

rude

but in the needlework of this age, we must not look for

the

ground,

a kind of

in as

and some

a

piece

of

our admiration, and we cannot but wonder

energy of mind which could with so much industry embody

the actions of a series of events ever

memorable in the pages of

history.*

An

idea of the various descriptions of needlework practised by

English ladies

in

the

sixteenth

century,

may

be

gathered

from

some of the poems of the laureate Skelton. * Some beautifully coloured engravings of the Bayeux Tapestry, from draw-

by Mr. Stothard, have been published by the Society of Antiquaries in the “ Vetusta Monumenta;” as also in the magnificent work recently published iu Paris, by M. Aroliille Jubinal, entitled “ Les Anciennes Tapisseries Histories.” ings


;

INTRODUCTION.

10 “

With that the tappettes and carpettes were layde, Wheren these ladyes softely might rest, The sampler to sowe on, the laces to embroyde.

To weave With,

some were

in the stole

slaies,

with

tavels,

full prest,

with hedelles well

drest,

The frame was brought forth, with his weaving God give them good speed their work to begin. **

pin

;

Some to embroider, put them in prease, Well gydyng their glotten to keep straight their silke Some pyi lyng of golde, their work to encrese, With fingers small, and handes as white as mylke, With reche me that skayne of tewly sylke, And wynde me that batoume of such an hewe, Grene, red, tawney, whyte, purple, and blewe.”

From

the time of Elizabeth,*

when

the study of the dead lan-

guages, and the cultivation of the more abstruse sciences, became the fashion of the day, the art of needlework, although possessing

many

so

England

except some its

*

and capable of such

attractions,

appear, in

at least,

to

occasional intervals,

when

former importance, paramount to

At

studied

Greek,

Spanish,

variety,

Italian

and

it

would if

we

has for a time resumed

other feminine amusements

all

occupation of needlework, ladies

this period, in addition to the pleasing

Latin,

endless

have been much neglected,

The

Fiench.

more ancient

among them exercised themselves, some with the needle, some with “ caul work ” (probably netting), “ divers in spinning silk, some in continual reading either of the Scriptures or of histories,

works of others

“ their lutes, citharnes, and

then understood.

household duty

The

of their own, or translating the

The younger

;

the distillation

branches also applied to of music,” which

were deemed an important of waters, and the acquiring some

pricksongs, and

all

preparing of confectionary

for ladies

knowledge both

either

into Latin or English.”

kinds

was

also

and surgery likewise occupied their attention as, until the time of Henry VIII. there had been no licensed practitioners in either of these branches of science. The mewing of sparrow hawks and merlins, much engaged the attention of the younger portion of the female sex. One great and important office, however, must not be omitted, namdly, the distribuin physic

tion of charitable doles by the lady of each parish or

(hen unknown.

— Vide

Holinskcd's Chronicle.

;

manor, poor’s rates being


— INTRODUCTION.

In the time of Addison, letter to the

..

*

“ I

mentioned in

thus

is

Mr. Spectator,

have a couple of nieces under

Their

their

dress,

and they go

to

and their

tea,

visits,

who

direction, to

up

take

so often

have

their time

all

I

am

The only time they

jinder-petticoat

them.

after

are not

while they read your Spectators’; which being dedicated

is

to the interests of virtue,

neglected

out

years,

fifty

my

hand.

For

and by It

recommend

to

and the or

receipts,

hangings, for the family.

you

Those hours which in

dress, play, visits,

time, in writing

out of

desire

I

art of needlework.

thrown away in

these

my

know where

that I don’t

bed as tired with doing nothing, as

whole

quilting a

my

discontinuance

its

Spectator.”

run gadding abroad,

idle,

ll

my

were employed, in

working beds,

part, I

my good will my heart to

grieves

idle flirts sipping their tea, for a

like,

long

the

this age are

chairs,

have plyed

my

and

needle

would never have see a couple of

it

proud

whole afternoon, in a room hung

round with the industry of their great-grandmother.

Pray,

sir,

take the laudable mystery of embroidery into your serious consideration, ,

and as you have a great deal of the virtue of the

continue your endeavours to reform the present.

7

the close of the

last

again

much

Coloured

At

silks,

scape

in vogue.

century,

needlework

embroideries,

in imitation of paintings, comprising

and

shells; these

historical

subjects,

fruit,

all

of

with

last

age in

1

am, &c.,”

all

kinds was

crewels

and

the varieties of land-

flowers,

were principally worked on satin or

birds, animals,

and

lute-string, the faces

and other parts of the human figure being generally painted on the material, as being these are not

more

difficult to

embroider.

Specimens of

unfrequently to be met with, in w hich the work T

is


INTRODUCTION.

12

most beautiful and

During tbe war, a great number

elaborate.

of delicate and ingenious kinds

work were done by

of

soners and emigrants in fine silk and hair.

an

spangling of fans, then

appendage

absolute

tbe pri-

The ornamenting and the

to

of

dress

every lady, must not be forgotten. Besides

coloured

the

much

embroideries,

and dotted

of line

or

on white satin or

silk

gradations of

from

drawn upon

tint,

a

to

grey,

darker

the

in

needle,

fine

black

the material

close imitation

—the

various

being

design

were

parts

of

silks

first

worked much

;

together

closer

with

—a

,

These were worked

engravings.

stippled

and ingenuity

skill

were displayed in what was termed 'print-work

than

the

or

lighter

middle shades, and in those

imitating dotted engravings the stitches were extremely small

the

:

whole art consisted in representing as closely as possible the lines of the

engraver,

and patience see

in

to

—a

work,

these

pieces.

When

more

closely

resembled

stitches

which

however,

produce the beautiful fine

required both

engravings

those

of

the

engraver.

This

were

of the usual

but were kept wider apart, so as to imitate the lines

species

of

skill

which we sometimes

effects

the

copied,

embroideries,

black

and

white

work was peculiarly

adapted for representing architectural subjects.

In addition to the

above, numerous different kinds of needlework were practised, but the mere benefit, as

enumeration of these would be productive of but

little

most of them have long since given place to others of

a superior description.

In a work of this

kind, a “

Hand-book” of the present

of needlework, and of the best means we possess of bringing perfection,

it

is

scarcely necessary that

into the early history of the art.

and successfully done Wilton, and

under the

we should

enter

more

state it

to

fully

This has already been so ably auspices

withal, in so entertaining a

of the

Countess

of

manner, accompanied with


INTRODUCTION.

13

deep research, as to leave no stone unturned, or any want

such

upon the

In

subject.

needlework

ages

all

has been applied to

the same purposes, either for the adornment of the person, or the

mansions

the

of

decoration

maidens of Egypt

Rome ;*

and

Greece

of

be

yet

with the

themselves

occupied

loom,

remembered that

it

then equally

the distaff and spindle, and with the

For such did the

of the wealthy.

ply the needle; and again, in after times, those

the

also

more toilsome mysteries of

which they were pre-eminently

at

they

feminine labours of

skilful,

as is fully

proved by the remains of ancient textures, which the researches of

modern

travellers

It

scarcely

is

ancient

celebrated

This lady, who

Linwood.

the is

now

of

accomplished

this

woven

thick kind of tammy,

of

her

in

thirteen

completed at the age of seventy-

she

piece

last

The works

either

surpassed

commenced her labours when only

year,

her

old;

eight.

any needlework,

ever

has

times,

of Miss

eighty-seventh

to light.

be imagined that

modern

or

productions

years

have brought to

artist

are executed

on a

expressly for her use, with fine crewels,

dyed under her own superintendence; they are entirely drawn and embroidered by

herself,

being put in by received, if indeed

her needles.

London, Guido. f

no background or other unimportant parts

a

less

it

may

skilful

her

The

first

piece,

â&#x20AC;&#x153; Salvator

been considered the

finest

still

exhibited in Leicester-square,

the Head' of

St.

from

sum

we

of three thousand guineas.

were not deemed unsuitnor did a princess degrade her dignity by superintending the

abours of the loom, the t

Peter, a copy

production of her needle, for which

* In the simplest days of Greece, those occupations :

she

assistance

Mundi,â&#x20AC;? from Carlo Dolci, has generally

are informed she refused the

able to palaces

only

be called such, was in the threading of

In her collection,

is

hand, the

Marked No. 24

distaff,

and the dyeing

in the Catalogue.

3*

vat.


INTRODUCTION.

14

i

“To raise at once our reverence and delight, To elevate the mind and charm the sight, To pour religion through th’ attentive eye, And waft the soul on wings of extacy; For

mimic

this the

And

The “Woodman

in a Storm,

Vow,” from Opie,

tha’s rash

production

is

art

with nature

vies,

bids the visionary form arise.”

the

5

also

from

Gainsborough, and

rank among her

Judgment upon Cain,”

Jep-

Her

best.

one

c

last

of the largest

pictures in the gallery. “

And 1

said,

1

And

he

1

not

me And now

1

from the ground. thou cursed from the earth which hath opened her mouth

art

to receive thy brother’s blood

1

When

strength “

thou

tillest

from thy hand.

the ground

it

shall

not henceforth yield unto thee her

a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.’

;

And

1

'l

:

said,

crieth unto

Where is Abel thy brother V And he am I my brother’s keeper ” What hast thou done ? The voice of thy brother’s blood

the Lord- said unto Cain,

know

Cain said unto the Lord,

The whole

collection

Miss Linwood

portrait of

Within the

last

few

considerable

attracted

of the art

may

My

consists herself,

punishment

is

I can bear”

of sixty-four pieces, including a

from a painting by Russell.

years, ornamental

attention,

greater than

and

needlework has

although

again

modern

the

style

as yet be considered in its infancy, it has already

so far progressed as infinitely to surpass the labours of the ingen-

ious

may

women be

of bygone times.

Needlework may be regarded

(if

allowed the expression) as the sister art of painting

we the

;

aim of the accomplished needlewoman of the present day, being to

produce as true a picture of nature as possible

soaring far ;

beyond the common-place ideas of the ancient embroideries, which, perhaps, are more to be admired for the richness of their materials,

and the labour bestowed upon them, than as

works of

art.

We

would wish

for

any merit they possess

to see the needle

and embroidery


INTRODUCTION. frame rescued from any doubt

accomplishments, in

among

or

their capa-

more elegant of female

the

worthy of occupying the elevated position

which the talent of Miss Linwood has placed them. It will,

at

— and

to their utility,

as

of taking a higher stand

bility

15

by some, that needlework,

perhaps, be urged

present

the

but

time, is

a

mechanical

art ;

as practised

and the

recent

may somewhat favour the opinion. disown, no one, who regards the work

invention of Berlin 'patterns

we

This, however,

entirely

commonly done

of the mere copyist of these designs, (as in

Germany, where neither

for sale

nor judgment are displayed in

taste

the selection of the colours, nor skill in the appropriation of them)

can compare

with that of the talented needlewoman, who, even

it

may have worked what may be

though she

pattern, produces

for

stitch

stitch

justly termed

—a

from the

same

“ painting with

the needle.”*

No

feminine art affords greater scope for the display of taste

The

and ingenuity than that of needlework. form which work,

as

gros point petit point ,

of embroidery easy,

mazes of

;

—and

,

and point de Gobelin

tricot filet, ,

and crochet

,

—each

as graceful occupations for the young,

the latter

—in

that

Even

in their turn serving

and an inexhaustible source

advanced period of

descriptions of work, as these

* All descriptions of canvas

the last few years.

,

again in the apparently intricate, but really

of amusement for those in a more particularly

variety of

endless

assumes under the various denominations of tapestry

it

work have undergone

so recently as

life

can

;

be,

more and

great improvement within

1829, they were

dismissed with the

following brief account, in a work dedicated to the pursuits of young ladies. “ Worsted- work, on canvas, is a subordinate description of embroidery. It is applied to the production of rugs for urns, covers of ottomans, bell-pulls, and

many

other elegant articles.

on canvas, strained

The

outline of the pattern

in the middle of a frame.”

!

!

is

sketched with a pen


— INTRODUCTION.

16 are

frequently, practised

deprivation of sight. Griffiths,

genious

u that the

women

of

by persons even when labouring under has opportunely been observed

It

of needleworks which

great variety other

countries,

well

as

as

our

by Mrs. the in-

own,

have

invented, will furnish us with constant and amusing employment;

and though our labours bury’s, yet, if they

the

may

of any elegant or

progress

purpose of domestic amusement

our the

situation satisfaction

do

Mineron’s or an Ayles-

not equal a

unbend the mind, by

not

call

of knowing

fixing its

imitative and,

;

forth

that

when

our

we

art,

the

at

on

answer the

higher duties of

exertions, are,

attention

they

we may

least,

feel

innocently

employed.”* In conclusion, to quote the words of John Taylor, the water poet, it

may

be said,

“Thus is a needle prov’d an instrument Of profit, pleasure, and of ornament, Which mighty queenes have grac’d in hand

*

Es8*y»,

p, 66.

to take.


:

CHAPTER

II

Scipcstrg.

tt This bright art Did zealous Europe learn of Pagan hands,

While she

To

assay’d with rage of holy

desolate their fields

Long were Tyre

And

also,

:

but old the

war skill

the Phrygians’ pict’ring looms renown’d

wealthy seat of

art, excell ’d,

elder Sidon, in th’ historic web.”

Dyer. “ For round about the walls yclothed were

With

goodly arras of great maiesty,

Woven

with gold and silke so close and nere

That the

As

rich metall lurked privily

faining to be hid from envious eye;

Yet here, and there, and everywhere, unwares Jt

shewd

itselfe

and shone unwillingly

;

Like a discolourd snake, whose hidden snares Through the greene gras his long bright burnisht back declares.”

Faery Queene.

HE

last

given

quotation forms part of the description,

by

Spenser,

of

beautiful

the

tapestry

which Britomart saw in one of the apartments of the house

of Busyrane

;

and the poet had

probably in view the actual specimens of tapescry

men

frequently to be seen in the principal mansions of the

nobility in England. 3


— TAPESTRY.

18

The

tapestry, appears

decoration of the walls of palaces with

have

to

Homer

been

custom

a

even

practised

in

the

ages.

earliest

says “ The walls, through all their length, adorn’d With mantles overspread of subtlest warp Transparent, work of many a female hand.”

The mode

term

the

for

tapestry

fabric,

—such

and

with

article

England, rendered

in

some :

restricted

description

of

although

the

and to

one

species

of

—yet

was formerly applicable

it

to

ornamental hangings for the walls of apartments

less

loom was employed

the

before

these,

least,

necessary

generally

and even in

ancients,

produced at the “ Manufacture Royale des

Beauvais,

at

the

castles

at

or,

absolutely

now

is

as that

kinds of

all

decoration,

walls,

and

Gobelins,”

the baronial

times, in

mode of

such a lining

adopted "by

of building

more recent

to

labour and expense, were

furnish

;

similar

a

generally the needle-

work of female hands.* an extremely remote

at

introduced into like

buted the

to

Phrygians

the

Trojan

embroideries

war, ;

of

were

the ;

has

women

celebrated

eastern

from whence they

The

needlework,

of

inhabitants

the era,

Greece and Rome. kinds

other

all

among

known

were

Tapestries countries

for

invention of

been

generally

of

Sidon,

their

were

the

long

tapestries

art,

attri-

before

and

and those of Phseacia, the island on which Ulysses

was wrecked, were, according

to

“ Far as Phaeacian mariners

Homer, equally all

noted.

else

Surpass, the swift ship urging through the floods,

s

So

AW

far

in tissue-work

the

women

pass

by Minerva’s skill endow’d With richest fancy and superior skill.”

*

The

the Latin

others,

from the French, whence it is derived from Tapete which again comes from the Greek ranns

term Tapestry comes

word Tapes

or


TAPESTRY.

supposed by Bottiger, that the Greeks took their ideas

It is

of

and

griffins

centaurs from the

fantastic combinations selected

needlewomen in

the

of

taste

whole surface of

longer covered the

It

borders

the

with the the

art,

was

dyer,

needle, to

the

while

only,

narrated that Arachne, a

is

The

art.

became

and

talents

refined

in

visible

the

work, but

the

were

no con-

more

received

centres

of

systematic representations.

Idmon, a

of

compositions of the

and these unnatural combinations

;

to

display

Athenians, however, soon

the

regular and

grotesque the

for

department of oriental

this

design of their tapestry

fined

19

so

of Colyphon, daughter

working these

in

Minerva, the

challenged

that she

a trial of

woman

skilful

tapestries

goddess of

She represented in her designs the

skill.

amours of Jupiter with Europa, Antiope, Leda, Asteria, Danae, and

goddess.* Alcmene

fect

and although

;

it is

reported that her performance was per-

and masterly, yet she was defeated by Minerva, and hanging

herself in

After tapestry

again

despair,

the

fall

appears

introduced,

Crusaders,

as,

was changed into a spider by the

Roman

of

the

to

have

as

with

been

empire, the

from

exception

the

in

lost

supposed,

is

of

Tapestry, we find but few traces of

it

art

Europe, until Levant,

the

the

from the early manufacturers in France being or Sarazinois

>r

TOLTng.

covering

,

this

opinion

is

it

was

by

the

Bayeux

far-famed

until that

*

working

of

period

:

and

Sarazius

called

,

considerably strengthened.

According to the best authorities, any kind, generally composed

of

it

signified

of

an outer garment, or wrought or em-

wool, and

broidered in figures with various colours, such as hangings for walls, coverlets

The or tables, or carpets, or even for horse-cloths. Used in the writings of Pliny, Virgil, Martial, and other Latin * Vide Ovidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Metamorphoses b. vi. Minerva, as the goddess arts, was invoked by every artist, particularly by such as worked /or beds,

term

is

thas

authors.

of the liberal

,

briidery, painting,

and sculpture.

holding a distaff instead of a spear.

In

many

of her statues she

in wool,

is

em-

represented


tapestry;

20

The

have been long

tc

France

were

Whether

date.

Flemings

the

knowledge from the East,

having restored scarcely,

silks,

at

England

in

was not

time

the

of

particular

to

life

paintings

the

to

was

tapestry

first

wools and

of

the best

introduced

Henry VIII, by William Sheldon

of

James

until the reign of

I.

that

it

into

but

;

acquired any par-

This monarch greatly patronised the

ticular reputation.

their

certainly due the honour of

is

which gives a

inferior

all,

The weaving

masters.

it

this curious art, if

them the

derive

not

did

or

of the

history

his

mentioning any

did

them

to

or

1582, ascribes to

without

but

tapestries,

at

England

manufactured by

first

Guicciardini, in

appear

principally

into

either

Netuerlands, published at Antwerp in invention of

country,

that

introduced

uncertain.

is

in

when they were

the precise period,

:

Flemings

the

of Flanders, and they

those

established

they

before

Arras,*

weaving tapestry which acquired

manufactories for

first

reputation in Europe, were

and

art,

gave the sum of two thousand pounds towards the advancement

by

of a manufactory, which was established

The

Mortlake in Surrey. fabrics in

patterns

England were obtained from

been worked by foreign

artists ;

were

furnished

by Francis

There

purpose.!

*

at

which had already

pieces

but as the tapestries produced in

sum

Aroges,

in 1,

Rymer’s

that

retained

he owed Sir

is

an

ac-

Francis Crane thjit

he grants

we frequently meet with Antwerp, Brussels, Oudenarde,

derived the term “arras” which

synonymous with and Tournay, were

authors, Lille,

that

for

u Fcedera,” J

of six thousand pounds for tapestries, and

From whence old

who was

Cleyn,

extant

is

knowledgement from Charles

n

Crane

Sir Francis

used for making these

country acquired greater celebrity and perfection, the designs

this

the

first

latter is still

noted for

its

t

Walpole,

vol.

tapestry.

also

celebrated

for

their

tapestries

carpet manufactories. ii.

p.

128.

I

Vol.

xviii. p.

112.

;

the


TAPESTRY.

him

the annual

him

enable

To

Quatre

first

whom

are indebted

and costly

curious

this

the

for

art has

was

by

conducted

he had invited from Flanders

but

great

Paris,

at

Colbert,

and would probably have

the

artists

this, like

many

similar

again remodeled

that period

it

been entirely

at

had not

so,

Versailles

for

and the Tuil-

upon a more secure foundation, and from

royal manufactory of the

the

neglected

Louis XIV, with a view of providing

minister of

the costly and magnificent furniture leries,

about

clever

;

death,

Henri

several

founded by that monarch, was greatly

institutions

perfection

been brought.

a tapestry manufactory

established

1606, which

the year

his

of two thousand pounds for ten years, to

to support his establishment.

France, however, we

which

to

sum

21

“Hotel des Gobelins”

dates its origin.

The working

that a brief description lins ”

may

treatise

As

the

to

of the

on the

century dyers of wool were settled

fourteenth St.

Marcel,

Paris,

at

of dyeing.

One

on

the

of these,

named Jean

dants increased, and at length renouncing the

by to

various offices of

Messrs.

state.

banks

of

the

were considered as favourable

lived in 1450, amassed considerable wealth,

filled

is,

art of needlework.

Faubourg

the process

who

species of weaving,

Manufacture Royale des Gobe-

Bievre, the waters of which stream to

a

achievements of the needle,

not be considered uninteresting, or out of place in a

early as the

the

in

although

of tapestry,

nevertheless, so closely allied

whivh

Gobelin,

his descen-

business

of dyers,

The Gobelin family were succeeded

Canaye, who however did not confine their attention

the dyeing of

wool, but under the patronage of

* Sully, the celebrated minister of

Henry

IV., says,

— “ On

Henry IV.*

eut de la peine

a convenir de prix avec ces celebres Tapissiers Flamands, qu’on

avoit

fait


— 22

TAPESTRY.

commenced

the working of tapestry, which until that period had

been confined to a

1655,

Low

the

named

Dutchman,

workman, and a great suggestion

of

family,

and established them

drawn up

charter which was

the

made

at

Jean

one

art.

still

in

succeeded,

these

a

Lianson,

Louis XIY,

afterwards

Colbert,

buildings and gardens which were lin

and

Glucq,

proficient in the

minister,

his

To

Countries.

at

the

purchased

the

the property of the Gobe-

as a royal

In

manufactory.

that time, the building

a

called

is

Hotel des Gobelins,” from which circumstance the tapestry there has ever

Skilful

weavers and dyers, were brought from Flanders

artists,

and attached painter

Le

been known as “ Gobelin Tapestry.”

since

to

the

and in 1667 the celebrated

establishment;

Brun was appointed

chief director

Gobelin

of the

manufactory, to which he communicated that beauty and grandeur, his

admirable

talents

were so well calculated to

He

produce.

here painted the famous series of the battles of Alexander, which

were afterwards worked in tapestry, and

The

productions of the Gobelins.

and the history of the principal riage to his

first

designs of this

At

venir a

remain the

acts of

finest

Louis XIY, from his mar-

Franche Comte, were

conquest of

master.*

still

four Seasons, the four Elements,

also

from the

*

the period of the French revolution, this manufacture, which

si

grands

qu’il leur seroit

frais.

Enfin

il

fut conclu,

en presence de

donne pour leur etablissement, cent

ayant, disoit-il, soigneux de m’avertir de leur payer server, et grand peur de perdre les avances faites j usque-la. ‘

*

;

Sillery et

que Henri grande envie de

mille francs,

*

II

de moi, fut tresles

con-

auroit seulement

bien voulu que ces manufacturiers se fussent contentes d’autres deniers, que ceux qu’il s’etoit reserves falloit les satisfaire.”

* ries

pour lui-meme

:

Memoires tom. ,

mais enfin a quelque prix que ce vi. p.

fut,

il

371.

Engravings of some of these will be found in “ Devises pour les Tapissedu Roy, ou sont representez les quatre elemens et les quatre saisons de

I’annee.”

fol.

Paris, 1679


:

TAPESTRY.

23

had until then been prosecuted with various degrees of greatly declined, but under the

revived, and has since to the

same extent

government of Napoleon

success,

was again

it

been successfully carried on, although not

About the year 1802 ninety

as formerly.

per-

sons were employed at the Gobelins, chiefly in the preparation of the

tapestry, for

of

palace

Cloud; and

St.

150,000 francs were expended yearly on

executed

pieces

are

sionally requires the single

generally

their size than

The productions by

and

subjects,

The

cost

of some

occa-

it

by

of these pieces

articles

regulated

is

is

less

the beauty and difficulty of the work.*

of this manufactory, which

is

entirely supported

the government, are chiefly destined for the

for presents

The

these productions.

historical

enormous, but the price of the different

by

was estimated that

labour of from two to six years to finish a

of tapestry.

piece

it

made by the king

royal palaces, or

but some few pieces, not designed

;

as such, are allowed to be sold.

Connected with the establishment of the Gobelins, the dyeing of wool, under the

an

infinite

number

of

direction

shades,

mostly

of able

unknown dyed

is

one for

chemists, in

where

trade,

ex-

cept for the

purposes

Wool

exclusively used, as the colours are more permanent.

is

There art

are

is

now

also

taught,

upon chemistry

of needlework, are

a drawing-school,

and an annual

in

for the tapestry.

which the principles of the

course

of lectures

is

delivered

as applicable to dyeing.

Evelyn gives the following description of some Gobelin tapestry, then new England which he saw in the apartments of the Duchess of Portsmouth “ Here I saw the new fabriq of French tapissry, for designe, tendernesse of worke, and incomparable imitation of the best paintings, beyond anything I had ever beheld. Some pieces had Versailles, St. German’s, and other palaces of the French king, with huntings, figures, and landslips, exotiq fowls, and all to the life rarely don.” Memoirs p. 563. *

in

,


TAPESTRY.

24

The Gobelin

formerly made in lengths or pieces,

tapestry was

when one

the width of which varied from four to eight feet; and

of larger dimensions was required, several of these were

sewn

or

finedrawn together with such care that no seams were discernible.

At

day, however, they

present

the

manufactured of much

are

seldom require to be joined even in

greater widths, so that they

the largest pieces.

Two

known

tapestry,

the

in

,

methods were formerly practised in the manufacture of as those of the “ basse lisse

or

first,

low warp, which

was placed horizontally, similar

is

to

common weaving,

the

wrong

side, so that

;

loom

the

relinquished,

intended to be wrought being beneath the warp

was very remarkable, from the

“ haute lisse

and the

now

the painting

and the process

;

worked on

fact of the tapestry being

the artist could not see the face of the design

he was weaving, until the whole piece was finished and taken out of the frame.

In the “ haute lisse” or high warp, which

used, the frame

is

works, as duces,

it

;

were blindfold, seeing nothing of the

and being obliged

whenever he wishes

to

examine the piece he

to

Gobelins,

may

or

mode

visited this

loom

is

inner

side

unnecessary

The

executing.

at present practised at the

most interesting establishment.

being gradually of to

the

upright

describe)

threads, or

separating these threads

roller,

wound round pieces,

are

more or

pieces, at the top

rollers are fixed horizontally

fastened the longitudinal

posed of twisted wool, wound on the upper executed,

is

formed of two upright

and bottom of which, two large these rollers are

is

he pro-

perhaps convey some idea of the manufacture to

who have not

The frame

effect

still

go to the other side of the loom

following brief description of the

those

is

he also

fixed perpendicularly before the artist

several

placed less

at

the

to

:

warp, com-

the work, as lower.

On

contrivances different

it

the (here

points,

for

from one another, in order


a

TAPESTRY.

25

admit the cross threads or warp, which are to form the picture.

to

to

whose

colour’d threads

fair

Hang figur’d weights, whose various numbers guide The artist’s hand he, unseen flowers, and trees, :

And

As

vales,

and azure

a sort of guide for the

in their

introduce the

artist to

warp

his

him

in

which

front,

are

painting behind

the

see

to

For working the tapestry

instruments

three

seven or

wood, about

round which the wool as the weaver’s

is

reed

inches long, and an inch thick decreases to the divided,

wool when

the

The

well.

towards

The

there

brings

also of wood, eight or nine

is

whence

at

gradually

it

in shape

longer

it

of fineness of

similar to a

is

used to

common

press

close

;

any

line or

colour that

does not

set

himself behind the frame, with his back

his

each

across

degree

or less

is

he

cartoon or picture

proper colour he places

he

is

artist places

the

needle

and

larger

and looks

turns

and two-

length,

extremity of the teeth, which are more or less

much

but

formed

with a small handle,

at the back,

according to the greater

the intended work. needle,

first is

wound, and serving the same purpose

The

shuttle.

in

point

a

in

to

required,

are

The

eight inches

thirds of an inch thick, ending

open

sufficiently

it.

broach, a reed or comb, and an iron needle.

of hard

threads

cross

proper places, he traces an outline of his subject on the

threads of enable

unerring works.”

hills,

it

among

about

to

taking

a

copy

he

first

;

broach

of

the

the threads of the warp> which

with

other

is

then

design,

the coats or threads fastened to the

his

fingers,

this

staff

by means

of

he repeats every

;

time

it

is

necessary to change his colour.

wool, he beats

several

with his reed

it

rows, he

;

them with

placed

th8

and when he has thus wrought

passes to the other side

to properly adjust

Having

to see their

effect,

and

his needle, should there be occasion.


;

TAPESTRY.

26

As

tapestry, however, of this

ladies, it

for although in this

work panels

to

“ the

for rooms,

work of

would that matron

monument,

“ that

be,

is

the fashion

we do not how memo-

it

whole

out the

it

says, “

when he

who should have

she wrought

and died in a good old

for beds, yet

age of renaissance

and hangings

entirely agree with the “ Spectator,”

rable

the

not

description, is

would be tedious for ns to enter more upon the subject

inscribed on he)

Bible in tapestry

having covered three hundre<

age, after

yards of wall in the mansion house.’ ”*

The Cartoons

*

England, and the express

purpose

twenty-five of

They were at

the

envy of of

these

all

of

sacred

polite

in

the

were

sent

in

remain.

Leo X.

the chambers of the

Vatican.

Julius

Flanders to be

The

now

only

and

auspices of pope

to

were painted for the There were originally

nations,”

tapestry.

designs, but seven

historical

was engaged

Raffaelle

them

other

wrought

being

executed under

time that

The whole

of Raffaelle, which have been justly called “ the glory of

II.

worked

in

tapestry,

to

were not sent to Rome until after the death of this great master, and the cartoons, which were greatly damaged by being cut into strips by the weavers, lay neglected in the storerooms of the manufactory where, during the revolution which soon after happened in the low countries, most of them were destroyed. The seven which now adorn the gallery at Hampton Court were purchased by R.ubens for Charles I. These cartoons fortunately escaped being sold in the royal collection by the disproportionate appraisement of them at £300, while the nine representing the triumph of Julius Caesar, by Andrea Mantegna, were valued U £1000. For an account of the more celebrated ancient tapestries on the continent, ive refer our readers to M. Achille Jubinal’s splendid work, Les Anciennes Tapisseries Historiees. In England, the tapestry preserved in St. Mary’s Hall, at Coventry, although much mutilated, is well worthy of careful examination. adorn the pontifical apartments.

tapestries

;

The

Hampton Court, Wolsey by the embe found in Mr. Jesse’a

finest ancient tapestries in existence arc doubtless those at

which are supposed peror Charles V an ;

entertaining

little

to

have been presented

to

Cardinal

interesting description of these will

work,

A

Summer's Day at Hampton Court

.


CHAPTER

III

iHaUrials in (General.

M From

fertile

France and pleasant Italy ,

,

From Poland Sweden Denmarke Germany ,

And some

,

,

,

of these rare Patternes haue beene

Beyond the bounds of

fet

Mahomet: From spacious China and those Kingdomes East, And from great Mexico the Indies West. Thus are these workes farrefetcht and deareVy bought faithlesse

,

,

And

,

consequently good for Ladies thought .”

John Taylor.

HE

products of the animal, the vegetable, and

the mineral kingdom, are called into requisition for

the

service of the

and the west are alike for

the

and

silver, are

serve her different

escaped her

termed,)

is

Nor have

quill

an imitation.

witness

work, or

The

the

—the

east

she

employs.

the shells of the

ocean

splendid

works in nacre of

ecaille (as it

has been improperly

the

,

feathers of birds, the scales of fishes,

the wing cases of insects, and tress,

which

articles

:

under contribution

formed and twisted into various threads to

purposes.

notice, as

which the stamped

laid

and hemp, and even the precious metals

Sint, wool, cotton, flax,

—gold

various

needlewoman

insects

skins of serpents, furs

themselves

mosses,

the ;

barks of

straw, grass, seaweeds


;

MATERIALS IN GENERAL.

28

and precious

and even the hair of the

stones,

embroideress

fair

each in their turn, furnished her materials wherewith

herself, have,

to exercise her ingenuity.*

The needlework more

of the present day

and

to the skill

beauty

bizarre

that

the true

distort

her

and most costly.

:

intention

— and

simple

The

that

of

the

art

may

materials,

but the

branches, yet

its

is

by

skill

a

than to any

,

employed

to

copy

surpass

Linwood

and, ;

and

outre

remember

us

let

not

nature,

with

executed

attraction

its

adaptation of

the

needlework

that

materials used

of every one, is

some of

in

objects

the artist

materials

the

it

indebted for

by

talent displayed

may borrow from however much we may admire

false

is

to

rudest

the

the

most

are within the

reach

with

that

shown in the employment of them

of the artist alone.

have been given for the pursuit of needlework

than she could possibly have possessed. their beauty

“ paintings”

when Miss Linwood executed her

Since the time greater facilities

and

brilliancy,

both in

The

silks

variety of colours,

and wools, owing to

our improved knowledge of dyeing, the introduction of colouredpaper

patterns, all

above every

contribute

other,

towards

consecrated

to

the

female

of an

perfection

Our

talent.

art,

object

in the present treatise, however, is not to enter into a description

of the

different

articles

which have been used

for the purposes of needlework, nor the

—those of the — and ample

most appropriate kind

details

of these, their

occasions on which they

may

be

at various

times

method of employing them will suffice for

qualities

and

our purpose,

uses,

and the

most advantageously rendered

* Three German ladies, in Hanover, named Wylich, mode of embroidering wilh human hair.

in

a 782,

invented

a


TAPESTRY.

29

be found in the following chapters, under their

subservient^ will

respective heads.

In describing the principal materials employed in needlework at the

present

requisites,

day,

—the

we must not overlook

instruments wherewith we

the are

equally

use

to

essential

them:

—an

account of which will be found under the general head of “ imple-

ments” where, we have endeavoured,

to

guide the inexperienced,

in

as far as lay in our power,

selecting

with judgment those

best adapted for facilitating their labours.

With

the exception

of canvas,

to describe the materials

executed.

The mere mention

will be sufficient.

it

will

upon which the

—whether

of these

not be necessary for us different

works are

in their

respective places

cloth, silk, or

“ satin smooth,

Or

velvet soft, or plush with

shaggy

7’

pile.

to be


CHAPTER

IV,

too0i.

Still shall o’er all prevail

the shepherd’s stores

For numerous uses known; none yield such warmth, Such beauteous hues receive, so long endure • So pliant to the loom, so various, none.”

Dyer. ,{

In the same fleece diversity of wool

Grows

Of

intermingled, and excites the care

curious

skill to sort

the sev’ral kinds.” Ibid.

OOL, from in

of

its

em ployment

becomes the most important

needlework,

The

frequency

the

with which

readiness

it

takes

of

and perma-

nently retains the most splendid colours that the art of the it

superior to every other

:

fully into a description of

Wool of some

—which natural

is

dyer it

its

is

—has

not

capable of imparting, renders therefore, that

we

enter

various qualities and uses.

the soft filamentous

animals,

is

is essential,

substance which

cover« the skins

more particularly those of the sheep: the term

very well

defined,

been applied alike

to

and the

is

soft

rather arbitrary than hair

of the

beaver


WOOL.

Thibet and of Cachemir, and to that of the llama

the goats of

and

31

and even

ostrich,

The

to fine vegetable fibres, such as cotton:

white with

trees of Ethiopia,

wool.”*

soft

Sheep’s wool appears to be the product of cultivation

mouflon

wild

(

dries )

ovis

to

which

genus

upon the mountains of

a wild state

Greece, and Asia Minor,

mixed with placed in

soft

a

down

—the

wool the

to

close

coarse

a

on the of

varieties still

found iu Barbary,

hairy substance,

When

skin.

the

animal

is

temperate climate, under the fostering care of man,

and protected from the inclemencies of the gradually

fibres

is

Corsica,

Sardinia, is

the

all

which

the domestic sheep have been traced, and

:

while the

disappear,

The domestic

becomes singularly developed.

"weather,

the coarse

wool round their roots

soft

culture of the sheep,

has long occupied the attention of

for the sake of its wool,

civil-

ized nations, and has produced the highly-valued merinof species,

from which our best wool wool of good

Sheep’s

is

now

quality

procured. is

never found except in those

countries that have been the seats of the

arts,

and where a consider-

able degree of luxury and refinement exist, or have once prevailed.

The

history of

useful

arts

cultivation

its

of ancient

date,

and preparation, is

involved

in

most of the

like

uncertainty.

The

Greeks attribute the invention of spinning and weaving wool

to

Minerva

is

it

:

Georg,

* Virgil,

cotton,

1.

iii.

denominates t

however, supposed to be of Asiatic origin, and

is,

c.

Herodotus uses the term “

120.

1.

ii.

tree

Pollux, also, in his Onomasticon

Julius

47.

wool ” to denote ,

1 . vii.

c.

17 so

it.

The term

merino

,

in the

Latin merinus or majorinus.

Spanish

At

language,

the period

when

is

derived from the corrupt

the transhumantes, or travel-

ling flocks in Spain, were established, they became the object of police, anil were placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of mayors, with public walks and large districts allotted for their sustenance, and were termed merinos ovejas, or the sheep under the care of the merino or mayor.


WOOL

32

by Moses, * which proves 1

referred to

hundred years before the

fifteen

of the wheel and spindle

is

and

for

to

have existed

many

centuries after,

they were

infancy of the

In the

ages.

at least

The discovery

era.

also veiled in obscurity, but

obviously used in the most remote art of weaving,

it

Christian

the

working

of

was merely a domestic occupation, principally of women:

cloth

was gathered from the sheep, washed, opened, spun, and

the fleece

wove under the same roof which witnessed the preparation and grinding of corn.f

In proportion as

became

convenient,

society

an

advanced, and

improved

a

knowledge

division

of labour

was acquired,

only of spinning and weaving, but in that of breeding and

not

select-

ing those animals, whether sheep or goats, which gave the finest

xxxv. 25, 26.

* Exodus,

The

Egyptians, from a most remote era,

celebrated for their manufactures of linen

and other cloths

were and the produce of

;

to, and eagerly purchased by, foreign nations. The fine and embroidered work, the yarn and woollen stuffs of the upper and lower country, are frequently mentioned, and were highly esteemed. Solomon purchased many of these commodities, as well as chariots and horses, from Egypt and Chemmis, the city of Pan, according to Strabo (lib. xvii.) retained the credit it had acquired in making woollen stuffs, nearly till the period of In Egypt, woollen garments were chiefly used by the the Roman conquest. lower orders sometimes also by the rich, and even by the priests, who were permitted to wear an upper robe in the form of a cloak of this material, but under-garments of wool were strictly forbidden them, upon a principle of and as they took so much pains to cleanse and shave the body, they cleanliness

their

looms was exported

linen,

:

;

;

considered

dotus

garment

it

;

inconsistent to adopt clothes

made of

the hair of animals.

Hero-

81) says, that no one was allowed to be buried in a woollen nor could any priest enter a temple without previously taking off

ii.

(1.

c.

Vide Wilkinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ancient Egyptians women were very different from those Among pastoral tribes, they drew water, of a later and more civilized period. As with the Arabs kept the sheep, and superintended the herds as well as flocks. this part of his dress.

t In the primitive

.

ages, the duties of

of the present day, they prepared both the furniture .and the woollen

stud's,

of

which the tents themselves were made and, like the Greek women, they were generally employed in weaving, spinning, and other sedentary occupations. ;


;

WOOL.

The produce

fleeces.

entirely

the

result

countries where

it

is

We may

commerce.

woollen manufacture,

wool from sheep

of white

of

33

cultivation,

and

is

said

unknown

is

imagine

when

that

cloth

the

in

state

of the

was merely a substitute

for the

skins of beasts as an article of clothing,

duced, coloured garments

;

earliest

little

was paid

attention

but as luxuries were intro-

were required, and the wool

could no

longer be indifferently taken from sheep of every kind, or

The

black.

more particular attention

was

those

not employed as an object of manufacture or

to the colour or fineness of the wool

white, brown,

be

to

in

to

grower,

therefore,

the whiteness

essential to render the cloth

whether

began

of his

to

fleece,

pay

which

susceptible of the brilliant dyes,

which, even in a very remote period, were certainly given to '

“ In oldest times,

when

it.

kings and hardy chiefs

In bleating sheepfolds met, for purest wool

were most renown’d, and Judaea’s land, Hermon, and Seir, and Hebron’s brooky sides, Twice with the murex, crimson hue, they ting’d The shining fleeces hence their^ gorgeous wealth And hence arose the walls of ancient Tyre.”

Phoenicia’s hilly tracts

And

fertile Syria’s

German

wool,

unquestionably the finest description of sheep’s

wool which we possess,

is

the produce of the fleece of the merino

breed in their highest state of cultivation,

Saxony and the neighbouring German needle

work

it

is

manufactured

at

from

states.

flocks

of

As prepared

for

the

Gotha,* from whence

warded to Berlin and other parts of

Germany

it is for-

to be dyed.

* Gotha, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, and alternately with Coburg the residence of the duke of Saxe-Coburg, father of Prince Albert. The duke has a fine palace here called Friedenstine, containing a picture gallery, library, and a Chinese and Japanese museum, besides one of the finest collections of coins and medals in Europe. The Almanack de Gotha is ,

printed here.

4


WOOL.

34

To

introduced

first

Germany

elector, is

fine

been

wool has since

from the Spanish

wholly

almos*

due the merit of

Spanish breed of merino sheep into

the

and the valuable trade in

transferred

The

when

the late king of Saxony,

having

to the

German

soil.

flocks were brought into his dominions in the year 1765,

and

again in 1778, and were chosen for the elector from the finest of those

in

they were

Spain;

“ majorinus,”

under the care of a Spanish

placed

mayor, at Stolpen, seven leagues from Dresden,

or

From

on the frontiers of Bohemia.

dom

thrown began

open

to

when

and

of Saxony,

by

embark

of

events

the

1815,

in a regular trade with

and they soon discovered the

throughout

continental

the

real

1814 these

this period until

flocks were gradually spreading themselves

the

trade

the

was

king-

entirely

Saxon wool dealers

England in

value of this

their fleeces,

new branch

of

German commerce.* The improvement both of wool, from the

The harshness

able.

in fineness and softness

German

flocks,

in

chalky

the

districts,

a richer

soil it

pastjire.

wool

is

becomes

Spain renders the

It

(as it is

is

quality consider-

soft

and

fleece of the

is

owing

to certain

pecu-

known, that in sheep fed upon

is

apt to get

the milder climate of Saxony.

yolk

the

of the wool does not depend solely upon the

breed of the animal, or the climate, but liarities

in

over those of Spain,

but in those fed upon

coarse ;

The

silky.

scorching sun of

merino breed harsher than

The

it

is

in

great quantity of grease, or

technically termed), which

is

much more abundant

* For an interesting account of the finer description of sheep and wool, “ Mittheilungen des interessantesten und neuesten aus dem Gebiet der

vide

hohern Schaff und Woolkunde,” Yon Bernhard Petri, Wien, 1829; also, “His toire de Introduction des Moutons a laine fine d’Espagne dans les divers 6tats

de rEurope,” par

M.

C.

P

Lasteyrie, Paris, 1802.


;

WOOL. in the wool of the merino

of the great causes of

There are four same animal within

to

distinct

;

inches

of sheep,

of wool

qualities

of the

and

the

the

breast

sorter

to

shearing.

the

to

separate,

The

neck

and

hinder

feet.

These

which

he

best

wool

that

which

proper seasons ;

Wools again

is inferior.

the fleece of the

one

of the

third

the second covers the flanks and the shoulders

:

the

third,

in

including

tail ;

breadth of the back

doubtless, one

also,

is

growing along the spine from the neck,

the finest

six

breed

superiority.*

its

parts

is

it

generally

is

differ

does

the

coarsest

of the

wool

immediately

after

office

shorn from the sheep at the

that

is

and

;

the

from the skin

taken

after death

from each other not only accord-

ing to their coarseness and fineness, but also in the length of their filaments.

Long, or combing wool, varies in length from three to

eight inches

opens the flax

;

it

is

;

fibres,

treated on a

and

arranges

such wool when woven

ing wool, inches

varies

in

if longer, ;

as

the is

is

comb with long

unfit for felting.

length

the case

broken down by carding, to

of

staple

its

like

it

to the

locks

of

Short, or cloth-

from three

with the best Saxon

adapt

which

steel teeth,

them horizontally

to four

wool,

it

is

subsequent operation

of felting, where the fibres are convoluted or matted together. â&#x20AC;˘

It is

only within the last few years (in fact since the introduc-

tion of coloured paper patterns) that for the purposes of needlework:

resources, with

worsteds,

the

exception of

and crewels.

German wool has been used

previously to that time our only silk,

The beauty

were English lambswools, of

German

wools and the

breed of sheep has been carried to New South Wales and Diemanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Land, from whence, of late years, great quantities of wool nave been exported. Australia promises, at no distant period, to be one of the principal wool growing countries in the world, and to outrival Saxony in the fineness and superiority of its fleeces. *

Van

The merino


— WOOL.

36 perfection

brought,

which

to

fC

the

dyeing them has

of

science ,”

been

an era in the annals of our art; and has, together

is

with the invention of Berlin patterns, contributed in rendering

it

amusement than when Helen

a more enticing and facile

11

Guided by

love,

O’er the stretch’d sampler’s canvas plain,

In broidery’s various colours strove

To

raise his

form to

again.”

life

by

All kinds of wool are more or less characterised

when compared

of harshness ness,

softness,

and

flexibility

decidedly superior needle,

for

which

fine-

renders

work

tapestry

of

a degree

Zephyr Merino .” the

of the fibre of

kinds

all

the

to

with

it

the

and embroidery in wool, especially where great numbers

We

of colours are required.

now proceed more

shall

particularly

to notice

GERMAN WOOL. German

wool,

Germany,

which

as

it

Zephyr merino

commonly known working

or,

,

by

is

termed

is

prepared

as “ Berlin ” or “

skeined, or notted, in

wool

the

of various

German

staplers

That

sizes.

\yool,”

is

of

adapted for

and from the manner in

kinds of Berlin patterns;

all

it is

'

small quantities,

rendered

is

it

the most convenient, and, comparatively speaking the least expensive

description

sufficient,

brilliancy

wool

of

for

w ere they not more r

fully

and variety of shades

above-mentioned superior

worked on the the coarsest:

worked in a

its

finest

qualities.

canvas,

purpose

this

and

—recommendations

enhanced by the

in

which

it

This wool

thread on a canvas

unequalled

is

dyed,

may

be

and

split

its

and

doubled and trebled on

also

beauty, however, can be

single

;

best

suited

appreciated to

its

size,

when where


WOOL. should form an even and

it

covering

thoroughly

ranked

tightly

so

uniform surface of pearly threads

the

as

37

be

to

of

the

deprived

of

stitches,

canvas,

beautiful

its

not

yet

elastic

appearance.

Like every other material, German wool requires to be well understood as to

duce that

needlewoman

and

qualities

its

degree ‘of

When

accomplish.

to

with a canvas over the

to

pro-

of

the

w is)h

the

is

it

worked

an

or

cloth,

in order

capabilities,

which

excellence

r

on

either

cloth,

embroidery,

should be

it

used with a needle sufficiently large to form a passage through

may

which the wool

working

for

imitation

of

netting.

When but

retain

and from

may have wound, of

the

smell

of

of

its

dye

the

round

vegetable

been used in

by being

crochet,

German

and

texture,

its

or

applicable

work in

its

wool

and

should

should be

soft

make, and

free

it ;

in

mineral

which^

substances

This wool should not be

dyeing.

compressed,

German wool

quantity of

raw

in a

state,

part

undergoes

wool

is

the

of

best

is

knitting,

fine

quality,

for

also,

the

It

every description of

it

may

be

deprived

partially

elasticity.

its

A

in

as,

and

;

of

particles

all

figures,

paintings

little

curly

pass without “ dragging.”

flowers,

equal

where

it is

brought

is

these

processes

in

that

imported

in

to

;

greater

;

manufactured but

Britain

the

Some

Scotland.

a

Germany

needlework, from

purposes of

Great

into

combed, spun, and dyed

the

of

this

for

state,

dye

is

generally very imperfect and perishable, except the blacks, which are certainly

work. highest

cleaner

best

German

The

prices,

are

dyed

England ready skeined

German

— an

much

wool,

for

important desideratum in needle-

wools, and those

in use.

manufactured in

Germany,

which command the

and

imported

into

Great quantities, however, of this

country,

and

also

of

very


f

;

38

WOOL.

inferior

wool imported

requires

tlie

Much more might these wools

but

;

colours

Germany,

from

are

and

it

and dyeing

of

daily sold ;

eye of an experienced person to detect them.*

it

be said as to the

qualities

remains

“ sorter ,”

working,

for

knowledge and appropriation

with

them

give

to

upon

care bestowed

of them, each

the

their

their

or

by

harshness, yet,

all

and, above

want of

seem but

as one

and, like

:

various shades

carefully avoiding ;

contrast, giving a proper spirit to the whole

avoiding that gaudiness of colouring, and

all,

taste, so

of the

and the proper

the colours on the painter’s palette, in mixing the so delicately, that they shall

by

lustre,

final

choice,

several purposes

to their

selector

glaring

generally exhibited in the coloured-paper patterns

of Berlin, and which are but too frequently complained of in the

productions of the needle.

ENGLISH WOOL. “ If any wool peculiar to our Is giv’n

The

by nature,

soft,

’tis

isle

the comber’s lock,

snow-white, and the long grown flake.”

Dyer.

*

The

importations of

German wool

into this

country were quite

trifling

during the war, amounting in 1812, to only twenty-eight pounds but since the peace, they have increased beyond all precedent. In 1814, they amounted to ;

were above five amount of nearly twenty-nine millions of pounds this, however, was a year of overtrading, and they declined, in 1826, to about ten and a half millions of pounds. They have nearly three and a half millions of pounds

millions of

pounds

;

;

in

1820, they

and, in 1825, they reached the enormous ;

since,

however, recovered

from

to nearly twenty-five

statistical

facts,

tion of

in

for the

depression

;

and, in

1833,

the

imports

purpose of needlework, nevertheless show the high estimation

which the German wool

is

held by our manufacturers.

German wool is prohibited in France: it is not long since, that the police, Paris, made seizures of considerable quantities in several of the warehouse's*

t

at

wool

this

and a half millions of pounds. These important although they have no reference to the subject of the consump-

amounted


D

WOOL.

30

much

English lambswool, or embroidery wool, though

than the preceding, yet

dye of

retains

lambswool

scarlet

and gold colours

as are also several of the shades of blue, green,

browns, clarets, and some neutral for tent, or cross stitch,

it

carpets, large

may

be sometimes used in ;

such

chairs, sofas,

for instance,

as,

ottomans,

&c. the

blues,

also

as

the

be superiorly worked in English wool, whilst the

pinks,

greys,

whites,

may

It

and some of the

colours, scarlets, olives,

grounding,

coarse canvas, either

decidedly preferable, both in working,

is

work with German wool

the same piece of

gold

On

tints.

and in appearance when finished.

in needlework for

The

German,

equal to that of the

quite

is

harsher

superior qualifications.

its

&c.

lilacs,

may

German

be introduced in

wool.

For grounding

,

German,

wool

English

more

as being

impoverished by brushing like the is

cleaner

the

in

generally

is

durable, and

dye

of

another recommendation,

—that

latter.

darker

the

preferable

less apt to

If

to

nor

soil ;

the is

it

good, English wool

colours

;

and

has, also,

of being more economical.

WORSTED. tl

The

grain of brightest tincture none so well

Imbibes

;

the wealthy Gobelins must to this

Eear witness, and the

Worsted factured

is

a

still

costliest

of their loom.”

fine

yer.

harsher description of English

from the coarser parts of the

taking a very

dye,

may

and

working carpets and rugs.

fleece,

be

but

it

wool, is

manu

capable of

advantageously used for

be good, and well dyed,

it

has

a more glossy appearance than the other descriptions of wool.

It

is

much cheaper than

is

the

best

and

only

If

either

proper

it

German

or

material

English lambswool, and for

making

the

raised


WOOL.

40 borders

of

various

the

and rouleau, &c.

filaments, greatly

its

and

urn-rugs,

borders in moss

kinds

of

and

patterns

from the length of

being,

it ;

improved by combing, assuming that downy

appearance which distinguishes a well-finished rug border. Worsteds,* though so

were formerly

day,

little

the

of

netting u

The

the

in

crewels

a

,

description

of

worsted,

twisted

tightly

The poet Cowper has immortalized

silks.

where he says

Sofa,”

both for

part of the last century, under the form

latter

fine

employed

materials

For these purposes, they were much

tapestry and embroidery. in vogue

used in needlework at the present

principal

their

like

use,

in

:

“ here and there a tuft of crimson yarn,

Or

The whole

scarlet crewel .”

of the beautiful works executed

by the

celebrated

Miss Linwood, are in worsted, the dyeing of which was an object of

her

especial

worsted.

It

is

similar purposes.

short

lengths,

Yarn

care.

is

a

coarser description

still

used for making nets for fruit

and

It

may

knit

be

with

prettily

coarse

trees,

applied,

cotton,

or

when fine

of

and other cut

into

twine,

for

carriage-rugs, mats, &c.

FLEECY. Lcicestrian fleeces,

Combs through

what the sinewy arm

the spiky steel in lengthen’d flakes.

7’

Dyer.

*

Worsted, in Norfolk, was formerly a place of much it is is now greatly on the decline

siderable trade, but

the invention, or

first

;

second year of the reign of Edward stuffs

and of con fol

yarn or thread, which This manufacture is mentioned the

twisting, of that sort of woollen

hence obtained the na*ne of worsted. worsted

celebrity,

chiefly remarkable

m

III.,

were required by parliament

than they had formerly done.

when to

the weavers

work them

in

and workers of a better manner


WOOL. Fleecy

41

another description of wool, principally grown and

is

manufactured in Leicestershire, for which this county has long been celebrated. “ Rich Leicestria’s marly plains, for length

Of

whitest locks and magnitude of fleece

Peculiar.”

made of two

It is

vary in

to a quarter of

according to the number of are two, three, four, six,

common

and common

qualities, superfine

from an eighth

size

up

they contain

threads

thus,

there

;

Those in

to twelve threads, fleecy.

They

use are from three to six threads.

good and useful

they both

;

an inch in diameter

are

all

equally

for crochet, knitting, netting, &c. according to the

purposes for which the work

designed.

is

HAMBURGH WOOL. Hamburgh wool

German

so called, or

worsted,

of wool, usually containing four threads, but contain

to

glossy, is,

and

twelve for

however,

threads

it

very

is

to be

procured in

much imported

a commo-n kind

is

made

is

all

as thick as

in

brilliant

working on coarse canvas

difficult

has not been

:

is

colour,

extremely shades

and It

and, hitherto, ;

An

into this country.

good.

imitation of

wool has been made, and much sold in England, under the

this

name

of

Hamburgh

merits of the real

worsted, but

Hamburgh

it

not possess any of ths

does

wool, except its size.

GERMAN FLEECY. German, or merino land.

in

It possesses

appearance,

and

but

fleecy, is

a decided

little

known

used or

superiority over the

pleasantness

for

use

:

the

in

Eng-

English, both

colours

like

the


42

WOOL.

German

exceedingly

wool, are

sizes of eight or ten threads ;

cannot

tricot,

mind, that

*

The

be

it is

of

art

and barbarous teemed among

a

brilliant.

It

is

made

usually

surpassed.

borne

however, be

must,

It

more costly material than the English

dyeing

was

even

tribes

practised

possessed

most

the

in

remote

which have

colours

From

nations.

civilised

in

and, for the purposes of crochet or

Savage

ages.

been

the writings of Moses,

in

fleecy.*

highly is

it

es-

obvious

great progress. He mentions (Exodus xxv. The Egyptians, and rams’ skins dyed red. according to Pliny (lib. xxv. c. 2,) had discovered a mode of dyeing somewhat resembling that now employed for tinting printed cottons the stuffs, after having been impregnated with mordants, were immersed in vats, where that

had, in his time,

it

4-5) blue, purple,

and

made

scarlet,

they received the different colours.

At

very

a

early

period,

the

art

was

cloths purple

among

first

the ancients,

we can

of which

had

dyeing

of

to

brought

to

a

of dyeing woollen

This colour, the most celebrated have been brought to a degree of excellence,

discovered at Tyre.

—appears

been

The method

considerable degree of perfection in Phoenicia.

form hut a very faint idea.

It

is

related, that a shepherd’s

by hunger, having broken a shell on the sea shore, his mouth became stained, with a colour, which excited the admiration of all who saw it, and that the same colour was afterwards applied to the dyeing According to some of the ancient writers, this of wool with great success. dog,

instigated

discovery

placed

is

in

the

hundred years before Christ. in

about 1439

Crete

of dyeing

Hercules,

who

presented his

so

jealous of the

was

the use of

it

to

all

Others

Phoenix, second fix

years before the

invention

latter

of

reign

purple,

his

however,

it

Christian era. generally

is

discovery to

reserving

of Tyre,

it

to

the

of Phoenicia

new for

who

The honour

awarded

the king

beauties of this

subjects,

king

in that of Minos,

colour,

that

the garments

;

he

five

reigned

of the

Tyrian and the forbade

of royalty

Some authors relate the story differently Hercules’ dog having mouth with a sh^ll, which he had broken on the sea shore, Tysas, a nymph of whom Hercules was enamoured, was so charmed with

alone.

:

stained

his

would see her mver no more dyed of the same. Plercules, in order to gratify his mistress, collected a great number of the shells, and succeeded in staining a robe of the colour the nymph had demanded. The Tyrian purple was communicated by means of several species of Pliny gives us an account (lib. vi. c. 36.) of two kinds of univalve shell-fish. shell-fish from which the purple was obtained. The first species was called the beamty of the colour, that she declared she

until

he had brought her garments

buccinum

,

the other purpura.

A

single

drop of the liquid dye was obtained


.

WOOL.

43

fish, by opening a vessel situated in its throat. This liquid, when was mixed with a sufficient quantity of salt to prevent putrefaction. It was then diluted with five or six times as much water, and kept moderately hot in leaden or tin vessels for the space of ten days, during which time it was frequently skimmed, in order to separate all impurities. In dyeing, the wool was washed, immersed and kept in the liquid for five hours. It was then taken out, carded, and again immersed for a sufficient

from each

extracted,

length of time for

all

the colouring matter

to

be extracted from the liquid.

For the production of particular shades of colour, various salts were added. The colour of the Tyrian purple itself appears to have been similar to that This author also says, that the Tyrians first dyed their wool in of blood. We the liquor of the purpura, and afterwards in that of the buccinum. find

allusions

Horace

to

this

“Muricibus Tyriis

And

passages

in several

practice

of the

sacred

writings.

also says: iteratae vellera lame.’*

again: "

Te

Mu rice Vestiunt

The

purple mentioned in Exodus

Ezekiel, in his prophecy against

bis

Afro

tinctae lanae.’'

was probably says

T}n*e,

:

that dyed

Fine

by the Tyrians.

linen with

broidered

work from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail and purple from the isles of Elishah was that which covered thee.”

;

blue It

is

generally supposed, that by Elishah, Elis, on the western coast of the Greek

Peloponnesus, was referred to the

time

of

Ezekiel,

obtained

:

hence their

it

would appear that the Tyrians, in

supply

of shell-fish

for

dyeing

purple

This celebrated colour was restricted by the ancients to the sacred person and palace of the empqpr and the penalties of treason were denounced against the ambitious subject who dared to usurp from

the

coast

of Greece.

;

the prerogative of the throne.


-

CHAPTER V Silk.

“She That

To

work

sets to

worms, weave the smooth-haired

millions of spinning

in their green shops

silk,

deck her sons.”

Milton. “ Let Asia’s woods

Untended,

And

On

let

yield the vegetable fleece,

the

higher

little

life

insect-artist form,

intent, its silken

tomb.”

Thomson.

ILK-WORMS,

—the

most precious of

insects,

whose produce holds so important a place amongst the luxuries of serviceable

to

modern

man by

life,

were

the

Chinese, about two

first

rendered

thousand seven hundred years before the Christian era.

^

sent

the Empresses

Their most ancient authorities repre-

of China,

as

surrounded by

their

women,

engaged in the occupation of hatching and rearing silk-worms,

and in weaving ling-shee,

having

the

first

tissues

consort

from their produce. of

observed the

Hoang-tee, silk

is

To

ascribed

the empress See*

the

honour

of

produced by the worms, of unravel


f

SILR.

cocoons,

their

ling

45

and working the

web of

fine filament into a

cloth.*

From

China, the art of rearing silk-worms

The production

and Persia.

of silk was

passed into

unknown

India

Europe,

in

however, until the middle of the sixth century, when two monks,

who had long

the eggs of the

nople ;

tree ;

insect, concealed in

where, under heat:

artificial

China, succeeded

resided in

the

their

of

eggs were hatched by

by

fed

leaves of the mulberry

they lived and laboured, and, by the use of proper means,

the race

was propagated and multiplied.

This knowledge, under

emperor Justinian, became productive

the

carrying some

hollow cane, to Constanti-

a

directions, the

worms were

in

tant branch of industry to the

were

in

established

European

Athens, Thebes, and

twelfth century, Greece appears to

Europe in which the

About

1130,

art

Roger

II,

was

as slaves

new and imporManufactories

Corinth, but, until

practised.

king of

Sicily,

established a silk

Calabria,

in his

expedition to the

manu-

managed by work-

from Athens and Corinth, of which

had made a conquest

the

have been the only country in

factory at Palermo, and another in

men taken

of a

nations.

he

cities

By

Holy Land.

degrees the rest of Italy and Spain learned from the Sicilians and

*

For an account of the invention, manufacture, and general use of

Du

China, vide

VEmpier de t

was

la,

A species

Halde’s Description Geographique

Chine

Historique

,

et

silk

in

Physique

de

.

common

of silk-worm,

cultivated in the

little

in the forests both of Asia

and Europe,

island of Ceos, near the coast of Attica.

gauze was procured from their webs of

,

;

and

this

Cean manufacture,

A thin

the invention

woman, for female use, was long admired both in the east and at Rome. silks, which had been closely woven in China, were sometimes unravelled the Phoenician women, and the precious materials were multiplied by a looser

h.

The nv

texture, anti

and the intermixture of linen threads. On the texture, colours, names, silk, half silk, and linep. garments of the ancients, see the

use of the

researches of the learned Salmasius.

t


— 46

SILK.

Calabrians of

the

The

France until mulberry

management of

the

silk.

was

It

cessfully

to

VIII, when the white

and a few silk-worms, were introduced into Dau

tree,

phiny by some noblemen, on Naples.

not react

did

insects

of Charles

the reign

after

and the working

silk-worm,

the

of rearing these

art

not,

return from the conquest of

their

however, until

produce the

silk

1654,

that they began sue

when Traucat,

itself,

common

a

of Nismes, laid the foundation of a nursery of white

gardener

mulberry

trees,

them

and with such success as to enable

propagated within a few years over

to

be

southern provinces

the

all

of France.* It is

among

uncertain at what period the use the

Romans; but

Pompey and that

it

Julius

it

sold

So for

however, was

great,

is

said

to

are informed

by

of the reign of Tiberius, that no

wearing a silken garment.!

The

and was the

man

should disgrace himself by

profligate Heliogabalus,

first

of the

Roman

11

The enormous each

tion of

its

however

emperors whc

silk.

(

*

Wt

great.

passed in the beginning

wore a dress holosericum ) composed entirely of

ing in

and

have refused his empress’s particular requesi

Tacitus, that a law was

set aside this law,

of

rarity

was so expensive

it

on account of the price being so

for a silken robe,

its

equal weight in gold;

its

even in the time of Aurelian, in the year 275, that he

was introduced

was most probably in the time

Caesar.

was sometimes

of silk

After

this,

quantity of this material used in England alone, amount-

year to more than four millions of pounds’ weight.

Fourteen thousand millions of animated creatures annually live and die to supply thb If astonishment be ex utec little corner of the world with an article of luxury. at this fact, let us extend our view into China, and survey the dense populawidely spread

region,

who, from the emperor on

his throne to the

peasant in the lowly hut, are indebted for their clothing to the labour of Lardrier’ s Cabinet Cyclopaedia . silk-worm.” t

“Ne

vestis serica viros feedaret.”

Annal

.

1.

ii.

c. 33.

.

he


;

SILK.

became general among the wealthy

the custom of wearing silk soon

made

As

Rome.

citizens of

demand

the

Ammianus

have been worn even by the lowest

The

England

at the

silk

appears

to

Marcellinus,

gradually

it

appears

silk

classes.*

and weaving

art of spinning, throwing,

into

were

for silk increased, efforts

import larger quantities, and the price of

to

declined, for in the time of ro

47

commencement of the

was introduced

silk,

fifteenth century ;

centuries

previously:

Margaret,

been used by persons of distinction

have

for

appeared in

cointises-

but about the year

in England, J

these were knitted

Marcel,

articles

fabrics,

lib.

;

stockings

The

the

and

produced consisted of

and these in no great

first

in the latter years of the

t

Matthew

By

^ bound

first

who

silk

was

For an

interesting account of

the

Roman

is

referred to

Gib-

Empire.

Paris.

statute 33 to find

About

was the

historian Pausanias

the introduction of the seric insect into Europe, the reader

and Fall of

engage in

to

pair of silk stockings

were her only wear.§

the produce of the trees of the Seres or Chinese.

t

first

Before his time, the ancients imagined that

xviii. c. 6.

described the silk-worm.

bon’s Decline

knights

of silk was

men began

1480,

Henry VIII wore

reign of Elizabeth, silk

Am.

the

and similar narrow

the manufacture.

*

English

The manufacture

silk, f

silk-women

called

laces, ribbons,

quantities;

the marriage of

1251, at

a thousand

III,

England in the reign of Henry IY, by a company

practised in in London,

of

year

in the

daughter of Henry

but

two

Henry VIII,

a person whose wife wore a silk

gown was

a charger for government.

§ It is related by Howell, in his History of the World (vcl. ii. p. 2*22) that queen Elizabeth, in the year 1561, was presented with a pair of black knit silk stockings, by Mistress Montague, her silk-woman, at which she was so much delighted that she thenceforth never condescended to wear those of cloth. It might have been supposed that Elizabeth’s inordinate fondness for dress would have induced her to give every encouragement to the manufacture of so elegant ,

a fabric as silk:

h

it

during her reign.

does not, however, appear that

Content, probably, with her

much own

progress

was made

acquisition, she

in

might

be desirous that the more becoming silken texture should remain a regal privi-


— 4S

a;

SILK.

reign

1620, in the latter part of the

of Jatnes

broad

the

I,

silk

manufacture was introduced into this country; and in 1629

it

progressed with such vigour and

throw-

of

sters

the

advantage, that the

silk

had

and parts adjacent, were incorporated into

city

company: which company,

1661, employed

in

above forty thou-

In 1719, a silk throwing mill was erected at Der-

sand persons.

and, from that period to the beginning of the present century,

by;

various improvements were introduced time, or

during

and the

able ;

perhaps

:

but those made since that

the last fifty years, have been consider-

manufacturers in this country

silk

can

now

vie

with that of any other. It

would be irrelevant

the history of

nevertheless,

subject,

which

the

mode of

insect

before

it

is

— the it

fully into ;

production

winding from the

quent processes of converting

more

worm which produces it interest. The metamorphoses

little

with

replete

undergoes, or

filature,

to this volume, to enter

or of the

silk,

cocoons,

of the

silk,

— and the

its

subse-

and organzine,

into singles, tram,

for the various purposes of the arts, will be found

fit

fully described in fore proceed to

all

works on

manufacture.

silk

mention the various kinds of

ent purposes for which they are used as

but previously to doing

so,

We

silk,

articles

shall there,

and the

differ-

of needlework

we cannot omit quoting

the following

simple lines of the poet Cowper, on

THE SILK-WORM. “The beams

A

lege;

of April, ere

worm, scarce

it

goes,

visible, disclose

j

and while she displayed her own ancles in the

delicate

silken knit, was,

perhaps, well pleased that her 'maids of honour should conceal theirs under tne

clumsy and inelegant cloth hose, lest, haply, among these, some might have been found rather more beautifully formed than her own.


SILK.

49

All winter long content to dwell The tenant of his native shell.

The same prolific season gives The sustenance by which he lives, The mulberry leaf, a simple store, That

serves

him

he needs no more!

till

For, his dimensions once complete,

Thenceforth none ever sees him eat; till his growing time be past Scarce ever is he seen to fast.

Though

That hour

He

work

arrived, his

begins.

and weaves, and weaves and spins; Till circle upon circle, wound Careless around him and around, Conceals him with a veil though slight, spins

Impervious to the keenest sight.

Thus self-inclosed, as in a cask, At length he finishes his task: And, though a worm when he was lost, Or caterpillar at the most, When next we see him, wings he wears, And in papilio pomp appears; Becomes oviparous;

#

Well were

Who Were All

silk

is

worms.

The

also

articles,

is

such

it

as

ball,

most he

be,

same,

to

be met

there

is

a

great

which

it

which

it

exhibits,

under various

undergoes by the

silk

As used

arts.

with under the following heads

for :

it

prepared for the manufacture of particular

mittens,

of the

although

to the purposes of the

same,

more tightly or loosely 5

the

to the processes

be found

modifications

if all

and quality, even from the same breed of

different appearances

throwster, to adapt it

world

shorter-lived than

essentially

owing

needlework,

for the

useful in their kind as he.”

difference in its value

forms, are

it

creep about this earthly

Though

may

supplies

With future worms and future flies The next ensuing year and dies!

stockings, either

twisted.

&c.

but

by being

By

the

they

finer

or

are

merely

coarser, or

terms fine and coarse,


53

SILK.

are

not

be understood,

to

size of its thread, as

number

the quality

may

it

by

of the filaments spun

Mitorse, or half-twisted

and

silk,

similar

is

requisite

using

for

less

SILK.

that

employed by the Chinese

for

Considerable practice and care, however,

their double embroidery.

are

or

greater

one of the most useful kinds for

is

to

but the

material,

the worm.

MITORSE

needlework,

of the

be composed of a

with

it

which

the perfection

highly

so

characterises the embroidery done with this description of material,

by

French;

the

other

impossibility

with

skill,

silks,

nor

it

Mitorse silk articles It is

is

so likely

or

work

the

superior

they

this

that

excel

if this

its

be

all

and the

silk,

of one size,

but

;

to

of

defects

executed

of any of the floss

become â&#x20AC;&#x153;fluffyâ&#x20AC;? in the wear.

to

applicable to

is

of furniture,

which

in

make

always

twist

its

far

work

peculiar

visible in

the effect is

the

of keeping

become

are apt to

of

a species

From

nations.

the

all

kinds of embroidery intended as

nichwckeries

,

of the drawing room.

decidedly the best and only kind which should be used, where

the work

is

intended to be edged with a gold cord.

waistcoats, and other articles of dress, rior to

any

For embroidery on

other.

every other description of material. introduced

with

good

effect

in

it

will be

For working

found to be supe-

cloth, it surpasses in

beauty

Mitorse silk has lately been

some parts of wool work, on

canvas, for slippers, bags, and other small articles. s

NETTING Netting

silks,

or

Purse

description: they are

coarse

and

fine

SILKS.

twists, are too

made of various

and of

different

well-known to need any

sizes, or, as

qualities.

they are termed,

They

are to be pro-


SILK.

5J

up

cured of most colours, neatly rolled

perhaps, excel us in the manufacture

cordonnets

they generally wind upon reels; their chine netting surpass

anything which has, as

yet,

The French

in skeins.

of their

which

,

silks certainly

been produced in England,

both in the taste displayed in the intermixture of their colours,

and in the brilliancy of their dyes; but they do not always possess that regularity, either in size or quality throughout the length of

the reels, as the English skeins. Purse-twists

and

netting

particularly

may

used

are

where mitorse

purposes

well

are

those

besides

adapted

for

would be found too thick

silks

of

embroidery,

and

;

be used with excellent effect upon cloth or velvet, to produce

The

the appearance of gold.

admirably, that, distinguish

it,

takes the

distance,

atmosphere, twist

it

it

it

from gold

tint

of or

mat

so

almost impossible to

is :

is

it

therefore well

embroidering of altar and pulpit cloths, and other

where gold might be required,

purposes

as,

a closer resemblance

bears

.

from exposure

From

does not change or tarnish.

than any other description of stitch,

silk

colour be good,

the

if

at a little

suited for the

its

various

for*

They

knitting.

to

gold

cord,

or bullion,

For tambour work

silk.

to the

the firmness of

or

chain

netting silks are also peculiarly adapted.

Sewing

silks are

merely a

commonly made of

fine description of netting silk,

most

the inferior and less valuable portions of the

same material.

CROCHET Crochet

or

silk,

Sole

half tightened in the

twist

|

differing

from

flexibility

and

it

misserre

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

SILK.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

a

so called

coarse

from

only in the mode of twisting.

softness,

it

is

more

its

being only

description of cordonnet

From

suitable for crochet

its

great

work than


— 52

SILK.

common

the

purse or netting

and has a more

silk,

glossy appearance than these usually possess,

by

deteriorated

the closeness

with which

brilliant

— their

their

lustre

fibres

and

being

are twisted

together.

DACCA Dacca

silk,

called

by the French

composed.

and

much

;

of the embroidery for which

now executed

in mitorse

For copying Berlin patterns Dacca

silk

number of

of

tints

4

where fine,

silk

may

floss silk

threads

its

Dacca

*

its

silk

trade, all

may

the

fine canvas,

can be procured in a

it

wools;

—hence

silks

for

difficulties

will

above purposes.

the

and when required very

;

be divided.

usually done

—frequently

up

which

in knotted

is

but improperly

Dacca

is

province

it

skeins, in

contra-

twisted into hanks.*

termed Decca, or even

name from Dacca, a town of Hindoostan,

This town as

:

would be found too thick

quarter of Bengal, of which capital.

at the

be used for intermixing with wools on fine canvas,

silks are

Dacca

is

shades, but not in the almost unlim-

German

distinction to the floss silk,

derives

it

was then used

working on

in silk, or

sometimes occur in selecting these

Dacca

it

silk.

should always be chosen

great variety of colours and ited

fine

which

descriptions of flat embroidery,

all

was formerly much more in demand than

It

present day

being

denominated

filaments of silk of

some kinds of raised work, such as the small raised

also for

roses.

used for

It is

sole ovale , is

number of

or coarse, according to the it is

SILK.

Decker

,

situated in the eastern

was, within the

last

century, the

very favourably stationed for an inland emporium of

river

communicates

the other inland navigation.

which are among the most

Besides

directly, silks, it

and not

circuitously,

with

has a large trade in muslins,

delicate that are sought after

in Europe.

It

must


SILK

53

FLOSS SILK. Floss is

or

silk,

used for

all

thicker

sole jplatte , is a

patterns,

taste

may

may

be

dictate.

and beautiful fineness

the silk

and in other parts of worsted-work

employed

also

It is

much used

It

effect.

is

on coarse canvas.

Floss

it

is

prepared

in

smoother than the French are

now

embroidery

for

or

and

;

may

it

be adapted to the size of

Dacca

and

entirely

those

are

silks

;

with

England,

preferable, as

is

a fact which

Floss

works

it

the French themselves

willing to admit.

This description of

silk,

as

Dacca

also

must be manu-

silk,

factured from the finest part of the product of the silkworm, as

does

it

not undergo the process of twisting or organzining, which

might otherwise hide any necessity,

therefore,

Floss

silk,

not,

good,

silk-throwsters.

The

sole , or

and

for

the

is

purposes

more commonly

that portion

not, however, be supposed that

It

speaking

is

of

dearer

needlework,

of

mistaken for that known as

latter is

quality.

comparatively

silks.

denominated,

so

however, be

filoselle ,

trivial defect in its

when

than some of the twisted

must

in

articles of dress are generally

of which are worked in Scotland.

done, the greater part as

fancy

manufactured of various degrees of

which the common' embroideries on

silk,

as

but pieces of work are seldom executed

;

required

grounding canvas work, with a most rich

for

and coarseness, so that

canvas

and

silk,

silk is

a more brilliant effect to

for heightening the lights, or for giving

gem

of

description

kinds of tapestry work, wherever

floss

called

by the

bourre

de

of ravelled silk thrown on

Dacca silk is imported from thence, the term only being applied to a particular manufacture of this material as first prepared

n

;

that part of India.


SILK

54

one side in the filature of the cocoons, but which

This

of commerce.

French

the

although

purpose for which

which distinguishes spun

The

much

has perhaps, too

it

,

appears

it

be

to

articles of

well adapted,

â&#x20AC;&#x153; cottonyâ&#x20AC;?

of the

silk

sometimes used by

is

grounding pieces of work intended as

for

a

furniture,

bourre de soie

article,

afterwards

is

and forms the spun

carded and spun like cotton or wool,

appearance

silk.*

Lombardy generally wear clothes of home-spun by improved processes, fine fabrics of this material have been produced both in England and France. M. Ajac, of Lyons, presented, at one of the French national expositions of the objects of industry, a great variety of scarfs and shawls, manufactured of bourre de soie *

female peasants of

Of

floss silk.

years,

late

}

closely resembling those of Cachemir.

Beside the product of the bombyx there are other materials closely resembling ,

and attempts have, at various times, been made to render them equally subservient to the wants of man. It is well known that some species of spiders possess the power of spinning a bag somewhat similar in form and silk

;

substance to the

cocoon of the

At

silk-worm.

commencement of the M. Bon, from which

the

a quantity of these bags were collected by

last century,

was manufactured, said to be in no way inferior to that of It was susceptible of all kinds of dyes, and might have been used for every purpose to which silk was applicable. M. Bon had gloves and stockings made from it in fact, the only obstacle which appeared to prevent the establishment of any considerable manufacture from the silk of spiders, was the difficulty Vide of obtaining it in sufficient abundance. Ezamen de la Soye des Araignees par M. de Reaumur, in the Mems. Acad, a kind of

the seric

silk

insect.

;

,

des Sciences, 1712.

The pinna

,

also,

a shell-fish found in great abundance in the Mediterranean,

has been called the silk-worm of

The

testacea.

generic

upright, gaping at one end, is

the sea.

character

is

is

as the

spider

and

scarcely inferior in fineness

acquainted with this :

one.

caterpillar.

comparatively minute silk-worm.

silk

;

shell,

In

fish,

bivalve

The

and beauty

The

byssus, to

;

common with

has the power of spinning a viscid matter from

same manner duces,

belongs to the order of the vermes

and furnished with a byssus or beard

without teeth, the valves are united in

the pinna

],]

It

animal, a limax

:

a

its

which

single

it

the

in*

thus

pro-

filament of the

ancients appear to have been intimately

from the threads

Roman

fragile,

the muscle

body,

of which they wove a kind of

a robe of this singular material was, according to Procopius

the gift of one of the

;

the hinge

(lib.

emperors to the satraps of Armenia.

iii.

It

c. is


;

SILK.

now manufactured by

the

Italians

for

55

is

the principal object of the fisheries,

wrought with siderable

number of

a

of

pair

threads.

their

the

It

these fish to

latter,

although

A

curiosity.

its

and

several

make even one possessing

In

Sicily, the

made pinna

beautiful manufactures are

however,

requires,

oair of gloves,

XIV.

from the byssus, were presented to Pope Benedict

the

produce of a con-

pair of gloves

or stockings

warmth, may, from

great

:

their

extreme fineness and delicacy, be easily contained in a snuff-box of ordinary Aristotle gave the name byssus to the silken threads of the pinna marina ; but whether it was on account of its resemblance to the byssus o which some of the ancient garments were made, or whether this was the true Dyssus itself, is uncertain, as the term appears to have been applied indifferentThe description ly to any material that was spun and woven finer than wool. of the byssus given by Julius Pollux (lib. vii. c. 27) evidently refers to cotton. this he Aristotle also relates that the pinna keeps a guard to watch for her To this calls pinnophylx and describes as a little fish with claws like a crab. description the Greek poet Oppianus was indebted, when he says size.

;

,

:

“The

pinna and the crab together dwell,

For mutual succour,

They

in

common

one

shell

both to gain a livelihood combine.

That takes the

prey,

when

this

has given the sign;

From hence this crab, above his fellows famed, By ancient Greeks was Pinnotores named.”

There

is

threads, that

equal

if

it

is

glass.

a most beautiful production of art, which This has been spun into such extremely delicate

another material

still

claims our attention

woven with a warp formed of

not superior to those of gold and

silver.

silk into the

The

richest brocades,

introduction of

woven

however, does not appear to have met .with the success that was anticiIt is objectionable as not pated, notwithstanding its brilliant appearance. possessing the same degree of flexibility as silk, or it might otherwise be used glass,

as a material for

needlework with excellent

effect.


CHAPTER (Soli*

u

Then

attir

VI

Silocr.

threads of gold both artfully dispose,

And,

as each .part in just proportion rose,

Some

antique fable in their

work

disclose.â&#x20AC;?

Ovid.

MONG

the

employed in nee-

various materials

dlework, the application of the precious metals

extremely

Gold

curious.

the former) were

especially

not

are

now

those

as

mentioned by the pure

the

divided filed

*

so

metal,

as

The method

;

into

is

purple,

and in the

scarlet,

it

into wires, to

and in the

a

The

earliest

but we

such

gold

with

gold

and

afterwards

hammer, and then invention

of em-

thus mentioned in the twentyu And they did beat the

ninth chapter of Exodus, in allusion to the ephod gold into thin plates, and cut

plates

by

wire.*

of using gold for needlework

this,

;

were in fact worked with thin

were rounded or

in the

embroideries

the

historians,

form threads

to

for

beaten

slips,

from

understand

use

ancient

which,

small

into

to

in

used

is

(more

silver

and weaving

ages both for embroidery

threads

and

:

work

it

fine linen, with

in the blue, and in the cunning work.â&#x20AC;?


GOLD AND SILVEk. with

broidery

Pergamus

been

has

gold,

but the

;

robe

manifest,

is

woven

The

when we

king

Attalus,

which

perfection to are

of

as

We

by Yerrius.J

also

that

are

again

had been

it

Agrippina wore a

that

told

any linen or woollen

by Lampridius,f

tunic of Heliogabalus, as described

was of the same material, mentioned

to

entirely of gold threads,* without

The

ground.

ascribed

had evidently been practised in several

art

of the preceding centuries.

brought

57

of Tarquinius

informed

PriscuSj

of a

similar

mantle taken from the statue of Jupiter, by the tyrant Dionysius; besides

others, not

to

mention the fabulous net of the

which Vulcan entrapped Mars related, that

was so extremely

it

were unable to perceive

by Vulcan on There

the

we

are

this,

it

is

gods themselves told,

was forged

modern method

the preparation of metal similar to the

Very few remains of

museum

In the

been discovered.

wire

locks of

fifty

into the form of a curl bracelets,

— and

that

the anvil.

of wire-drawing.

which has

fine

no passage in any ancient author, in which mention

is

made of

is

it,

poets, in

and Venus, and of which

made

:

of wire,

as

wire-work have

ancient

a

at Portici, is

thick

as

bronze head,

small

a

quill,

bent

and a small statue of Venus has golden round the arms and

legs.

From

the

appearance of some wire found at Thebes, however, Mr. Wilkinson

we

are almost justified in the

is

of opinion that

a

mode of wire-drawing was known

* “

Auro

textili sine alia

t Yit. Heliogab.

c.

materie,” Plin.

Plin.

§

That the Egyptians had

xxxiii. c.

gold thread or wire, linen, cloth,

and

for

lib.

conclusion, that

Egyptians

and the

xxxiii. c. 19.

23.

t

lib.

to the

is

19.

arrived at great perfection in the art of

evident from

making

being sufficiently fine for weaving with

The* exceeding delicacy of the linen corslet Herodotus (lib. iii. c. £3,) on which numerous

embroidery

of Amasis, as mentioned by

its


GOLD AND SILVER.

58

omission of every representation of the process, in their paintings,

cannot be adduced as an argument against the

have

also

to

failed

depict

other arts with which

the

Roman

made

emperors

time of the

last

of flattened

wire covered round

Gold and

the ruins

in

gilt,

silver threads, as

is

silk,

;

nor are there any or

silk

used

the

best

instances

of silver

thread, or

or'

â&#x20AC;˘

#

round which an extremely thin *

silver itself, or copper plated, is

Gold

gilt,f

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

For

flat-

never used for this

itself is

former being of thread, either

silver

used in a similar manner.

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

With

prepared, of various sizes, the different articles

meet with are manufactured,

ijye

Gold

Herculaneum or Pompeii.

and most expensive.

the material thus

various

at the present day, are generally

purpose, but a silver or copper wire

course

they

since

and

of metal, even to the

entirely

either of

spun.* composed of a thread of

tened wire of the metal

fact,

metals,

they were undoubtedly acquainted.

thread appears to have been

other wire

of

casting

such as .

fringes,

laces,

tassels,

cord, &c.

The

finer

kinds of work in gold and

of time best executed in France and first

machine

for

wire-drawing

Italy.

was

were for a length

silver

It

is

said that

by

invented

the

Rudolph,

at

of animals were wrought in gold, must have required a proportionate

figures

degree of fineness in the gold thread used for that purpose.

A

encased in gold leaf, and this compound cylinder is then round wire down to a certain size, which is afterwards flatted in a This flatted wire is then wrapped or laid over a thread of yelrolling mill. By the aid of low silk, by twisting with a wheel and iron bobbins. mechanism, a number of threads may thus be twisted at once by one moving *

drawn

silver rod is

into

power.

The

principal

nicety

consists in

so

regulating the

the successive volutions of the flatted wire on each thread

movements, that

may

just touch one and form a continuous covering. By the ordinances of France, itwas formerly required to be spun on flaxen or hempen threads.

another,

t

The

inferior

Mosaic gold.

manufactures of gold, or copper

gilt,

are

frequently

called


GOLD AND SILVER.

Anthony Fournier,

Nuremberg, in 1360.* improved

an

Held,

or

afterwards, an

a

exclusive patent for

renewed for

same

the

manufacture for

its

emperor Rudolphus gilt

Nuremberg!

His patent in

II,

of the

artist

of

citizen

was afterwards doubled.

copper wire,

a Frenchman, brought

of drawing fine wire to

art

where, a few years sheimer,

59

town,

fifteen

or plated with silver.

in

1570,

of Hagel-

received

an

which term

years,

by a grant from the

also,

included

1608,

name

the

manufacture

of

1602 this patent was

In

more by the emperor Matthias, and ten

fifteen years

years afterwards, was converted into a fief to the heirs male of the family of Held.

the year

with mills was introduced. established a

first

Anderson^

the

gold

and

silver,

England was manu-

in

when

Momma

for wire

first flatting

near Richmond, in 1663, by a fine

1565,

Jacob

manufactory

says, that

made

All the wire

by hand*until

factured

the art of drawing

and Daniel Demetrius

drawing

at

Esher

was erected

mill

Dutchman, who began

such as could be used

to

:

and

Sheen

at

prepar^

for spinning

round

been flatting mills in town-book of Augsburg, under the year 1451, is the name of a person called Chunr. Tratmuller de Tratmul, as a wire drawer. Vide Beckmann, vol. ii. p. 241. t Nuremberg, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, attained the height * In the

of

its

fifteenth

other

several

places

century, besides

wealth and prosperity.

there

appear

Nuremberg.

It

was the

produce of Italy and the Levant, which

to

In

have

the

chief mart and staple place for the

received principally from Venice and Genoa, and distributed over the north and west of Europe. But commerce and the carrying trade of Europe, were by no means the only sources of its wealth since, in the extent and celebrity of its manufactures, it deserves to be considered as the Birmingham of the period. many of whom Its artisans may more properly be styled artists, especially the workers of metals, smiths, armourers, cutlers, casters in bronze, and goldsmiths were esteemed the most cunning and skilful craftsmen in Europe, and their productions highly prized ; the cloth weavers and dyers were likewise in high repute. Vide Murrayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hand book Southern Germany. it

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

,

i

Geschichte des Handels, vol. v. p. 484.


f

GOLD AND SILVER.

60

weaving, which, before that period, had been manufactured

silk for

only on the

The of the

by

improved

The

being alloyed

what a

by

of

act

the

silver

be

greatly

quantity of

copper.

was, until

gilding

the

parliament.

gold

;

colour

the

to to

said

small

a

used in

of fineness

regard is

gold

the

of

It

amazing

is

drawn, yet

is

it

still

appearance

least

of

beneath.

silver

The silver,

degree

it

firmly together without showing the

keeps the

with

gold to be

proportion of

of late years, regulated to

wire,

purest

the

durability

With

it.

body of the

the

of

choice

the

is

from

prepared

articles

which forms

manufacture of gold thread, and one

beauty and

depends the

this

of the

in the

consequence,

greatest

on

for

Continent. object

first

various names under which the manufactures of gold and

employed

as

for needlework,* will be

^ord, braid, bullion, (both

found, are,

passing,

rough, smooth, and checked), spangles,

and beads.

paillons, lames,

PASSING.

Passing size,

—of gold

closely

material

of

perfection

to

brought.

It

embroidery,

way.

*

The

or silver

resembling

a

which the

may

Passing

a smooth

is

thin

metallic

of an uniform It

is

the

finest

of

art

making gold

thread

been

has

be used in the same manner as silk for

needle

may

being

also be

threaded with

employed

Chinese, instead of flatted

gilt

wire,

gold in the

for knitting,

generally

which they interweave and embroider

paper, with

thread, wire.

kind manufactured, and peculiarly exhibits the

this

the

their

flat

usual

netting,

and

employ slips of gilt and twist upon

stuffs,

silk threads.

+

There

are various

technical terms for

necessary to trouble the reader.

some of

these, with

which

it

is

un-


GOLD AND SILVER. crochet.

It

made

is

01

of two or three different sizes ;

by

tinguished from gold cord

wire

tened

twisted round the

spirally

is

should be round,

prevent

to

and

large in the

through

flat-

being the

sufficient size

passed

is

it

its

dis-

backwards

The Turks embroider with

work/

the

is

the

passing,

and of

eye,

fraying of the gold as

the

forwards

and from

silk,

For embroidery with

formed of only one thread. needle

and

closeness with which

the

passing on morocco leather in the most beautiful manner.

GOLD CORD. Gold or

number of /ire

cord

silver

wound round them

in order that

it

the flattened

in a contrary direction to that of passing,

shall not ravel

by it

the

second process of twisting.

is

seldom employed of a larger^

Gold cord may be used

than two, three, or four threads.

size

by having

threads are formed

For the purposes of needlework,

for

composed of two or any other

a twist

is

The

threads.

edging braid work and

flat

embroidery

it ;

may

also

be em-

ployed for working patterns in a similar manner with braid.

should be

sewn on with a

surface so as to chip

it,

fine silk

needle

care that the point of the

o*f

the

same

It

colour, taking

does not penetrate the metallic

and betray the

silk beneath.

The

needle

should be held in as horizontal a position as possible, and passed

between the interstices of the cord, slightly taking up a thread or

two of the surface

Gold cord

is

it

is

much

canvas work, but

its

intended to ornament. introduced

wool in some kinds of

with

merit

applicability or

by the approbation of those who use

it.

It

must be determined is,

however, to be

admitted, that as a ground for small articles of extreme luxury,

it

,

may

and, if properly managed,

be employed with beautiful effect ;

it

is

not so expensive as might be imagined.


GOLD AND SILVER.

G2

GOLD BRAID. Braid

made of

a kind of plaited lace,

is

the application of which

is

too well

known

judgment of the needlewoman must the quality and make, as is

intended.

If

preferable.

or

It

copper-gilt,

to

three or

to

direct

best Suited to the purposes for

work on

a round full close

velvet,

The

her in the selection of

made of various widths and

is

more threads,

need comment.

which

it

make

is

qualities ;

mosaic,

same time,

being the least expensive, but, at the

the least durable.

BULLION. Bullion

is

in length. that

it

manufactured in pieces of about thirty-eight inches

composed of a

It is

with

the

kinds

—the

into

scissors

wire

fine

forms a smooth, round,

elastic

lengths

the

rough, the smooth,

so

tube,

exquisitely twisted,

which may

and the checked

— and

frequently used together in the same piece of work;

suppose a large

drawing cut

into

is

this

again

of

the

requisite

size;

are

—the

three

stitches

might be

the smooth, two with the rough, two with the checked,

two

with

the

rough,

of

the

letter.

and three with the smooth

pattern,

— In

cution of a correctly twisted

be accomplished but by those attention.

;

and very much enrich the

some descriptions of embroidery

the stems of flowers are worked with

<md

these

for instance,

were to be embroidered in bullion,

would form a kind of

appearance

cut

made, the surface raised with cotton, and the bullion

pieces

made with then

letter

bfe

There are three

required.

gold

bullion

:

but the exe-

stem with this material can rarely

who have devoted

to

it

both tims


GOLD AND SILVER.

G3

SPANGLES.

Spangles, or paillettes, are small pieces of silver or other metal •

gilt

or

cut into

plated,

various

forms,

and pierced in the centre with a is

more generally rounded, through which the

hole,

spangles

curious

a

is

process

they

;

were

demand, but are now seldom used except

and

The value of

tassels.

silk

The manufacture

passed which attaches them to the work.

formerly

in

of

great

ornamenting fringes

for

depends on their brilliancy

spangles

and colour and the quantity of gold consumed

in the gilding of

them. •

LAMA AND PAILLON. Lama, or lame metal,

which

,

may

is

a

gilt

strips,

with the scissors or a punch. ing of

worked the

with

by

which

it

tinsel.

'the is

An

it.

punch

used

for

It

for

or

employed

is

extremely

of

any shape

thin

desired, either

for the

various embroideries

ornament-

on crepe or

Indian muslins from Bengal are sometimes

celebrated

name of

pieces

and

dresses,

ladies’

The

net.

sheet

or plated

be cut into

of lama

imitation

This is

termed

paillon

needlework.

is

well

when cut

material

It

,

— the also

is

known under

into very small

general

form

in

manufactured of

various colours.

GOLD

BEADS.

Gold beads are either cut or plain

they

differ

very materially

;

both in quality and value, according to the quantity of gold employed

m

in

kinds of

all

their

manufacture.

They

are

very pretty auxiliaries

gold work, and when gold

is

introduced

with


GOLD AND SILVER.

54

wool and canvas,

are

not readily tarnish,

Gold beads

are

the

and,

used

work with silk

crochet

termixed

with

and most suitable

best

securely sewn on are

if

for

kinds

all

as ;

coloured beads,

of

with

also

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

as ;

knitting,

of

and

netting,

beautiful effect

description

they do

very durable.

when

work we

in-

shall

more particularly describe in a subsequent chapter.

GOLD FRINGES. Gold and if

descriptions of trimmings this climate

might

be

houses

.

made of

all

widths and qualities;

of the

The above gold

ornamental

for

Even

needlework.

they will wear for a great length of time

more

and

generally

wealthy,

velvet cushions,

in

are

silver fringes

applied with taste, they certainly form one of the most elegant

to

and other

are

the

silver

applied,

the

it

is

;

and they

on the Continent, in the

mounting of

articles

different

which

as

in

furniture,

such as

of a decorative character.

materials

employed

necessary to

for

working

enumerate.

The

various kinds of laces and other manufactures employed for military purposes, together with this

a totally different branch of the the scone

of those

description of embroidery, form art,

which does not come within

who pursue needlework

as an amusement.


CHAPTER

VII

CljeniUc, Braiits, etc.

—“Here tfcey may make And skip from worke

choyce of which to

worke from

is

which,

stitch to stitch.”

John Taylor.

ESIDES gold,

and

the

principal

silver, there are

materials,

—wool,

silk,

others which, although

not so generally employed, must not be passed

over in silence.

We

shall endeavour, therefore, t®

give a brief notice of these, commencing with

CHENILLE.

With

the exception of the precious metals, chenille

costly material used in needlework. close

resemblance

most beautiful * Chenille: .

6

bears to some species

application

“Un

V Acad Fran

it

It derives its

tissu

de

of

soie

chenille

veloutd.

is

qui

is

the most

name from

of caterpillars.* in embroidery

imite

la

on

the

The silk

chenille.”— Diet, da


;

:

CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

66 canvas, for

flowers or arabesques:

representation

of birds;

and,

is

it

also well adapted for thÂŤ

any extraneous

if

can

article

be

admitted with silk and wool, in the working of Berlin patterns, the most

this appears to be

be well

with

depicted

the effect of chenille

extremely

is

worked in Irish

being

appropriate,

For

it.

rich,

can

draperies

and

borders,

pillows,

both the design and ground

grounds

Silk

stitch.

as velvet

table-cover

are

admired

also

with patterns in chenille. Chenille

more commonly made of

is*

manufactured

been

pensive, there

is

of

wool,

but

a broder

coarse

the

next

canvas work and crochet,

:

is

called

is

its

The

which

size,

it ;

a very trifling difference in

of chenille are those usually employed chenille

silk

the process

as

however,

has,

equally ex-

is

Two

cost.

smallest

is

sizes

termed

used for

principally

% chenille ordinaire.

BRAID.

Braid

is

of three kinds,

union cord

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Russia,

French and round

more frequently employed than the

braid,

latter.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but

Braids

are manufactured either of gold or silver, silk, worsted, or cotton

gold and

silk,

and silver and

silk,

sometimes mixed together

are

in the same piece.

The

application

of braids in forming a most elegant

species of embroidery is

not

be

too

much

well

admired,

known, either

and, if

for

and easy

well executed,

folios,

bags, note

can cases,

The first process in the manufacture of chenille, is that of weaving; this done in the same manner as plain weaving, with the exception that the threads of the warp are placed at short and regular distances from each other, When woven, it is cut with according to the required size of this material. *

is

scissors

as

it

between the threads of the warp into

were, on each side.

The more

tightly chenille

They is

strips,

leaving a fringed edge,

are afterwards twisted with a proper machine.

twisted, the thicker

and

closer the

pile

becomes.


CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

67

sachets, table cover borders, chairs, ottomans,

and other pieces of

The

furniture, besides various articles of dress.

must be good where nicety of work

quality,

however

is desired.

UNION CORD.

Union

cord

is

often employed

with

dition

of gold cord, serves as a pretty

is also

very

rich,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

braid,

and with the ad-

Gold union cord

relief.

close braiding patterns, or a vermicelli pattern,

being best calculated for

its display.

STRAW.

A

flat plaited straw,

into worsted work, for It is

with both edges carriage

baskets,

has

has been introduced

and other fancy

articles.

exceedingly pretty, and well adapted to these purposes from

bright appearance and durability.

its

alike,

also

been

done

on velvet and

Embroidery with silk,

split

straw

and has a curious and

beautiful effect.

NACRE AND ECA1LLE. Nacre, or mother of yearly

cut into paillettes of various forms,

has been employed in a peculiar species of needlework with good effect; it is not,

however, commonly to be met with, and

practised in this

country.

Nacre

is

generally worked

is

seldom

on velvet

or satin, to represent birds or flowers, either in relief or flat; the

stems and other parts being formed of gold bullion.

It is

some-

times used for embroidering parts of the vestments of the clergy in Catholic countries.

Another description, known by the name of imitation of the above.

Pieces of flattened

ecaille loorlc, is

quill,

an

cut into simi-


CHEN1LLE BRAIDS; ETC.

08

;

lar

same manner.

cut

with

at the

much

but by a

shapes,

the

a

The

punch

expensive process, are used in

less

(as

ecaille

the

whilst

improperly termed)

is

it

quill

a

in

is

soft

same time pierces the small holes by which This

attached.

work

of

species

Whether

pretty than the preceding. dery, its

is

is

it

is

which

state,

be

to

perhaps

more

in

or in flat embroi-

relief,

delicate

and

on velvet when intermixed with

effect is best displayed

gold.

VELVET. Velvet flowers

most beautiful

and

effect

being worked in gold bullion. raised, the ecaille.

pasted

same

the

They may

back

are

used with

to

is

cut, thin

prevent the

be worked either

employed as

style of pattern being

Before the velvet at

with a punch,

leaves, cut

on white watered gros de Naples, the stems flat

for nacre

or

and

paper should be smoothly

becoming rough by

edges

unravelling. o

BEADS. â&#x20AC;˘

Beads are made either

gilt or plated,

detailed account of their manufacture

subsequent chapter on bead work

or of glass, or

and

use, will be

appeared in worsted work, and in an

work on perforated cardboard, but further notice of

A

.

Bugles are short glass tubes of various colours. late

steel.

found in a

inferior

They have

of

description

of

their total inapplicability renders

them unnecessary. i

PAILLONS AND PAILLETTES. Paillons and Paillettes of polished steel or coloured beautifully

foils,

may

be

introduced on velvet with gold braid and embroidery.


CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

69

CREPE.

Crepe

on

flowers

very

broidery, are

with leaves in

and

The shape

worked in white.

elegant,

of

chenille

drawn together

and

scissors,

The

required.

their

The

silver

;

but

if

natural,

leaves are sometimes

chenille

in

be cut by

to

edges

entirely

made

the petals should be

at

em-

silk

if

to

the

centres of the flowers, if of a fancy kind,

worked on gold or preferable.

or

particularly

from which those in crepe are afterwards

paper,

the

satin,

delicate

or

form

may silk

be are

worked in China ribbon, or

velvet applique.

CHINA RIBBON. China ribbon

is

at one edge, the

pretty for flowers.

also

ribbon

may

be

By

running a

silk

puckered up into a variety of

pretty and fantastic forms.

The effect

great neatness

with

many

tion difficult.

necessary to produce

a good and elegant

of these materials, renders their use and applica-

What

can be more wretched than the attempts at

ribbon work for instance, on a poor thin satin contrary, flower,

more

delicate

;

and what on the

and simple than the neatly executed crepe

and well embroidered leaf?


:

CHAPTER

VIII

CflltDttS.

“These

are the gifts of Art,

Where Commerce

He

catches

and Art

improvements in his

all

thrives most

has enrich’d the busy coast; flight,

Spread’s foreign wonders in his country’s sight,

Imports what others have invented well,

And

stirs his

own

match them or

to

’Tis thus reciprocating,

excel.

each with each,

Alternately the nations learn and teach.”

Cowper.

ANVAS

may

be classed under four distinct heads,

according to the posed.

canvas:

We

of

stoutest

where they are

threads

distinguished stance,

these

within less

as

they

a

given

contain space,

by a number corresponding

are,

it

is

com-

thread, and woollen

a

—the

greater

threads

Each canvas

numerous.

we have a number twenty, and

figures

of which

materials silk, cotton,

these are denominated fine or coarse, in

proportion

number

have

a

is

or

less

being further

to its size: thus, for in-

number

twelve, canvas

however, arbitrary, and vary conformably with

the customs of the

manufacturers in

each country, ascending or

descending relatively with their fineness or coarseness

;

and as they


:

CANVAS.

more particularly intended

are

purchasers,

it

is

71

convenience of

the

for

would perhaps be more perplexing than whether of

silk,

wholesale

not necessary for us thus to specify them, as

The

useful.

it

finest canvas,

cotton, or thread, has acquired the general appel-

lation of “Mosaic.”

SILK CANVAS.

more frequently termed Berlin canvas,

Silk,

a

as

vignette, gem, for a

grounding

for

and

adapted for

and ornamental items,

as also

however,

it

is

grounded work, where durability

is

necessary

of furniture

used

flower,

kinds of set and arabesque patterns, and

all

variety of small, useful

articles

well

is

it

generally

is

,

substitute

for

the

latter,

not so

for

well

;

calculated

as

screens and

for

much

ferable,

pillows,

and many other purposes,

can be obtained of most colours,

—but

Silk canvas

black,

white,

pre-

is far

it

time and labour being obviously saved.

Working on

primrose, are those generally employed.

but

;

and

claret,

this

canvas

requires greater neatness in finishing off the stitches at the back,

the wools or silks must not

than work intended to be grounded ;

be carried across from one part to another beneath, but cut

ofl‘

when mounted, they would show

as closely as possible, otherwise

through the meshes of the canvas, greatly detrimental to the appearance of the work. Berlin

made

of

canvas being an expensive manufacture,

an

quality

inferior

it

therefore

is

requires

frequently care

and

freest

from

;

judgment in knots, is

selection

:

— that

which

and of a firm and uniform

made

half,

its

but

is

texture, is to

widths, varying from half an inch

in

there

descriptions

is

not

of canvas

:

that

variety

four sizes

in

in

and

clearest,

its

general

be preferred. to

sizes

are

It

a yard and a as

in

other

manufactured


72

CANVAS.

which severally count about

and 40 threads

21, 29, 34,

the

to

inch.*

A

very

principally for

met

with.

made

canvas,

flexible

a few years since, but

of

entirely

bead work and purses, and

Silk

was introduced

silk,

was an expensive

it

and adapted

article,

now seldom

is

to

be

canvas, with gold and silver threads interwoven,

has also been made, but

it

does not suit the taste of the English.

COTTON CANVAS. Cotton canvas

made of

is

patent, or

French canvas,

firmness, but

and, above

considerable

superior, not only

is

and widths, and

qualities, sizes,

all

manufactured both in England, France, and

is

Germany.

on account of

from the great regularity and clearness of

all,

squareness of

the

its

meshes,

The

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

its

its

threads,

object of very

importance to the needlewoman, whose work might

by

otherwise become most singularly distorted,

the design being

lengthened one way, and at the same time diminished the other, or the

contrary, according as

breadth of the canvas

or

it

this,

:

might be worked on the length however,

is

taken advantage of for some patterns, when to confine the

work within

casionally used which

certain

an it

evil that

may

be

becomes necessary

limits, as designs

may

be oc-

would not otherwise count to the required

dimensions.

German well

as

cotton canvas, although

adapted

procured at

much

to

thread yellow, which

*

The

some purposes

less cost

many

:

it is

as

inferior

the

generally

description, is

above,

and Âťcan be

made with every tenth

persons consider a great assistance in

threads of silk canvas are

cotton fibre

of an

formed by a fine

silk

wound round

a


.

^ r% i o

CANVAS. counting the

but

in

It is

manufactured both limp and

may

be procured of

stitches.

the

and, like

French,

texture,

French c&nvas.

not

is

it

so

should

It

strong as either

not

be

English

the

used with light or

grounds, as the yellow thread will show through the

we

should

advise

much

where

it

stiffened,

and widths

sizes

all

tension

white

work

nor

:

required in

is

j

or

the

mounting.

A

canvas, in imitation of

cotton

many, but

it

soon

loses

soils,

its

has been made in Ger-

silk,

and

colour,

otherwise very

is

inferior.*

THREAD CANVAS. Thread canvas, manufactured from hemp, 1

now seldom em-

is

ployed, except for carpets and rugs, for which purpose strength

and durability peculiarly adapt

A

usual sizes and widths.

fine thread

it

it

its

greater

made of the

is

;

canvas formed of flax

is

sometimes to be procured.

PENELOPE CANVAS. â&#x20AC;˘

Penelope canvas (so

called

is

considered

its

having the appearance of

work has been unpicked)

a canvas from which the it

from

by some

persons to be

each four threads being ready for the needle ever, stitch,

it

generally

*

A

suitable

thought dazzling to the sight.

it* is

is

speaking,

canvas for

certainly

has

by

much used work upon, how-

others,

For very

fine cross

unobjectionable and more easily seen

the

been

;

is

to

easier

work produced

made purposely

copying Berlin patterns.

for

upon

it

tapestry-stitch,

has

but

;

not

it

is

but the

not


CANVAS.

74

even

pearly

appearance,

of

done

that

over the usual

canvas,

Penelope canvas has as yet only been manufactured of cotton,

FLATTENED CANVAS. Flattened canvas, both of thread and cotton,

and

France,

passed through the possess

from the

only

differs

cylinders of a flatting

any superior

qualities, if

drawn

is

where the old method

still

adhered to

of

it,

are

all

silk or

worked,

still

does not

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

object

of some

working with the pattern finished, is not

This plan, how-

equal to that executed on round thread canvas. ever, is

it

the greater facility

but the work, when

;

in

having been

its

machine;

we except

with which designs can be drawn upon importance,

much used

is

by

others,

continued by one house in Paris, where the patterns

drawn on the canvas, and afterwards traced with a cotton,

of the colours in which they are intended

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process

fine

to be

rendering the work more expensive, and which

does not appear to be productive of any beneficial

result.

WOOLLEN CANVAS. Woollen canvas be

employed,

avoided, but as

is

an

article of

where the labour

it is

far

grounded work.

German manufacture, and may of grounding

from presenting the same Claret,

black, white,

colours generally used, but others

may

sought to

is

be

rich appearance

and primrose, are the

be procured.

BOLTING. Solting

is

a very fine description of woollen canvas, principally

manufactured in England, but now seldom used except

for chil


CANVAS. drenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

samplers.

yellow

colour,

purpose to

It it

:

An

called

inferior

sampler

kind canvas,

75 of is

canvas, also

generally

made

for

the

of

a

same

both are limited in width, but they are too well known

need further description.*

* Bolting is woven after the manner of gauze, of fine spun woollen yarn. was originally made for the sifting or bolting of meal or flour, whence derives

its

name.

I


;

CHAPTER

IX

« i

Berlin patterns.

u Learn hence to paint the parts that meet the view,

In spheroid forms, of light

While from

aiftl

equal hue;

the light receding or the eye,

The working

outlines take

a fainter dye,

Lost and confused progressively they fade,

Not

fall

precipitate

This Nature

from

light to shade.

and this taste pursues, Studious in gradual gloom her lights to lose The various whole with soft’ning tints to fill, As if one single head employ’d her skill.” dictates,

Du Fresnoy.

ERLIN

patterns have contributed more towards

the advancement of needlework of the present day,

than any improvement that has of introduced into the

art,

—not

late

years been

simply from the

as-

sistance they yield the needlewoman, but from the

aemand they have occasioned superior materials.

which

wmld

Hence the

for

improved and

we now

possess,

never probably have been manufactured, had they not

been imperatively called

We

beautiful wools

are indebted to

for

by

Germany,

for

the

invention

of these

designs.

both these advantages; and

it is


BERLIN PATTERNS. not a

singular, that

little

pears to be the least

evident from the

will

it

of appreciating their value,

greater portion

course an exception to needle,

country which produces them ap-

the

capable

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

as is

of the needlework exposed for

The work of German ladies is when taste and talent direct

throughout Germany.

sale

77

as

this,

be equally beautiful wherever

it

may

be

of the

found.

England, and next to her, perhaps Russia, have profited most by

The

these auxiliaries.

great deal from

them;

ladies of

Sweden and Denmark work a

the French, as

have used them but

yet,

little,

the old method of drawing the subject on canvas being

much

in vogue.

and

to America,

still

Great numbers of these patterns are exported to the various countries of the Continent.*

Berlin patterns, although a production of recent date, have be-

come an

are

of considerable commerce

article

amount of

large

either

capital is

from celebrated

copied

Germany, where a

in

They

employed in their manufacture. pictures,

or

(as

more

is

fre-

quently the case) from the newest and most favourite engravings published either in England, France, or jects,

Germany.

Many

such as flowers and arabesques, are designed expressly.

drawn

are first

on quadrille or point paper

colours

in

,

the excellence of the pattern depends principally on the sign, it

may

ing or etching

is

made on

a

From

the

canvas

:

this drawing,

de-

various

size,

marks

an engrav-

which has previously

copper-plate,

been ruled in squares of the required of

and as first

readily be imagined that artists of considerable talent

are required for their execution.

threads

f

sub-

They

corresponding to the

and

hieroglyphics

are

engraved on each check or square, which are to serve as guides

*

The

proportionate

demand

in other countries

the following order of their respective names: Italy,

may

Spain, and Portugal.

t Paper

marked out

be stated according to

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Holland,

into squares of a regular size.

Belgium, Switzerland,


BERLIN PATTERNS.

78

who afterwards

for those

part for each

The

with a different figure. a

very

colour

shade of colour, being marked state,

bears

mode

the present

on

;

being, in

merely an improvement on the designs which have fdr years

fact,

been used by weavers for their figured

The

by one

the various

the same time, each check,

at

of the pencil, the point of which

stroke

graving.

Practice

surprising

to

another

different

alone

is

laid

is

of

renders

what

with

see

is

kept very

If

on.

.

touch perfect

the

we

for

the

design

and the

and

reflect

it

is

tint

on these

diminished

there"* are

when we

and that each

engraving,

small cost at which they are to be

patterns

moment

a

by hand, we cannot

coloured

der will not be

;

and exactness each

rapidity

and the time they must necessarily occupy,

processes,

expense

square

or continuous

the engraved figures, being coloured

and of a size adapted to that of the check of the en-

square,

these

curious ;

on several patterns

the

is

quickly laid on, commencing with each separate colour

line of checks, according to

after

stuffs.*

process of colouring these patterns

are

tints

the

in this

published in old books

above two centuries since

needlework,

when

pattern,

resemblance to those

great

on paper; the

impressions

the

or separate

colour,

procured

are

considerably

be surprised at

to

fail

told,

;

and our won-

that in some of

above half a

million of

Email squares, like those of a mosaic, to be separately coloured.

All Berlin

patterns are equally adapted for

cross or tent stitch,

them. be

closely shaded, or

meagre.

*

though great judgment

Patterns intended to be enlarged

We

Difficulties

have several

the colouring,

working either in

is

requisite in choosing

by

the working, should

being dispersed, will appear

frequently arise from working these designs

impressions of the

have been kindly presented

to

patterns in this

first

us by the various manufacturers.

stage,

which


;

BERLIN PATTERNS.

79

grounding

without previously fixing on the colour of the should always be done in the well,

the colour of the ground,

Most of the

neglected.

many

as

maxim which

figure patterns

them

of

to

which

defect

overcome;

the

is

it

the

common

working

harsh and glaring in the extreme,

is

province of the expert needlewoman

rules of painting

will be

frequently a great

is

same design.

In sorting

as for instance, the

errors, such,

that light displays

first,

of

found useful in correcting

back and foreground being of the same depth of shade.

Know

a few

attention to

historical subjects,

some of the more gross of these

knowledge

fair

and shade, be much im-

light

in this respect, however, there

for

to

but too frequently

is

may, with a

difference even in the colouring of the

the wools

work

strict attention

extremely correct in the outlines,

are

although the colouring of most

—a

sorted , with

and a just idea of

of painting, proved,

—a

a pattern, to

instance, as

first

must always be shaded, or

this

'

and shade destroys

Refulgent Nature’s variegated dyes.

Thus With

bodies near the light distinctly shine

rays direct, and as

fades decline.”*

it

Black should never be used next a high light: one-eighth of every object*

and

has a high light upon

six

positively

that

parts blue,

and half

light

or

red,

most objects

yellow,

reflect the

one-eighth

it,

No

tint.

—owing

tints to

darkest shadow, in nature,

two causes

to

:

the