Page 1


thbaibrary UNIVERSITY BRIGHAM YOUNG PROVO, UTAH


THE LADIES’ »

COMPLETE GUIDE TO

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY.


4

LADIES’

E

COMPLETE GUIDE TO

NEEDLE-WORK AND CONTAINING

CLEAR AND PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS WHEREBY ANY ONE CAN EASILY LEARN HOW TO DO ALL KINDS OF PLAIN AND FANCY Needlework, Tapestry-work, Turkish Work, Persian Work,

Stitches, all kinds,

Bead Work,

Lace Imitations, Mosaic Canvas, Canvas Work,

Russian Crochet, Edgings, Laces,

Slippers, etc.

Fringes,

China Purses, Braiding and Applique,

Chenille, Braid, etc. Crochet,

Scarfs,

Implements,

Berlin Patterns,

Shawls,

Varieties of Silk,

Collars,

Materials,

Embroidery,

Knitting, Netting,

etc., etc.

WITH ONE HONORED AND THIRTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS AND DIAGRAMS, ILLUSTRATIVE OF ALL THE VARIOUS STITCHES IN THOSE USEFUL AND FASHIONABLE EMPJ.OYMENTS, SHOWING AT A GLANCE TO ALL HOW TO MAKE ANY ONE OR ALL OF THE THOUSANDS OF ARTICLES, IN ALL KINDS OF NEEDLE-WORK, EMBROIDERIES, ETC., DESCRIBED IN THIS WORK.

BY MISS LAMBERT. “ And though our country every where With ladies, and with gentlewomen,

is till’d

skill’d

In this rare art, yet here we may discerne Some things to teach them if they list to learn.”

—JonN

Taylor.

phUairnwiiis: T.

B.

PETERSON AND BROTHERS, 2Q6

CHESTNUT STREET.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

T. In the Clerk’s

Office of

B.

PETERSON,

the District Court of the United States, in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

THE LIBRARY

BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH


TO THE

me 9Cl)is

IS

nranreio)

bolutne

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED P\ THE PUBLISHER.


PREFACE.

In

following pages I have

the

those subjects

on Decorative

Treatise

brief historical sketch oi

endeavoured

embra

to

which appeared most worthy of

3

notice in

Needlework, and by combining

a

with a detailed account of the practice

each department, to render them more generally interesting

than a mere Manual of directions and examples. I

am

indebted to

my

husband

for

his assistance in

some

of the historical notices, and again for his permission in

lowing

my

maiden name

being that by which I

to

appear on

am more

the

title-page,

generally recognised in

al-

as

my

avocation. It

years tion;,

may

be

since,

stated, that this

but

occasioned

circumstances its

of the present year.

from

my

volume was commenced (here

three

unnecessary to men-

being laid aside until the commencement It

has been written at intervals snatched

other employments, and I trust that the accuracy

of the details will obtain that indulgence

its

literary merits

cannot demand. F.

S


— —

^

CONTENTS CHAPTER

Introduction

5 7jr

ry reeks and, 0

r,

I.

f Necdle "'°A-The time of Moses-The ancient- Egyptians p Romans— Helen and Penelope— Embroidering of the Peplus— 16 fiddle Ages-The AngIo-Saxons-An|licum opus-St.

T I fT J

Dont ^ Hunstan— Needlework practised by me a— Hangings or veils— Tapestries— Ta Pf Work Qpeen Matilda— Ancient Pall ,

belonging to the Fbfbmo ishmongers Company— English Needlework in the sixteenth century— VaUpa adleS at that eri od— Needlework noticed P by Addison— l Tht laSt Ce tU Coloured Embroideries— Print work— Miss T in 5

^

i

_1 APESTRY

CHAPTER

II.

D ?0rat!on ° f wa,,s with Tapestry-Mentioned byHoP ^rT~ mer-An1;nn;fv ? u u U * nv cntion— the Phrygians omen of Sidon GiTffins a n?] f Vnf S_ the lan Tapestry— Story of Arachne andPhssacia Minerva IntroducLn off T d u TaPcs‘ry the Crusaders— Weaving Tapestry— First ? practisedi in Flanders— Arras— Introduction into England— Patronized bv _ Ma aCt0 ry at Mortlake-Charles andSir FrancL Crane 7 When Manufactured m France Henry IV—IColbert and Louis XIV Manu|cture Royale des Gobelins-History and productions of that Manufacru "Ieo r>-Tapestry for St. Cloud-Evelyn’s DefP° T scriuThm Tapestry-Dyeing Establishment, and Drawing-school Tf tne ot the taobehns Gobelins Th The basse and haute Iisse— Working of Tapestry— InstruS R ffael e TaPestry ° f St. Mary’s Hah, CoventryHampton

W

i

M

r

Court

N

f

Lmwood Impllmen"is

-

^

CHAPTER

s, Materials in General

Material

III.

le ^S^able, and Mineral Kingdoms Various d_Nee< eWOrk the P resent day Materials used by Miss .

n

.

,

KSer

V

"° W

°f P^sed-Variety

of Colours-Paper Patterns-

27


— —

——

— CONTENTS.

X

CHAPTER

IV.

Wool

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — qualities and capabilities — Used Merino — Berlin Wool — Superiority of— Canvas- work and Embroidery — for Knitting, Netting, and Crochet Varieties and duality of German Wool as prepared for Needlework— English Wool—Grounding—Worsteds— Crewels—Yarn—Fleecy— Hamburgh W ool —German Fleecy—Antiquity of the Art of Dyeing — Discovery of the Tyrian Purple —Anecdote relating to 30 Importance Description of Sheep’s Wool the product of Cultivation— History and Preparation Merino, whence derived Invention of Spinning and Weaving mentioned by Moses Linen and woollen cloths of the Egyptians Duties of Women in the Primitive Ages Produce of white Wool Dyeing German Wool Prepared at Gotha Introduction of Merino sheep into Saxony First reared at Stolpen Improvement in the quality of their Wool Different qualities of Wool Employed for Needlework Zephyr Its

its

-Its

for

CHAPTER

V.

Silk

— — — —

Antiquity of its use by the Chinese Silkworms introduced into India and Persia Carried to Constantinople Into Greece Palermo Calabria Italy and Spain Rearing of Silkworms in France The Silkworm of Ceos Quantity of Silk used in England Use of Silk among the Romans Its rarity Sold for its weight in Gold Heliogahalus first wore a Silken RobeGeneral use of Silk at Rome Silkworm described by Pausanias Spinning and weaving Silk introduced into England Marriage of the daughter of Henry III Silk- women in the Reign of Henry IV Silk Stockings worn by Henry VIII Anecdote of Queen Elizabeth Broad Silk manufactured in the time of James I Silk- throwing Mill Improvements of the Manufacture in England Lines, by Cowper, on the Silkworm Varieties of Silk Theii employment in Needlework Mitorse Silk Netting Silk Sewing SilksC rochet Silk Dacca Silk Floss Silk Bourre de Soie Spun Silk Other materials resembling Silk—the Spider— Pinna— Spun Glass 44

— — — — —

— —

— —

— —

CHAPTER

Gold and Silver

— —

— —

...

VI.

Used in the earliest Ages for Embroidery Mentioned in Exodus Invention ascribed to Attalus The Robe of Agrippina The Tunic of Heliogabalus Mantle of th^ statue of Jupiter Vulcan’s Net Remains of ancient wire-

— — — — day manufacture — Mosaic Gold —Wire-drawing practised Nuremrg introduction into England— Manufacture of GoM and Silver I7 Needlework Gold thread of the Chinese— Passing— Gold cord — Gold braid Bullion Spangles Lama and Paillon— Gold beads — Gold fringes— Military embroidery

work—Wire-drawing

supposed to have been known to the Egyptians Gold thread in the time of the Romans Gold and Silver Thread of the present Its

at

first

ItS

for

Tv?

.

„ Chenille,

CHAPTER

56

VII.

Braid, etc.

Derivation of the term Chenille— Chenilles of Silk, and Wool— Its manufacture— AjiplK atmn of— Braids— Their various kinds— Application of— Union raw acre an d Ecaille Velvet Flowers made of Beads Bugles Paillons and Paillettes— Crepe— China Ribbon . . . 64 .

“^


—— —— — — CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

Canvas

XI

yin.

nA V“ -Snr’rr Sdk Canvas— ^\f'7.

io “ S Sizes— How designated— Mosaic Canvas f lexible Canvas— Cotton CanvasEnglish f’rench and ped Canvas-Imitation Silk Canvas-Thread CaAvas-PeneCs Tapestry-stitch-Flattened Canvas-Its use-Woolhm

ofn Canvas— Bolt^g

70

CHAPTER

„ „ Rerun Patterns

IX.

m

Improvements the Art of Needlework since their Introduction— Their consumption in different countnes-Manufacture of-Process of colourirm-AdZ tation for working— Grounding— Defects of these Patterns— The remedy— mm S I es of painting—. Arrangement of Colours— 1 aces ofFimirJr^U° Faces of Figures— Skies— Materials for working them on— Limner Berlin attemS_EnglishWOrk fr° m &rIin Pa tterns— Hfstory of

M™

.

BerZpI^s

CHAPTER

X.

Drawing Patterns for Embroidery, Braiding, etc.— Designing of Patterns— Drawing on paper— Pouncing— Tracing on the maqUI<]~ L ar e P a ‘ terns Re Petition of the same designMethZof'M^f ; |? ot MM. Revel and Regondet— Patterns on muslins, &c.— Changing

-

i

proportions of Patterns— Drawing —designing on the material .

upon various materials

CHAPTER

T Implements Needles— Manufacture of— Their

Satin, Velvet

°&c

XI.

antiquity Knitting Needles and Pin<? Netting ]N eedles and Meshes— Crochet and Tambour Needles— Filiere— Embroidery frames— Large frames— Table frames— Standing frames— Tambour frames— Screw Embroidery frames— D’Oyley and Shawl frames— WOrk P " rse stretchers-PuLZulds-Chdn moulH Fol for achfon

-

Framing

CHAPTER

Work

XII.

—L?ather-ClotlT&^alninS canvas Cloth and canvas- Vclvct-Satin-Silk CHAPTER

Stitches

_

—Tent — German

The working

of stitches

stitch

stitch

stitches

Embroidery

Irish

XIII.

stitch— Cross stitch— Gobelin or Tapestry Imitation of lace Various fancy

stitch

CHAPTER

XIV.

Introduced from the East—the invention of, attributed to Phrygians— Story of Procne— Embroidery mentioned by

Minerva— The Pliny— other ancient


CONTENTS.

xii

— —A

Aholi&b in the authors Homer The embroideries of Helen Andromache time of Moses Embroidery mentioned by Ezekiel Embroidery in gold inlaw of Zaleucus The garments of Tarquiniu* Priscus vented by Attalus Decorative needlework Derivation of the term Embroidery —The Chinese Embroideries from Manilla Embroidery as at present practised in China Indian Embroidery Canadian The negresses of Senegal —The Georgians The Turkish women Modern Greeks The women of Therapia— their extraordinary works— Embroideries of Vienna Milan and Venice France Saxony Nancy and Paris In what the art consists Shaded embroidery Arabesque or Moresque Patterns Flowers Historical subjects, landscapes, and portraits Various materials employed Application of French or flat embroidery Embroidery in chenille Embroidering coats of arms Raised embroidery Raised cut embroidery Embroidery in gold and silver Embroidery in tambour Chain stitch Embroidery by machinery The Weaver’s

— — —

— —

— —

— —

Song

112

CHAPTER XV. Canvas

Work

Rules relating to Right way of the stitch Berlin patterns working from enlarging work from Cross stitch on one thread Mixing of cross and tent stitch Patterns to form a centre Grounding the mode of working various colours for Gobelin stitch Colours Sorting Berlin patterns Flowers Flesh colours Patterns drawn on canvas Crests and coats of arms Introduction of silk with wool Increase and decrease of work from Berlin patterns Illustration of 1^6

CHAPTER

— —

XVI.

Crochet Its varieties

—Stitches —Directions

A sofa pillow, or table cover An easy

Turkish pattern Another Turkish pattern

A table-cover or pillow

....

Working

for

a table cover or pillow for a table cover, etc

for

. . .

. .

Another table-cover

.

Small pine-pattern table-cover

.

Making up

....

crochet table-covers

.

A crochet slipper Chanceliere A plain crochet bag in silk A crochet bag with star-shaped bottom Persian pattern bag A star bottom for a bag with beads A bag with steel or gold beads

. . .

. .

.

Another bag with

An An

steel or gold beads,

and

.

.

silk

of two colours

elegant bag in blue, white, and gold open crochet bag in chenille Other patterns for bags Greek cap in crochet silk Greek cap in coarse chenille penwiper in plain crochet crochet neck chain plain purse in crochet plain crochet purse with square and round ends

A A A A A A

....

. .

. .

. . .

.

.

.

147 149 150 151

152 153 154 155 156 158 159 160 162 162 163 164 164 165 166 167 167 168 168 169 169


CONTENTS.

A plain open crochet purse A short crochet purse A sprigged purse in open and plain crochet Open crochet stitch A purse with beads, in plain and open crochet An

elegant crochet purse with gold Plain double-stitch crochet purse, pine pattern Plain and open crochet purse Another plain and open crochet purse bridal purse short purse or bag in plain stitch double crochet baby’s cradle cover, or a carriage wrapper Another square pattern, with a border . .

A A A A round

xiii

170 170

.... .

.

.

.

171 171 172 173

.174 .175 175 176 177 178

.

.

.

.

.

.179

D’Oyley or mat

180

Travelling bags Explanation of terms used in crochet Hints on crochet

181 181

182

CHAPTER

XVII.

Knitting-

—mentioned the Row— Silk stockings worn by — — Invention of Knitting— The Spaniards—the Scots— Knitting practised in Spain and — Hueen Elizabeth’s stockings — The invention of the stocking frame — amusement the blind — employment the poor— Knitting of the cottage in Ireland —Works on knitting— 184 Unknown in England before the sixteenth century leian Forgeries The first stockings knit in England

in

Henry VIII

Italy

it

affords to

to

girls

An

A

.

easy stitch for light scarfs, shawls, babies’ quilts,

D’Oyley Checked or matted pattern .

Harlequin quilt with Turkish knitting

tufts .

:

Raised knitting Knitted fringe Vandyke border

A scalloped fringe or border Another knitted fringe A spaced fringe for a crochet

table cover, etc.

Knitted insertion

.

A Shetland knitted scarf A Brioche la

Josephine

187 188 188 188 190 190 191 191

Bonnets de nuit d’hommes Double nightcap Opera cap Barege knitting for shawls Shetland shawl patterns

Bourse a

etc,

* .

German purse

A strong knitted purse Open stitch purse with beads Herringbone, or Shetland stitch for a purse.

A pence jug or purse

Star-pattern shawl in two colours Plain ribbed muffatees

2

192 193 193 193 194 194 195 197 198 199 200 201 201 202 202 202 203 204 205


CONTENTS.

XIV

Graham

205 206 207 208 209 209 209 210 210

. * muffatees pair of muffatees Pattern for a chair tidy or D’Oyley Double knitting for comforters, etc. knitted bag, with black or garnet beads Dotted knitting for babies’ shoes, etc. knitted bonnet-cap knitted muff in imitation of sable .

^Another

A A A Another muff A baby’s shoe Another very pretty baby’s shoe A baby’s stocking A double knitted scarf, in two colours

....

Cable knitting Knitted cuffs Cover for an air cushion lish napkin, D’Oyley, or Tidy .

.

211

212 213 214 215 215 216 216 217 217 218 218 219 219 219 220 221 221 222 222

A A knitted mat

Close stitch for a waistcoat, etc. Honeycomb stitch, for a bag Baby’s hood

Long Open

sleeves to stitch for

wear under the dress a light shawl, D’Oyley,

etc.

Jarretieres

Explanation of terms used in knitting

A weaver’s knot Hints on knitting The fez manufactory at Constantinople Barege, Shetland, and Sanquhar knitting

CHAPTER

XVIII,

Netting

Antiquity of the Art The nets of the Egyptians mention of, by Pliny and Herodotus Fishermen’s nets Directions for netting -The netting knot 224 228 Plain netted gentleman’s purse . Lady’s purse 229 Gentleman’s purse with ends of different colours 229 lady’s purse with points 229 A pretty purse with chine silk 230 Netting with beads 230 plain netted purse with a bead mouth 230 pretty seme purse with steel or gold beads 231 An elegant netted purse with steel beads 231 Plain netted mittens 232 knitter’s bag with ring 232 A checked or dice pattern purse 233 Grecian netting or filet rose 233 purse in Grecian netting 234 Mittens in Grecian netting 234 Netted fringe 235 Single diamond netting 235 Treble diamond netting 236 Diamond netting, with five stitches 236

A A

A A

A A

....


CONTENTS. Seme purse, diamond pattern Open plain netting, or filet a Bagaette Fond de Berlin Filet rose Filet a Baton Filet Rond

XV

.

,

.

.

.

.

rompu .•

Netted mittens with silk and wool Netted cuff with silk and wool

CHAPTER

238 239 239 240 240 241 241 242

XIX.

Braiding and Appligiue

— —

Simplicity of braid work executed by the Turks and Greeks braiding in various materials Patterns for working of Introduction of gold cord Groups of flowers in braid Adaptation of braid work— Union cord Silk for sewing on braid finishing of braid work Applique materials of which it is composed its application stamped leather Lames de velours 243 . .

— —

— —

CHAPTER XX. Bead Work German bead work

— application — Glass beads —paucity of their colours bead —Gold and beads — Steel beads — Designs — Introduciion of beads in other works— Tricot— duality of beads— Can247 bead work— Manufacture of glass beads its

Turquoise beads

work

silver

for

vas for

CHAPTER

XXI.

Needlework of the English GIueens and Princesses Edward the Elder — Queen Matilda—Adelais, wife of — Katharine of Arragon —mention by Shakspeare— Sonnet—Anne Boleyn — Lady Jane Grey — Queen Mary — Sonnet — Queen Elizabeth — Sonnet—Mary, Queen of Scots — Queen Mary — Queen Charlotte and the Princesses — The Princess Royal, Queen of Wurtemburg— The Princess Sophia— The Princess Augusta— The Princess Amelia— The Duchess of York — The Duchess of Gloucester— Queen Adelaide — Her Majesty— The

The

four daughters of

Henry

I

of,

II

Duchess of Kent

250

CHAPTER Conclusion

The

wme

—The

XXII.

Praise of the Needle

“ Needle’s Excellency” Poem by John Taylor account of the Water Poet

—rarity

of the work

258


CONTENTS TO

MRS. GAUGAIN.

PAGE

PAGE

in purse cord, (not purse silk,) 291 spider-net 291 Bag, very beautiful shaded 295 Bag, handsome crotchet

Netting, round, for a gentleman’s long purse 302 Netting, honeycomb, for veil 303 Netting, single diamond 306 Netting, leaf..: 307 Purse, long, Queen Victoria 273 Purse, long, pretty open stitch 274 Purse, Prince Albert’s 280 * Purse, beautiful 283 Purse, Russian crotchet- stitch 285 Purse, long net, for a lady 301 Purse, long net, for a lady 301 Purse, very pretty long Grecian net,

Bag

Bed-Cover, Russian crotchet-stitch... Boot, warm and useful for a baby Boot, long Cap for wearing under the bonnet Comfort, scale stitch Comfort. Coverlet, Baby’s, in garter stitch Cuffs, simple and pretty dress knit... Cuff, another very simple, D’oyley’s, set of open square Echarpe, petite net, for the neck

Edging Edging, beautiful lace Eringe Guard, strong, for a lady or gentle-

man Hood, Baby’s, garter-stitch Kettle-holder Muff, Princess Royal’s scale stitch... Muffetees Muffetee, another Muffetee, warm, for boys. Neckerchief, summer Neckerchief, the roy, triangular net, or Coiffure a Neglige Net, Grecian, for a veil Net, dotted Net, French ground

284 288 290 299 277 287 277 282 283 274 294 279 283 278

for

a lady

tambour

Collar, the lace, Collar, lace for,

16

311

Purse, long, diamond of five stitches 306 Purse, long, plain French double tam-

bour

311

300 277 296 276 293

Purse, long, French tambour 312 Purse, open tambour 313 Purse, open tambour stitch 313 Scarf, elegant knit, with coloured

294 294 282

Scollop for borders of veils, collars,

286 305 308 309

waved ends

297

caps, &c Scollop, another, for border Scollop

..

310 310 310

Shawl, Chinee Triangular Wrapping, garter-stitch

Stocking, under or sleeping Tidy, very beautiful

CONTENTS TO MRS. Collar, the lace, Collar, lace for,

304

Purse, long, of open stitch of single

J.

B.

281 290 278

GORE. PAGE

No. No. No. No.

1 1

2 2

322 323 325 326

Shawl, the Shetland Wool Shawl, border for the Shetland Slipper, the Royal Brighton Purse, the China

321

Wool 322 324 327


— ;

CHAPTER

I

Introinution.

ft

if

The

various kinds of needle- work practised

by our mdefatigab

e

grandmothers

enumerated, would astonish even the most industrious of our modern ladies.”

Douce. •

The

use of sewing

exceedingly old.”

is

Taylor.

J.

EEDLEWORK a

pastime

for

occupation, as

W1 ^

appears to have been not only noble

women, from tbe most

we

consult the

earliest

the high

tbe

principal

of pecuniary advantage,

a source

for

found of

but

ladies,

remote periods.

writings,

estimation

in which

this,

one of the most elegant and useful of the imitative

^ —has and

been

held

in

that from time

all

ages,

and

immemorial,

it

every

in

has

If

abundant proof

arts,

country

ever been

the

constant amusement, and solace, of the leisure hours of

royalty

In arts

itself.

the

time of

practised

by

Moses, needlework ranked the

nations of 2 ,

the

East,

high

among

—embroidery

the

with


;

:

:

INTRODUCTION.

2 and with

gold

and with

silver,

frequently mentioned in the allusion

is'

made

had attained remote terior

to

their

work of the tabernacle

this,

;

thousand four hundred years

knowledge.

Our knowledge

whom From

the

the

had

Israelites

East,

doubtless

spread to

art

this

an-

Homer and

acquired

Greece

civilized Europe.

needlework of the Greeks and

of the

principally to be gathered from

of Helen and

Even

since.

and Rome, and from thence over the whole of

is

where

needlework must have been greatly cultivated by

Egyptians, of

the

stones, being

particularly

writings,

a proof that it a considerable degree of perfection at a period so to the

three

as

and precious

silk,

sacred

Pliny.

Romans

The names

Penelope are familiar to every one, as connected

with this subject.

custom among the

There was a memorable

Grecian dames, in accordance with which, they could not accept a

husband, until they had worked the

second

their deceased lords, or his next of kin

grave-clothes

of

and the story of the

fa-

;

mous web of Penelope, fact.

— Penelope

as related

by Plomer,

is

having, as she thought, lost

employed her time in working a shroud

founded upon this

Ulysses at

her husband.

Sweet hopes she gave

to every

youth apart,

With well taught looks, and a deceitful heart A web she wove of many a slender twine, Of curious texture, and perplex’d design :

My youths,

my lord but newly court my widow'd bed,

she cried,

Forbear awhile

to

dead,

Till I have wov’n, as solemn vows require, This web, a shroud for poor Ulysses’ sire. His limbs, when fate the hero’s* soul demands, Shall claim this labour of his daughter’s hands Lest all the dames of Greece my name despise, While the great king without a covering lies.

Thus

she.

Nor

did

my

friends mistrust the guile

All day she sped the long laborious

sea,

she

for Laertes, the father of

toil


;

,

INTRODUCTION.

3

But when the burning lamps supplied the sun.

Each night unravell’d what the day begun. Three live-long summers did the fraud prevail

The

amazing

fourth her maidens told

tale

These eyes beheld, as clos^ I took my stand, The backward labours of her faithless hand Till watch’d at length, and press’d on every side, Her task she ended, and commenced a bride.” ;

The ceremony the

statue

down

and

us as one of

to

embroidering of the peplus or veil for

of the

of Minerva,

the

The

peplus was the work of

best

families

the

young

whom

Athens, over

in ,

battles

of

gods

the

and giants

;

Jupiter hurling his thunderbolts against

Minerva, seated

Typhon

Enceladus.f

or

had been eminent

When

it.

was

her

in

The

Panathenaic

the

brought

chariot,

down

from

worked, into the city

it ;

from the

two

On

of

principal,

it

amongst

The Panathenaic

frieze,

the

was

gods

that rebellious crew, and

appeared

the

virtue

vanquisher

of

who

festival

the

were also embroidered on

was

Acropolis,

the

celebrated,

where

it

had

peplus

been

was then displayed and suspended

a sail to the ship, which, on that day, attended

*

the

was embroidered

names of those Athenians

military

for

been handed

selected

virgins,

Arrephora were superintendents.

called

has

consecration,

its

highest festival* of the Athenians.*

by

as

a numerous

with which Phidias embellished the outside of the

temple of the Parthenon, represented this sacred procession, which was celebrated every

The

fifth

marbles) t

year at Athens in honour of Minerva, the guardian goddess of the

remains of this is

frieze

city.

(one of the principal treasures in the collection of Elgin

preserved in the British

Vide the Hecuba of Euripides,

Museum. act

ii.

where the Trojan females are lamenting

in anticipation the evils they will suffer in the land of the

Greeks

:

— “ In the

city

Athena on the beautiful seat, in the woven peplus I shall yoke colts to painting them in various different coloured threads, or else the race of the

of Pallas, of

a chariot, Titans, flame.”

whom

Zeus, the son of Kronos, puts to sleep in fiery all-surrounding


;

INTRODUCTION. and splendid procession, was conducted through the

and other principal Acropolis

;

exact nature

generally

is

covering

of

the

supposed

suspended

the

circuit

of the

Parthenon, and there

the

to

have

to

the

been statue

;

sort

of

the

goddess.

of Euripides

“Then from the treas’ry of the god he takes The consecrated tap’stry, splendid woof! To clothe with grateful shade the wondrous

but

awning

a

of

covering, but

similar

a

given in the u Ion”

is

has been disputed

peplusf

over

following description of

dimensions,

had made

it

Minerva.*

consecrated to

The

streets, till

was then carried up

it

Ceramicus

it

or

The

more ample

of :

scene.

First o’er the roof he spreads the skirted peplus,

(The

skirts

Spoil of the

on every side hang waving down), Amazons, the votive gift,

That Hercules,

heroic son of Jove,

Return’d from conquest,

On

offer’d to Apollo.

produce of the loom are wrought

this rich

The Heav’ns, The num’rous

within whose spacious azure round host of stars collective shine

down to his western goal The Sun 1ms driven his last expiring beams Draw forth the radiant light of Hesperus His coursers

there,

;

;

Night urges on amain With slacken’d reins her steeds and dusky car The Constellations on their swarthy queen Attend there thro’ the mid heav’ns win their way The Pleiades his sword Orion grasps Above them shines the Bear, circling round In sable

stole

;

;

;

;

'

Heav’n’s golden axis

;

while the full-orb’d Moon,

That halves the varying months,

*

Vide

+

Stuart’s

Athens

,

vol.

ii.

p. 8.

work of Phidias. “ Peplus, a garment and the like

Dory and

darts from

The famous

on high

statue of

Minerva was

oi

gold, the

ment, or to cover something Pepli of Minerva.”

;

that

it

:

the use of

it

is

signifies a covering,

—Pollucis Onomasticon

,

twofold, to

we may

wear

13. For a further and Reliqucz Alticce

lib. vii. c.

of the peplus, vide Meursius in his Panathcenaia

as a gar-

conclude from the

.

description


INTRODUCTION. Her

To

grateful splendor

The

and gloomy in the

;

he

Middle

the

Church,

the

Librarian,*

nificence

wrought

were

and

glittering train.”

Ages, decorative if

we may

and

others,

scarcely

ecclesiastics, the

pearls,

Aurora

east

harbinger of day, that from the sky

Chases night’s

In

there the Hyades,

;

mariners unerring well-known sign,

Appear

of

J

was

be

to

believe

with

the

the

carried

most

palls,

of

service

Anastasius

an excess of

to

vestments

and the

costly

being

stones,

the

for

writings

The

credited.

altar-cloths, the

precious

needlework

veils

materials

;

lavished

with

dynasty,!

the

mag*

of

the

or curtains, gold,

the

silver,

utmost

profusion.

were

ladies

embroider

and English work

their needlework,

for

was long proverbial abroad

their

Saxon

England, during the

In

famous

chambers

exploits ladies ;

of

those

their

of

Greece

husbands

of the highest rank

women were

Anglicum

opus)

The Anglo-Saxon

for its excellence.^

accustomed, like

the

(

and

Rome,

on the hangings thus

to of

occupied their

Vide Anastasius Bibliothecarius, de Vitis Pontificum Romanorum. Edit. ii. p. 127, and numerous other passages. t The art of embroidery appears to have been unknown in England before the seventh century, in fact we find no mention of it, or even of the weaving of figured textures, until about the year 680. At this period, in a book written by Aldhelm, bishop of Shereburn, in praise of virginity, he observes, that chastity alone did not form an amiable and perfect character, but required and this observation to be accompanied and adorned by many other virtues he further illustrates by the following simile taken from the art of weaving “ As it is not a web of one uniform colour and texture, without any variety of figures, that pleaseth the eye and appears beautiful, but one that is woven by shuttles, filled with threads of purple, and many other colours, flying from side to side, and forming a variety of figures and images, in different comparlVirgimtate in Bibliotheca ments, with admirable art.” Vide Aldhelm, de *

Paris, 1G49, vol.

;

Palrum tom. ,

t

xiii.

Gul. Pictavens.

p.

211.

,


:

INTRODUCTION.

0 hours,

leisure

more

also

as

working

in

particularly

various

We

ornaments for the Church, and the vestments of the Clergy. are

told

by William of Malmesbury,

younger days, did not disdain in the drawing of a design

which she

wrought

afterwards

Edward

daughters of

to

for

that

pious and noble lady

assist a

embroidering a sacerdotal

robe,

The

four

in

of

threads

Elder, and

the

Dunstan, in his

St.

gold.

of

sisters

king Athelstan,

were highly praised and distinguished on account of their great assiduity and skill both in spinning, weaving, and needlework;*

accomplishments which, so far

royal maidens, procured for them the princes

widow

in

Europe.

In

of the

her needle the deeds that

her deceased lord.

of

among

the

other

embroidered with the siege

gifts

of

At

church on his birth day.f

a

among

Troy, to

Robert,

abbot of

St.

Albans, to

*

William of Malmesbury,

t

Ingulphus,

p.

b.

ii.

c.

be

later period,

the valuable

his

'

made by

of richly worked sandals, and three mitres, the

abbess of Markgate, were

the

to

Ingulphus, in

Witlaf, king

of Mercia, to the abbey of Croyland, he presented a tain,

greatest

Edelfreda,

find

on which she had depicted with

veil or curtain,

history, mentions

we

duke of Northumberland, presenting

of Brithned,

church of Ely a

addresses

century,

tenth

the

from injuring the fortunes of these

golden cur-

hung up

— 1155,

work of gifts

a

Christina,

presented

Pope Adrian IV.J

in

pair

by

Numerous

5.

487, edit. 159G.

the only Englishman who ever sat in St. Peter’s chair. X Adrian IV. was His name was Nicolas Breakspoar he was born of poor parents at Langley, near St. Alban’s. Henry II. on his promotion to the papal cnair, sent a deputation of an abbot and three bishops to congratulate him on his election upon which occasion he granted considerable privileges to the abbey of St. :

Alban’s.

With

the exception of the presents

other valuable ones cept your

you

gifts,

which were

because

refused me.”

when

To which

I

named

above, he refused

offered him, saying jocosely,

wished to take th

the abbot pertinently

habit

—“

I

all

the

will not

ac-

of your monastery

and smartly

replied,

It,


INTRODUCTION. other

were

might

instances

be

from

cited

used to work

with their

and

mistresses ;

monks, practised decorative needlework.* Reformation,

the

cluded

monkish

the

necessary to enter more fully into

it

of

life

nuns,

Maids the

the

time of

occupation of

the se-

fact, to

various

the

in

historians

subject.

men, especially

In

formed the principal

it

the

the

houses

religious

throughout England.

Hangings

or

such as we have mentioned,

veils,

and

“ tapestry richly wrought

And woven were

the

principally

of

occupied

the

these

may

The

noble residences.

frequently

still

be seen in some

or

silk

with

intermixed

of various

and

gold

groundwork of canvass, or texture of very

different,

Gobelins:

— an

of

fingers

times,

the

fair.

of our royal and

designs were worned, or embroidered, with

with worsted

needle,

and

attention

former

which, in

needlework,

description

Remnants of

a

close.”

however, from

those

colours,

silver

cloth or

either

and not unon

threads, silk,

in

of Flanders,

invention, comparatively speaking, of

a

manner

a

or

modern

the

times,

partaking more of the character of weaving than of needlework,

and of which we

when speaking of

The

shall

in

make more

especial

mention,

general.

celebrated needlework of Bayeux, doubtless the most ancient

specimen in existence,!

was not

hereafter

tapestry

for

us to

is

supposed to have been the work of

oppose the will of Providence, which had destined you for

greater things.” *

The

practice

of

needlework, even

Many

at

the

present

day,

is

not

entirely

men, particularly officers of the army, have not deemed the use of the needle more derogatory than that of the pencil. Most of the best specimens of embroidery done on the continent, more especially tne appendages of the sacerdotal and military dress, are executed by men t We must not omit to mention the pall used at the funeral of Sir William

confined to the softer sex.


INTRODUCTION. William the Conqueror, and

Matilda, queen oi

whom

was presented

it

to the cathedral of

where the canons w ere accustomed

in

Normandy,

people with

to gratify the

r

exhibition on particular occasions.

of a continuous

It consists

by

maidens,*

lier

Bayeux

its

web

of cloth, two hundred and twenty-seven feet in length, and twenty

borders at top and bottom,

inches in width, including the

formed of grotesque figures of

are

which are supposed

birds, animals,

The whole

the bodies of the slain.

worsted, representing the various

Walworth,

In the part

to represent the fables of iEsop.

is

border

lower

pourtraying the battle of Hastings, the

of

connected with the inva-

in the fourth year of Richard II. a. d. 1381.

The ends which

consists

worked or embroidered with

events

This, perhaps the liost

magnificent piece of ancient needlework in existence,

Fishmongers’ Company.

these

some of

&c.,

preserved by the

is still

are exactly similar,

represent

St.

on a throne, clothed in pontificial robes, and crowned with he is giving the benediction with one hand, whilst in the the papal tiara other he holds the keys. On either side of the saint is an angel scattering Peter

seated

;

The

incense from a golden vase.

sides

of the

which are

pall,

also

similar,

Company at either end Peter. The faces of the

are richly decorated with the arms of the Fishmongers’

the centres represent our Saviour giving the keys to figures

(including those of the

merman and mermaid, the supporters of but we would more particularly call

arms) are most beautifully executed

;

attention of those interested in such

may

works

justly be termed a masterpiece of art.

ately

wrought

in

gold,

silver,

;

and

silk,

to the

face of our

The whole

is

pall, it is

has been

lost,

supposed,

and

its

was

place

the stamp of great antiquity.

on a coarse kind of linen cloth;

originally embroidered in the

on a

chief,

relief.

The

top

same manner, but

it

now supplied by a rich brocade of gold, bearing The arms of the Fishmongers’ Company are, azure,

is

three dolphins, naiant in pale, between

crowned, or;

which and elabor-

Saviour,

richly

the ground being composed entirely of gold, with a pattern in

of the

the the

two

pairs of lucies, in salterwise, proper,

gules, three couple of keys, crossed, as the

crowns;

supported on the dexter side by a merman, armed, and on the sinister by a mermaid, holding a mirror in her left hand; crest, two arms sustaining a crown v Motto, “ All worship be to God only. ” ,

* tile

Though Queen Matilda greater part of

at this period, as

it

directed the working of the Bayeux Tapestry, yet was most probably executed by English ladies, who were

we have

before stated, celebrated for their needlework.


-

INTRODUCTION. of England

sion and conquest

9

by tbe Normans

altogether, exclusive of the borders, about five

The

only being females.

figures, three

supposed from the period in which

it

It

comprises

hundred and thirty

may

colours, as

be readily

was executed, are not very

numerous, consisting only of dark and light blue, and green, low,

and

and

buff*

have become considerably faded, whilst the cloth

brown

a

itself

This curious piece of work appears

tinge.

red, yel-

hundred

these, after a lapse of nearly eight

j

years,

has assumed to

have been

wrought without any regard to the natural colours of the subjects depicted,

—the horses being

represented blue, green, red, and yellow,

and many of them have even two of their their

to

bodies

;

for

as

legs of a different colour

and a yellow mane, whilst the hoofs are

The drawing barous,”

of the figures

been

has

has two red legs

horse

instance, a blue

also

of another colour. u

termed

the correct

outline

properly termed

of the

The work

painter.

embroidery;

—the

faces of the

outline

chain

of the

features

Nevertheless,

stitch.

needlework, at the

and

bar-

it

excites

being merely taking

traced

whole

the

of that kind

is

figures,

other parts, are formed of the material composing the

rude

but in the needlework of this age, we must not look for

the

ground,

a kind of

in as

and some

a

piece

of

our admiration, and we cannot but wonder

energy of mind which could with so much industry embody

the actions of a series of events ever

memorable in the pages of

history.*

An

idea of the various descriptions of needlework practised by

English ladies

in

the

sixteenth

century,

may

be

gathered

from

some of the poems of the laureate Skelton. * Some beautifully coloured engravings of the Bayeux Tapestry, from draw-

by Mr. Stothard, have been published by the Society of Antiquaries in the “ Vetusta Monumenta;” as also in the magnificent work recently published iu Paris, by M. Aroliille Jubinal, entitled “ Les Anciennes Tapisseries Histories.” ings


;

INTRODUCTION.

10 “

With that the tappettes and carpettes were layde, Wheren these ladyes softely might rest, The sampler to sowe on, the laces to embroyde.

To weave With,

some were

in the stole

slaies,

with

tavels,

full prest,

with hedelles well

drest,

The frame was brought forth, with his weaving God give them good speed their work to begin. **

pin

;

Some to embroider, put them in prease, Well gydyng their glotten to keep straight their silke Some pyi lyng of golde, their work to encrese, With fingers small, and handes as white as mylke, With reche me that skayne of tewly sylke, And wynde me that batoume of such an hewe, Grene, red, tawney, whyte, purple, and blewe.”

From

the time of Elizabeth,*

when

the study of the dead lan-

guages, and the cultivation of the more abstruse sciences, became the fashion of the day, the art of needlework, although possessing

many

so

England

except some its

*

and capable of such

attractions,

appear, in

at least,

to

occasional intervals,

when

former importance, paramount to

At

studied

Greek,

Spanish,

variety,

Italian

and

it

would if

we

has for a time resumed

other feminine amusements

all

occupation of needlework, ladies

this period, in addition to the pleasing

Latin,

endless

have been much neglected,

The

Fiench.

more ancient

among them exercised themselves, some with the needle, some with “ caul work ” (probably netting), “ divers in spinning silk, some in continual reading either of the Scriptures or of histories,

works of others

“ their lutes, citharnes, and

then understood.

household duty

The

of their own, or translating the

The younger

;

the distillation

branches also applied to of music,” which

were deemed an important of waters, and the acquiring some

pricksongs, and

all

preparing of confectionary

for ladies

knowledge both

either

into Latin or English.”

kinds

was

also

and surgery likewise occupied their attention as, until the time of Henry VIII. there had been no licensed practitioners in either of these branches of science. The mewing of sparrow hawks and merlins, much engaged the attention of the younger portion of the female sex. One great and important office, however, must not be omitted, namdly, the distribuin physic

tion of charitable doles by the lady of each parish or

(hen unknown.

— Vide

Holinskcd's Chronicle.

;

manor, poor’s rates being


— INTRODUCTION.

In the time of Addison, letter to the

..

*

“ I

mentioned in

thus

is

Mr. Spectator,

have a couple of nieces under

Their

their

dress,

and they go

to

and their

tea,

visits,

who

direction, to

up

take

so often

have

their time

all

I

am

The only time they

jinder-petticoat

them.

after

are not

while they read your Spectators’; which being dedicated

is

to the interests of virtue,

neglected

out

years,

fifty

my

hand.

For

and by It

recommend

to

and the or

receipts,

hangings, for the family.

you

Those hours which in

dress, play, visits,

time, in writing

out of

desire

I

art of needlework.

thrown away in

these

my

know where

that I don’t

bed as tired with doing nothing, as

whole

quilting a

my

discontinuance

its

Spectator.”

run gadding abroad,

idle,

ll

my

were employed, in

working beds,

part, I

my good will my heart to

grieves

idle flirts sipping their tea, for a

like,

long

the

this age are

chairs,

have plyed

my

and

needle

would never have see a couple of

it

proud

whole afternoon, in a room hung

round with the industry of their great-grandmother.

Pray,

sir,

take the laudable mystery of embroidery into your serious consideration, ,

and as you have a great deal of the virtue of the

continue your endeavours to reform the present.

7

the close of the

last

again

much

Coloured

At

silks,

scape

in vogue.

century,

needlework

embroideries,

in imitation of paintings, comprising

and

shells; these

historical

subjects,

fruit,

all

of

with

last

age in

1

am, &c.,”

all

kinds was

crewels

and

the varieties of land-

flowers,

were principally worked on satin or

birds, animals,

and

lute-string, the faces

and other parts of the human figure being generally painted on the material, as being these are not

more

difficult to

embroider.

Specimens of

unfrequently to be met with, in w hich the work T

is


INTRODUCTION.

12

most beautiful and

During tbe war, a great number

elaborate.

of delicate and ingenious kinds

work were done by

of

soners and emigrants in fine silk and hair.

an

spangling of fans, then

appendage

absolute

tbe pri-

The ornamenting and the

to

of

dress

every lady, must not be forgotten. Besides

coloured

the

much

embroideries,

and dotted

of line

or

on white satin or

silk

gradations of

from

drawn upon

tint,

a

to

grey,

darker

the

in

needle,

fine

black

the material

close imitation

—the

various

being

design

were

parts

of

silks

first

worked much

;

together

closer

with

—a

,

These were worked

engravings.

stippled

and ingenuity

skill

were displayed in what was termed 'print-work

than

the

or

lighter

middle shades, and in those

imitating dotted engravings the stitches were extremely small

the

:

whole art consisted in representing as closely as possible the lines of the

engraver,

and patience see

in

to

—a

work,

these

pieces.

When

more

closely

resembled

stitches

which

however,

produce the beautiful fine

required both

engravings

those

of

the

engraver.

This

were

of the usual

but were kept wider apart, so as to imitate the lines

species

of

skill

which we sometimes

effects

the

copied,

embroideries,

black

and

white

work was peculiarly

adapted for representing architectural subjects.

In addition to the

above, numerous different kinds of needlework were practised, but the mere benefit, as

enumeration of these would be productive of but

little

most of them have long since given place to others of

a superior description.

In a work of this

kind, a “

Hand-book” of the present

of needlework, and of the best means we possess of bringing perfection,

it

is

scarcely necessary that

into the early history of the art.

and successfully done Wilton, and

under the

we should

enter

more

state it

to

fully

This has already been so ably auspices

withal, in so entertaining a

of the

Countess

of

manner, accompanied with


INTRODUCTION.

13

deep research, as to leave no stone unturned, or any want

such

upon the

In

subject.

needlework

ages

all

has been applied to

the same purposes, either for the adornment of the person, or the

mansions

the

of

decoration

maidens of Egypt

Rome ;*

and

Greece

of

be

yet

with the

themselves

occupied

loom,

remembered that

it

then equally

the distaff and spindle, and with the

For such did the

of the wealthy.

ply the needle; and again, in after times, those

the

also

more toilsome mysteries of

which they were pre-eminently

at

they

feminine labours of

skilful,

as is fully

proved by the remains of ancient textures, which the researches of

modern

travellers

It

scarcely

is

ancient

celebrated

This lady, who

Linwood.

the is

now

of

accomplished

this

woven

thick kind of tammy,

of

her

in

thirteen

completed at the age of seventy-

she

piece

last

The works

either

surpassed

commenced her labours when only

year,

her

old;

eight.

any needlework,

ever

has

times,

of Miss

eighty-seventh

to light.

be imagined that

modern

or

productions

years

have brought to

artist

are executed

on a

expressly for her use, with fine crewels,

dyed under her own superintendence; they are entirely drawn and embroidered by

herself,

being put in by received, if indeed

her needles.

London, Guido. f

no background or other unimportant parts

a

less

it

may

skilful

her

The

first

piece,

â&#x20AC;&#x153; Salvator

been considered the

finest

still

exhibited in Leicester-square,

the Head' of

St.

from

sum

we

of three thousand guineas.

were not deemed unsuitnor did a princess degrade her dignity by superintending the

abours of the loom, the t

Peter, a copy

production of her needle, for which

* In the simplest days of Greece, those occupations :

she

assistance

Mundi,â&#x20AC;? from Carlo Dolci, has generally

are informed she refused the

able to palaces

only

be called such, was in the threading of

In her collection,

is

hand, the

Marked No. 24

distaff,

and the dyeing

in the Catalogue.

3*

vat.


INTRODUCTION.

14

i

“To raise at once our reverence and delight, To elevate the mind and charm the sight, To pour religion through th’ attentive eye, And waft the soul on wings of extacy; For

mimic

this the

And

The “Woodman

in a Storm,

Vow,” from Opie,

tha’s rash

production

is

art

with nature

vies,

bids the visionary form arise.”

the

5

also

from

Gainsborough, and

rank among her

Judgment upon Cain,”

Jep-

Her

best.

one

c

last

of the largest

pictures in the gallery. “

And 1

said,

1

And

he

1

not

me And now

1

from the ground. thou cursed from the earth which hath opened her mouth

art

to receive thy brother’s blood

1

When

strength “

thou

tillest

from thy hand.

the ground

it

shall

not henceforth yield unto thee her

a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth.’

;

And

1

'l

:

said,

crieth unto

Where is Abel thy brother V And he am I my brother’s keeper ” What hast thou done ? The voice of thy brother’s blood

the Lord- said unto Cain,

know

Cain said unto the Lord,

The whole

collection

Miss Linwood

portrait of

Within the

last

few

considerable

attracted

of the art

may

My

consists herself,

punishment

is

I can bear”

of sixty-four pieces, including a

from a painting by Russell.

years, ornamental

attention,

greater than

and

needlework has

although

again

modern

the

style

as yet be considered in its infancy, it has already

so far progressed as infinitely to surpass the labours of the ingen-

ious

may

women be

of bygone times.

Needlework may be regarded

(if

allowed the expression) as the sister art of painting

we the

;

aim of the accomplished needlewoman of the present day, being to

produce as true a picture of nature as possible

soaring far ;

beyond the common-place ideas of the ancient embroideries, which, perhaps, are more to be admired for the richness of their materials,

and the labour bestowed upon them, than as

works of

art.

We

would wish

for

any merit they possess

to see the needle

and embroidery


INTRODUCTION. frame rescued from any doubt

accomplishments, in

among

or

their capa-

more elegant of female

the

worthy of occupying the elevated position

which the talent of Miss Linwood has placed them. It will,

at

— and

to their utility,

as

of taking a higher stand

bility

15

by some, that needlework,

perhaps, be urged

present

the

but

time, is

a

mechanical

art ;

as practised

and the

recent

may somewhat favour the opinion. disown, no one, who regards the work

invention of Berlin 'patterns

we

This, however,

entirely

commonly done

of the mere copyist of these designs, (as in

Germany, where neither

for sale

nor judgment are displayed in

taste

the selection of the colours, nor skill in the appropriation of them)

can compare

with that of the talented needlewoman, who, even

it

may have worked what may be

though she

pattern, produces

for

stitch

stitch

justly termed

—a

from the

same

“ painting with

the needle.”*

No

feminine art affords greater scope for the display of taste

The

and ingenuity than that of needlework. form which work,

as

gros point petit point ,

of embroidery easy,

mazes of

;

—and

,

and point de Gobelin

tricot filet, ,

and crochet

,

—each

as graceful occupations for the young,

the latter

—in

that

Even

in their turn serving

and an inexhaustible source

advanced period of

descriptions of work, as these

* All descriptions of canvas

the last few years.

,

again in the apparently intricate, but really

of amusement for those in a more particularly

variety of

endless

assumes under the various denominations of tapestry

it

work have undergone

so recently as

life

can

;

be,

more and

great improvement within

1829, they were

dismissed with the

following brief account, in a work dedicated to the pursuits of young ladies. “ Worsted- work, on canvas, is a subordinate description of embroidery. It is applied to the production of rugs for urns, covers of ottomans, bell-pulls, and

many

other elegant articles.

on canvas, strained

The

outline of the pattern

in the middle of a frame.”

!

!

is

sketched with a pen


— INTRODUCTION.

16 are

frequently, practised

deprivation of sight. Griffiths,

genious

u that the

women

of

by persons even when labouring under has opportunely been observed

It

of needleworks which

great variety other

countries,

well

as

as

our

by Mrs. the in-

own,

have

invented, will furnish us with constant and amusing employment;

and though our labours bury’s, yet, if they

the

may

of any elegant or

progress

purpose of domestic amusement

our the

situation satisfaction

do

Mineron’s or an Ayles-

not equal a

unbend the mind, by

not

call

of knowing

fixing its

imitative and,

;

forth

that

when

our

we

art,

the

at

on

answer the

higher duties of

exertions, are,

attention

they

we may

least,

feel

innocently

employed.”* In conclusion, to quote the words of John Taylor, the water poet, it

may

be said,

“Thus is a needle prov’d an instrument Of profit, pleasure, and of ornament, Which mighty queenes have grac’d in hand

*

Es8*y»,

p, 66.

to take.


:

CHAPTER

II

Scipcstrg.

tt This bright art Did zealous Europe learn of Pagan hands,

While she

To

assay’d with rage of holy

desolate their fields

Long were Tyre

And

also,

:

but old the

war skill

the Phrygians’ pict’ring looms renown’d

wealthy seat of

art, excell ’d,

elder Sidon, in th’ historic web.”

Dyer. “ For round about the walls yclothed were

With

goodly arras of great maiesty,

Woven

with gold and silke so close and nere

That the

As

rich metall lurked privily

faining to be hid from envious eye;

Yet here, and there, and everywhere, unwares Jt

shewd

itselfe

and shone unwillingly

;

Like a discolourd snake, whose hidden snares Through the greene gras his long bright burnisht back declares.”

Faery Queene.

HE

last

given

quotation forms part of the description,

by

Spenser,

of

beautiful

the

tapestry

which Britomart saw in one of the apartments of the house

of Busyrane

;

and the poet had

probably in view the actual specimens of tapescry

men

frequently to be seen in the principal mansions of the

nobility in England. 3


— TAPESTRY.

18

The

tapestry, appears

decoration of the walls of palaces with

have

to

Homer

been

custom

a

even

practised

in

the

ages.

earliest

says “ The walls, through all their length, adorn’d With mantles overspread of subtlest warp Transparent, work of many a female hand.”

The mode

term

the

for

tapestry

fabric,

—such

and

with

article

England, rendered

in

some :

restricted

description

of

although

the

and to

one

species

of

—yet

was formerly applicable

it

to

ornamental hangings for the walls of apartments

less

loom was employed

the

before

these,

least,

necessary

generally

and even in

ancients,

produced at the “ Manufacture Royale des

Beauvais,

at

the

castles

at

or,

absolutely

now

is

as that

kinds of

all

decoration,

walls,

and

Gobelins,”

the baronial

times, in

mode of

such a lining

adopted "by

of building

more recent

to

labour and expense, were

furnish

;

similar

a

generally the needle-

work of female hands.* an extremely remote

at

introduced into like

buted the

to

Phrygians

the

Trojan

embroideries

war, ;

of

were

the ;

has

women

celebrated

eastern

from whence they

The

needlework,

of

inhabitants

the era,

Greece and Rome. kinds

other

all

among

known

were

Tapestries countries

for

invention of

been

generally

of

Sidon,

their

were

the

long

tapestries

art,

attri-

before

and

and those of Phseacia, the island on which Ulysses

was wrecked, were, according

to

“ Far as Phaeacian mariners

Homer, equally all

noted.

else

Surpass, the swift ship urging through the floods,

s

So

AW

far

in tissue-work

the

women

pass

by Minerva’s skill endow’d With richest fancy and superior skill.”

*

The

the Latin

others,

from the French, whence it is derived from Tapete which again comes from the Greek ranns

term Tapestry comes

word Tapes

or


TAPESTRY.

supposed by Bottiger, that the Greeks took their ideas

It is

of

and

griffins

centaurs from the

fantastic combinations selected

needlewomen in

the

of

taste

whole surface of

longer covered the

It

borders

the

with the the

art,

was

dyer,

needle, to

the

while

only,

narrated that Arachne, a

is

The

art.

became

and

talents

refined

in

visible

the

work, but

the

were

no con-

more

received

centres

of

systematic representations.

Idmon, a

of

compositions of the

and these unnatural combinations

;

to

display

Athenians, however, soon

the

regular and

grotesque the

for

department of oriental

this

design of their tapestry

fined

19

so

of Colyphon, daughter

working these

in

Minerva, the

challenged

that she

a trial of

woman

skilful

tapestries

goddess of

She represented in her designs the

skill.

amours of Jupiter with Europa, Antiope, Leda, Asteria, Danae, and

goddess.* Alcmene

fect

and although

;

it is

reported that her performance was per-

and masterly, yet she was defeated by Minerva, and hanging

herself in

After tapestry

again

despair,

the

fall

appears

introduced,

Crusaders,

as,

was changed into a spider by the

Roman

of

the

to

have

as

with

been

empire, the

from

exception

the

in

lost

supposed,

is

of

Tapestry, we find but few traces of

it

art

Europe, until Levant,

the

the

from the early manufacturers in France being or Sarazinois

>r

TOLTng.

covering

,

this

opinion

is

it

was

by

the

Bayeux

far-famed

until that

*

working

of

period

:

and

Sarazius

called

,

considerably strengthened.

According to the best authorities, any kind, generally composed

of

it

signified

of

an outer garment, or wrought or em-

wool, and

broidered in figures with various colours, such as hangings for walls, coverlets

The or tables, or carpets, or even for horse-cloths. Used in the writings of Pliny, Virgil, Martial, and other Latin * Vide Ovidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Metamorphoses b. vi. Minerva, as the goddess arts, was invoked by every artist, particularly by such as worked /or beds,

term

is

thas

authors.

of the liberal

,

briidery, painting,

and sculpture.

holding a distaff instead of a spear.

In

many

of her statues she

in wool,

is

em-

represented


tapestry;

20

The

have been long

tc

France

were

Whether

date.

Flemings

the

knowledge from the East,

having restored scarcely,

silks,

at

England

in

was not

time

the

of

particular

to

life

paintings

the

to

was

tapestry

first

wools and

of

the best

introduced

Henry VIII, by William Sheldon

of

James

until the reign of

I.

that

it

into

but

;

acquired any par-

This monarch greatly patronised the

ticular reputation.

their

certainly due the honour of

is

which gives a

inferior

all,

The weaving

masters.

it

this curious art, if

them the

derive

not

did

or

of the

history

his

mentioning any

did

them

to

or

1582, ascribes to

without

but

tapestries,

at

England

manufactured by

first

Guicciardini, in

appear

principally

into

either

Netuerlands, published at Antwerp in invention of

country,

that

introduced

uncertain.

is

in

when they were

the precise period,

:

Flemings

the

of Flanders, and they

those

established

they

before

Arras,*

weaving tapestry which acquired

manufactories for

first

reputation in Europe, were

and

art,

gave the sum of two thousand pounds towards the advancement

by

of a manufactory, which was established

The

Mortlake in Surrey. fabrics in

patterns

England were obtained from

been worked by foreign

artists ;

were

furnished

by Francis

There

purpose.!

*

at

which had already

pieces

but as the tapestries produced in

sum

Aroges,

in 1,

Rymer’s

that

retained

he owed Sir

is

an

ac-

Francis Crane thjit

he grants

we frequently meet with Antwerp, Brussels, Oudenarde,

derived the term “arras” which

synonymous with and Tournay, were

authors, Lille,

that

for

u Fcedera,” J

of six thousand pounds for tapestries, and

From whence old

who was

Cleyn,

extant

is

knowledgement from Charles

n

Crane

Sir Francis

used for making these

country acquired greater celebrity and perfection, the designs

this

the

first

latter is still

noted for

its

t

Walpole,

vol.

tapestry.

also

celebrated

for

their

tapestries

carpet manufactories. ii.

p.

128.

I

Vol.

xviii. p.

112.

;

the


TAPESTRY.

him

the annual

him

enable

To

Quatre

first

whom

are indebted

and costly

curious

this

the

for

art has

was

by

conducted

he had invited from Flanders

but

great

Paris,

at

Colbert,

and would probably have

the

artists

this, like

many

similar

again remodeled

that period

it

been entirely

at

had not

so,

Versailles

for

and the Tuil-

upon a more secure foundation, and from

royal manufactory of the

the

neglected

Louis XIV, with a view of providing

minister of

the costly and magnificent furniture leries,

about

clever

;

death,

Henri

several

founded by that monarch, was greatly

institutions

perfection

been brought.

a tapestry manufactory

established

1606, which

the year

his

of two thousand pounds for ten years, to

to support his establishment.

France, however, we

which

to

sum

21

“Hotel des Gobelins”

dates its origin.

The working

that a brief description lins ”

may

treatise

As

the

to

of the

on the

century dyers of wool were settled

fourteenth St.

Marcel,

Paris,

at

of dyeing.

One

on

the

of these,

named Jean

dants increased, and at length renouncing the

by to

various offices of

Messrs.

state.

banks

of

the

were considered as favourable

lived in 1450, amassed considerable wealth,

filled

is,

art of needlework.

Faubourg

the process

who

species of weaving,

Manufacture Royale des Gobe-

Bievre, the waters of which stream to

a

achievements of the needle,

not be considered uninteresting, or out of place in a

early as the

the

in

although

of tapestry,

nevertheless, so closely allied

whivh

Gobelin,

his descen-

business

of dyers,

The Gobelin family were succeeded

Canaye, who however did not confine their attention

the dyeing of

wool, but under the patronage of

* Sully, the celebrated minister of

Henry

IV., says,

— “ On

Henry IV.*

eut de la peine

a convenir de prix avec ces celebres Tapissiers Flamands, qu’on

avoit

fait


— 22

TAPESTRY.

commenced

the working of tapestry, which until that period had

been confined to a

1655,

Low

the

named

Dutchman,

workman, and a great suggestion

of

family,

and established them

drawn up

charter which was

the

made

at

Jean

one

art.

still

in

succeeded,

these

a

Lianson,

Louis XIY,

afterwards

Colbert,

buildings and gardens which were lin

and

Glucq,

proficient in the

minister,

his

To

Countries.

at

the

purchased

the

the property of the Gobe-

as a royal

In

manufactory.

that time, the building

a

called

is

Hotel des Gobelins,” from which circumstance the tapestry there has ever

Skilful

weavers and dyers, were brought from Flanders

artists,

and attached painter

Le

been known as “ Gobelin Tapestry.”

since

to

the

and in 1667 the celebrated

establishment;

Brun was appointed

chief director

Gobelin

of the

manufactory, to which he communicated that beauty and grandeur, his

admirable

talents

were so well calculated to

He

produce.

here painted the famous series of the battles of Alexander, which

were afterwards worked in tapestry, and

The

productions of the Gobelins.

and the history of the principal riage to his

first

designs of this

At

venir a

remain the

acts of

finest

Louis XIY, from his mar-

Franche Comte, were

conquest of

master.*

still

four Seasons, the four Elements,

also

from the

*

the period of the French revolution, this manufacture, which

si

grands

qu’il leur seroit

frais.

Enfin

il

fut conclu,

en presence de

donne pour leur etablissement, cent

ayant, disoit-il, soigneux de m’avertir de leur payer server, et grand peur de perdre les avances faites j usque-la. ‘

*

;

Sillery et

que Henri grande envie de

mille francs,

*

II

de moi, fut tresles

con-

auroit seulement

bien voulu que ces manufacturiers se fussent contentes d’autres deniers, que ceux qu’il s’etoit reserves falloit les satisfaire.”

* ries

pour lui-meme

:

Memoires tom. ,

mais enfin a quelque prix que ce vi. p.

fut,

il

371.

Engravings of some of these will be found in “ Devises pour les Tapissedu Roy, ou sont representez les quatre elemens et les quatre saisons de

I’annee.”

fol.

Paris, 1679


:

TAPESTRY.

23

had until then been prosecuted with various degrees of greatly declined, but under the

revived, and has since to the

same extent

government of Napoleon

success,

was again

it

been successfully carried on, although not

About the year 1802 ninety

as formerly.

per-

sons were employed at the Gobelins, chiefly in the preparation of the

tapestry, for

of

palace

Cloud; and

St.

150,000 francs were expended yearly on

executed

pieces

are

sionally requires the single

generally

their size than

The productions by

and

subjects,

The

cost

of some

occa-

it

by

of these pieces

articles

regulated

is

is

less

the beauty and difficulty of the work.*

of this manufactory, which

is

entirely supported

the government, are chiefly destined for the

for presents

The

these productions.

historical

enormous, but the price of the different

by

was estimated that

labour of from two to six years to finish a

of tapestry.

piece

it

made by the king

royal palaces, or

but some few pieces, not designed

;

as such, are allowed to be sold.

Connected with the establishment of the Gobelins, the dyeing of wool, under the

an

infinite

number

of

direction

shades,

mostly

of able

unknown dyed

is

one for

chemists, in

where

trade,

ex-

cept for the

purposes

Wool

exclusively used, as the colours are more permanent.

is

There art

are

is

now

also

taught,

upon chemistry

of needlework, are

a drawing-school,

and an annual

in

for the tapestry.

which the principles of the

course

of lectures

is

delivered

as applicable to dyeing.

Evelyn gives the following description of some Gobelin tapestry, then new England which he saw in the apartments of the Duchess of Portsmouth “ Here I saw the new fabriq of French tapissry, for designe, tendernesse of worke, and incomparable imitation of the best paintings, beyond anything I had ever beheld. Some pieces had Versailles, St. German’s, and other palaces of the French king, with huntings, figures, and landslips, exotiq fowls, and all to the life rarely don.” Memoirs p. 563. *

in

,


TAPESTRY.

24

The Gobelin

formerly made in lengths or pieces,

tapestry was

when one

the width of which varied from four to eight feet; and

of larger dimensions was required, several of these were

sewn

or

finedrawn together with such care that no seams were discernible.

At

day, however, they

present

the

manufactured of much

are

seldom require to be joined even in

greater widths, so that they

the largest pieces.

Two

known

tapestry,

the

in

,

methods were formerly practised in the manufacture of as those of the “ basse lisse

or

first,

low warp, which

was placed horizontally, similar

is

to

common weaving,

the

wrong

side, so that

;

loom

the

relinquished,

intended to be wrought being beneath the warp

was very remarkable, from the

“ haute lisse

and the

now

the painting

and the process

;

worked on

fact of the tapestry being

the artist could not see the face of the design

he was weaving, until the whole piece was finished and taken out of the frame.

In the “ haute lisse” or high warp, which

used, the frame

is

works, as duces,

it

;

were blindfold, seeing nothing of the

and being obliged

whenever he wishes

to

examine the piece he

to

Gobelins,

may

or

mode

visited this

loom

is

inner

side

unnecessary

The

executing.

at present practised at the

most interesting establishment.

being gradually of to

the

upright

describe)

threads, or

separating these threads

roller,

wound round pieces,

are

more or

pieces, at the top

rollers are fixed horizontally

fastened the longitudinal

posed of twisted wool, wound on the upper executed,

is

formed of two upright

and bottom of which, two large these rollers are

is

he pro-

perhaps convey some idea of the manufacture to

who have not

The frame

effect

still

go to the other side of the loom

following brief description of the

those

is

he also

fixed perpendicularly before the artist

several

placed less

at

the

to

:

warp, com-

the work, as lower.

On

contrivances different

it

the (here

points,

for

from one another, in order


a

TAPESTRY.

25

admit the cross threads or warp, which are to form the picture.

to

to

whose

colour’d threads

fair

Hang figur’d weights, whose various numbers guide The artist’s hand he, unseen flowers, and trees, :

And

As

vales,

and azure

a sort of guide for the

in their

introduce the

artist to

warp

his

him

in

which

front,

are

painting behind

the

see

to

For working the tapestry

instruments

three

seven or

wood, about

round which the wool as the weaver’s

is

reed

inches long, and an inch thick decreases to the divided,

wool when

the

The

well.

towards

The

there

brings

also of wood, eight or nine

is

whence

at

gradually

it

in shape

longer

it

of fineness of

similar to a

is

used to

common

press

close

;

any

line or

colour that

does not

set

himself behind the frame, with his back

his

each

across

degree

or less

is

he

cartoon or picture

proper colour he places

he

is

artist places

the

needle

and

larger

and looks

turns

and two-

length,

extremity of the teeth, which are more or less

much

but

formed

with a small handle,

at the back,

according to the greater

the intended work. needle,

first is

wound, and serving the same purpose

The

shuttle.

in

point

a

in

to

required,

are

The

eight inches

thirds of an inch thick, ending

open

sufficiently

it.

broach, a reed or comb, and an iron needle.

of hard

threads

cross

proper places, he traces an outline of his subject on the

threads of enable

unerring works.”

hills,

it

among

about

to

taking

a

copy

he

first

;

broach

of

the

the threads of the warp> which

with

other

is

then

design,

the coats or threads fastened to the

his

fingers,

this

staff

by means

of

he repeats every

;

time

it

is

necessary to change his colour.

wool, he beats

several

with his reed

it

rows, he

;

them with

placed

th8

and when he has thus wrought

passes to the other side

to properly adjust

Having

to see their

effect,

and

his needle, should there be occasion.


;

TAPESTRY.

26

As

tapestry, however, of this

ladies, it

for although in this

work panels

to

“ the

for rooms,

work of

would that matron

monument,

“ that

be,

is

the fashion

we do not how memo-

it

whole

out the

it

says, “

when he

who should have

she wrought

and died in a good old

for beds, yet

age of renaissance

and hangings

entirely agree with the “ Spectator,”

rable

the

not

description, is

would be tedious for ns to enter more upon the subject

inscribed on he)

Bible in tapestry

having covered three hundre<

age, after

yards of wall in the mansion house.’ ”*

The Cartoons

*

England, and the express

purpose

twenty-five of

They were at

the

envy of of

these

all

of

sacred

polite

in

the

were

sent

in

remain.

Leo X.

the chambers of the

Vatican.

Julius

Flanders to be

The

now

only

and

auspices of pope

to

were painted for the There were originally

nations,”

tapestry.

designs, but seven

historical

was engaged

Raffaelle

them

other

wrought

being

executed under

time that

The whole

of Raffaelle, which have been justly called “ the glory of

II.

worked

in

tapestry,

to

were not sent to Rome until after the death of this great master, and the cartoons, which were greatly damaged by being cut into strips by the weavers, lay neglected in the storerooms of the manufactory where, during the revolution which soon after happened in the low countries, most of them were destroyed. The seven which now adorn the gallery at Hampton Court were purchased by R.ubens for Charles I. These cartoons fortunately escaped being sold in the royal collection by the disproportionate appraisement of them at £300, while the nine representing the triumph of Julius Caesar, by Andrea Mantegna, were valued U £1000. For an account of the more celebrated ancient tapestries on the continent, ive refer our readers to M. Achille Jubinal’s splendid work, Les Anciennes Tapisseries Historiees. In England, the tapestry preserved in St. Mary’s Hall, at Coventry, although much mutilated, is well worthy of careful examination. adorn the pontifical apartments.

tapestries

;

The

Hampton Court, Wolsey by the embe found in Mr. Jesse’a

finest ancient tapestries in existence arc doubtless those at

which are supposed peror Charles V an ;

entertaining

little

to

have been presented

to

Cardinal

interesting description of these will

work,

A

Summer's Day at Hampton Court

.


CHAPTER

III

iHaUrials in (General.

M From

fertile

France and pleasant Italy ,

,

From Poland Sweden Denmarke Germany ,

And some

,

,

,

of these rare Patternes haue beene

Beyond the bounds of

fet

Mahomet: From spacious China and those Kingdomes East, And from great Mexico the Indies West. Thus are these workes farrefetcht and deareVy bought faithlesse

,

,

And

,

consequently good for Ladies thought .”

John Taylor.

HE

products of the animal, the vegetable, and

the mineral kingdom, are called into requisition for

the

service of the

and the west are alike for

the

and

silver, are

serve her different

escaped her

termed,)

is

Nor have

quill

an imitation.

witness

work, or

The

the

—the

east

she

employs.

the shells of the

ocean

splendid

works in nacre of

ecaille (as it

has been improperly

the

,

feathers of birds, the scales of fishes,

the wing cases of insects, and tress,

which

articles

:

under contribution

formed and twisted into various threads to

purposes.

notice, as

which the stamped

laid

and hemp, and even the precious metals

Sint, wool, cotton, flax,

—gold

various

needlewoman

insects

skins of serpents, furs

themselves

mosses,

the ;

barks of

straw, grass, seaweeds


;

MATERIALS IN GENERAL.

28

and precious

and even the hair of the

stones,

embroideress

fair

each in their turn, furnished her materials wherewith

herself, have,

to exercise her ingenuity.*

The needlework more

of the present day

and

to the skill

beauty

bizarre

that

the true

distort

her

and most costly.

:

intention

— and

simple

The

that

of

the

art

may

materials,

but the

branches, yet

its

is

by

skill

a

than to any

,

employed

to

copy

surpass

Linwood

and, ;

and

outre

remember

us

let

not

nature,

with

executed

attraction

its

adaptation of

the

needlework

that

materials used

of every one, is

some of

in

objects

the artist

materials

the

it

indebted for

by

talent displayed

may borrow from however much we may admire

false

is

to

rudest

the

the

most

are within the

reach

with

that

shown in the employment of them

of the artist alone.

have been given for the pursuit of needlework

than she could possibly have possessed. their beauty

“ paintings”

when Miss Linwood executed her

Since the time greater facilities

and

brilliancy,

both in

The

silks

variety of colours,

and wools, owing to

our improved knowledge of dyeing, the introduction of colouredpaper

patterns, all

above every

contribute

other,

towards

consecrated

to

the

female

of an

perfection

Our

talent.

art,

object

in the present treatise, however, is not to enter into a description

of the

different

articles

which have been used

for the purposes of needlework, nor the

—those of the — and ample

most appropriate kind

details

of these, their

occasions on which they

may

be

at various

times

method of employing them will suffice for

qualities

and

our purpose,

uses,

and the

most advantageously rendered

* Three German ladies, in Hanover, named Wylich, mode of embroidering wilh human hair.

in

a 782,

invented

a


TAPESTRY.

29

be found in the following chapters, under their

subservient^ will

respective heads.

In describing the principal materials employed in needlework at the

present

requisites,

day,

—the

we must not overlook

instruments wherewith we

the are

equally

use

to

essential

them:

—an

account of which will be found under the general head of “ imple-

ments” where, we have endeavoured,

to

guide the inexperienced,

in

as far as lay in our power,

selecting

with judgment those

best adapted for facilitating their labours.

With

the exception

of canvas,

to describe the materials

executed.

The mere mention

will be sufficient.

it

will

upon which the

—whether

of these

not be necessary for us different

works are

in their

respective places

cloth, silk, or

“ satin smooth,

Or

velvet soft, or plush with

shaggy

7’

pile.

to be


CHAPTER

IV,

too0i.

Still shall o’er all prevail

the shepherd’s stores

For numerous uses known; none yield such warmth, Such beauteous hues receive, so long endure • So pliant to the loom, so various, none.”

Dyer. ,{

In the same fleece diversity of wool

Grows

Of

intermingled, and excites the care

curious

skill to sort

the sev’ral kinds.” Ibid.

OOL, from in

of

its

em ployment

becomes the most important

needlework,

The

frequency

the

with which

readiness

it

takes

of

and perma-

nently retains the most splendid colours that the art of the it

superior to every other

:

fully into a description of

Wool of some

—which natural

is

dyer it

its

is

—has

not

capable of imparting, renders therefore, that

we

enter

various qualities and uses.

the soft filamentous

animals,

is

is essential,

substance which

cover« the skins

more particularly those of the sheep: the term

very well

defined,

been applied alike

to

and the

is

soft

rather arbitrary than hair

of the

beaver


WOOL.

Thibet and of Cachemir, and to that of the llama

the goats of

and

31

and even

ostrich,

The

to fine vegetable fibres, such as cotton:

white with

trees of Ethiopia,

wool.”*

soft

Sheep’s wool appears to be the product of cultivation

mouflon

wild

(

dries )

ovis

to

which

genus

upon the mountains of

a wild state

Greece, and Asia Minor,

mixed with placed in

soft

a

down

—the

wool the

to

close

coarse

a

on the of

varieties still

found iu Barbary,

hairy substance,

When

skin.

the

animal

is

temperate climate, under the fostering care of man,

and protected from the inclemencies of the gradually

fibres

is

Corsica,

Sardinia, is

the

all

which

the domestic sheep have been traced, and

:

while the

disappear,

The domestic

becomes singularly developed.

"weather,

the coarse

wool round their roots

soft

culture of the sheep,

has long occupied the attention of

for the sake of its wool,

civil-

ized nations, and has produced the highly-valued merinof species,

from which our best wool wool of good

Sheep’s

is

now

quality

procured. is

never found except in those

countries that have been the seats of the

arts,

and where a consider-

able degree of luxury and refinement exist, or have once prevailed.

The

history of

useful

arts

cultivation

its

of ancient

date,

and preparation, is

involved

in

most of the

like

uncertainty.

The

Greeks attribute the invention of spinning and weaving wool

to

Minerva

is

it

:

Georg,

* Virgil,

cotton,

1.

iii.

denominates t

however, supposed to be of Asiatic origin, and

is,

c.

Herodotus uses the term “

120.

1.

ii.

tree

Pollux, also, in his Onomasticon

Julius

47.

wool ” to denote ,

1 . vii.

c.

17 so

it.

The term

merino

,

in the

Latin merinus or majorinus.

Spanish

At

language,

the period

when

is

derived from the corrupt

the transhumantes, or travel-

ling flocks in Spain, were established, they became the object of police, anil were placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of mayors, with public walks and large districts allotted for their sustenance, and were termed merinos ovejas, or the sheep under the care of the merino or mayor.


WOOL

32

by Moses, * which proves 1

referred to

hundred years before the

fifteen

of the wheel and spindle

is

and

for

to

have existed

many

centuries after,

they were

infancy of the

In the

ages.

at least

The discovery

era.

also veiled in obscurity, but

obviously used in the most remote art of weaving,

it

Christian

the

working

of

was merely a domestic occupation, principally of women:

cloth

was gathered from the sheep, washed, opened, spun, and

the fleece

wove under the same roof which witnessed the preparation and grinding of corn.f

In proportion as

became

convenient,

society

an

advanced, and

improved

a

knowledge

division

of labour

was acquired,

only of spinning and weaving, but in that of breeding and

not

select-

ing those animals, whether sheep or goats, which gave the finest

xxxv. 25, 26.

* Exodus,

The

Egyptians, from a most remote era,

celebrated for their manufactures of linen

and other cloths

were and the produce of

;

to, and eagerly purchased by, foreign nations. The fine and embroidered work, the yarn and woollen stuffs of the upper and lower country, are frequently mentioned, and were highly esteemed. Solomon purchased many of these commodities, as well as chariots and horses, from Egypt and Chemmis, the city of Pan, according to Strabo (lib. xvii.) retained the credit it had acquired in making woollen stuffs, nearly till the period of In Egypt, woollen garments were chiefly used by the the Roman conquest. lower orders sometimes also by the rich, and even by the priests, who were permitted to wear an upper robe in the form of a cloak of this material, but under-garments of wool were strictly forbidden them, upon a principle of and as they took so much pains to cleanse and shave the body, they cleanliness

their

looms was exported

linen,

:

;

;

considered

dotus

garment

it

;

inconsistent to adopt clothes

made of

the hair of animals.

Hero-

81) says, that no one was allowed to be buried in a woollen nor could any priest enter a temple without previously taking off

ii.

(1.

c.

Vide Wilkinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ancient Egyptians women were very different from those Among pastoral tribes, they drew water, of a later and more civilized period. As with the Arabs kept the sheep, and superintended the herds as well as flocks. this part of his dress.

t In the primitive

.

ages, the duties of

of the present day, they prepared both the furniture .and the woollen

stud's,

of

which the tents themselves were made and, like the Greek women, they were generally employed in weaving, spinning, and other sedentary occupations. ;


;

WOOL.

The produce

fleeces.

entirely

the

result

countries where

it

is

We may

commerce.

woollen manufacture,

wool from sheep

of white

of

33

cultivation,

and

is

said

unknown

is

imagine

when

that

cloth

the

in

state

of the

was merely a substitute

for the

skins of beasts as an article of clothing,

duced, coloured garments

;

earliest

little

was paid

attention

but as luxuries were intro-

were required, and the wool

could no

longer be indifferently taken from sheep of every kind, or

The

black.

more particular attention

was

those

not employed as an object of manufacture or

to the colour or fineness of the wool

white, brown,

be

to

in

to

grower,

therefore,

the whiteness

essential to render the cloth

whether

began

of his

to

fleece,

pay

which

susceptible of the brilliant dyes,

which, even in a very remote period, were certainly given to '

“ In oldest times,

when

it.

kings and hardy chiefs

In bleating sheepfolds met, for purest wool

were most renown’d, and Judaea’s land, Hermon, and Seir, and Hebron’s brooky sides, Twice with the murex, crimson hue, they ting’d The shining fleeces hence their^ gorgeous wealth And hence arose the walls of ancient Tyre.”

Phoenicia’s hilly tracts

And

fertile Syria’s

German

wool,

unquestionably the finest description of sheep’s

wool which we possess,

is

the produce of the fleece of the merino

breed in their highest state of cultivation,

Saxony and the neighbouring German needle

work

it

is

manufactured

at

from

states.

flocks

of

As prepared

for

the

Gotha,* from whence

warded to Berlin and other parts of

Germany

it is for-

to be dyed.

* Gotha, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, and alternately with Coburg the residence of the duke of Saxe-Coburg, father of Prince Albert. The duke has a fine palace here called Friedenstine, containing a picture gallery, library, and a Chinese and Japanese museum, besides one of the finest collections of coins and medals in Europe. The Almanack de Gotha is ,

printed here.

4


WOOL.

34

To

introduced

first

Germany

elector, is

fine

been

wool has since

from the Spanish

wholly

almos*

due the merit of

Spanish breed of merino sheep into

the

and the valuable trade in

transferred

The

when

the late king of Saxony,

having

to the

German

soil.

flocks were brought into his dominions in the year 1765,

and

again in 1778, and were chosen for the elector from the finest of those

in

they were

Spain;

“ majorinus,”

under the care of a Spanish

placed

mayor, at Stolpen, seven leagues from Dresden,

or

From

on the frontiers of Bohemia.

dom

thrown began

open

to

when

and

of Saxony,

by

embark

of

events

the

1815,

in a regular trade with

and they soon discovered the

throughout

continental

the

real

1814 these

this period until

flocks were gradually spreading themselves

the

trade

the

was

king-

entirely

Saxon wool dealers

England in

value of this

their fleeces,

new branch

of

German commerce.* The improvement both of wool, from the

The harshness

able.

in fineness and softness

German

flocks,

in

chalky

the

districts,

a richer

soil it

pastjire.

wool

is

becomes

Spain renders the

It

(as it is

is

quality consider-

soft

and

fleece of the

is

owing

to certain

pecu-

known, that in sheep fed upon

is

apt to get

the milder climate of Saxony.

yolk

the

of the wool does not depend solely upon the

breed of the animal, or the climate, but liarities

in

over those of Spain,

but in those fed upon

coarse ;

The

silky.

scorching sun of

merino breed harsher than

The

it

is

in

great quantity of grease, or

technically termed), which

is

much more abundant

* For an interesting account of the finer description of sheep and wool, “ Mittheilungen des interessantesten und neuesten aus dem Gebiet der

vide

hohern Schaff und Woolkunde,” Yon Bernhard Petri, Wien, 1829; also, “His toire de Introduction des Moutons a laine fine d’Espagne dans les divers 6tats

de rEurope,” par

M.

C.

P

Lasteyrie, Paris, 1802.


;

WOOL. in the wool of the merino

of the great causes of

There are four same animal within

to

distinct

;

inches

of sheep,

of wool

qualities

of the

and

the

the

breast

sorter

to

shearing.

the

to

separate,

The

neck

and

hinder

feet.

These

which

he

best

wool

that

which

proper seasons ;

Wools again

is inferior.

the fleece of the

one

of the

third

the second covers the flanks and the shoulders

:

the

third,

in

including

tail ;

breadth of the back

doubtless, one

also,

is

growing along the spine from the neck,

the finest

six

breed

superiority.*

its

parts

is

it

generally

is

differ

does

the

coarsest

of the

wool

immediately

after

office

shorn from the sheep at the

that

is

and

;

the

from the skin

taken

after death

from each other not only accord-

ing to their coarseness and fineness, but also in the length of their filaments.

Long, or combing wool, varies in length from three to

eight inches

opens the flax

;

it

is

;

fibres,

treated on a

and

arranges

such wool when woven

ing wool, inches

varies

in

if longer, ;

as

the is

is

comb with long

unfit for felting.

length

the case

broken down by carding, to

of

staple

its

like

it

to the

locks

of

Short, or cloth-

from three

with the best Saxon

adapt

which

steel teeth,

them horizontally

to four

wool,

it

is

subsequent operation

of felting, where the fibres are convoluted or matted together. â&#x20AC;˘

It is

only within the last few years (in fact since the introduc-

tion of coloured paper patterns) that for the purposes of needlework:

resources, with

worsteds,

the

exception of

and crewels.

German wool has been used

previously to that time our only silk,

The beauty

were English lambswools, of

German

wools and the

breed of sheep has been carried to New South Wales and Diemanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Land, from whence, of late years, great quantities of wool nave been exported. Australia promises, at no distant period, to be one of the principal wool growing countries in the world, and to outrival Saxony in the fineness and superiority of its fleeces. *

Van

The merino


— WOOL.

36 perfection

brought,

which

to

fC

the

dyeing them has

of

science ,”

been

an era in the annals of our art; and has, together

is

with the invention of Berlin patterns, contributed in rendering

it

amusement than when Helen

a more enticing and facile

11

Guided by

love,

O’er the stretch’d sampler’s canvas plain,

In broidery’s various colours strove

To

raise his

form to

again.”

life

by

All kinds of wool are more or less characterised

when compared

of harshness ness,

softness,

and

flexibility

decidedly superior needle,

for

which

fine-

renders

work

tapestry

of

a degree

Zephyr Merino .” the

of the fibre of

kinds

all

the

to

with

it

the

and embroidery in wool, especially where great numbers

We

of colours are required.

now proceed more

shall

particularly

to notice

GERMAN WOOL. German

wool,

Germany,

which

as

it

Zephyr merino

commonly known working

or,

,

by

is

termed

is

prepared

as “ Berlin ” or “

skeined, or notted, in

wool

the

of various

German

staplers

That

sizes.

\yool,”

is

of

adapted for

and from the manner in

kinds of Berlin patterns;

all

it is

'

small quantities,

rendered

is

it

the most convenient, and, comparatively speaking the least expensive

description

sufficient,

brilliancy

wool

of

for

w ere they not more r

fully

and variety of shades

above-mentioned superior

worked on the the coarsest:

worked in a

its

finest

qualities.

canvas,

purpose

this

and

—recommendations

enhanced by the

in

which

it

This wool

thread on a canvas

unequalled

is

dyed,

may

be

and

split

its

and

doubled and trebled on

also

beauty, however, can be

single

;

best

suited

appreciated to

its

size,

when where


WOOL. should form an even and

it

covering

thoroughly

ranked

tightly

so

uniform surface of pearly threads

the

as

37

be

to

of

the

deprived

of

stitches,

canvas,

beautiful

its

not

yet

elastic

appearance.

Like every other material, German wool requires to be well understood as to

duce that

needlewoman

and

qualities

its

degree ‘of

When

accomplish.

to

with a canvas over the

to

pro-

of

the

w is)h

the

is

it

worked

an

or

cloth,

in order

capabilities,

which

excellence

r

on

either

cloth,

embroidery,

should be

it

used with a needle sufficiently large to form a passage through

may

which the wool

working

for

imitation

of

netting.

When but

retain

and from

may have wound, of

the

smell

of

of

its

dye

the

round

vegetable

been used in

by being

crochet,

German

and

texture,

its

or

applicable

work in

its

wool

and

should

should be

soft

make, and

free

it ;

in

mineral

which^

substances

This wool should not be

dyeing.

compressed,

German wool

quantity of

raw

in a

state,

part

undergoes

wool

is

the

of

best

is

knitting,

fine

quality,

for

also,

the

It

every description of

it

may

be

deprived

partially

elasticity.

its

A

in

as,

and

;

of

particles

all

figures,

paintings

little

curly

pass without “ dragging.”

flowers,

equal

where

it is

brought

is

these

processes

in

that

imported

in

to

;

greater

;

manufactured but

Britain

the

Some

Scotland.

a

Germany

needlework, from

purposes of

Great

into

combed, spun, and dyed

the

of

this

for

state,

dye

is

generally very imperfect and perishable, except the blacks, which are certainly

work. highest

cleaner

best

German

The

prices,

are

dyed

England ready skeined

German

— an

much

wool,

for

important desideratum in needle-

wools, and those

in use.

manufactured in

Germany,

which command the

and

imported

into

Great quantities, however, of this

country,

and

also

of

very


f

;

38

WOOL.

inferior

wool imported

requires

tlie

Much more might these wools

but

;

colours

Germany,

from

are

and

it

and dyeing

of

daily sold ;

eye of an experienced person to detect them.*

it

be said as to the

qualities

remains

“ sorter ,”

working,

for

knowledge and appropriation

with

them

give

to

upon

care bestowed

of them, each

the

their

their

or

by

harshness, yet,

all

and, above

want of

seem but

as one

and, like

:

various shades

carefully avoiding ;

contrast, giving a proper spirit to the whole

avoiding that gaudiness of colouring, and

all,

taste, so

of the

and the proper

the colours on the painter’s palette, in mixing the so delicately, that they shall

by

lustre,

final

choice,

several purposes

to their

selector

glaring

generally exhibited in the coloured-paper patterns

of Berlin, and which are but too frequently complained of in the

productions of the needle.

ENGLISH WOOL. “ If any wool peculiar to our Is giv’n

The

by nature,

soft,

’tis

isle

the comber’s lock,

snow-white, and the long grown flake.”

Dyer.

*

The

importations of

German wool

into this

country were quite

trifling

during the war, amounting in 1812, to only twenty-eight pounds but since the peace, they have increased beyond all precedent. In 1814, they amounted to ;

were above five amount of nearly twenty-nine millions of pounds this, however, was a year of overtrading, and they declined, in 1826, to about ten and a half millions of pounds. They have nearly three and a half millions of pounds

millions of

pounds

;

;

in

1820, they

and, in 1825, they reached the enormous ;

since,

however, recovered

from

to nearly twenty-five

statistical

facts,

tion of

in

for the

depression

;

and, in

1833,

the

imports

purpose of needlework, nevertheless show the high estimation

which the German wool

is

held by our manufacturers.

German wool is prohibited in France: it is not long since, that the police, Paris, made seizures of considerable quantities in several of the warehouse's*

t

at

wool

this

and a half millions of pounds. These important although they have no reference to the subject of the consump-

amounted


D

WOOL.

30

much

English lambswool, or embroidery wool, though

than the preceding, yet

dye of

retains

lambswool

scarlet

and gold colours

as are also several of the shades of blue, green,

browns, clarets, and some neutral for tent, or cross stitch,

it

carpets, large

may

be sometimes used in ;

such

chairs, sofas,

for instance,

as,

ottomans,

&c. the

blues,

also

as

the

be superiorly worked in English wool, whilst the

pinks,

greys,

whites,

may

It

and some of the

colours, scarlets, olives,

grounding,

coarse canvas, either

decidedly preferable, both in working,

is

work with German wool

the same piece of

gold

On

tints.

and in appearance when finished.

in needlework for

The

German,

equal to that of the

quite

is

harsher

superior qualifications.

its

&c.

lilacs,

may

German

be introduced in

wool.

For grounding

,

German,

wool

English

more

as being

impoverished by brushing like the is

cleaner

the

in

generally

is

durable, and

dye

of

another recommendation,

—that

latter.

darker

the

preferable

less apt to

If

to

nor

soil ;

the is

it

good, English wool

colours

;

and

has, also,

of being more economical.

WORSTED. tl

The

grain of brightest tincture none so well

Imbibes

;

the wealthy Gobelins must to this

Eear witness, and the

Worsted factured

is

a

still

costliest

of their loom.”

fine

yer.

harsher description of English

from the coarser parts of the

taking a very

dye,

may

and

working carpets and rugs.

fleece,

be

but

it

wool, is

manu

capable of

advantageously used for

be good, and well dyed,

it

has

a more glossy appearance than the other descriptions of wool.

It

is

much cheaper than

is

the

best

and

only

If

either

proper

it

German

or

material

English lambswool, and for

making

the

raised


WOOL.

40 borders

of

various

the

and rouleau, &c.

filaments, greatly

its

and

urn-rugs,

borders in moss

kinds

of

and

patterns

from the length of

being,

it ;

improved by combing, assuming that downy

appearance which distinguishes a well-finished rug border. Worsteds,* though so

were formerly

day,

little

the

of

netting u

The

the

in

crewels

a

,

description

of

worsted,

twisted

tightly

The poet Cowper has immortalized

silks.

where he says

Sofa,”

both for

part of the last century, under the form

latter

fine

employed

materials

For these purposes, they were much

tapestry and embroidery. in vogue

used in needlework at the present

principal

their

like

use,

in

:

“ here and there a tuft of crimson yarn,

Or

The whole

scarlet crewel .”

of the beautiful works executed

by the

celebrated

Miss Linwood, are in worsted, the dyeing of which was an object of

her

especial

worsted.

It

is

similar purposes.

short

lengths,

Yarn

care.

is

a

coarser description

still

used for making nets for fruit

and

It

may

knit

be

with

prettily

coarse

trees,

applied,

cotton,

or

when fine

of

and other cut

into

twine,

for

carriage-rugs, mats, &c.

FLEECY. Lcicestrian fleeces,

Combs through

what the sinewy arm

the spiky steel in lengthen’d flakes.

7’

Dyer.

*

Worsted, in Norfolk, was formerly a place of much it is is now greatly on the decline

siderable trade, but

the invention, or

first

;

second year of the reign of Edward stuffs

and of con fol

yarn or thread, which This manufacture is mentioned the

twisting, of that sort of woollen

hence obtained the na*ne of worsted. worsted

celebrity,

chiefly remarkable

m

III.,

were required by parliament

than they had formerly done.

when to

the weavers

work them

in

and workers of a better manner


WOOL. Fleecy

41

another description of wool, principally grown and

is

manufactured in Leicestershire, for which this county has long been celebrated. “ Rich Leicestria’s marly plains, for length

Of

whitest locks and magnitude of fleece

Peculiar.”

made of two

It is

vary in

to a quarter of

according to the number of are two, three, four, six,

common

and common

qualities, superfine

from an eighth

size

up

they contain

threads

thus,

there

;

Those in

to twelve threads, fleecy.

They

use are from three to six threads.

good and useful

they both

;

an inch in diameter

are

all

equally

for crochet, knitting, netting, &c. according to the

purposes for which the work

designed.

is

HAMBURGH WOOL. Hamburgh wool

German

so called, or

worsted,

of wool, usually containing four threads, but contain

to

glossy, is,

and

twelve for

however,

threads

it

very

is

to be

procured in

much imported

a commo-n kind

is

made

is

all

as thick as

in

brilliant

working on coarse canvas

difficult

has not been

:

is

colour,

extremely shades

and It

and, hitherto, ;

An

into this country.

good.

imitation of

wool has been made, and much sold in England, under the

this

name

of

Hamburgh

merits of the real

worsted, but

Hamburgh

it

not possess any of ths

does

wool, except its size.

GERMAN FLEECY. German, or merino land.

in

It possesses

appearance,

and

but

fleecy, is

a decided

little

known

used or

superiority over the

pleasantness

for

use

:

the

in

Eng-

English, both

colours

like

the


42

WOOL.

German

exceedingly

wool, are

sizes of eight or ten threads ;

cannot

tricot,

mind, that

*

The

be

it is

of

art

and barbarous teemed among

a

brilliant.

It

is

made

usually

surpassed.

borne

however, be

must,

It

more costly material than the English

dyeing

was

even

tribes

practised

possessed

most

the

in

remote

which have

colours

From

nations.

civilised

in

and, for the purposes of crochet or

Savage

ages.

been

the writings of Moses,

in

fleecy.*

highly is

it

es-

obvious

great progress. He mentions (Exodus xxv. The Egyptians, and rams’ skins dyed red. according to Pliny (lib. xxv. c. 2,) had discovered a mode of dyeing somewhat resembling that now employed for tinting printed cottons the stuffs, after having been impregnated with mordants, were immersed in vats, where that

had, in his time,

it

4-5) blue, purple,

and

made

scarlet,

they received the different colours.

At

very

a

early

period,

the

art

was

cloths purple

among

first

the ancients,

we can

of which

had

dyeing

of

to

brought

to

a

of dyeing woollen

This colour, the most celebrated have been brought to a degree of excellence,

discovered at Tyre.

—appears

been

The method

considerable degree of perfection in Phoenicia.

form hut a very faint idea.

It

is

related, that a shepherd’s

by hunger, having broken a shell on the sea shore, his mouth became stained, with a colour, which excited the admiration of all who saw it, and that the same colour was afterwards applied to the dyeing According to some of the ancient writers, this of wool with great success. dog,

instigated

discovery

placed

is

in

the

hundred years before Christ. in

about 1439

Crete

of dyeing

Hercules,

who

presented his

so

jealous of the

was

the use of

it

to

all

Others

Phoenix, second fix

years before the

invention

latter

of

reign

purple,

his

however,

it

Christian era. generally

is

discovery to

reserving

of Tyre,

it

to

the

of Phoenicia

new for

who

The honour

awarded

the king

beauties of this

subjects,

king

in that of Minos,

colour,

that

the garments

;

he

five

reigned

of the

Tyrian and the forbade

of royalty

Some authors relate the story differently Hercules’ dog having mouth with a sh^ll, which he had broken on the sea shore, Tysas, a nymph of whom Hercules was enamoured, was so charmed with

alone.

:

stained

his

would see her mver no more dyed of the same. Plercules, in order to gratify his mistress, collected a great number of the shells, and succeeded in staining a robe of the colour the nymph had demanded. The Tyrian purple was communicated by means of several species of Pliny gives us an account (lib. vi. c. 36.) of two kinds of univalve shell-fish. shell-fish from which the purple was obtained. The first species was called the beamty of the colour, that she declared she

until

he had brought her garments

buccinum

,

the other purpura.

A

single

drop of the liquid dye was obtained


.

WOOL.

43

fish, by opening a vessel situated in its throat. This liquid, when was mixed with a sufficient quantity of salt to prevent putrefaction. It was then diluted with five or six times as much water, and kept moderately hot in leaden or tin vessels for the space of ten days, during which time it was frequently skimmed, in order to separate all impurities. In dyeing, the wool was washed, immersed and kept in the liquid for five hours. It was then taken out, carded, and again immersed for a sufficient

from each

extracted,

length of time for

all

the colouring matter

to

be extracted from the liquid.

For the production of particular shades of colour, various salts were added. The colour of the Tyrian purple itself appears to have been similar to that This author also says, that the Tyrians first dyed their wool in of blood. We the liquor of the purpura, and afterwards in that of the buccinum. find

allusions

Horace

to

this

“Muricibus Tyriis

And

passages

in several

practice

of the

sacred

writings.

also says: iteratae vellera lame.’*

again: "

Te

Mu rice Vestiunt

The

purple mentioned in Exodus

Ezekiel, in his prophecy against

bis

Afro

tinctae lanae.’'

was probably says

T}n*e,

:

that dyed

Fine

by the Tyrians.

linen with

broidered

work from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail and purple from the isles of Elishah was that which covered thee.”

;

blue It

is

generally supposed, that by Elishah, Elis, on the western coast of the Greek

Peloponnesus, was referred to the

time

of

Ezekiel,

obtained

:

hence their

it

would appear that the Tyrians, in

supply

of shell-fish

for

dyeing

purple

This celebrated colour was restricted by the ancients to the sacred person and palace of the empqpr and the penalties of treason were denounced against the ambitious subject who dared to usurp from

the

coast

of Greece.

;

the prerogative of the throne.


-

CHAPTER V Silk.

“She That

To

work

sets to

worms, weave the smooth-haired

millions of spinning

in their green shops

silk,

deck her sons.”

Milton. “ Let Asia’s woods

Untended,

And

On

let

yield the vegetable fleece,

the

higher

little

life

insect-artist form,

intent, its silken

tomb.”

Thomson.

ILK-WORMS,

—the

most precious of

insects,

whose produce holds so important a place amongst the luxuries of serviceable

to

modern

man by

life,

were

the

Chinese, about two

first

rendered

thousand seven hundred years before the Christian era.

^

sent

the Empresses

Their most ancient authorities repre-

of China,

as

surrounded by

their

women,

engaged in the occupation of hatching and rearing silk-worms,

and in weaving ling-shee,

having

the

first

tissues

consort

from their produce. of

observed the

Hoang-tee, silk

is

To

ascribed

the empress See*

the

honour

of

produced by the worms, of unravel


f

SILR.

cocoons,

their

ling

45

and working the

web of

fine filament into a

cloth.*

From

China, the art of rearing silk-worms

The production

and Persia.

of silk was

passed into

unknown

India

Europe,

in

however, until the middle of the sixth century, when two monks,

who had long

the eggs of the

nople ;

tree ;

insect, concealed in

where, under heat:

artificial

China, succeeded

resided in

the

their

of

eggs were hatched by

by

fed

leaves of the mulberry

they lived and laboured, and, by the use of proper means,

the race

was propagated and multiplied.

This knowledge, under

emperor Justinian, became productive

the

carrying some

hollow cane, to Constanti-

a

directions, the

worms were

in

tant branch of industry to the

were

in

established

European

Athens, Thebes, and

twelfth century, Greece appears to

Europe in which the

About

1130,

art

Roger

II,

was

as slaves

new and imporManufactories

Corinth, but, until

practised.

king of

Sicily,

established a silk

Calabria,

in his

expedition to the

manu-

managed by work-

from Athens and Corinth, of which

had made a conquest

the

have been the only country in

factory at Palermo, and another in

men taken

of a

nations.

he

cities

By

Holy Land.

degrees the rest of Italy and Spain learned from the Sicilians and

*

For an account of the invention, manufacture, and general use of

Du

China, vide

VEmpier de t

was

la,

A species

Halde’s Description Geographique

Chine

Historique

,

et

silk

in

Physique

de

.

common

of silk-worm,

cultivated in the

little

in the forests both of Asia

and Europe,

island of Ceos, near the coast of Attica.

gauze was procured from their webs of

,

;

and

this

Cean manufacture,

A thin

the invention

woman, for female use, was long admired both in the east and at Rome. silks, which had been closely woven in China, were sometimes unravelled the Phoenician women, and the precious materials were multiplied by a looser

h.

The nv

texture, anti

and the intermixture of linen threads. On the texture, colours, names, silk, half silk, and linep. garments of the ancients, see the

use of the

researches of the learned Salmasius.

t


— 46

SILK.

Calabrians of

the

The

France until mulberry

management of

the

silk.

was

It

cessfully

to

VIII, when the white

and a few silk-worms, were introduced into Dau

tree,

phiny by some noblemen, on Naples.

not react

did

insects

of Charles

the reign

after

and the working

silk-worm,

the

of rearing these

art

not,

return from the conquest of

their

however, until

produce the

silk

1654,

that they began sue

when Traucat,

itself,

common

a

of Nismes, laid the foundation of a nursery of white

gardener

mulberry

trees,

them

and with such success as to enable

propagated within a few years over

to

be

southern provinces

the

all

of France.* It is

among

uncertain at what period the use the

Romans; but

Pompey and that

it

Julius

it

sold

So for

however, was

great,

is

said

to

are informed

by

of the reign of Tiberius, that no

wearing a silken garment.!

The

and was the

man

should disgrace himself by

profligate Heliogabalus,

first

of the

Roman

11

The enormous each

tion of

its

however

emperors whc

silk.

(

*

Wt

great.

passed in the beginning

wore a dress holosericum ) composed entirely of

ing in

and

have refused his empress’s particular requesi

Tacitus, that a law was

set aside this law,

of

rarity

was so expensive

it

on account of the price being so

for a silken robe,

its

equal weight in gold;

its

even in the time of Aurelian, in the year 275, that he

was introduced

was most probably in the time

Caesar.

was sometimes

of silk

After

this,

quantity of this material used in England alone, amount-

year to more than four millions of pounds’ weight.

Fourteen thousand millions of animated creatures annually live and die to supply thb If astonishment be ex utec little corner of the world with an article of luxury. at this fact, let us extend our view into China, and survey the dense populawidely spread

region,

who, from the emperor on

his throne to the

peasant in the lowly hut, are indebted for their clothing to the labour of Lardrier’ s Cabinet Cyclopaedia . silk-worm.” t

“Ne

vestis serica viros feedaret.”

Annal

.

1.

ii.

c. 33.

.

he


;

SILK.

became general among the wealthy

the custom of wearing silk soon

made

As

Rome.

citizens of

demand

the

Ammianus

have been worn even by the lowest

The

England

at the

silk

appears

to

Marcellinus,

gradually

it

appears

silk

classes.*

and weaving

art of spinning, throwing,

into

were

for silk increased, efforts

import larger quantities, and the price of

to

declined, for in the time of ro

47

commencement of the

was introduced

silk,

fifteenth century ;

centuries

previously:

Margaret,

been used by persons of distinction

have

for

appeared in

cointises-

but about the year

in England, J

these were knitted

Marcel,

articles

fabrics,

lib.

;

stockings

The

the

and

produced consisted of

and these in no great

first

in the latter years of the

t

Matthew

By

^ bound

first

who

silk

was

For an

interesting account of

the

Roman

is

referred to

Gib-

Empire.

Paris.

statute 33 to find

About

was the

historian Pausanias

the introduction of the seric insect into Europe, the reader

and Fall of

engage in

to

pair of silk stockings

were her only wear.§

the produce of the trees of the Seres or Chinese.

t

first

Before his time, the ancients imagined that

xviii. c. 6.

described the silk-worm.

bon’s Decline

knights

of silk was

men began

1480,

Henry VIII wore

reign of Elizabeth, silk

Am.

the

and similar narrow

the manufacture.

*

English

The manufacture

silk, f

silk-women

called

laces, ribbons,

quantities;

the marriage of

1251, at

a thousand

III,

England in the reign of Henry IY, by a company

practised in in London,

of

year

in the

daughter of Henry

but

two

Henry VIII,

a person whose wife wore a silk

gown was

a charger for government.

§ It is related by Howell, in his History of the World (vcl. ii. p. 2*22) that queen Elizabeth, in the year 1561, was presented with a pair of black knit silk stockings, by Mistress Montague, her silk-woman, at which she was so much delighted that she thenceforth never condescended to wear those of cloth. It might have been supposed that Elizabeth’s inordinate fondness for dress would have induced her to give every encouragement to the manufacture of so elegant ,

a fabric as silk:

h

it

during her reign.

does not, however, appear that

Content, probably, with her

much own

progress

was made

acquisition, she

in

might

be desirous that the more becoming silken texture should remain a regal privi-


— 4S

a;

SILK.

reign

1620, in the latter part of the

of Jatnes

broad

the

I,

silk

manufacture was introduced into this country; and in 1629

it

progressed with such vigour and

throw-

of

sters

the

advantage, that the

silk

had

and parts adjacent, were incorporated into

city

company: which company,

1661, employed

in

above forty thou-

In 1719, a silk throwing mill was erected at Der-

sand persons.

and, from that period to the beginning of the present century,

by;

various improvements were introduced time, or

during

and the

able ;

perhaps

:

but those made since that

the last fifty years, have been consider-

manufacturers in this country

silk

can

now

vie

with that of any other. It

would be irrelevant

the history of

nevertheless,

subject,

which

the

mode of

insect

before

it

is

— the it

fully into ;

production

winding from the

quent processes of converting

more

worm which produces it interest. The metamorphoses

little

with

replete

undergoes, or

filature,

to this volume, to enter

or of the

silk,

cocoons,

of the

silk,

— and the

its

subse-

and organzine,

into singles, tram,

for the various purposes of the arts, will be found

fit

fully described in fore proceed to

all

works on

manufacture.

silk

mention the various kinds of

ent purposes for which they are used as

but previously to doing

so,

We

silk,

articles

shall there,

and the

differ-

of needlework

we cannot omit quoting

the following

simple lines of the poet Cowper, on

THE SILK-WORM. “The beams

A

lege;

of April, ere

worm, scarce

it

goes,

visible, disclose

j

and while she displayed her own ancles in the

delicate

silken knit, was,

perhaps, well pleased that her 'maids of honour should conceal theirs under tne

clumsy and inelegant cloth hose, lest, haply, among these, some might have been found rather more beautifully formed than her own.


SILK.

49

All winter long content to dwell The tenant of his native shell.

The same prolific season gives The sustenance by which he lives, The mulberry leaf, a simple store, That

serves

him

he needs no more!

till

For, his dimensions once complete,

Thenceforth none ever sees him eat; till his growing time be past Scarce ever is he seen to fast.

Though

That hour

He

work

arrived, his

begins.

and weaves, and weaves and spins; Till circle upon circle, wound Careless around him and around, Conceals him with a veil though slight, spins

Impervious to the keenest sight.

Thus self-inclosed, as in a cask, At length he finishes his task: And, though a worm when he was lost, Or caterpillar at the most, When next we see him, wings he wears, And in papilio pomp appears; Becomes oviparous;

#

Well were

Who Were All

silk

is

worms.

The

also

articles,

is

such

it

as

ball,

most he

be,

same,

to

be met

there

is

a

great

which

it

which

it

exhibits,

under various

undergoes by the

silk

As used

arts.

with under the following heads

for :

it

prepared for the manufacture of particular

mittens,

of the

although

to the purposes of the

same,

more tightly or loosely 5

the

to the processes

be found

modifications

if all

and quality, even from the same breed of

different appearances

throwster, to adapt it

world

shorter-lived than

essentially

owing

needlework,

for the

useful in their kind as he.”

difference in its value

forms, are

it

creep about this earthly

Though

may

supplies

With future worms and future flies The next ensuing year and dies!

stockings, either

twisted.

&c.

but

by being

By

the

they

finer

or

are

merely

coarser, or

terms fine and coarse,


53

SILK.

are

not

be understood,

to

size of its thread, as

number

the quality

may

it

by

of the filaments spun

Mitorse, or half-twisted

and

silk,

similar

is

requisite

using

for

less

SILK.

that

employed by the Chinese

for

Considerable practice and care, however,

their double embroidery.

are

or

greater

one of the most useful kinds for

is

to

but the

material,

the worm.

MITORSE

needlework,

of the

be composed of a

with

it

which

the perfection

highly

so

characterises the embroidery done with this description of material,

by

French;

the

other

impossibility

with

skill,

silks,

nor

it

Mitorse silk articles It is

is

so likely

or

work

the

superior

they

this

that

excel

if this

its

be

all

and the

silk,

of one size,

but

;

to

of

defects

executed

of any of the floss

become â&#x20AC;&#x153;fluffyâ&#x20AC;? in the wear.

to

applicable to

is

of furniture,

which

in

make

always

twist

its

far

work

peculiar

visible in

the effect is

the

of keeping

become

are apt to

of

a species

From

nations.

the

all

kinds of embroidery intended as

nichwckeries

,

of the drawing room.

decidedly the best and only kind which should be used, where

the work

is

intended to be edged with a gold cord.

waistcoats, and other articles of dress, rior to

any

For embroidery on

other.

every other description of material. introduced

with

good

effect

in

it

will be

For working

found to be supe-

cloth, it surpasses in

beauty

Mitorse silk has lately been

some parts of wool work, on

canvas, for slippers, bags, and other small articles. s

NETTING Netting

silks,

or

Purse

description: they are

coarse

and

fine

SILKS.

twists, are too

made of various

and of

different

well-known to need any

sizes, or, as

qualities.

they are termed,

They

are to be pro-


SILK.

5J

up

cured of most colours, neatly rolled

perhaps, excel us in the manufacture

cordonnets

they generally wind upon reels; their chine netting surpass

anything which has, as

yet,

The French

in skeins.

of their

which

,

silks certainly

been produced in England,

both in the taste displayed in the intermixture of their colours,

and in the brilliancy of their dyes; but they do not always possess that regularity, either in size or quality throughout the length of

the reels, as the English skeins. Purse-twists

and

netting

particularly

may

used

are

where mitorse

purposes

well

are

those

besides

adapted

for

would be found too thick

silks

of

embroidery,

and

;

be used with excellent effect upon cloth or velvet, to produce

The

the appearance of gold.

admirably, that, distinguish

it,

takes the

distance,

atmosphere, twist

it

it

it

from gold

tint

of or

mat

so

almost impossible to

is :

is

it

therefore well

embroidering of altar and pulpit cloths, and other

where gold might be required,

purposes

as,

a closer resemblance

bears

.

from exposure

From

does not change or tarnish.

than any other description of stitch,

silk

colour be good,

the

if

at a little

suited for the

its

various

for*

They

knitting.

to

gold

cord,

or bullion,

For tambour work

silk.

to the

the firmness of

or

chain

netting silks are also peculiarly adapted.

Sewing

silks are

merely a

commonly made of

fine description of netting silk,

most

the inferior and less valuable portions of the

same material.

CROCHET Crochet

or

silk,

Sole

half tightened in the

twist

|

differing

from

flexibility

and

it

misserre

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

SILK.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

a

so called

coarse

from

only in the mode of twisting.

softness,

it

is

more

its

being only

description of cordonnet

From

suitable for crochet

its

great

work than


— 52

SILK.

common

the

purse or netting

and has a more

silk,

glossy appearance than these usually possess,

by

deteriorated

the closeness

with which

brilliant

— their

their

lustre

fibres

and

being

are twisted

together.

DACCA Dacca

silk,

called

by the French

composed.

and

much

;

of the embroidery for which

now executed

in mitorse

For copying Berlin patterns Dacca

silk

number of

of

tints

4

where fine,

silk

may

floss silk

threads

its

Dacca

*

its

silk

trade, all

may

the

fine canvas,

can be procured in a

it

wools;

—hence

silks

for

difficulties

will

above purposes.

the

and when required very

;

be divided.

usually done

—frequently

up

which

in knotted

is

but improperly

Dacca

is

province

it

skeins, in

contra-

twisted into hanks.*

termed Decca, or even

name from Dacca, a town of Hindoostan,

This town as

:

would be found too thick

quarter of Bengal, of which capital.

at the

be used for intermixing with wools on fine canvas,

silks are

Dacca

is

shades, but not in the almost unlim-

German

distinction to the floss silk,

derives

it

was then used

working on

in silk, or

sometimes occur in selecting these

Dacca

it

silk.

should always be chosen

great variety of colours and ited

fine

which

descriptions of flat embroidery,

all

was formerly much more in demand than

It

present day

being

denominated

filaments of silk of

some kinds of raised work, such as the small raised

also for

roses.

used for

It is

sole ovale , is

number of

or coarse, according to the it is

SILK.

Decker

,

situated in the eastern

was, within the

last

century, the

very favourably stationed for an inland emporium of

river

communicates

the other inland navigation.

which are among the most

Besides

directly, silks, it

and not

circuitously,

with

has a large trade in muslins,

delicate that are sought after

in Europe.

It

must


SILK

53

FLOSS SILK. Floss is

or

silk,

used for

all

thicker

sole jplatte , is a

patterns,

taste

may

may

be

dictate.

and beautiful fineness

the silk

and in other parts of worsted-work

employed

also

It is

much used

It

effect.

is

on coarse canvas.

Floss

it

is

prepared

in

smoother than the French are

now

embroidery

for

or

and

;

may

it

be adapted to the size of

Dacca

and

entirely

those

are

silks

;

with

England,

preferable, as

is

a fact which

Floss

works

it

the French themselves

willing to admit.

This description of

silk,

as

Dacca

also

must be manu-

silk,

factured from the finest part of the product of the silkworm, as

does

it

not undergo the process of twisting or organzining, which

might otherwise hide any necessity,

therefore,

Floss

silk,

not,

good,

silk-throwsters.

The

sole , or

and

for

the

is

purposes

more commonly

that portion

not, however, be supposed that

It

speaking

is

of

dearer

needlework,

of

mistaken for that known as

latter is

quality.

comparatively

silks.

denominated,

so

however, be

filoselle ,

trivial defect in its

when

than some of the twisted

must

in

articles of dress are generally

of which are worked in Scotland.

done, the greater part as

fancy

manufactured of various degrees of

which the common' embroideries on

silk,

as

but pieces of work are seldom executed

;

required

grounding canvas work, with a most rich

for

and coarseness, so that

canvas

and

silk,

silk is

a more brilliant effect to

for heightening the lights, or for giving

gem

of

description

kinds of tapestry work, wherever

floss

called

by the

bourre

de

of ravelled silk thrown on

Dacca silk is imported from thence, the term only being applied to a particular manufacture of this material as first prepared

n

;

that part of India.


SILK

54

one side in the filature of the cocoons, but which

This

of commerce.

French

the

although

purpose for which

which distinguishes spun

The

much

has perhaps, too

it

,

appears

it

be

to

articles of

well adapted,

â&#x20AC;&#x153; cottonyâ&#x20AC;?

of the

silk

sometimes used by

is

grounding pieces of work intended as

for

a

furniture,

bourre de soie

article,

afterwards

is

and forms the spun

carded and spun like cotton or wool,

appearance

silk.*

Lombardy generally wear clothes of home-spun by improved processes, fine fabrics of this material have been produced both in England and France. M. Ajac, of Lyons, presented, at one of the French national expositions of the objects of industry, a great variety of scarfs and shawls, manufactured of bourre de soie *

female peasants of

Of

floss silk.

years,

late

}

closely resembling those of Cachemir.

Beside the product of the bombyx there are other materials closely resembling ,

and attempts have, at various times, been made to render them equally subservient to the wants of man. It is well known that some species of spiders possess the power of spinning a bag somewhat similar in form and silk

;

substance to the

cocoon of the

At

silk-worm.

commencement of the M. Bon, from which

the

a quantity of these bags were collected by

last century,

was manufactured, said to be in no way inferior to that of It was susceptible of all kinds of dyes, and might have been used for every purpose to which silk was applicable. M. Bon had gloves and stockings made from it in fact, the only obstacle which appeared to prevent the establishment of any considerable manufacture from the silk of spiders, was the difficulty Vide of obtaining it in sufficient abundance. Ezamen de la Soye des Araignees par M. de Reaumur, in the Mems. Acad, a kind of

the seric

silk

insect.

;

,

des Sciences, 1712.

The pinna

,

also,

a shell-fish found in great abundance in the Mediterranean,

has been called the silk-worm of

The

testacea.

generic

upright, gaping at one end, is

the sea.

character

is

is

as the

spider

and

scarcely inferior in fineness

acquainted with this :

one.

caterpillar.

comparatively minute silk-worm.

silk

;

shell,

In

fish,

bivalve

The

and beauty

The

byssus, to

;

common with

has the power of spinning a viscid matter from

same manner duces,

belongs to the order of the vermes

and furnished with a byssus or beard

without teeth, the valves are united in

the pinna

],]

It

animal, a limax

:

a

its

which

single

it

the

in*

thus

pro-

filament of the

ancients appear to have been intimately

from the threads

Roman

fragile,

the muscle

body,

of which they wove a kind of

a robe of this singular material was, according to Procopius

the gift of one of the

;

the hinge

(lib.

emperors to the satraps of Armenia.

iii.

It

c. is


;

SILK.

now manufactured by

the

Italians

for

55

is

the principal object of the fisheries,

wrought with siderable

number of

a

of

pair

threads.

their

the

It

these fish to

latter,

although

A

curiosity.

its

and

several

make even one possessing

In

Sicily, the

made pinna

beautiful manufactures are

however,

requires,

oair of gloves,

XIV.

from the byssus, were presented to Pope Benedict

the

produce of a con-

pair of gloves

or stockings

warmth, may, from

great

:

their

extreme fineness and delicacy, be easily contained in a snuff-box of ordinary Aristotle gave the name byssus to the silken threads of the pinna marina ; but whether it was on account of its resemblance to the byssus o which some of the ancient garments were made, or whether this was the true Dyssus itself, is uncertain, as the term appears to have been applied indifferentThe description ly to any material that was spun and woven finer than wool. of the byssus given by Julius Pollux (lib. vii. c. 27) evidently refers to cotton. this he Aristotle also relates that the pinna keeps a guard to watch for her To this calls pinnophylx and describes as a little fish with claws like a crab. description the Greek poet Oppianus was indebted, when he says size.

;

,

:

“The

pinna and the crab together dwell,

For mutual succour,

They

in

common

one

shell

both to gain a livelihood combine.

That takes the

prey,

when

this

has given the sign;

From hence this crab, above his fellows famed, By ancient Greeks was Pinnotores named.”

There

is

threads, that

equal

if

it

is

glass.

a most beautiful production of art, which This has been spun into such extremely delicate

another material

still

claims our attention

woven with a warp formed of

not superior to those of gold and

silver.

silk into the

The

richest brocades,

introduction of

woven

however, does not appear to have met .with the success that was anticiIt is objectionable as not pated, notwithstanding its brilliant appearance. possessing the same degree of flexibility as silk, or it might otherwise be used glass,

as a material for

needlework with excellent

effect.


CHAPTER (Soli*

u

Then

attir

VI

Silocr.

threads of gold both artfully dispose,

And,

as each .part in just proportion rose,

Some

antique fable in their

work

disclose.â&#x20AC;?

Ovid.

MONG

the

employed in nee-

various materials

dlework, the application of the precious metals

extremely

Gold

curious.

the former) were

especially

not

are

now

those

as

mentioned by the pure

the

divided filed

*

so

metal,

as

The method

;

into

is

purple,

and in the

scarlet,

it

into wires, to

and in the

a

The

earliest

but we

such

gold

with

gold

and

afterwards

hammer, and then invention

of em-

thus mentioned in the twentyu And they did beat the

ninth chapter of Exodus, in allusion to the ephod gold into thin plates, and cut

plates

by

wire.*

of using gold for needlework

this,

;

were in fact worked with thin

were rounded or

in the

embroideries

the

historians,

form threads

to

for

beaten

slips,

from

understand

use

ancient

which,

small

into

to

in

used

is

(more

silver

and weaving

ages both for embroidery

threads

and

:

work

it

fine linen, with

in the blue, and in the cunning work.â&#x20AC;?


GOLD AND SILVEk. with

broidery

Pergamus

been

has

gold,

but the

;

robe

manifest,

is

woven

The

when we

king

Attalus,

which

perfection to are

of

as

We

by Yerrius.J

also

that

are

again

had been

it

Agrippina wore a

that

told

any linen or woollen

by Lampridius,f

tunic of Heliogabalus, as described

was of the same material, mentioned

to

entirely of gold threads,* without

The

ground.

ascribed

had evidently been practised in several

art

of the preceding centuries.

brought

57

of Tarquinius

informed

PriscuSj

of a

similar

mantle taken from the statue of Jupiter, by the tyrant Dionysius; besides

others, not

to

mention the fabulous net of the

which Vulcan entrapped Mars related, that

was so extremely

it

were unable to perceive

by Vulcan on There

the

we

are

this,

it

is

gods themselves told,

was forged

modern method

the preparation of metal similar to the

Very few remains of

museum

In the

been discovered.

wire

locks of

fifty

into the form of a curl bracelets,

— and

that

the anvil.

of wire-drawing.

which has

fine

no passage in any ancient author, in which mention

is

made of

is

it,

poets, in

and Venus, and of which

made

:

of wire,

as

wire-work have

ancient

a

at Portici, is

thick

as

bronze head,

small

a

quill,

bent

and a small statue of Venus has golden round the arms and

legs.

From

the

appearance of some wire found at Thebes, however, Mr. Wilkinson

we

are almost justified in the

is

of opinion that

a

mode of wire-drawing was known

* “

Auro

textili sine alia

t Yit. Heliogab.

c.

materie,” Plin.

Plin.

§

That the Egyptians had

xxxiii. c.

gold thread or wire, linen, cloth,

and

for

lib.

conclusion, that

Egyptians

and the

xxxiii. c. 19.

23.

t

lib.

to the

is

19.

arrived at great perfection in the art of

evident from

making

being sufficiently fine for weaving with

The* exceeding delicacy of the linen corslet Herodotus (lib. iii. c. £3,) on which numerous

embroidery

of Amasis, as mentioned by

its


GOLD AND SILVER.

58

omission of every representation of the process, in their paintings,

cannot be adduced as an argument against the

have

also

to

failed

depict

other arts with which

the

Roman

made

emperors

time of the

last

of flattened

wire covered round

Gold and

the ruins

in

gilt,

silver threads, as

is

silk,

;

nor are there any or

silk

used

the

best

instances

of silver

thread, or

or'

â&#x20AC;˘

#

round which an extremely thin *

silver itself, or copper plated, is

Gold

gilt,f

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

For

flat-

never used for this

itself is

former being of thread, either

silver

used in a similar manner.

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

With

prepared, of various sizes, the different articles

meet with are manufactured,

ijye

Gold

Herculaneum or Pompeii.

and most expensive.

the material thus

various

at the present day, are generally

purpose, but a silver or copper wire

course

they

since

and

of metal, even to the

entirely

either of

spun.* composed of a thread of

tened wire of the metal

fact,

metals,

they were undoubtedly acquainted.

thread appears to have been

other wire

of

casting

such as .

fringes,

laces,

tassels,

cord, &c.

The

finer

kinds of work in gold and

of time best executed in France and first

machine

for

wire-drawing

Italy.

was

were for a length

silver

It

is

said that

by

invented

the

Rudolph,

at

of animals were wrought in gold, must have required a proportionate

figures

degree of fineness in the gold thread used for that purpose.

A

encased in gold leaf, and this compound cylinder is then round wire down to a certain size, which is afterwards flatted in a This flatted wire is then wrapped or laid over a thread of yelrolling mill. By the aid of low silk, by twisting with a wheel and iron bobbins. mechanism, a number of threads may thus be twisted at once by one moving *

drawn

silver rod is

into

power.

The

principal

nicety

consists in

so

regulating the

the successive volutions of the flatted wire on each thread

movements, that

may

just touch one and form a continuous covering. By the ordinances of France, itwas formerly required to be spun on flaxen or hempen threads.

another,

t

The

inferior

Mosaic gold.

manufactures of gold, or copper

gilt,

are

frequently

called


GOLD AND SILVER.

Anthony Fournier,

Nuremberg, in 1360.* improved

an

Held,

or

afterwards, an

a

exclusive patent for

renewed for

same

the

manufacture for

its

emperor Rudolphus gilt

Nuremberg!

His patent in

II,

of the

artist

of

citizen

was afterwards doubled.

copper wire,

a Frenchman, brought

of drawing fine wire to

art

where, a few years sheimer,

59

town,

fifteen

or plated with silver.

in

1570,

of Hagel-

received

an

which term

years,

by a grant from the

also,

included

1608,

name

the

manufacture

of

1602 this patent was

In

more by the emperor Matthias, and ten

fifteen years

years afterwards, was converted into a fief to the heirs male of the family of Held.

the year

with mills was introduced. established a

first

Anderson^

the

gold

and

silver,

England was manu-

in

when

Momma

for wire

first flatting

near Richmond, in 1663, by a fine

1565,

Jacob

manufactory

says, that

made

All the wire

by hand*until

factured

the art of drawing

and Daniel Demetrius

drawing

at

Esher

was erected

mill

Dutchman, who began

such as could be used

to

:

and

Sheen

at

prepar^

for spinning

round

been flatting mills in town-book of Augsburg, under the year 1451, is the name of a person called Chunr. Tratmuller de Tratmul, as a wire drawer. Vide Beckmann, vol. ii. p. 241. t Nuremberg, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, attained the height * In the

of

its

fifteenth

other

several

places

century, besides

wealth and prosperity.

there

appear

Nuremberg.

It

was the

produce of Italy and the Levant, which

to

In

have

the

chief mart and staple place for the

received principally from Venice and Genoa, and distributed over the north and west of Europe. But commerce and the carrying trade of Europe, were by no means the only sources of its wealth since, in the extent and celebrity of its manufactures, it deserves to be considered as the Birmingham of the period. many of whom Its artisans may more properly be styled artists, especially the workers of metals, smiths, armourers, cutlers, casters in bronze, and goldsmiths were esteemed the most cunning and skilful craftsmen in Europe, and their productions highly prized ; the cloth weavers and dyers were likewise in high repute. Vide Murrayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hand book Southern Germany. it

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

,

i

Geschichte des Handels, vol. v. p. 484.


f

GOLD AND SILVER.

60

weaving, which, before that period, had been manufactured

silk for

only on the

The of the

by

improved

The

being alloyed

what a

by

of

act

the

silver

be

greatly

quantity of

copper.

was, until

gilding

the

parliament.

gold

;

colour

the

to to

said

small

a

used in

of fineness

regard is

gold

the

of

It

amazing

is

drawn, yet

is

it

still

appearance

least

of

beneath.

silver

The silver,

degree

it

firmly together without showing the

keeps the

with

gold to be

proportion of

of late years, regulated to

wire,

purest

the

durability

With

it.

body of the

the

of

choice

the

is

from

prepared

articles

which forms

manufacture of gold thread, and one

beauty and

depends the

this

of the

in the

consequence,

greatest

on

for

Continent. object

first

various names under which the manufactures of gold and

employed

as

for needlework,* will be

^ord, braid, bullion, (both

found, are,

passing,

rough, smooth, and checked), spangles,

and beads.

paillons, lames,

PASSING.

Passing size,

—of gold

closely

material

of

perfection

to

brought.

It

embroidery,

way.

*

The

or silver

resembling

a

which the

may

Passing

a smooth

is

thin

metallic

of an uniform It

is

the

finest

of

art

making gold

thread

been

has

be used in the same manner as silk for

needle

may

being

also be

threaded with

employed

Chinese, instead of flatted

gilt

wire,

gold in the

for knitting,

generally

which they interweave and embroider

paper, with

thread, wire.

kind manufactured, and peculiarly exhibits the

this

the

their

flat

usual

netting,

and

employ slips of gilt and twist upon

stuffs,

silk threads.

+

There

are various

technical terms for

necessary to trouble the reader.

some of

these, with

which

it

is

un-


GOLD AND SILVER. crochet.

It

made

is

01

of two or three different sizes ;

by

tinguished from gold cord

wire

tened

twisted round the

spirally

is

should be round,

prevent

to

and

large in the

through

flat-

being the

sufficient size

passed

is

it

its

dis-

backwards

The Turks embroider with

work/

the

is

the

passing,

and of

eye,

fraying of the gold as

the

forwards

and from

silk,

For embroidery with

formed of only one thread. needle

and

closeness with which

the

passing on morocco leather in the most beautiful manner.

GOLD CORD. Gold or

number of /ire

cord

silver

wound round them

in order that

it

the flattened

in a contrary direction to that of passing,

shall not ravel

by it

the

second process of twisting.

is

seldom employed of a larger^

Gold cord may be used

than two, three, or four threads.

size

by having

threads are formed

For the purposes of needlework,

for

composed of two or any other

a twist

is

The

threads.

edging braid work and

flat

embroidery

it ;

may

also

be em-

ployed for working patterns in a similar manner with braid.

should be

sewn on with a

surface so as to chip

it,

fine silk

needle

care that the point of the

o*f

the

same

It

colour, taking

does not penetrate the metallic

and betray the

silk beneath.

The

needle

should be held in as horizontal a position as possible, and passed

between the interstices of the cord, slightly taking up a thread or

two of the surface

Gold cord

is

it

is

much

canvas work, but

its

intended to ornament. introduced

wool in some kinds of

with

merit

applicability or

by the approbation of those who use

it.

It

must be determined is,

however, to be

admitted, that as a ground for small articles of extreme luxury,

it

,

may

and, if properly managed,

be employed with beautiful effect ;

it

is

not so expensive as might be imagined.


GOLD AND SILVER.

G2

GOLD BRAID. Braid

made of

a kind of plaited lace,

is

the application of which

is

too well

known

judgment of the needlewoman must the quality and make, as is

intended.

If

preferable.

or

It

copper-gilt,

to

three or

to

direct

best Suited to the purposes for

work on

a round full close

velvet,

The

her in the selection of

made of various widths and

is

more threads,

need comment.

which

it

make

is

qualities ;

mosaic,

same time,

being the least expensive, but, at the

the least durable.

BULLION. Bullion

is

in length. that

it

manufactured in pieces of about thirty-eight inches

composed of a

It is

with

the

kinds

—the

into

scissors

wire

fine

forms a smooth, round,

elastic

lengths

the

rough, the smooth,

so

tube,

exquisitely twisted,

which may

and the checked

— and

frequently used together in the same piece of work;

suppose a large

drawing cut

into

is

this

again

of

the

requisite

size;

are

—the

three

stitches

might be

the smooth, two with the rough, two with the checked,

two

with

the

rough,

of

the

letter.

and three with the smooth

pattern,

— In

cution of a correctly twisted

be accomplished but by those attention.

;

and very much enrich the

some descriptions of embroidery

the stems of flowers are worked with

<md

these

for instance,

were to be embroidered in bullion,

would form a kind of

appearance

cut

made, the surface raised with cotton, and the bullion

pieces

made with then

letter

bfe

There are three

required.

gold

bullion

:

but the exe-

stem with this material can rarely

who have devoted

to

it

both tims


GOLD AND SILVER.

G3

SPANGLES.

Spangles, or paillettes, are small pieces of silver or other metal •

gilt

or

cut into

plated,

various

forms,

and pierced in the centre with a is

more generally rounded, through which the

hole,

spangles

curious

a

is

process

they

;

were

demand, but are now seldom used except

and

The value of

tassels.

silk

The manufacture

passed which attaches them to the work.

formerly

in

of

great

ornamenting fringes

for

depends on their brilliancy

spangles

and colour and the quantity of gold consumed

in the gilding of

them. •

LAMA AND PAILLON. Lama, or lame metal,

which

,

may

is

a

gilt

strips,

with the scissors or a punch. ing of

worked the

with

by

which

it

tinsel.

'the is

An

it.

punch

used

for

It

for

or

employed

is

extremely

of

any shape

thin

desired, either

for the

various embroideries

ornament-

on crepe or

Indian muslins from Bengal are sometimes

celebrated

name of

pieces

and

dresses,

ladies’

The

net.

sheet

or plated

be cut into

of lama

imitation

This is

termed

paillon

needlework.

is

well

when cut

material

It

,

— the also

is

known under

into very small

general

form

in

manufactured of

various colours.

GOLD

BEADS.

Gold beads are either cut or plain

they

differ

very materially

;

both in quality and value, according to the quantity of gold employed

m

in

kinds of

all

their

manufacture.

They

are

very pretty auxiliaries

gold work, and when gold

is

introduced

with


GOLD AND SILVER.

54

wool and canvas,

are

not readily tarnish,

Gold beads

are

the

and,

used

work with silk

crochet

termixed

with

and most suitable

best

securely sewn on are

if

for

kinds

all

as ;

coloured beads,

of

with

also

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

as ;

knitting,

of

and

netting,

beautiful effect

description

they do

very durable.

when

work we

in-

shall

more particularly describe in a subsequent chapter.

GOLD FRINGES. Gold and if

descriptions of trimmings this climate

might

be

houses

.

made of

all

widths and qualities;

of the

The above gold

ornamental

for

Even

needlework.

they will wear for a great length of time

more

and

generally

wealthy,

velvet cushions,

in

are

silver fringes

applied with taste, they certainly form one of the most elegant

to

and other

are

the

silver

applied,

the

it

is

;

and they

on the Continent, in the

mounting of

articles

different

which

as

in

furniture,

such as

of a decorative character.

materials

employed

necessary to

for

working

enumerate.

The

various kinds of laces and other manufactures employed for military purposes, together with this

a totally different branch of the the scone

of those

description of embroidery, form art,

which does not come within

who pursue needlework

as an amusement.


CHAPTER

VII

CljeniUc, Braiits, etc.

—“Here tfcey may make And skip from worke

choyce of which to

worke from

is

which,

stitch to stitch.”

John Taylor.

ESIDES gold,

and

the

principal

silver, there are

materials,

—wool,

silk,

others which, although

not so generally employed, must not be passed

over in silence.

We

shall endeavour, therefore, t®

give a brief notice of these, commencing with

CHENILLE.

With

the exception of the precious metals, chenille

costly material used in needlework. close

resemblance

most beautiful * Chenille: .

6

bears to some species

application

“Un

V Acad Fran

it

It derives its

tissu

de

of

soie

chenille

veloutd.

is

qui

is

the most

name from

of caterpillars.* in embroidery

imite

la

on

the

The silk

chenille.”— Diet, da


;

:

CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

66 canvas, for

flowers or arabesques:

representation

of birds;

and,

is

it

also well adapted for thÂŤ

any extraneous

if

can

article

be

admitted with silk and wool, in the working of Berlin patterns, the most

this appears to be

be well

with

depicted

the effect of chenille

extremely

is

worked in Irish

being

appropriate,

For

it.

rich,

can

draperies

and

borders,

pillows,

both the design and ground

grounds

Silk

stitch.

as velvet

table-cover

are

admired

also

with patterns in chenille. Chenille

more commonly made of

is*

manufactured

been

pensive, there

is

of

wool,

but

a broder

coarse

the

next

canvas work and crochet,

:

is

called

is

its

The

which

size,

it ;

a very trifling difference in

of chenille are those usually employed chenille

silk

the process

as

however,

has,

equally ex-

is

Two

cost.

smallest

is

sizes

termed

used for

principally

% chenille ordinaire.

BRAID.

Braid

is

of three kinds,

union cord

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Russia,

French and round

more frequently employed than the

braid,

latter.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but

Braids

are manufactured either of gold or silver, silk, worsted, or cotton

gold and

silk,

and silver and

silk,

sometimes mixed together

are

in the same piece.

The

application

of braids in forming a most elegant

species of embroidery is

not

be

too

much

well

admired,

known, either

and, if

for

and easy

well executed,

folios,

bags, note

can cases,

The first process in the manufacture of chenille, is that of weaving; this done in the same manner as plain weaving, with the exception that the threads of the warp are placed at short and regular distances from each other, When woven, it is cut with according to the required size of this material. *

is

scissors

as

it

between the threads of the warp into

were, on each side.

The more

tightly chenille

They is

strips,

leaving a fringed edge,

are afterwards twisted with a proper machine.

twisted, the thicker

and

closer the

pile

becomes.


CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

67

sachets, table cover borders, chairs, ottomans,

and other pieces of

The

furniture, besides various articles of dress.

must be good where nicety of work

quality,

however

is desired.

UNION CORD.

Union

cord

is

often employed

with

dition

of gold cord, serves as a pretty

is also

very

rich,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

braid,

and with the ad-

Gold union cord

relief.

close braiding patterns, or a vermicelli pattern,

being best calculated for

its display.

STRAW.

A

flat plaited straw,

into worsted work, for It is

with both edges carriage

baskets,

has

has been introduced

and other fancy

articles.

exceedingly pretty, and well adapted to these purposes from

bright appearance and durability.

its

alike,

also

been

done

on velvet and

Embroidery with silk,

split

straw

and has a curious and

beautiful effect.

NACRE AND ECA1LLE. Nacre, or mother of yearly

cut into paillettes of various forms,

has been employed in a peculiar species of needlework with good effect; it is not,

however, commonly to be met with, and

practised in this

country.

Nacre

is

generally worked

is

seldom

on velvet

or satin, to represent birds or flowers, either in relief or flat; the

stems and other parts being formed of gold bullion.

It is

some-

times used for embroidering parts of the vestments of the clergy in Catholic countries.

Another description, known by the name of imitation of the above.

Pieces of flattened

ecaille loorlc, is

quill,

an

cut into simi-


CHEN1LLE BRAIDS; ETC.

08

;

lar

same manner.

cut

with

at the

much

but by a

shapes,

the

a

The

punch

expensive process, are used in

less

(as

ecaille

the

whilst

improperly termed)

is

it

quill

a

in

is

soft

same time pierces the small holes by which This

attached.

work

of

species

Whether

pretty than the preceding. dery, its

is

is

it

is

which

state,

be

to

perhaps

more

in

or in flat embroi-

relief,

delicate

and

on velvet when intermixed with

effect is best displayed

gold.

VELVET. Velvet flowers

most beautiful

and

effect

being worked in gold bullion. raised, the ecaille.

pasted

same

the

They may

back

are

used with

to

is

cut, thin

prevent the

be worked either

employed as

style of pattern being

Before the velvet at

with a punch,

leaves, cut

on white watered gros de Naples, the stems flat

for nacre

or

and

paper should be smoothly

becoming rough by

edges

unravelling. o

BEADS. â&#x20AC;˘

Beads are made either

gilt or plated,

detailed account of their manufacture

subsequent chapter on bead work

or of glass, or

and

use, will be

appeared in worsted work, and in an

work on perforated cardboard, but further notice of

A

.

Bugles are short glass tubes of various colours. late

steel.

found in a

inferior

They have

of

description

of

their total inapplicability renders

them unnecessary. i

PAILLONS AND PAILLETTES. Paillons and Paillettes of polished steel or coloured beautifully

foils,

may

be

introduced on velvet with gold braid and embroidery.


CHENILLE, BRAIDS, ETC.

69

CREPE.

Crepe

on

flowers

very

broidery, are

with leaves in

and

The shape

worked in white.

elegant,

of

chenille

drawn together

and

scissors,

The

required.

their

The

silver

;

but

if

natural,

leaves are sometimes

chenille

in

be cut by

to

edges

entirely

made

the petals should be

at

em-

silk

if

to

the

centres of the flowers, if of a fancy kind,

worked on gold or preferable.

or

particularly

from which those in crepe are afterwards

paper,

the

satin,

delicate

or

form

may silk

be are

worked in China ribbon, or

velvet applique.

CHINA RIBBON. China ribbon

is

at one edge, the

pretty for flowers.

also

ribbon

may

be

By

running a

silk

puckered up into a variety of

pretty and fantastic forms.

The effect

great neatness

with

many

tion difficult.

necessary to produce

a good and elegant

of these materials, renders their use and applica-

What

can be more wretched than the attempts at

ribbon work for instance, on a poor thin satin contrary, flower,

more

delicate

;

and what on the

and simple than the neatly executed crepe

and well embroidered leaf?


:

CHAPTER

VIII

CflltDttS.

“These

are the gifts of Art,

Where Commerce

He

catches

and Art

improvements in his

all

thrives most

has enrich’d the busy coast; flight,

Spread’s foreign wonders in his country’s sight,

Imports what others have invented well,

And

stirs his

own

match them or

to

’Tis thus reciprocating,

excel.

each with each,

Alternately the nations learn and teach.”

Cowper.

ANVAS

may

be classed under four distinct heads,

according to the posed.

canvas:

We

of

stoutest

where they are

threads

distinguished stance,

these

within less

as

they

a

given

contain space,

by a number corresponding

are,

it

is

com-

thread, and woollen

a

—the

greater

threads

Each canvas

numerous.

we have a number twenty, and

figures

of which

materials silk, cotton,

these are denominated fine or coarse, in

proportion

number

have

a

is

or

less

being further

to its size: thus, for in-

number

twelve, canvas

however, arbitrary, and vary conformably with

the customs of the

manufacturers in

each country, ascending or

descending relatively with their fineness or coarseness

;

and as they


:

CANVAS.

more particularly intended

are

purchasers,

it

is

71

convenience of

the

for

would perhaps be more perplexing than whether of

silk,

wholesale

not necessary for us thus to specify them, as

The

useful.

it

finest canvas,

cotton, or thread, has acquired the general appel-

lation of “Mosaic.”

SILK CANVAS.

more frequently termed Berlin canvas,

Silk,

a

as

vignette, gem, for a

grounding

for

and

adapted for

and ornamental items,

as also

however,

it

is

grounded work, where durability

is

necessary

of furniture

used

flower,

kinds of set and arabesque patterns, and

all

variety of small, useful

articles

well

is

it

generally

is

,

substitute

for

the

latter,

not so

for

well

;

calculated

as

screens and

for

much

ferable,

pillows,

and many other purposes,

can be obtained of most colours,

—but

Silk canvas

black,

white,

pre-

is far

it

time and labour being obviously saved.

Working on

primrose, are those generally employed.

but

;

and

claret,

this

canvas

requires greater neatness in finishing off the stitches at the back,

the wools or silks must not

than work intended to be grounded ;

be carried across from one part to another beneath, but cut

ofl‘

when mounted, they would show

as closely as possible, otherwise

through the meshes of the canvas, greatly detrimental to the appearance of the work. Berlin

made

of

canvas being an expensive manufacture,

an

quality

inferior

it

therefore

is

requires

frequently care

and

freest

from

;

judgment in knots, is

selection

:

— that

which

and of a firm and uniform

made

half,

its

but

is

texture, is to

widths, varying from half an inch

in

there

descriptions

is

not

of canvas

:

that

variety

four sizes

in

in

and

clearest,

its

general

be preferred. to

sizes

are

It

a yard and a as

in

other

manufactured


72

CANVAS.

which severally count about

and 40 threads

21, 29, 34,

the

to

inch.*

A

very

principally for

met

with.

made

canvas,

flexible

a few years since, but

of

entirely

bead work and purses, and

Silk

was introduced

silk,

was an expensive

it

and adapted

article,

now seldom

is

to

be

canvas, with gold and silver threads interwoven,

has also been made, but

it

does not suit the taste of the English.

COTTON CANVAS. Cotton canvas

made of

is

patent, or

French canvas,

firmness, but

and, above

considerable

superior, not only

is

and widths, and

qualities, sizes,

all

manufactured both in England, France, and

is

Germany.

on account of

from the great regularity and clearness of

all,

squareness of

the

its

meshes,

The

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

its

its

threads,

object of very

importance to the needlewoman, whose work might

by

otherwise become most singularly distorted,

the design being

lengthened one way, and at the same time diminished the other, or the

contrary, according as

breadth of the canvas

or

it

this,

:

might be worked on the length however,

is

taken advantage of for some patterns, when to confine the

work within

casionally used which

certain

an it

evil that

may

be

becomes necessary

limits, as designs

may

be oc-

would not otherwise count to the required

dimensions.

German well

as

cotton canvas, although

adapted

procured at

much

to

thread yellow, which

*

The

some purposes

less cost

many

:

it is

as

inferior

the

generally

description, is

above,

and Âťcan be

made with every tenth

persons consider a great assistance in

threads of silk canvas are

cotton fibre

of an

formed by a fine

silk

wound round

a


.

^ r% i o

CANVAS. counting the

but

in

It is

manufactured both limp and

may

be procured of

stitches.

the

and, like

French,

texture,

French c&nvas.

not

is

it

so

should

It

strong as either

not

be

English

the

used with light or

grounds, as the yellow thread will show through the

we

should

advise

much

where

it

stiffened,

and widths

sizes

all

tension

white

work

nor

:

required in

is

j

or

the

mounting.

A

canvas, in imitation of

cotton

many, but

it

soon

loses

soils,

its

has been made in Ger-

silk,

and

colour,

otherwise very

is

inferior.*

THREAD CANVAS. Thread canvas, manufactured from hemp, 1

now seldom em-

is

ployed, except for carpets and rugs, for which purpose strength

and durability peculiarly adapt

A

usual sizes and widths.

fine thread

it

it

its

greater

made of the

is

;

canvas formed of flax

is

sometimes to be procured.

PENELOPE CANVAS. â&#x20AC;˘

Penelope canvas (so

called

is

considered

its

having the appearance of

work has been unpicked)

a canvas from which the it

from

by some

persons to be

each four threads being ready for the needle ever, stitch,

it

generally

*

A

suitable

thought dazzling to the sight.

it* is

is

speaking,

canvas for

certainly

has

by

much used work upon, how-

others,

For very

fine cross

unobjectionable and more easily seen

the

been

;

is

to

easier

work produced

made purposely

copying Berlin patterns.

for

upon

it

tapestry-stitch,

has

but

;

not

it

is

but the

not


CANVAS.

74

even

pearly

appearance,

of

done

that

over the usual

canvas,

Penelope canvas has as yet only been manufactured of cotton,

FLATTENED CANVAS. Flattened canvas, both of thread and cotton,

and

France,

passed through the possess

from the

only

differs

cylinders of a flatting

any superior

qualities, if

drawn

is

where the old method

still

adhered to

of

it,

are

all

silk or

worked,

still

does not

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

object

of some

working with the pattern finished, is not

This plan, how-

equal to that executed on round thread canvas. ever, is

it

the greater facility

but the work, when

;

in

having been

its

machine;

we except

with which designs can be drawn upon importance,

much used

is

by

others,

continued by one house in Paris, where the patterns

drawn on the canvas, and afterwards traced with a cotton,

of the colours in which they are intended

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process

fine

to be

rendering the work more expensive, and which

does not appear to be productive of any beneficial

result.

WOOLLEN CANVAS. Woollen canvas be

employed,

avoided, but as

is

an

article of

where the labour

it is

far

grounded work.

German manufacture, and may of grounding

from presenting the same Claret,

black, white,

colours generally used, but others

may

sought to

is

be

rich appearance

and primrose, are the

be procured.

BOLTING. Solting

is

a very fine description of woollen canvas, principally

manufactured in England, but now seldom used except

for chil


CANVAS. drenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

samplers.

yellow

colour,

purpose to

It it

:

An

called

inferior

sampler

kind canvas,

75 of is

canvas, also

generally

made

for

the

of

a

same

both are limited in width, but they are too well known

need further description.*

* Bolting is woven after the manner of gauze, of fine spun woollen yarn. was originally made for the sifting or bolting of meal or flour, whence derives

its

name.

I


;

CHAPTER

IX

« i

Berlin patterns.

u Learn hence to paint the parts that meet the view,

In spheroid forms, of light

While from

aiftl

equal hue;

the light receding or the eye,

The working

outlines take

a fainter dye,

Lost and confused progressively they fade,

Not

fall

precipitate

This Nature

from

light to shade.

and this taste pursues, Studious in gradual gloom her lights to lose The various whole with soft’ning tints to fill, As if one single head employ’d her skill.” dictates,

Du Fresnoy.

ERLIN

patterns have contributed more towards

the advancement of needlework of the present day,

than any improvement that has of introduced into the

art,

—not

late

years been

simply from the

as-

sistance they yield the needlewoman, but from the

aemand they have occasioned superior materials.

which

wmld

Hence the

for

improved and

we now

possess,

never probably have been manufactured, had they not

been imperatively called

We

beautiful wools

are indebted to

for

by

Germany,

for

the

invention

of these

designs.

both these advantages; and

it is


BERLIN PATTERNS. not a

singular, that

little

pears to be the least

evident from the

will

it

of appreciating their value,

greater portion

course an exception to needle,

country which produces them ap-

the

capable

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

as is

of the needlework exposed for

The work of German ladies is when taste and talent direct

throughout Germany.

sale

77

as

this,

be equally beautiful wherever

it

may

be

of the

found.

England, and next to her, perhaps Russia, have profited most by

The

these auxiliaries.

great deal from

them;

ladies of

Sweden and Denmark work a

the French, as

have used them but

yet,

little,

the old method of drawing the subject on canvas being

much

in vogue.

and

to America,

still

Great numbers of these patterns are exported to the various countries of the Continent.*

Berlin patterns, although a production of recent date, have be-

come an

are

of considerable commerce

article

amount of

large

either

capital is

from celebrated

copied

Germany, where a

in

They

employed in their manufacture. pictures,

or

(as

more

is

fre-

quently the case) from the newest and most favourite engravings published either in England, France, or jects,

Germany.

Many

such as flowers and arabesques, are designed expressly.

drawn

are first

on quadrille or point paper

colours

in

,

the excellence of the pattern depends principally on the sign, it

may

ing or etching

is

made on

a

From

the

canvas

:

this drawing,

de-

various

size,

marks

an engrav-

which has previously

copper-plate,

been ruled in squares of the required of

and as first

readily be imagined that artists of considerable talent

are required for their execution.

threads

f

sub-

They

corresponding to the

and

hieroglyphics

are

engraved on each check or square, which are to serve as guides

*

The

proportionate

demand

in other countries

the following order of their respective names: Italy,

may

Spain, and Portugal.

t Paper

marked out

be stated according to

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Holland,

into squares of a regular size.

Belgium, Switzerland,


BERLIN PATTERNS.

78

who afterwards

for those

part for each

The

with a different figure. a

very

colour

shade of colour, being marked state,

bears

mode

the present

on

;

being, in

merely an improvement on the designs which have fdr years

fact,

been used by weavers for their figured

The

by one

the various

the same time, each check,

at

of the pencil, the point of which

stroke

graving.

Practice

surprising

to

another

different

alone

is

laid

is

of

renders

what

with

see

is

kept very

If

on.

.

touch perfect

the

we

for

the

design

and the

and

reflect

it

is

tint

on these

diminished

there"* are

when we

and that each

engraving,

small cost at which they are to be

patterns

moment

a

by hand, we cannot

coloured

der will not be

;

and exactness each

rapidity

and the time they must necessarily occupy,

processes,

expense

square

or continuous

the engraved figures, being coloured

and of a size adapted to that of the check of the en-

square,

these

curious ;

on several patterns

the

is

quickly laid on, commencing with each separate colour

line of checks, according to

after

stuffs.*

process of colouring these patterns

are

tints

the

in this

published in old books

above two centuries since

needlework,

when

pattern,

resemblance to those

great

on paper; the

impressions

the

or separate

colour,

procured

are

considerably

be surprised at

to

fail

told,

;

and our won-

that in some of

above half a

million of

Email squares, like those of a mosaic, to be separately coloured.

All Berlin

patterns are equally adapted for

cross or tent stitch,

them. be

closely shaded, or

meagre.

*

though great judgment

Patterns intended to be enlarged

We

Difficulties

have several

the colouring,

working either in

is

requisite in choosing

by

the working, should

being dispersed, will appear

frequently arise from working these designs

impressions of the

have been kindly presented

to

patterns in this

first

us by the various manufacturers.

stage,

which


;

BERLIN PATTERNS.

79

grounding

without previously fixing on the colour of the should always be done in the well,

the colour of the ground,

Most of the

neglected.

many

as

maxim which

figure patterns

them

of

to

which

defect

overcome;

the

is

it

the

common

working

harsh and glaring in the extreme,

is

province of the expert needlewoman

rules of painting

will be

frequently a great

is

same design.

In sorting

as for instance, the

errors, such,

that light displays

first,

of

found useful in correcting

back and foreground being of the same depth of shade.

Know

a few

attention to

historical subjects,

some of the more gross of these

knowledge

fair

and shade, be much im-

light

in this respect, however, there

for

to

but too frequently

is

may, with a

difference even in the colouring of the

the wools

work

strict attention

extremely correct in the outlines,

are

although the colouring of most

—a

sorted , with

and a just idea of

of painting, proved,

—a

a pattern, to

instance, as

first

must always be shaded, or

this

'

and shade destroys

Refulgent Nature’s variegated dyes.

Thus With

bodies near the light distinctly shine

rays direct, and as

fades decline.”*

it

Black should never be used next a high light: one-eighth of every object*

and

has a high light upon

six

positively

that

parts blue,

and half

light

or

red,

most objects

yellow,

reflect the

one-eighth

it,

No

tint.

—owing

tints to

darkest shadow, in nature,

two causes

to

:

the

are one,

sky; the other, that the atmosphere

between the eye of the observer and the ness of the

is

objects

be deadened

it

:

objegt, causes the bright-

hence

arises,

that care

must

be taken to avoid the immediate contact of bright colours with

each other, where

any attempt

Du

is

made

to

imitate

Fresnoy, translated by Mason.

nature,

—the


sc

BERLIN PATTERNS.

contrary ot which,

it

would appear, was the point

some of the Berlin

at in

11

to be

arrived

patterns.

Chose such judicious

force of shade

and

light

As suits the theme, and satisfies the sight; Weigh part with part, and with prophetic eye The future power of all thy tints descry;

And

those, those only

Whose

hues are

social,

on the canvas place, whose effect is grace.”*

In some patterns, when harmony of colour alone

be sought,

is to

but a few of the more neaes-

avoid these defects;

easier to

is

it

sary rules to be observed, independent of the guidance of

may

not be unacceptable.

and browns and and the

greens

are

lilacs are

almost

contrary,

the French ecrus, are

good

upon a

scarlet

the class of drabs and

ground; blues

and

well as yellow

colder and

ill,

green

;

on

fawns (called by

greener slbades

with

taste),

lilacs;

brown-toned drabs are beautiful with yellow; pinks

greens and maize, lilac

as

and used by them with such exquisite

and greys are good

maize;

all

with blue; the

the deep rich

also lost

bad together,

taste,

and yellows assort very

Scarlets

scarlets

and

greens and red browns;

slates ;

;

with some shades of salmon col*ir; blue with

with green; and blue with

claret,

will all

be found

generally to please the eye.

The

greatest difficulty

which we have

the colours for figure patterns, ferent

colours

and

shades

are

is

to encounter in selecting

the face

so ;

many

here required to

totally dif-

produce,

when

worked, what should appear to be almost but as one

—and

here

the skill of the needlewoman will be fairly put to the

trial.

The

skies and clouds are also difficult to

Du

manage; the greatest nicety

Fresnoy, translated by Mason.


BERLIN PATTERNS. required in

being

8!

blending of the various colours, and to

tlie

avoid tbe liney appearance which will but too frequently occur. Berlin patterns can be copied on cloth, satin, or other materials,

by

stretching

threads, it

is

them

a

canvas

which are afterwards

much

work: by

articles of furniture, will

the

are

colour

drawn

On

out.

this means,

through

cloth,

wear much

better.

if

the

however,

when mounted,

and closer appearance, and

richer

to cut it

will

intended for

In groups of flowers,

of ground which sometimes appear between

the small interstices the leaves,

to be

and working

withdraw the threads, but only

better not entirely to off close to the

have a

to

over them,

better

of the

worked with a wool exactly corresponding cloth,

than to cut out the threads,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

uniform surface being thus given to the whole work.

For working

these patterns on Berlin, or silk canvas, the same

rules are applicable as it

may

for canvas intended

to

be grounded;

but

not be improper to remark, in this place, on a method of

mounting small pieces of work on Berlin canvas, which has been copied from the Germans: namely, that of placing a painted sky

Good needlework

behind the canvas. its

display ;

such,

mean and

a

paltry

appearance

Vignette and flower pieces &c. even canvas,

may sometimes

or velvets, to take

silk

is

frequently

given

to

when worked on white

it.

silk

the otherwise cold appearance of the

always be of one uniform colour.

canvas should be lined with a coloured ground in

accordance with their several

A

no foreign aid for

be appropriately lined with coloured satins

away from

ground; but the lining should Coloured

requires

but here, on the contrary, instead of receiving any

tints.

few coloured paper patterns are published

consist principally of flowers, birds,

at

Vienna; they

and arabesques: some of these

surpass in beauty of design and colouring (being more true to nature)

any of those produced

at Berlin, particularly

7

when worked.


BERLIN PATTERNS.

32

We

may,

for

instance, mention

the

Parrot

pattern of the

and

Basket of Flowers, the Cockatoo and Flowers, and a most beautiful

Group of Flowers,

principally tulips, in a basket.

Attempts have been made, but unsuccessfully, atterns at

Dresden and Nuremberg-, and

to

produce similar

also at Paris ;

more wretched, It

may

not be uninteresting to observe, that the work executed

from these patterns in England,

from Berlin patterns

In Germany, the work done

frequently more defective in point

is

We

of colouring than the patterns themselves. part of our most

the greatest

and Germany

;

The French

are

their embroidery

*

We

in

formerly procured

needlework from France last

few years, so greatly

long we must be the all

kinds of canvas

exporters.

work,

— with

we can seldom compete.*

are indebted

patterns,

that ere

behind us

to

history of Berlin patterns.

some

beautiful

but the art has, within the

improved in England,

anything of the

surpasses

far

kind usually done on the Continent. for sale

but nothing

either in design or execution, can be conceived.

Mr. Wittich

—About

for the

following facts relative

the year 1805, a

the

to

Mr. Phillipson published

which, being badly executed and devoid of

taste, did

not meet

In 1810, Madame Wittich, a lady of with the encouragement he expected. great taste and an accomplished needlewoman, justly appreciating the advantages the art would derive from such designs, and anxious that this species of amuse-

ment

for ladies

prevailed upon her husband, a undertake the publication of a series of these got up in so superior a manner, that many of the first

should be more widely spread,

printseller of note at Berlin,

to

which he did, which were issued from his establishment are now in as much demand in fact, we very much doubt whether any, as those more recently published since published by other houses, have ever equalled, either in design or colouring, the earlier productions of Mr. Wittich. The designer and engraver of these patterns are of course paid as artists in proportion to their talents the cost of the first coloured design on point paper varying from three to thirty or forty guineas, but, in some instances, as in the large pattern of Bolton Abbey, the Garden of Boccaccio, &c. it is considerably The colouring affords employment both for men, women, and children more. patterns;

patterns

:

,

;

\ dozen or half-dozen copies are given to each person at a time, with the original


BERLIN PATTERNS. design as a guide.

An

industrious

or three shillings, per day;

the

man

seldom earns more than one

children, from

from sixpence to tenpence English.

83

From

six to

thaler,

eight silber-groschen, or

the great increase of the trade of

and the number of new houses that have sprung up, it is impossible to give (as a statistical fact) any idea of the number of persons employed in their manufacture. Besides the hands engaged in the preparation of these patterns, they have been the means indirectly of affording employment to numerous other persons, by creating a demand for new and various articles in other branches of trade; such as in the preparation and dyeing of wools and silks, the weaving of canvas, &c. whilst others, principally females, are engaged late years,

in

working the designs.


CHAPTER X Drawing patterns

for (Srtnbroiberji, Sraiiiing, ctr.

“ Artist, attend

—your

brushes and your paint.”

COWPER.

'

“ Whether the shapeless wool in balls she wound,

Or with quick motion turn’d the spindle round, Or with her pencil drew the neat design, Pallas her mistress shone in every line.”

Ovid.

ONSIDERABLE

designing

the

for

site

needlework,

most

of

skill are requi-

patterns

suitable

and drawing them on the

upon which they the

experience and

are

essential, as

difficult parts

intended

to

be worked,

of the most

as one

well

for

material,

Any

of the preparatory process.

person with moderate talent for drawing, can easily accomplish the operation of tracing

but

;

it

requires a combined knowledge both

of painting and needlework, to

purpose intended, as

the

in such a manner, that it

would be impossible

perfectly adapt the

design to the

draughtsman might portray

however beautiful and correct to imitate or

express

it

his it

subject

might

in embroidery.

be,


DRAWING PATTERNS. The

85

design being carefully and distinctly drawn or

must be neatly pierced with a

steel point into holes

paper,

Ke

:

it

pattern

thus prepared must be laid on the cloth, velvet, satin, or whatever

may

be the

material intended to be

taken that both are perfectly placed in the

is

firmly kept in

exact

position

worked

upon, care

it

is

intended

to

as

occupy, the

and

slightest

of the pattern would entirely destroy the effect

hifting

being

and even, and that the pattern

by means of weights,

place

its

flat

pounce :

must then be rubbed over the

skilfully

performed),

and as

beautifully

as

On removing

pierced holes.

been

so

it,

the

The

penetrate equally through

the paper

design

be found

as

if it

to

be

as

were actually

design thus produced on the material

must be traced over with the proper goat’s hair pencil for the purpose, if it

the operation has

(if

will

marked out

distinctly

printed on the fabric.

to

liquid,

using a sable

or

a camel’s hair pencil, especially

be for drawing on cloth, being too flexible.

Drawing

liquid

these designs, as

a preparation the best adapted for tracing

is

it

can be prepared of any colour, and

is

equally

adapted for every description of material that can be worked upon. All mixtures of

gum and

white lead, or other colours, should be

especially avoided, as they produce are so easily

broidery

worn

off

;

rubbed

off,

a rough,

that they injure

uneven

the

silks

and in braiding, the pattern of one part

by

while working

the

other,

patterns

are

required

the mere

surface,

and

used in emis

frequently

rubbing of

the

fingers.*

When

large

table-cloths,

ottomans,

and the

like,

to

be

drawn, such as for

where the same pattern, or

Drawing liquid is the composition made by pattern drawers to trace their and we conclude that each designer has some different preparation, the excellence of which is best tested by its tenacity, and the clearness of the outline which can be produced with it. *

designs

;


.

DRAWING PATTERNS.

86 its reverse,

both

saving

intended

is

may

repeated,

are

paper, with

be again placed in

of

division

the

guides

corresponding

certain

great

or

pounced, in order that the pattern

to be

also

found a

will be

it

time and trouble, to draw one

of

design only on the

marks, which

be

to

exact relative position, to continue or

its

repeat the other portion of the design, which has been previously

This method,

pounced. a more

pattern

correct

if followed

when

had been drawn, and pounced

at

In drawing a design on paper, quarters saved,

instead of repeating the ,

two or four

in

exactly

one

of

division

each

to

when

the two

other

:

the

several portions

and

pierced.

— This

if

halves, or four

much

being

pattern

at

opening the paper, a more correct design been produced, than

whole design

time

is

drawing, the paper be folded

the paper thus doubled,

through the

pierced

if the

time.*

taking care that the folded

portions,

parallel

than

the same

intended to correspond,

are

corners,

or

if,

with adroitness, will produce

finished,

edges

be

drawn

on

the

holes

are

the

same

time.

will

to

be

On

be found to have

each portion had been separately drawn

mode, when the design

will

admit of

it,

may

be advantageously adopted, even where the paper would require to be doubled six

or eight times, provided care be taken to keep

the

exactly folded.

MM. for

Revol and Regondet obtained a

method of pouncing and tracing

a

some notice craie,

la

une

:

ou

“ Elle

la

consiste

chaux

poudre resineuse

comme *

parts

several

a

1’

ordinaire,

This process

is

puis

similar

paper hangings, &c. where

patterns,

a remplacer

vive dont on se tres

to

it is

fine.

on that

la

On fixe

employed

“ Brevet

la

d’ Invention’

which

deserves

poudre de charbon,

servait

autrefois,

ponce avec cette

par

poudre

promptement, en passant for

block-printing for

requisite to repeat the

the different parts of the pattern with various colours.

same

calicoes,

pattern, or to print


DRAWING PATTERNS. au-dessus d’un brasier peu

l’etoffe

un

chaud a repasser sur

fer

papier

Cette

blanc.

ou bien en promenant

ardent,

cette

87

recouverte

etoffe

methode, d’un usage

derniere

favantage de produire un dessin correct sur

que

terns

de

dessin

ce

fixer

sur

conqoit aisement que la cbaleur fond la resine, que

au

que par consequent

tissu, et

1’

celle-ci

que dans

qu’il

en

que

la

ne s’enleveraient que

qui

For embroidering paper,

may

admit

to

gum

There

it

prevent

to

drawn the

les

im-

est

ailleurs

Elies pensent

la cbaleur, des tacbes

tacbes resineuses ordinaires.”

of

its

easiest

when

it

is

on

sufficiently

being seen, as in muslins, cambric,

and most delicate way of following too thick, the pattern

is

may

with indigo, mixed with a sufficient quantity of its

better, as

is

comme

but where the material

;

be drawn upon

il

in satin-stitch, the pattern, traced in black

This seems the

the design

par faction de

be tacked under the material,

transparent

& c.

broderie doit recouvrir.

resulterait,

On

attache

dessin est solidement imprime.

le

repandre de cette poudre sur f etoffe

de

les endroits

avec raison

s’

a

me me

etoffe.

Les personnes soigneuses comprendront aussi combien portant d’e viter

sur,

le papier, en

irrevocablem.ent

d’un

alors

plus

running.”

The

lighter

these

lines

are

they are the more easily effaced by washing.*

great difficulty in changing the proportions of patterns:

and elegant

much admired when small, frequently lose all taste when enlarged and on the contrary, bold designs are quite lost when reduced. This should be

pointed out

by

those

which

are

their delicacy

and

;

the designer,

who

should both consult and direct

the taste and judgment of the embroideress.

*

The

following preparation

spoonful of

spirits

is

frequently used for this

of wine, in which are

dissolved sugar

purpose.

A

table

and gum arabic in

much as would lay upon a sixpence, coloured with indigo. For common purposes, however, a cake of water colour indigo will be found

equal parts, about as

equally useful.


DRAWING PATTERNS.

88

With

respect to the various materials

for embroidery

need be

little

apt to follow the

from

as

the

dency

to

move;

adjust

it

properly

The

great

the

richer

of

elasticity

and

velvet

care,

therefore,

firmly

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

in

pile

is

upon;

in fact,

applicable to cloth.

make

will alone

its

is

A

with

in

order to weights.

being closer and shorter

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

can be pounced, and drawn

it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

care,

a ten-

the

required,

place,

none but the best velvets

either for embroidery or braiding:

greatest

it

on

as

lines,

the paper pattern has

pile,

its

the facility with which

greater

sur-

its

threads of the warp, thus rendering

with gracefulness the curved

In pouncing, velvet requires the

other materials.

to be traced,

draw upon; the pencil being

difficult to

straight

easy to produce

less

is

from the glossy smoothness of

Satin,

said.

perhaps the most

face, is

used as the groundwork

and braiding, on which the design

this

should ever be used

latter

remark

is

equally

good knowledge of drawing, and experience,

a proficient in this

department,

may appear to be merely mechanical. To many persons, especially the artist, some of cesses may appear tedious and unnecessary, as we

which,

at

first

sight

the above pro-

frequently see

some of the most beautiful patterns drawn on the materials once,

without any previous

Such patterns

* Patterns

may

similar to that

and

difficu

t.

are

at

design or pouncing being required.

of course the most valuable, as being unique.*

also be

drawn on

paper,

and the

adopted for stencilling plates, but the

lines

cut out in a

process

is

way

both tedious


CHAPTER

XI.

Implements.

“ Implements of ev’ry

And

formed

for various

size,

use.”

Cowper.

NEEDLES.

HEN,

as has been justly observed,

we consider

the simplicity, smallness, and moderate price of

a needle,

we should

that this

little

naturally be led to suppose

instrument requires neither

labour nor Complicated manipulations in struction needle,

;

however inconsiderable

we cannot

sale,

* It

would be tedious

fail

its

size,

passes

through the hand

through

wire which

is to

it is

ready

to be surprised.*

manufacture of these remarks on one or two

to enter into the minutiae of the

small but important implements, processes

con-

but when we learn that every sewing

pf one hundred and twenty different operatives, before for

much

its

but a few cursory

which they pass may not be uninteresting.

When

the

form the needle has been pointed, and flattened at the other


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; IMPLEMENTS.

90

There are a great variety of for

ployed

for

names of tapestry

numbers fourteen

and

sharps,

needles,

blunt at the point,

is

made of various

is

it

These are

needlework.

decorative

tapestry needle

needles, but

mention those which are more

us only to

those

sizes ;

to twenty-five,

scription of canvas

and

They

work.

necessary

immediately

em-

known by

the

The

long-eyed sharps.

w ith T

a long oval eye

common

in

will be

applicable

are

it ;

from

being

use,

every de-

to

should be manufactured of the

This is commonly and applying the point of a small punch to it, pierces the eye with a smart tap of a hammer, applied first upon the one side, and then exactly opposite upon the other Another child trims the eyes, which he does by laying the needle upon a lump of lead, and driving a proper punch through Its eye; then laying it sideways upon a flat piece of steel, with the punch sticking in it, he gives it a tap on each side with his hammer, and causes the eye to take the shape of the punch. The operation of piercing and trimming the eyes is performed by clever children with astonishing rapidity, who become so dexterous as to fierce ivith a, punch a human hair and thread it with another for the amusement of visitors. The next operation makes the grove at the eye, and rounds the head; they are then tempered, polished, &c. and thrown as a confused heap, into a somewhat concave iron tray, in which, by a few dexterous jerks of the workmanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extremity to form the head,

it

is

handed

to the piercer.

a child, who, laying the head upon a block of

steel,

,

,

They

hand, they are made to arrange themselves parallel to each other. afterwards sorted and divided

into quantities

for

are

packing in blue papers, by

of one hundred needles, and so measuring them out without the trouble of counting them individually.

putting into a small balance the equivalent weight

It is

easy to distinguish good English needles from spurious imitations;

cause the former have their axis coincident with their points, which

is

be-

readily

observed by turning them round between the finger and thumb.

The construction of a needle requires, as already stated, about one hundred and twenty operations; but they are rapidly and uninterruptedly successive: a child can trim the eyes of four thousand needles per hour.

When we

survey a manufacture of this kind,

of great mechanical it;

refinement.

to multiply operations

clusively

to

productive.

one

is

process,

In thq

to simplify is

we cannot

fail

to

observe,

which the needles undergo, bears the impress

that the diversity of operations

to

Abridged from Dr. Ure

render .

arts,

to divide

them; and

to

him much

labour

is

to

abridge

attach an operative ex-

more

economical

and


IMPLEMENTS. finest

but they are occasionally made of gold or

steel,

warm

use in

91

The same kind

climates.

employed

*diarp point, is

of needle

for chenille embroidery,

silver

for

made with a

and

working

for

>n cloth through canvas.

The

There

manship.

termed blunts latter

common sewing

sharps are the

they are made of

are

;

various

a similar kind

also

is

the

employed by

principally

shoe binder, and workers in

numbering from one

easier

to

—the

wool

The

— those

for

it

steel

;

and work-

of needle, but shorter, general purposes, the

tailor,

They

less

passes through the work.

it

having a long eye, are used

as to

all

the

leather.

fifteen.

round

diamond-shaped or

useful for

are

first

round eyes

needles, with

both

qualities,

truer cuts

the

the

the

glover,

made

are

eye

in

the sizes

—whether and the

thread,

Needles called long-eyed sharps,

embroidery both in

silk

and

to

ten.

most generally employed, number from one

Darners are a similar kind of needle, but much longer than the former

they are mostly applicable to domestic purposes. grec,

familiarly

*

Aiguilles

;

TY

a

The

used

are

known

in

France

for

embroidering,

but

those

Whitechapel needles, are better.*

as

needles used in ancient times, were principally of bronze

:

Pliny

Sewing and netting needles have been found both at Herculaneum and Pompeii and several are preserved in the Hamiltonian On the two marbles brought from the neighbourhood and other collections. of Amyclse in Lyconia, by the earl of Aberdeen, are represented, among other requisites for the toilet of a Grecian female, combs, pins, needles, and bodkins. See Walpole’s Memoirs relating to Europeom ant Asiatic Turkey, p. 244. It is supposed that needles, similar to those now employed, were originally made in mentions them of

this

metal.

;

Spain, from the circumstance of their having been called Spanish needles first

into this country

from Germany.

Needles were

first

the year 1565, by Elias Crawse or Krause, a German,

The

when

used in England, although the art of manufacturing them was brought

reputation long enjoyed

locality

in

London where

needle manufactories are

by Whitechapel

the manufacture

now

at

made

who

in

England about London.

settled in

needles, points out the particular

was

carried on.

The

principal

Redditch in Worcestershire, at Hathersage in


—— IMPLEMENTS.

92

KNITTING NEEDLES, OR Knitting needles are manufactured of

PINS.

ivory, boxwood,

steel,

and

whalebone, in sizes varying from that of a fine sewing needle to three-quarters of

Some have work from pointed.

very small ivory

a

slipping

The

off,

vary from 6

or gauge

but as

;

ball at

employ the same gauge,

end to

one

lengths.

prevent

the

but with this exception, they are always

of steel knitting needles

size

numbers, which filiere

an inch in diameter, and of proportionate

all

to

25,

writers

by

designated

is

their

determined by a

and are

on knitting do nqt appear

to

frequently leads to error, and will con-

it

tinue to do so until there be some general standard.

NETTING NEEDLES AND MESHES. For netting

purses,

and other small

steel

articles,

needles and

meshes are always employed, and those of the highest to •

The mesh

be preferred.

of the netting, suitable

diameter, and like

gauge.

The

two

the

is

each end,

of

steel

so

of

look this

size

any

wire of

by a

the knitting-needles, measured

of flattened wire, and cut into a fork of

point,

which

by passing that the

will

the

it

allow

alternately

turns of

needle,

and

Derbyshire, and in Birmingham and seems to have been formerly famous

may go

which determines the piece

of

Bush Lane needle

its

for

be

the

it

The

foremost through a small loop.

the needle,

length

pin,

each end, the ends of the prongs meeting

blunt

a

either end

upon at

needle

prongs at

forming

or

a plain polished

is

finish are

being silk

and

passed

is

wound

between the prongs

silk

may

kept on

neighbourhood.

the

Bush Lane

very small needles

in a bottle of hay.”

be parallel to

by

it

:

— “ And

in

forks.

London

now

Lenton's Leas

,

they

c. 9.


;

IMPLEMENTS.

The

excellence

of

the needle

93

depends upon the points of

the

prongs being true and close together.

CROCHET AND TAMBOUR NEEDLES.

Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds' hooks of

silk

,

made

are

a hook at one

end

shape to the barb of a fish-hook, by which the wool

similar in

or

They have

ivory, or box-wood.

steel,

drawn through the

and

caught

is

struments are to be procured of various

These

work.

in-

but their excellence

sizes,

depends more on the proper fashioning of the hook, than on the

which

of

material

and those used these

are

they

frequently

sewing needle, that they

The

The

manufactured.

may is

or

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

by

made with

They

others, entirely of steel.

are generally about four or five inches in length. sizes,

sized

be fixed into a handle, which,

ebony handle,

made of various

sizes,

steel

capable of holding needles of various

larger steel crochet needles, are sometimes

a fixed ivory

also

smaller

made of the length of an ordinary

means of a small screw, sizes.

are

tambour work, must necessarily be of

for

Ivory needles are

and with differently formed hooks, accord-

ing to the dimensions of the thread

they

are intended to carry.

F1LIERE.

A

filiere

round

its

or gauge,

is

a steel instrument with graduated notches

edges, distinguished

by

wire-drawers for ascertaining the plied in a similar manner, for

and knitting needles; thus, these needles, they

are

different figures. sizes

of their

It is

wires,

used by

and

.is

ap-

measuring the diameters of netting

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;when

speaking of the relative size of

frequently designated

by

their correspond-


IMPLEMENTS.

94 ing numbers;

but, as has

been before observed, there appears to

be no universal standard.

EMBROIDERY FRAMES.

We

do not acknowledge as an embroidery frame, any of a

simple construction than the

of two

side

the

bars

varying

sizes,

they

may

the greatest magnitude, ficient to

from

are useful for

when

their

size

.

working satin or

velvet

flat

or,

trestles.

where

it

is

yards in

for

of

pieces

suf-

Large frames

does not admit of

the

piece of

whereon two upright pieces are fixed at

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

common mahogany,

knee, or table frame, has a

three

and weight become

This description of frame

which can be adjusted

to

very small pieces of

for

be held in the hand,

being formed principally of

stand,

four inches

keep them steady, placed upon

being rolled

These are made

in their right position.

and are proportionably useful

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;when

The

regular distances for

at

of various

work,

less

composed

receiving

pegs to keep the

length,

frame,

four-piece

which the webbings are attached, and two

bars, to

with holes pierced

laths,

or

flat

least

expensive,

cedar, or beech.

wood forming the

to support the

frame,

any angle required, by means of thumb-

screws attached to the joints.

These frames

are

generally

made


;

â&#x20AC;˘

IMPLEMENTS. from

eight

to

twenty-seven

adapted for work of

on

connected

ground,

the

webbing

the

by

rolling

by

together

the frame, which

a

round the

bars.

yard

or

on the top in

They vary

and a quarter.

feet

bar

cross

a

fixed

is

same manner as that already described.

from twenty inches to

they are

;*

and of any

limits,

of two upright pieces with

consists

these support

stretcher

the

will not injure

it

The standing frame placed

in

widths within these

all

moderate length, where

inches

95

in size,

Frames

of this

kind are sometimes made with toothed wheels and other contri-

work without taking

vances, for rolling and unrolling the

but they are apt to get

and

suitable

less

struction.

of

the

for

ladies,

order,

and

than

those

of a more

Both standing and

finest

and

most

more

of

out

table

expensive

are

it

out;

clumsy

simple

con-

frames are frequently made woods,

when they may be

rendered most elegant pieces of furniture for the boudoir. upright frames have sometimes baskets attached at either

The side,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

at once convenient and ornamental.

*

Embroidery frames are always measured by the length of

their

wctbings


;

96

IMPLEMENTS. Embroidery frames require

together

moderate

may

they

those

size,

to be well made, that

when screwed

When

be perfectly firm and square.

which

in

the

or

side-laths

of a

cross-bars

are

formed into screws are preferable, as they can be more readily,

and with greater

means of the that the fixed,

is

adjusted

precision,

The

nuts.

cross-bars,

greatest

as well

bending when the work

in

stout

prevent

to

width,

good frame

a

by is,

on which the webbing

as the rollers

should be sufficiently

required

the

to

essential

its

twisting or

tightly stretched in it*

is

TAMBOUR FRAMES. Tambour

frames,

whereon

parchment of a drum

ployed, although formerly fashion.

They

the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;whence

name

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

stretched

are

the

like

now seldom em-

much used when tambour-work was

are formed of two hoops, covered

baize, the material being stretched

place

by

it

however, impossible to secure

is,

material

their

the outer hoop, tightened

on the

inner,

the

with cloth or

and kept in

its

by means of a thumb screw it

as firmly as in the

square

embroidery frame.

SCREW EMBROIDERY FRAMES. These are sometimes made

They

the hand. side bars in

the

When

the

turning the side bars

*

When

work it

of a very large

found useful.

rollers

with webbings, and two

By

having an inside screw

form of screws.

turned in the holes of the quired.

for small pieces of work, to hold in

two

consist of

rollers,

may size,

neither

nuts nor pegs are

attached to the webbings,

is

be sufficiently stretched.

re-

by merely

The

a moveable centre bar or stretcher

con-

may

be


IMPLEMENTS. struction

but

it

of this frame

similar

is

to

97

that

has no recommendation except in

its

of a

purse stretcher,

neat appearance.

d’oyley and shawl frames.

These are made square or triangular, large or

small, in accord-

ance with the purpose for which they are intended. are

fixed

at

round which

equal distances in a slanting direction the wool

or other articles,

Qotton employed in

or

to be

is

Brass pins

on the

top,

making DOyleys,

wound.

MESHES FOR RAISED WORK. Meshes

for

raised

from a sixteenth

to

work

— generally

of bone or boxwood

two or three inches in width, and larger

occasionally to be found.

They

side,

they also ;

rendering the work both tight and firm,

resistance they offer.

on one

sizes are

are used for regulating the length

of the looped stitches, which are afterwards to be divided greatly assist in

—vary

Meshes are

sometimes made with

by the

a groove

as a guide for the scissors to pass along in the cut-

ting of the loops.

For the more highly steel

finished

descriptions of

raised

work, a

mesh, with a cutting edge on one part similar to the an8


IMPLEMENTS.

98 nexed engraving,

will be

be fully described

found the most convenient.

when speaking

Its

use will

of raised embroidery.

PURSE STRETCHERS.

The above engraving machine

than any

we

convey a better idea of

will

are

capable

of giving.

It

this

used

is

little

for

stretching knitted, netted, and crochet purses.

The

purse,

when

should be sewn up cylinder,

finished, before at

the

the ends are

drawn

as represented above;

it

should then be slightly damped,

and the screws tightened, taking care not to strain

By

this

their

together,

mouth, and passed over the wooden

it

too much.

simple process, the stitches become more firmly fixed in

relative

positions,

and the purse assumes, and

afterwards

retains, its proper shape.

PURSE MOULDS.

The above engraving wood or

ivory,

represents two kinds of purse

on which short

purses

are

worked.

moulds, cf

The one


IMPLEMENTS Turc

called a moule

of

by

,

has small brass pins fixed round the edges

A

largest circumference.

its

fixing the silk

separately

When first

others,

this first

again round the peg with needle pass the

may

purse

by a loop over one

round each of the

hand.

right

99

row

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

stitch

wind the

and with a

after

The work

When

all

row, until as

the

the

proceeds

it

silk

is

made, and so on,

purse becomes of a sufficient length. falls

into

the hollow of

the

mould.

rows are finished, draw the bottom together,

as each loop is taken off the pegs at the top, pass a silk

and,

through

prevent their unravelling, and strengthen

them, which will

purse for sewing on

the snap.

A

the

purse of this description will

take a large sized skein of netting silk:

with a snap or a

once

point or

steel

and continue the

over the second,

same over each peg as each successive stitch

row

being held in the

silk

done,

is

the loop,

be made on this mould

peg, and twisting the silk

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it

may

be mounted either

(Liable .*

On the other mould or cup, may be made, either with two

a very

pretty

coloured

silks,

bourse

or silk

en feston

and

gold.

Since the introduction of crochet, however, these moulds have not

been

much

used.

CHAIN MOULD.

The above

small

mould

is for

making neck

* Diables, or purse bars, are wires of steel, gold, or

which a ring is passed attached by means of a 'chain.

at the ends, over

ring

is

to secure the

chains.

silver,

These are

with ornaments

mouth of the purse the j


1

IMPLEMENTS.

00

to

be

made with middle-sizbd

manner

as that described for

netting

silk,

exactly in

a purse on the moule

the

Turc

same

.

FORK FOR A CHAIN.

The above

represents

chains, which,

if

an ivory fork, used for making

done with very

small French hair chains.

watch guard

may

be made.

fine

silk,

perfectly imitate

neck the

If a coarse silk be used, a very strong


CHAPTER

XII.

-framing ttJork.

“ All sortes of workes, almost that can be nam’d

Here

are directions

how they may be

fram’d.”

John Taylor.

REAT

care and nicety are required in dressing

much

a frame ease in

its

of the success of the work, and

execution, depend on this preliminary

arrangement, which, from

it

not seeming of im-

portance. is but too generally neglected.

FRAMING CANVAS. Having

ascertained,

by counting

or

by measurement,

that

the

canvas corresponds with the size of the design, in order that the latter,

when worked, may be

of the dimensions desired, turn

the canvas about half an inch, and it

by a thread

eight

times

to the

having herring-boned

webbing of the frame.

doubled, should be

Soft paper,

smoothly placed

if the length of the canvas render

it

down

it,

sew

six or

round the bars,

necessary that

it

should be


FRAMING WORK.

102

that part only being

rolled,

the

work

is

should be

gradually

extended in the frame, on which

left

By

commenced.

to be

stretched,

means of the nuts or

and

the selvedges

with fine twine,

canvas

strained perfectly tight and even *

is

tightening

It is

it

braced to the

them by degrees

side-bars

pegs,

until the

of great advan-

tage that a small length only should be stretched at one time, a3 the

work becomes

exposed, and the needle-woman

less

to reach over her frame,

A

short

winding

when

the

if

as

the

at

proceeds, and if this be

be found either

most

The working from than painting,

it

this

a general rule,

lower part,

one

subject be

as being the

upwards in

will rarely

it

drawn

or un-

finished.

It is advisable,

commenced

not obliged

change the position of the work,

gradually round the bars as it

is

position both fatiguing and inelegant.

time will suffice to it

carefully managed,

even,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

where a sky

delicate,

that canvas

on the is

left

to be

should always

work should be

hand, more especially

introduced

Berlin patterns being rather more

will be

5

which,

remain until the

found that the stitch

is

last.

methodical

truer if

worked

manner.

FRAMING CLOTH AND CANVAS. In framing these two materials together for working on cloth in cross or tent stitch over canvas, if the article for

which the work

intended does not require the cloth to exceed in size the breadth

is

of the canvas, the cloth should bo cut half an inch smaller each

way,

*

as,

The

when

framed,

it will

stretch

advantage of the side bars of

a

much more than

the canvas.

frame being made with a screw

is

here evident, as the canvas can be finally tightened by giving each nut a turn or two.


FRAMING WORK.

The

must be turned down

cloth

two selvedges of the canvas

edges, and

the

at

103 tacked to the

and the raw edges of the canvas *

;

and cloth turned down together, and then tacked.

work render

sions of the

found

be

will

from

that,*

necessary that

it

the turnings

in

If the dimen-

should be

it

acquired a greater thickness in these parts, and

put wadding or

site therefore to

may

and canvas

the cloth

to execute,

when

as

will be requi-

it

By

in.

means,

this

be evenly stretched together without

and the work

injury to the former;

it

has

it

paper on the bars, to thicken

soft

with the turnings

the other parts equally

rolled,

the side,

at

the canvas

be so troublesome

will not

only stretched over the cloth

is

after it is framed.

When

squares

large

worked, such as will

be found better

and tack

frame,

the

to

but

if for

;

drawn

out, the

Here a

imagine,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the As

needle.

will

terials

to

round the

it,

If for embroidery, this will be found

appear to

arise,

which the

formidable as

work of and

the

we should

at

have

of

its

should be

may

glossy the

appearance,

little

attention to

The

and

render

it

that

it

is

softer

better to cut the

the

ma-

holland should be

white round-thread French canvas,

again observe

to

admitting the

very thin and glazed; the cloth properly damped, so as it

pass,

led

kind we have mentioned are

be worked.

to

to

be

first

occupy time in their execution,

be worth while to pay some

on which they are

cloth.

from the extra thickness

needle will

firm tension of the holland readily pieces of

it

canvas work, where the threads are to be

of considerable magnitude, it

and firmly

cloth evenly

may

not so

be

of thin holland in the

canvas must also be evenly tacked over the

difficulty

is

a piece

stretch

of the materials through

but this

required to

are

a table-cover or an ottoman,

of

part intended to be worked. sufficient

of cloth

lengths

or

centre

the

to deprive

the ;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

canvas here

we

threads off than


FRAMING WORK.

104

draw them

to

Admitting there

out.

frame, yet the

cloth

more or

is

sewn by any part except the ever,

a

hold

a

firm frame

By

edges.

yard wide

of a

no objection

is

the above

rolled,

or

how-

plan,

be found sufficient

will

two yards square, or even

piece of cloth

large

to a

by being

spoiled

less

to

yards in

five

length.

FRAMING VELVET. sewn

Velvets must be

selvedges, and, if less in material,

the

;

to prevent

that

pile

The

position.

sides

being more

the velvet to

it

it

When is

with

be covered

to

by the

managed when

easily

in

this

must be carefully hemmed before bracing,

unravelling.

of the frame,

tended

the webbings of the frame

should be framed in the same direction as the selv-

it

edges run

to

width than the original breadth of the

better

length of the velvet exceeds

the to

small stitches in

by

the

thin holland, and tack

stretch

work;

any of those parts

the

may

velvet

in-

then

lie

uninjured on the frame, and at any length of yards worked in a frame, three

feet

wide,

substituting

fresh

holland

work

the

as

proceeds. If the velvet is to be embroidered in silk, or chenille,

generally speaking, require if

any other material

orate, the velvet

also

make

instances,

the

it

it

velvet,

must be strengthened with

firmer and

will

by

to

very

but

;

elab-

which

holland,

work upon.

will

In these

be found advisable to frame the holland, and

carefully pasting

tended to be worked.

and

more pleasant

is

will not,

back

the

at

work

gold or silver are to be employed, or the

it

The

or tacking

velvet

is

to

it

in

those

be laid on

the

slightly pressed, but so as to avoid injury to the pile.

taking embroidery out of the frame, a

little

paste

fix

parts inholland,

Before

made with

size,

should be slightly rubbed with the finger over the back of the work.


â&#x20AC;˘

FRAMING WORK.

FRAMING SATIN, Satin, silk,

cloth,

and merino,

SILK,

may

LEATHER, ETC. be framed in the same

way

]

however, necessary to use holland when the work is the simple sprigging of a waistcoat, the embroidering of a bag, handit

is

not,

screen, or other

small article.

Crepe should be

laid

on

clear book-muslin,

frame with the same attention embroidery

is

done,

that cloth

the muslin should

be

and sewn into the

requires.

When

the

cut close away.

Morocco and chamois

leather, and kid, should be carefully and on a piece of thin white holland, and tacked down the holland having been previously framed in the usual way, but

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

flatly laid

there should not be

any tension on the

The above engraving

leather.

accurately represents

an embroidery frame

with a piece of work properly stretched and braced in

it.


;

CHAPTER

XIII

Stitcijcs.

gi

Fine Ferne-stitch Brave Bred-stitch

The The

,

Finny-stitch , New-stitch

,

Fisher-stitch , Irish-stitch ,

}

and and

Chain-stitch,

Queen-stitch ,

and Mowse-stitch smarting Whip-stitch, Back-stitch and the crosse-stitch , All these are good, and these we must allow, And these are everywhere in practice now. Spanish-stitch

Rosemary-stitch

,

,

,

,

John Taylor.

IYE work

stiches are, in viz.

;

employed

general,

and

tent,

cross

tapestry stitch, Irish, and

German

canvas

for

Gobelin

stitch,

or

Various

stitch.

others might be enumerated, but they are

all

more

or less modifications or combinations of the above. a difficult task

It is

clearly

to

describe these different stitches,

and their application in the various

There

needlework.

doing

even

the

observed that rectness,

to

it

is,

doubtless, a

As

most simple. is

requisite, for

departments

a

of

decorative

and a wrong way of

right

preliminary,

it

must

working with comfort and

have the canvas the right way

which

is, it

be cor-

should

be so framed that the selvedges are placed on the sides where is

braced.

The commencement

of almost

all

by bringing the needle up from beneath on

stitches

the

right,

should

it

be

and pass-


;

STITCHES. ing

down again on

It

but

working

in

up on

needle

up again on

Too

stitches

all

cross

the

stitch ,

the right, and

by

means

this

stitch,

the

left,

be

to

these

the needle

down on

in the

left-hand corner.

the

paid

selves to each other

wool or

silk

acquired

by

a

little

the

and

right,

accommodate them-

The

in this position.

than

might at

much

pearance and durability

with the utmost nicety.

In

with a true

practice

accomplish

first

simplicity

its

When

it.

greater

care

be imagined,

as

work depend on

fact, it is

and even

according as

Regularity in this stitch will ;

may

of the

ground

;

bottom of the work,

single, double, or treble,

executed in tent stitch,

necessary

rules

left.

better

when worked upwards

that the youngest child to be

at the

stitches

the size of the canvas demands.

be

simple

should properly cover the threads of the canvas

they should be used either

easily

then

right,

brought up from the

is

The

the

to finish the stitch.

â&#x20AC;&#x2122;STITCH.

commencing

left,

down on

it

down on

TENT

In tent

should be done by bringing the

it

always be to the

will

passed

be considered as holding

which do not require crossing;

and passing

left,

great attention cannot

wool,

may

the left: this

good with regard to

107

more than

stitch

both its

is

be found

will

difficult

to

such

is

grounding

the

ap-

being done to

work a

copy a pattern

however elaborate.

Grounding to right, if

care

rectly

is

more

easily

and from right be taken

done,

worked

in

straight

to left alternately,

rows from

than in diagonal

to reverse the stitch in each row.

the back

When

left

lines,

cor-

of the work should present an uniform ap-


108

STITCHES.

in fastening on

or off should be

wool through at a it

with the succeeding

avoided

The

stitches.

in needlefuls of different lengths

the face

;

and cover

fastening on from the same

by using

the wool or silk

otherwise a liney appearance,

be impossible to get rid

will

it

draw the

best to

is

it

;

distance from the exact spot,

little

place in each row must be obviated

which

Knots

each row of stitches resembling a twisted cord.

pearance,

of,

will be

produced on

of the work.

CROSS STITCH.

Cross stitch each way. needle

worked over two threads in a diagonal direction

is

It is

up on

the

a double stitch, and made, left,

forms half the stitch

up again on

stitched

the

before

Grounding backwards

it ;

in

stitch

work

cross

passing

by bringing the

first

down on

the

right,

be

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

stitch

it

down on

more even, than

method not should

be

if

it

unfrequently

done

in

and forwards, observing the same rules

the stitches as in tent stitch.

the

left.

be finished before another

to

will

crossing,

it

which

then crossed, by bringing the needle

is

the right, and

would advise each menced, as

and putting

is

were half practised.

alternate for

We com-

rows

reversing


,

STITCHES.

This

worked over two threads of the canvas in height,

stitch is

and one in breadth stitches

109

but when Berlin patterns are copied, two

;

must be made

in width

each square of the

for

which bear exactly the same proportion cross

On

stitch.

ferior

coarse canvas, Gobelin stitch

to either tent or

canvas, where

appearance pattern,

may

suitable

for

it

of

cross

stitch.

Figures,

but

may

in-

fine

kind

count

of

more

certainly

for

or

of a closer

every

it is

on

best

is

stitch,

and

drawn on the canvas, than

patterns

canvas, to produce a very

work.

be mixed with gold braid on

rich brocaded

appearance.

The gold

should be cut in the requisite lengths, and fastened to the

canvas for

stitch,

decidedly

is

effect

flowers,

be worked in Gobelin

Either tapestry or cross stitch

braid

Its

has the advantage over cross

shading.

design,

as one either of tent

and a Berlin pattern of plain damask taken

at either end,

the

The ground

design.

is

worked

to be

one

tapestry stitch

over the

damask part of

the pattern in the gold.

form pretty contrasts

;

braid, in

rich

either in cross

colour,

leaving

or the

Blue, brown, or marron

.

and, for wedding presents, white and gold.

IRISH STITCH.

For grounding, place

of tent

execution.

It

Irish

stitch

may

or

cross

is

the best stitch

stitch,

as

it

for

frequently takes

much

chenille

be used less

in

time in

the its

work on canvas

j


110

and

STITCHES. gems, and even flowers,

scrolls,

The above engraving stitch than

German

any

we should be

description

stitch is exclusively a

done than either tent or cross stitch,

may

may be prettily worked in it. much better idea of this

convey a

will

able to give.

grounding

stitch,

Patterns

stitch.

German

be prettily grounded in

engraving accurately represents this

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it

is

quicker

worked in

stitch.

cross

The above

stitch.

IMITATION OF LACE.

Numerous duced, and

patterns

in imitation of lace have been

where judgment

used

is

they certainly have some merit for small articles

;

good

claim to

stitches

of

it

taste.

fine silk, the

thicker silk or

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

lately intro-

application of them,

best are principally adapted

but lace and canvas work being somewhat at

variance with each other,

much

;

in the

must be doubtful whether they have

The ground

pattern on

it

is

worked in various

being in^ cross stitch

of

wooL VARIOUS FANCY STITCHES.

These, as stitches

we

already

before

stated, are

mentioned, and

it

but modifications of the will

fiv*

be only necessary for u


STITCHES. to

name the

ill

principal recognised old English stitches;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to attempt

They

a description of them, would be alike tedious and Useless. are,

Feme

stitch,

feather

stitch,

stitch, braid stitch, plait stitcli, stitch,

wove

brick

stitch,

Irish

stitch,

Venetian

diamond

reverse

stitch,

but this must

plaid stitch

basket

cross

stitch, stitch,

stitch,

Peruvian

stitch,

mat square

mosaic

stitch,

star

flat

stitch,

Hungary

stitch,

Innumerable are the stitches

suffice.

which are to be met with on the samplers worked in

bead

stitch,

for

sale,

both

England and Germany, and numberless the names applied

them, and

new names

it

is

as easy to invent

for them.

new

stitches, as it is

to

to invent


,

CHAPTER XIV ©mbroib^rg.

“Whether *Twas

her needle play’d the pencil’s part,

plain from Pallas she deriv’d her art.”

Ovid. *

xi:

a curious brede of needle-work, one colour

and another .

rises so insensibly, that

we

falls

away

in such

degrees,

see the variety without being able to

distinguish the total vanishing of the one from the

first

appearance of the other w

Addison.

E

are indebted

luxury

to the

ar^l

magnificence

of the nations of the East, for the invention of

embroidery,

termed claiming

more modern latter art;

as

she

masters,

it

the

art

mother

has not inaptly been

that

of

priority

painting,

by many

its

possible, the

has been

many

productions of the

assisted

by some

of

discovery

centuries.

has been called the humble

sister

and the aim of the needlewoman has been

closely as

which

times,

—an

the

In

of the

to imitate,

pencil, a labour in

the

most

celebrated

of whose chef-d’ oeuvres have been executed for the

express purpose of being copied in needlework or tapestry.


The Greeks gave *

:

he

lienee,

the honour of the invention of embroidery to

by Pliny says,

it

has been

Romans

the

the Trojan

their skill in this art

:

assigned

called

“ vestes

and embroidered garments, of Sidon, before

;

m

EMBROIDERY.

Minerva

war,

the

to

embroiderers

Phrygionice .”f

Phrygians

Phrygiones

The women

were especially celebrated

and Homer mentions Helen

as

for

being en-

gaged in embroidering the combats of the Greeks and Trojans: “

An

ample web magnificent she wove, Inwrought with num’rous conflicts for her sake, Beneath the hand of Mars endured by Greeks.”

Andromache

also

“ She in her chamber at the palace top,

A

splendid texture wrought, on either side

All dazzling bright with flowers of various hues.’

* It

who a

possible that the story of Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of

is

informed her

veil, is

sister

but be this as

fabulous;

tends to prove the antiquity of the “ Pictas vestes t Lib. viii. c. 74.

Acu

Athens,

Philomela of her misfortunes by embroidering them on

may, the fable is of remote origin, and Vide Apollodorus lib. iii. c. 14. jam apud Homerum fuisse, unde triumphales it

art.

,

Phryges invenerunt, ideoque Phrygioniae appellataB sunt. rex: unde nomen Attalicis. Colores diversos pictures intexere Baoyion inaxime celebravit, et nomen imposuit.” have been tempted to give the original words of this author, as the terms “ pictas vestes,” and “ intexere,” have been variously translated. In the M-.~

natae.

Aurum

facere id

intexere

in

eadeni Asia invenit Attalus

We

iHechmi of Plautus

mantle

to

(act

ii.

sc. 3.)

be embroidered, says:

a young

woman,

“ Pallam illam ad

reconcinnetur, atque ut opera addantur, quae, volo.”

was embroidered,

is

desirous

of sending

her

Phrygionem ut deferas, ut That the cloth of Attalus

proved by a passage of Silius Ilalicus

(lib.

xiv. 661):

“ Q-useque Attalicis variata per artem Aulaeis scribuntur acu.”

And

from the following lines in Martial (lib. viii. ep. 28), Babylonian cloth was also ornamented with embroidery :

“ Non ego praetulerim Bnbvlonica picta superbe Tcxta, S^aiiiainia quae variantur acu.’ -

9

it

is

evident that the


EMBROIDERY.

114

The

among

of embroidery was greatly practised

art

Egyptians

even

the sails of

;

some of

the ancient

were wrought

their ships

with fanciful devices, representing the phoenix, flowers, and various In the time of Moses, Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach,

emblems.*

was celebrated

of Dan,

of the tribe

and as an embroiderer in

The

linen.f

as

in purple, in

blue,

curtains and ornaments of the

vestments of the

priests,

prophet

reproaching the

Ezekiel,

cunning workman,”

“ a

scarlet,

and in

The

were decorated with embroidery.

women

fine

Tabernacle, and the

of Israel with

having

abused the benefits of Providence, after mentioning their bracelets

and chains, crowns, divers

still

jewels farther

their

robes,

earrings,

and their

dyed and embroidered of

king of Pergamus,

Attalus,

colours. J

foreheads, and

their

for

names

is

said

by

Pliny,

have invented the art of embroidering with gold thread.

to

According thagoras,

Diodorus Siculus, §

to

embroidery, except to

courtesans:

informs us, that Tarquinius

monarch and senators by first

The term embroidery, historians, has

reference

needle ;

thus

as

Priscus,

but

its

disciple

of Pyof

who

first

||

distinguished the

and ornaments, was the

an embroidered garment.

employed in the writings of the ancient

to

all

kinds of ornamental work done

comprehending within

* Cloth, of embroidered linen, appears to for sails,

a

forbade the use

and Dionysius Halicarnassus

particular robes

Roman king who wore

with the

Zaleucus,

and a lawgiver of the Locrians,

and was bought by the Tyrians

its

meaning every

have been made in Egypt expressly for that

purpose (Ezekiel xxvii.

7),

use was confined to the pleasure boats of the nobles, or of the king

We are informed by Pliny (lib. xxx. c. 1), which Antony and Cleopatra went to the battle of Actiurn was distinguished from the rest of the fleet by its purple sails, which were the

himself; ordinary sails being white. that the ship in

peculiar privilege of the admiral's vessel. + Exod. yxv. 35. §

Lib.

iii.

c.

02.

X II

Ezekiel xvi. 13. Lib.

xii.

p.

299.


EMBROIDERY

115

some

description of decorative needlework, including tapestry, and

more

At

of weaving.

descriptions

relating

limited,

the present day,

one

to

kind of

the term

is

much

needlework only, which,

however, embraces an almost innumerable variety, both as to the materials

and the mode of using them.

employed,

In the ex

tended meaning of the term, therefore, nations and savage tribes

unknown

the

to

ancients,

may

honour of a

claim the

equally

most of them have a species of embroidery

similar invention, as

peculiarly their own.*

The Chinese have long been embroideries

indeed,

celebrated for the beauty of their

has been doubted whether the art was

jit

;

not originally brought into Europe from them, through the Persians.^

They

use floss and twisted

as

silks, also

The drawing

a fine thread. f

the bark of a tree spun into

of their embroideries

their flowers

copied from nature) they

(doubtless

even botanically correct;

and their works

admired for their remarkable freshness than bestowed upon them. is

is

sometimes

uncouth as that of their paintings, but in that of some of

nowhere

so

Success, as

frequently

as

in

style,

tedious years of study and self-denial.

written character,

the

finished

not

for the

more

to

be

extreme labour

gained by patient application,

exemplified

accomplishment of writing a good

many

are

are frequently

graces

is

The mere

China. the

result

only of

The beauty

of their

of the

composition,

the

* The word embroidery is derived from the French broderie which some deduce by transposition from bordeur beca lse they formerly only embroidered the )

borders of their

stuffs,

According

larii.

to

whence the Latins sometimes

Du

called embroiderers

Cange, they anciently wrote aurobrustus

,

for

limbus

embroidered

with gold, or brustus brodatus whence the French word broderie. + The fine muslins made at Manilla, with threaus spun from the pine-apple ,

plant, rial,

and afterwards so known.

are well

richly

and

delicately embroidered

with the same mate-


EMBROIDERY

116

excellence of their silk manufactures and embroidery, the wondera

many

of their porcelain, and

Chinese

no short

uses

(A

:

no compendious methods

resorts to

cuts,

abridging labour -jChe

for

other marvels in art and knowledge,

natural results of untiring industry and perseverance.

are the

not without ingenious resources to

is

accomplish an end, but his aim does not seem to be to save time.

We

indebted to Mr.

are

by

tised

She

art,

an elegant book,

as

assumed

is

patterns to

following

the

and three hundred In

art.

fact,

money.

It

figures, culled

the objects

priced fair

contains between two

well

so

is

has a cover of a

from the varied are

of the

needle-woman.

manual

little

of gold, and

spangles

or tseen,â&#x20AC;? he says,

use of the young

for the

of our

yellow, studded with

and

for

with choice subjects

filled

be poor, and hence the

about one penny

at

Lay

For twenty-two cash

Chinese.

the

â&#x20AC;&#x153; I purchased

graphic

Tradescant

account of the art of embroidery as at present prac-

interesting

stores of nature

and so nu-

selected

merous, that they might serve as illustrations to a small encyclo-

One acquainted with Chinese

paedia.

might deliver several lectures with

meadow, the grove, pages of

all

laid

with

the

adornments

who belongs

to the

of

her

task near the

earthenware, and while the

the

rich

lets in

dame

green window which

among

lattice,

The

which

the

red

industrious is

made of

both the light and the breath of heaven

leans

upon the

gaudy verandah, and gazes

sparkle

green

and

said to be

is

woman: while

gallery denotes the residence of a rich female. plies

house

the

,

an epithet for the dwelling of a poor

poor

The

museum, and the

The book

under contribution.

for the use of the person is

book before him.

the brook, the antiquaryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

mythology,

garden, are

and natural history,

literature

this

vermil-tinted

carelessly at the

balusters

sunbeams

;

of

as they

the flowers, or wooes the soft breeze which agitates

the green roof of the Indian

fig-tree.

The

title-page presents

us


EMBROIDERY.

117

with a venerable man, in the weeds of

with this motto,

scroll

Over

L

Her

men

sleep.

tells

us of the needle-woman,

of Proverbs.

They were

of Mongha.

piece to

the emblems,

girls

a

work

low

stool,

a

last

and extended seat.

In the

height of their

the

Their faces wore a

forth.

which was owing, perhaps,

to

close

confinement and

unnatural position in which they were obliged to

the

chapter

the village

in

support was provided for the frame on which

embroidered was spread

be

sickly hue,

what Solomon

is

at this

upon

seated

night,’

while

alert,

he eulogizes in the

across another of twice

legs

way

this

whom

once saw two

I

by

candle goeth not out

wealth.’

;

of wakefulness, for these animals are on the ‘

hand

his

i:i

Heaven’s magistrate confers

head are bats disporting among the clouds

his

I suppose,

their

holdtr £

office,

.

a

finest spec imens of

embroidery

are, as far as

my

The

sit.

observation goes,

done by men, who stand while

at work a practice which these damsels could not imitate, as their feet were small. They were

but too genteel, in their parents’ idea, to do the drudgery

poor,

of the humble housewife,

and so their

feet

were bandaged and

kept from growing beyond the limits of gentility,

were

soon

not likely

to

a

attract

lover,

'Their looks

and hence they were

compelled to tease the sampler from the glistening dawn

Much

eve.

skill

a plaited skirt is

worn by

ladies,

attire.

In the

which, with

work before me,

little

A

given expressly for this purpose. girdle

of Chinese gentlemen,

kind of elaboration. ally

in

favour

my

partiality for

an

a rival for beauty as

Chinese, I think without

female

dewy

till

and labour are bestowed on the embroidery of

is

of

several patterns are

curious purse

also the

what

article

subject of

worn

much

in the

of this

Embroidery and figured textures were gener-

with

the

ancients,

thought worthy of a superior agency.

so

that

the

discovery

In the Old Testament

have two kinds, the maase rokem (opus phrygio7iicum) ,

12

:

in

was

we

which


— 118

EMBROIDERY.

the figures were inserted

by the

(

and the maase choseb

needle ;

,

ojms plumarium ), in which they were wrought in with the woof.

The Chinese

what

are fond of retaining

old,

is

and have preserved

both these arts in their highest state of perfection.”*

The “ et

ils

plumes

comme

sur

des

gaze,

joncs,

noyaux

d’animaux, des

d’oiseaux:

muslin

fruits

et

the

Aubin,

St.

ongle?

d’insectes,

secs,

couleurs

les

by

cotton

cuirasses

et

entremelent

ils

with

Besides these, says M. de

known.

well

emploient

griffes

on

embroideries

beautiful

Indians, are

des

surtout

harmonie

sans

sans gout: ce n’est qu’une espece de mosaique bizarre, qui

aucune

n’annonce

ne

intention, et

represente

aucun

objet

which we should not be tempted

a description of embroidery

to

imitate.

The embroidery autres

poils

des

fications

insinuent

by

practised

more simple and pleasing d’animaux

:

“ avec leurs

de plusieurs

et

peaux

ouvrages des

de

much

is

cheveux

represented assez bien

elles

agates herborisees,

dans leurs

Canadian women

the

they work

:

rami-

les

plantes

serpents

et

elles

:

coupees

par lanieres, des morceaux de fourrure patiemment raccordes.”

According

to

marriage,

their

M. de Busson, the negresses of Senegal, before embroider

the

senting figures, flowers, and

The

Georgians,

renowned materials,

gold

and

such as crepe and

thread in

a

manner

Turkish

the

on the

lightest

gauze, which

unequalled.

in

a

in gold passing

way we cannot

imitate.

*

,

women,

and most

are

delicate

embroideries

with

on

which they work

without fraying the thread,

According

The Chinese as

repre-

they ornament

Their

morocco leather have long been esteemed, on the smallest objects

beasts,

in every variety of colour.

particularly

for their embroideries

various

of

skins

animals,

they are.

to

M. Savary, they


E31BI10IDERY.

119

formerly often ornamented their embroidery with pieces of money,

of

value

the

which

they did

not

appear

to

understand

a

;

circumstance, however, which the Genoese

who had

merchants,

a

considerable trade in the Levant, turned greatly to their advantage,

and interesting coins and medals were frequently found

as valuable

in the old garments in which they sometimes trafficked.

Turks, the Greek

the

of the

tants

women

islands of

the Levant, are

embroidery, principally of gold and pia

on the Bosphorus excel in

work a

every petal of which

a most

known the

They

last

represent flowers

and preceding

siderable importance, the

same period, Milan ;

The

its

centuries,

admired for

when embroidery,

men and women, was an

At

and Venice

were

for

their

but the prices were so excessive, that, according to use was forbidden

by sumptuary

laws.

much

practised

at

the

other

present

country

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

it

is

largest

some

present

day.

towns of

;

laws

were

which would

framed

specially

astonish

They were formed

into

by Etienne Boileau. Prevot de

for

their

the work-people a

Paris,

not

Embroiderers

day.

formed a great portion of the working population

tection,

1272,

celebrated

also

of

the

of embroidery seems to have attained a higher degree

art

however, so

the

an

as

of con-

object

Germans, but more particularly those

of perfection in France, than in any

formerly

but

needle, unfortunately

Vienna, disputed the palm of excellence with the French.

embroidery

in

and elaborateness.

of dress both for

Lamarre,

of

description

beautiful

country, cannot be sufficiently

in this

their extreme delicacy

In

their

of Thera-

worked with the utmost exactness.

is

These extraordinary productions of the

article

celebrated for

The women

can scarcely, however, be termed embroidery, being rather

it ;

little

still

silver.

species of exquisitely fine netting.

relief,

Besides

of the present day, and the inhabi-

company

as

of

early

of protie

as

under their respective


— EMBROIDERY.

120

names of “Brodeurs, Decoupeurs, Egratigneurs, Chasubiters their last

were framed in

statutes

In Saxony, embroidery on

1719.

muslin and cambric has been

fine

In the neighbourhood of Eibenstock,

carried to great perfection.

and the Erzgebirge, much of the tambour work generally sold at the Leipzig

is

Russian and West

where

fairs,

Indian merchants

done

is

quantities

great

this ;

bought by the

is

it

are

also

;

exported

much the

At

Persia.

to

(celebrated

for

figured

shops in

lace

this

of late years

neighbourhood

same

the

cotton,

linen,

may

The embroideries

Dresden.

and are much sought

in

worked, which

also

is

of this description, have

With

Plauen, in

manufactures

its

of

and

Nancy and

at

Paris

great excellence,

attained

after.

brief sketch of the history of embroidery,

now proceed more

muslin),

be met with

particularly to mention in

and the various methods of practising

it,

as

what the

we

shall

art consists

pursued

at the

pre-

sent day.

Embroidery

is

the

of adding to the

art

textures, a representation of

any object we wish

surface

of

to depict,

the

medium

of the needle, threaded with the material in

the

work

to

is

may

This

be executed.

woven

through

which

be effected by various

methods, and on most descriptions of fabrics.

It will

be our en-

deavour to describe separately the different kinds of work in department, although

we

greatly fear our

to convey the ideas and instruction

we

want of

The

plies its

pattern grows

Wrought

patiently

;

busy

task,

the well-depicted flow’r, into

the

adequately

desire to communicate.

SHADED EMBROIDERY. u Here the needle

skill

snowy lawn,

this


:

EMBROIDERY. Unfolds

And

bosom

its

121

buds, and leaves, and sprigs,

;

curling tendrils, gracefully dispos’d,

Follow the nimble finger of the fair wreath, that cannot fade, of flow’rs that blow With most success when all besides decay.”

A

Cowper.

Shaded embroidery

valling

the

the most elegant, the most imitative, and

is

most unlimited in

the

capabilities,

its

productions

of

the

— aptly

portraying and

whether for

painter,

ri-

historical

subjects, landscapes, portraits, nature’s ever-varying flowers, or the ,

Moorish arabesque.*

It

may

also be

termed the

easiest,

although

the least mechanical, being less subject to rule than any other, as

the most beautiful effects are often produced, where there appears to

have been a

a

regular embroidery

total indifference, or ignorance, of

may

following observations

who wish

commence

to

The frame being shaded, attentively

ever the subject

right

would

direct,

The

to

at

the those

XII) with the

chap.

observe

may

be,

the

position of the flowers, or

naturally if

fall

this

:

the intention

is

more

essential,

any

exists, other

left

The

beneath

than what convenience dictates,

is

a style of pattern peculiarly adapted for

much

introduced into pieces of Gobelin tapes-

arabesque, or moresq.ue,

needlework, and was formerly

before

be to embroider as taste

and without copying with a coloured drawing.

rule, if

what-

and determine the surfaces on which the

hand should always be above the frame, the

and the

*

and be of some use

that

this species of work.

properly dressed (see

commencing the work,

may

guide,

any attempt

nevertheless,

trust,

upon which the pattern has been previously traced and

material,

lights

We

stitch.

and Watteau. This description of ornament originated with the Arabians and Moors, who were prohibited by Many of the their religion from using human and animal representations. beautiful paintings on the walls of the Alhambra have furnished designs for

try,

from the

designs of Berin,

Gillot,

needlework.

12 *


EMBROIDERY.

122 is

always to draw the needle upward from the right, and finish the

stitch

by putting

down

it

to the

commence

It is better to

left.

with the smaller parts, such, for instance, as the stems, buds, and leaves, in

group of flowers

a

and the

:

care

first

and attention

should be bestowed on the obtaining and preserving a neat and clear outline.

This,

it

quickly be perceived,

will

to the perfection of the design,

The edges and rounder

and

is

both

essential,

to the execution of the work."

both of the leaves and petals of

parts,

embrace more surface, and are generally worked with the

flowers,

they

palest tints, as

particularly

naturally

the

attract

the

receive

In

eye.

light

and more

first,

order properly

blend

to

the

shadows, as in painting, the stitches should be of different lengths

and

it

the

needle

is

up

with

finding

to the

and putting

left,

the

tact

;

next colour, by bringing

generally easier to put in the

it

in again to the

right,

blending

shade.

best hiding place for the

When

one half of the leaf

in the

same manner, and

finish

When

the leaves are

worked, the flow ers should be done in a

The

similar manner.

dahlias

and

roses, are

French knotting: with

the

all

silk,

done,

commence and work

by veining

it

many

full-blown flowers, such as

sometimes represented by what

should be tightly drawn round

with the centre knot, as a more

formed than the

sixteenth

putting

the

working

it

needle the

twisted cord

of an

inch

it

as is

it

long,

as the

then, in

first,

better

round can be

best

the

next

stitch stitch,

preceding one,

and

forming a kind of finely

demands great neatness

gives, if properly done, the

is

The veining of

circle.

back into the

half-way

same length this

;

it

commenced on the outer

perfect

it

and the small stems, are formed by making a

leaves,

about the

if

termed

is

done by forming a loop round the needle

passed from the upper to the under side of the work: to begin

the other

according to nature.

r

centres of

this is

which

is

finish

in to

its

the

execution,

work.

but


EMBROIDERY.

The as

so,

short

embroidery, should be made

stitches, in this description of

where the work

long as possible,

as

the

of

brilliancy

stitches.

touching the

It

silk

the

silk

advisable,

is

by drawing

it

123

will

admit of

being

their

destroyed by crowded and

is

much

as

as

avoid

to

possible,

through the fingers when working.

All flowers of the

same kind should not be done with the same

shades of colour

thus, suppose there are three white flowers

the

:

same description, on the same

embroider them

silk are required properly to

five lightest tints

middle shades

might predominate

quantity of the of the

tne

skill

tint

may may

less

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

in the next, the

;

the

and, in

;

one, a greater

for

third, a

dark, depending of course on their

needlewoman.

In

shading,

usually be considered a sufficient

be

;

would be used

portion of the

The veining

requisite.

either with light or dark

Historical subjects,

and

;

of the leaves

demand

landscapes,

greater

position,

gradations

five

number

shades, according as

nature dictates, or as the colours

of

and that eight shades of

spot,

and of

but more or

may

the light

be done

and

falls,

for effect.

portraits,

are best

worked

with wool, as greater varieties of neutral tints can be more readily procured;

whilst

the brighter,

smaller,

can be successfully executed with materials, to

should always be

silks.

avoided,

and more fanciful designs,

A

mixture of these two

when an endeavour

is

made

copy nature.

German and English

wools,

purposes of embroidery quired,

former

the

is

crewels were formerly

Linwood the

are

needle

all

:

but,

are both equally applicable for the

where a variety of shades are

of course

much

used,

to

be preferred.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

magnificent works of Miss

long-eyed,

wool

is

used,

and threaded, by doubling the

wool into a loop at one end, and inserting needle.

When

done with these materials.

should be

re-

Worsted and

it

into the

Embroidery with wool may be executed

eye of the

as beautifully

and


EMBROIDERY.

124 as

minutely as with

effect,

by

much

a

silk

may

it ;

and

coarser

also be done, to

produce

good

a

mode of working, as

less delicate

applicable for the bangings of windows, and beds, table-covers, and

other large pieces of needlework for furniture.

For shaded embroidery, For some

used.

The French and

are preferred.

The double embroidery done

known

well

to

are

floss silks

all

work, netting and dram silks

Chinese, whose embroideries

of the English, generally

far surpass those

silk

Dacca, and

mitorse,

fine descriptions of

in

employ mitorse.

in China, with this material, is too

need description.

Chenille

ployed, but this forms a description of

may

be em-

likewise

work which we

have

shall

to describe elsewhere. It

is

unnecessary for us

to

instance

the

almost innumerable

may

variety of purposes to which this description of embroidery

To whatever end needlework

be

applied.

to

be designed,

it

equally suited

is

has been, or

although,

since

is

likely

the

intro-

;

duction of Berlin patterns, formerly;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but

subject to the

sway

same extent matters,

is

has not been sought after to the

it

as

needlework, in

common

with other

of fashion.

FRENCH, OR FLAT EMBROIDERY. This species of embroidery lying smoothly little

in a

is

diagonal

often executed with beautiful it

may

kind of work

surprisingly

other

articles.

to

each other,

and shade being necessary. effect

in one colour;

cord, it

round the edges. is

also

;

small expense,

in

and It is

and, for some

be enriched by the additions of gold or

in the form of a this

direction close

or no attention to light

purposes,

done without shading, the stitches

The French

silver,

excel in

done very beautifully, and at a Scotland,

Its excellence is best

for

displayed

ladiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

dresses

and

when worked with


EMBROIDERY. raitorse silk

it

is

most durable, not fraying in the

then, also, the

;

wear,

with

quickly losing

or so or

floss

Dacca

When

wool,

proper colour

silk.

when done

as

also very rich when worked with

is

an imitation of gold

may

appearance

glossy

its

It

125

desired, netting silk of the

is

be advantageously employed.

From the annexed may be formed.

engraving some idea of the direction of the stitches

Flat embroidery

suitable

is

of furniture and dress,

for articles

and an almost endless variety of small ornamental works, bags,

as

folios,

sachets,

slippers,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; such

and

note

hand-screens,

cigar

& c.

cases,

EMBROIDERY IN CHENILLE.

may

Chenille broidery,

be employed for almost every description of em-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;whether

shaded,

or raised

flat,

it ;

may

also be -worked

on a variety of materials, but those which possess a smooth and glossy surface, best contrast wuth nille

may

Berlin

be used

canvas

for

when

:

screens, as well as

and renders

it

velvet-like appearance.

embroidering on canvas, more it

is

well calculated

hand-screens.

canvas, but the wire

its

It

When

on canvas, a needle with a round eye through

particularly

cheval,

and pole-

frequently used

is

frays the chenille too

poor when finished.

for

much

Che-

on wire

in the working,

working with chenille

may

be used, as

canvas

a thick

needle will

pass

injuring

but, if on a closer material, such as satin, for instance,

a

it:

long-eyed needle

too large a hole

is

the

better,

interstices

of the

in order to avoid injury,

without-

by making


EMBROIDERY.

126

mode of using

in the

may

this

at the

it

and

particular part,

the using

little

much

as possible:

as

cut

to

as

may

fastening on

knots

in

stitch

or two

the

draw a very

necessity of

by working

closely

appearance of

the

each

prevent

to

making small

a

In shaded

be covered.

to

the stitches too

veloute

working

to

also

The

obviated,

on the part intended

embroidery, matting or

be

for

possible,

same portion again, and

of the

last

easy to measure

is

requisite

short

as

it

It

short piece through the eye of the needle.

avoided,

a

The waste

back.

the length of the needleful

or guess

of

not be amiss.

be done, by bringing the needle close up to the

and not crossing

stitch,

may

study

the

material, it,

work should be avoided

the back of the

at

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

an expensive

being

Chenille

economy

together chenille

should

be

be

de-

will

stroyed.

In embroidering with chenille, the shades will be required to be

much

than

closer

should be used.

with

In

flat

In

surface.

gold.

d broder

the kind

is

,

coarse canvas

Chenille subject

which

to

is

admit of the chenille lying roundly on

much The

is

the

when

pretty

is

by

edged,

the French

or

chenille

is

a larger size.

adapted for working such articles as are not

best

or

pressure,

liable

difficult

but

it

to

to free

much exposure it.

to

dust,

from

For work protected by

requires extreme care in the mounting.

another method of using chenille, which was formerly fashion,

where

chenille, instead of

common

it

chenille, called

usually employed for embroidery, but for

work there

glass, it is beautiful,

There

patterns,

Small

would be

it

least,

embroidery, the stitches should be regular,

fancy

mixed, with

of shade, at

;

but not closer than will the

six gradations

silk

effect

only at a distance was required.

being worked

on

with

a

needle, as

in

embroidery, was only laid on the surface of the material

and securely tacked

down by

a

fine

waxed

silk

of the

same


EMBROIDERY. ends of

the

colour,

the

J27

being carried through

chenille

with

a

needle to the back of the work.

EMBROIDERING COATS OF ARMS.

may

Heraldic displays

but the

silver,

of the

by which

—in

azure

instance,

escutcheon to right

in ;

:

as

represents

perpendicular

in vert ;

,

purpure diagonally from right

formed

close

diagonally, from left

The

squares.

in sable

they

which divide the quarterings of the in the same

manner

partition

When

the coat of arms.

may

be

by using

a

round

objects

course,

fine

also, in

general, the collars,

gimp,

sewing

silk

on the magnitude

of

in heraldry are blazoned proper

supporters, the

scrollage,

or,

silk

shaded as in other kinds of embroidery, as

badges,

may

effect,

gimp depending, of

the size of the

lines,

also those

be formed by a

must be neatly attached by means of a

•which

they

may

the

veining of leaves of flowers,

as the

with greater precision and

shield,

the

,

represent

whether horizontal, embattled, nebuly, rayonne,'&c., as

line,

For

;

optional, provided

small

of

direction

colours.

his

to left

,

is

and

gold,

silk,

should be laid parallel across the

,

position of the stitches field

herald

the

the stitches

in gules

;

be embroidered in wool,

should always be placed in the

stitches

lines

,

may

lambrequin or mantling, the

and other ornamental devices.

be worked in embroidery, like the partition

lines,

Mottos

over that

part which has already been worked.

Coats of arms and crests silk,

and with perfect

of the

stitches ;

may

effect,

be executed entirely in fine black

by paying

attention

allowing the ground to be

in the old embroidery termed print work. in this

albums.

manner

for

to

the

visible, as

They may

position

displayed

be worked

the insides of covers of valuable books

and


EMBROIDERY.

1SS

RAISED EMBROIDERY.

This kind of embroidery for

working animals,

is

extremely pretty in fancy pieces

birds, shells,

flowers

or

fruit,

it ;

done with either

and the

traced,

wool,

silk,

material

or

The

chenille.

framed,

be

commence

then

usual

as

may

pattern must be

a

;

foundation for the raised parts by working, with coarse cotton or

upon

wool, layer

design the

is

shape

broidery

layer, in long

of the

over

with

it

When

object.

long

a

the outline of the

stitches, until

paying attention

closely approached,

same time

at the

to

em-

this is finished, begin the

and shade in the usual

needle,

manner, passing the needle through the whole substance of the foundation, which

will

formed

Fruit

tated

of wool.

by

mode

this

accomplished by

knack

certain

ladies,

Needlework,

be

it

Dacca,

skill,

requires

it

a

embroiderer can

has generally the

ladies,

to

execute.

on canvas

it ;

This

may

kind of raised emalso

be

worked on

may

both

can be done with the greatest perfection with

silk.

and

them according

imi-

ready worked, the other portions of the

them

done

be

it

not always successfully

and

experienced

prepared for

as

is

it

should

be most admirably

taste

the

and afterwards transferred.

be used, but Floss,

left for

may

besides

which few but

,

thus represented

broidery

as,

may

but

done

be

easily

shells ;

attain.

holland,

and

of embroidery

objects

design being

more

the

as

mitorse

silks,

Wool and are

all

chenille

appropriating

suitable,

they resemble the objects to be imitated

some descriptions of

shells,

mitorse would be the best, for

for ;

others

floss silk.

Flowers, such as roses, on a very reduced scale, for sprig work,

may

be

beautifully

embroidery

:

floss or

and easily executed in

Dacca

silk

this

should be used.

description

A

of

small round


EMBROIDERY. must

first

be

slightly

of the

centre

cotton ;

commence the

then

two or three small French knots, and

with

rose

with

raised

12b

form the flower by working round them in small the middle of the darkest shades

;

stitches,

keeping

the stitches should partly cross

each other, so as to give the appearance of one leaf over another. If skilfully done, the centre of the flower should

appearance

and

beauty found

which effect

it

has in nature.

will

be

If

Four shades

lost.

have the sunken

worked too

large, their

of silk

will

be

sufficient.

RAISED CUT EMBROIDERY IN WOOL. Raised work of this kind has been brought to great perfection, particularly in France, both for flowers, ^peculiar kind of mesh,

the double

made of

steel,

birds,

A

and animals.

should be used, which serves

purpose of mesh and knife, as by merely drawing

through the looped stitches

it

cuts

it

them more regularly than could

be done with the scissors.

The it

stitch

employed

is

the most essential part of the work, as

must neither unravel, nor pick out when

finished.

The

should be traced on the cloth or other material, which firmly framed with holland at the back;

design to

is

be

a coloured drawing will

be required for a pattern, as the work does not present

its

proper

appearance whilst in progress.

The mode the steel

of working

mesh on the

is

difficult to

surface

express in writing:

of the material,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;with

pass the needle,

threaded with the proper wool, from the upper to the under leaving

an end to form part of the stitch

side,

bring the needle up ;


\

EMBROIDERY.

130

again on the farther side of the mesh, and crossing the wool over the mesh, put the needle in again to the

left

of the stitch

first

made, then, bring the needle up on the further side of the mesh as

and repeat the

before,

always put in on the upper

One row of

that the needle

care

side, to the left of the

preceding

must be completed, before another

stitches

menced, fastening

taking

stitch,

is

stitch.

com-

is

and changing the colours of the wool,

off,

cording to the design.

must be worked

It

ac-

and

as regularly

as

closely as possible, in parallel lines, forming a kind of chain stitch

When

at the back.

so as to

row

the

to cut the loops

is finished,

across.

It

draw the mesh through, found more convenient

will be

employ two meshes, drawing them out alternately as the work

When

proceeds.

the whole of the object

must be thoroughly combed, so of the wool

it

finished working,

as entirely to

most

then

will

is

it

separate the fibres

an

probably appear

unshapen

;

mass,

but this will be of no consequence,

as

must

the scissors

These

then take their part towards the completion of the design.

should be very sharp and pointed, and rather large, but otherwise,

no particular kind

little

an even

cutting the

ance

surface,

gradually shearing

and when the

is

of suitable

shearing must then

be slowly

edges and other parts where a

required,

and rounded form size,

until

desired.

may

a

properly

done,

trodden upon,

durable.

it it

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

these,

is

less raised appear-

buried

partly

in

the

effect.

best adapted to succeed on cloth

should be extremely will

persevered

In animals and birds, small glass eyes

be inserted,

This description of work

if

is

whole assumes the perfectly smooth

the

wool, and not too prominent, produce a pleasing

if

'peluche

reduced, the distinct colouring, with something of the natural

form, will appear: the in,

Commence by

required.

is

forming

the centre,

be but

little

firm and

injured.

It

solid, is

so

also

Small birds in raised work, for hand screens, on

;

that

very white


EMBROIDERY. watered be

silk,

have a very pleasing and pretty appearance, and Raised work

easily executed.

adapted for

is

purposes, but for chairs and pillows

of

13

variety

a

of

objectionable, on account

is

it

may

hard uneven surface.

its

The method we have

in a similar

scissors,

sought for

is

;

but a more simple mode

common wooden mesh, and

of working, over a

the best, where

described will be found

work

perfection in raised

manner

cutting with the

to the raised edges of

urn rugs,

is

work seldom bears any

frequently adopted with success, but the

comparison with the former, either in beauty or durability.

EMBROIDERY IN GOLD AND SILVER. Embroidery

by

as executed

not a very extensive range

it

ladies,

with gold and

consists

;

for altar cloths, bags, sachets, folios,

silver,

has

principally of needlework

and smaller

articles

but

;

it is

frequently introduced intermixed with other materials, to heighten

and improve their

effect.

For that description of embroidery

guimped

technically termed

embroidery, the pattern must be drawn on the material, and the figures

of the

over which

the

pattern

also

gold or

Embroidery on the stamp

cut in parchment, vellum,

silver ,

is

sewn with a

is

cotton,

fine

cloth,

thread.

are raised

by means of wool

which gives them a much more rounded appearance.

For embroidering with gold and with

or

silk

a similar kind, but here, the figures

being higher and more prominent, or

fine

holland,

to

silver, the

which the

material

groundwork must be carefully tacked.

frame should be intended

When

to

d-iessed

form the

gold passing

is

used,

a round-eyed needle should be employed, and some pattern should

be obtained to show the direction of the regularity of which

stitches,

on the

great

depends the principal excellence of the work.


EMBROIDERY.

132 If the

waxed gold-coloured

must be used,

silk

on which

by

times greatly improved

checked bullion quickly done,

desired.

ance

r

initials,

some-

Embroidery with spangles

piece.

and very showy where much

Coronets,

material, is

the intermixture of rough, smooth, and

same

the

in

this

The w ork

cut into proper lengths, should be strung.

is

threaded with a

embroidery be in bullion, a small needle

glittering effect is

and mottos, have a very rich appear-

when properly embroidered

in gold,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

cap of the coronet

being composed of velvet.*

EMBROIDERY IN TAMBOUR. This

is

another

notched or

tambour

much

deteriorated

machinery,

still

kind of work.

description

by

the

claims

We

successful

our attention as

on

*

The

satin.

art

value

its

attempts

with

pretty and

easy

have seen patterns of arabesques and flowers

Braiding patterns

silk,

are .elegant

intermixed with

when worked

of embroidery with gold appears to a great degree

fallen into disuse.

has been

imitation

at

a very

very beautifully executed in tambour with gold,

worked with a

embroidery,

of

needle, which, although

From

lost,

in

or to have

the few examples of ancient Catholic vestments that

have escaped destruction, the generality of persons are but

little

acquainted

with the extreme beauty of the embroidery worked for ecclesiastical purposes The countenances of the images were executed during the Middle Ages. parochial church, previous to the Reformation,

manuscripts. Every was furnished with complete sets

One

of the great beauties of the an-

with

perfect

expression,

like

miniatures in

of frontals and hangings for the

altars.

illuminated

was its appropriate design each flower, each leaf, each device had a significant meaning with reference to the festival to which the vestment belonged. Such was the extreme beauty of the English vestments in the reign of Henry III, that Innocent IV. forwarded bulls to many English bishops, enjoining them to send a certain quantity of embroidered vestments to Rome,

cient embroidery

for the

use of the clergy there.

;


EMBROIDERY. this stitch, especially in shades

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

133

species of needlework executed

with great elaborateness on cachemir and merino, in the Levant.

Fine netting

tambour:

silk

is

material

the

working in

best adapted for

very beautiful with gold passing on white

also

it is

crepe.

The

on which tambour work

material

have the pattern traced on

tambour*

square

or

it,

must

to be executed,

is

and should be stretched either in a In working, the right

embroidery frame.

hand, which directs the needle, should always be above the frame, beneath, to supply the silk or cotton, which

and the

left

by

hook of the tambour

the

work

so

form a

to

as

loop

needle,

and drawn up through the

on

surface

its

again drawn up â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;with another loop on first;

the needle

piercing the material, be its

hook, which

a third and fourth, and so

fill

leaves,

up

it

is

advisable

the centres

to

work the

commenced on

to give a

worked quires,

The

neatness

either

in

finish to

decorative

the

work.

The

rows,

points

stalks

as

of

and tambour work on

may

be

their size re-

to the coarseness of the material

elegant embroideries

or

worked one

The

centre.

and

disposal of the stitches, in order

single, double, or treble

and according

and cambric, do of

and

the

first,

Round

stitches.

the outside, and

row within another, terminating in the leaves require great care in

drawn

In flowers

outline of each

with successive rows of

oval leaves should be

is

then made,

on, are

drawing each succeeding loop through the former.

and

should

;

then be passed through that loop, and,

through the

caught

is

employed.

net,

muslin,

not come within the scope of our department

needlework,

but the

above directions are

applicable to them.

See page 96. 13 *

equally


— EMBROIDERY.

134

Chain

stitch ,

.

an imitation of tambour work,

generally done

is

on the hand with a common sewing needle, looping the in

a

* It

similar

manner

to that

stitches

above described.*

would have been supposed that embroidery, the work of

could never have, been supplanted by machinery, yet such

ladies’ fingers,

At the M. Heilmann,

the case.

is

exposition of the products of national industry at Paris in 1834, a

of Mulhause, exhibited a machine he had invented,

by which a female could and expeditiously than she formerly could with one. This remarkable invention attracted considerable notice at the time; and several of these machines are now used in France, Germany, and Switzerland, and also at Manchester, embroider with eighty or one hundred and forty needles, more accurately

where much of the sprigged embroidery for ladies’ dresses is done, at a price which human labour cannot compete with, as it only requires the superintendence of one grown up person and two children, to do the daily work of fifteen The latter are merely employed to change the needles expert embroiderers. when all the thread is used, and to see that no needle misses its pincers, which, in this machine, supply the place of the finger and thumb of the em-

We

broiderer.

cannot here enter into a description of this machine, but the

following short account by Dr.

Ure may not be uninteresting

:

— “ The operative

must be well taught to use the machine, for he has many things to attend to: with the one hand he traces out, or rather follows the design, with the point of the pantograph with the other he turns a handle to plant and pull all the needles, which are seized by pincers, and moved along by carriages, approaching to, and receding from, the web, rolling all the time along an iron railway lastly, by means of two pedals, upon which he presses alternately with one foot and the other, he opens the one hundred and thirty pincers of the first carriage, which ought to give up the needles after planting them in the stuff, and he shuts with the same pressure the one hundred and thirty pincers of the second carriage, which is to receive the needles, to draw them from the other side, and to bring them back again.” ;

;

Having of the

so far trespassed,

needle,

Cornwall

than

by

we cannot

quoting

the

better conclude the subject of imitations

following

beautiful

:

THE WEAVER’S “

SONG.

Weave, brothers, weave! — Swiftly throw The shuttle athwart the loom, And show us how brightly your flowers grow, That have beauty but no perfume!

lines

from

Barry


!

;!

EMBROIDERY. Come, show us the

with a hundred dyes,

rose,

The lily, that hath no spot The violet, deep as your true And the little forget me-not

135

love’s eyes,

sing brothers ! weave and sing Tis good both to sing and to weave : better to work than live idle * Tis

Sing-,

,

t

,

'Tis better to sing than

“ Weave, brothers, weave

grieve.

Weave, The colours of sunset glow Let grvx in each gliding thread be !

.and bid

!

hid

1

Let beauty about ye blow Let your skein be long, and your silk be fine, And your hands both firm and sure, And time nor chance shall your work untwine But all, like a truth, endure !

!

So,—sing,

Weave, But

One

brothers,

toil is

the

weave lot

of

!

brothers, fyc.

—Toil

men

is

ours

;

:

gathers the fruit, one gathers the flowers,

One soweth There

is

the seed again

!

not a creature, from England’s King,

To the peasant that delves the soil, That knows half the pleasures the seasons If he have not his share of toil

So,—sing,

brothers

,

bring,


CHAPTER XV. Cantms iDork.

“ Flies swiftly,

and

The

threaded steel

unfelt the task proceeds.”

Cowfer. “ In needleworks and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon a sad and solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground.” Bacon.

HE

reason

for

jects included is,

that

comprising the

in this

various

sub-

chapter under one head,

they are so intimately connected one

with

the

them,

if

other,

any

that

exist

(a

the

rules

relating

to

we

are

point on which

ourselves sceptical), are of so general a nature as to apply partly

Certain

to

all.

is

a right

have

so

to rules,

often

we

it

is,

as has

been elsewhere observed, that “ there

and a wrong way of doing everything;” yet seen

feel

beautiful

effects

as

we r

produced without attention

extremely diffident in pronouncing any as im-

peratively necessary, except that of observing the right

way of

the


CANVAS WORK. both in

groundings,

Beautiful

stitch.

137

and

cross

tent

have been executed diagonally, as well as in straight

when

also,

in cross stitch, where

and

rules

way

one

stitched

before

are

therefore,

The

crossed.

They

spent the

in the

lives

be considered as exclusive of

is

.

been

indebted

It

the

to

whom

those with

still

each to

be termed long

Every

department.

improve and

single

day

in the

learn

to

and

worked

when

shaded, and

closely

and even

if

whilst

ness,

all

When

is

of a

scale ;

general uniformity

others,

less

calculated

and become

mere

scale,

to

please

of

from the middle

a coarse canvas, the tints,

tint,

lose

stitch,

from their bolddeprived

are

masses

of

intended to increase the scale of a pattern

on

be

patterns,

in cross

be enlarged,

distorted

faces

can only

these

when enlarged by working on a gigantic

in cross stitch

tent

with

the

Some Berlin

stitch.

copied

grace, it

effect

smaller

Gobelin

either in cross or

none of their

intended for

canvas, excepting designs where

hands are drawn on a

the

of

us in contact.

are

checks on the pattern corresponding

squares

in

and elegance of idea

Berlin 'patterns

all

the

stitch,

taste

our vocation has brought

obvious that

is

superior

the

of

others.

all

and past days have often taught us how much we have

;

or

of

part

may

of what

greater part

practical

shows how much there art

show

to

in this branch

founded on observation, and the experience of those

are

who have

following

intended rather

one certain and easy plan for attaining success of needlework, than to

as

;

whole piece has been half

been

has

it

observations,

the

stitch,

lines

colouring.

by working

colours should be

selected

avoiding very strong lights and shades,

rule

to be

observed whether the ground be light or

man

wools

may

wool

will

be used for working flower pieces

;

dark.

a

Ger-

but English

be found smoothest and best for the grounding, or real

German worsted perhaps

is

even

preferable, and, in

very

large


CANVAS WORK.

138

both durability and economy, besides comfort in working,

pieces, will

be attained by the use of either.

the

size

of

design will

the

pattern

not be

essentially

may

of the needlewoman

much

generally

appears finer than

two threads the

cross

human

the

hands

should

stitch

figure

Cross

in cross

may

This, however,

by many

approve of

the

which bags,

are

canvas,

cloth,

figure pieces it

is

to

articles,

,

and

;

must thus

of alteration.

we cannot

the

picture,

of one.

place

better

canvas. face

commence

to

whether for chair

on the middle

either

stitch,

patterns

all

cushions,

seats,

grounded

on

Berlin

but for

;

and historical subjects there are obvious reasons

The

begin at the bottom.

stitches

why

are easier

upwards, and they better accommodate themselves

other

and as

;

than the upper, the last,

the

is

or on canvas intended to be

preferable to

work

each

in

it

form a centre

to

other

or

rule,

and does

likely to be

not

the lower part sky, which require

to

is

be

is

rolled,

the

nor

delicate, is is

frame.

the

to

observed

generally less

the most

uneven when taken out of

on

adds

but Berlin

scale,

sinking these portions of

stitches

general

a

coarse

stitch, the

nevertheless

:

size

designs thus worked

as

taste,

that,

thread

fine greatly

difficult task

admired

greatly

plan of

by making four

As

be a matter of

persons,

one

same

the is

it

comparatively

be copied, unless we attempt the very

are,

on

having these parts drawn on a smaller

patterns

a can-

than

;

stitch

executed in the same

be

certainly

a

for

coarser

when worked

worked

is

and fancy

taste

calculated

and where

raised,

working on

of

facility

When

not

is

it

suitable.

more

is

it ;

to

the

Cross stitch on one thread,

size.

but

admired,

equally

are

sizes

all

when

stitch,

the choice of her subject,

than twenty threads to the inch

vas finer

cross

and

altered,

be pleased in

regardless of the difference in is

In

not increased above one third, the

is

worked

work

so


CANVAS WORK. It

curious that the grounding

is

of the work,

parts

should

properly, accomplished,

To ground

well, requires great practice

by many

persons, as the

specimen of canvas work

In grounding, canvas,

deemed

the

in

is

—“the

advisable

is

it

should perfectly

beautiful grounding!”

the

at

Above

The

conceal.

through

the

canvas,

wool

the

threads of which

of wool

should be it

passes

and a very small portion only should be Finishing off on the same

spot should always be avoided; and, instead of

making

knots, the

When

grounding

wool should be brought up and worked over.

done on the hand, run the wool through a few stitches at the

Although not impossible,

back of the work.

ground

ficult to

or

bottom of the

things,

all

needleful

passed through the eye of the needle.

is

It is fully

both on account of soiling and impoverishing as

short,

yet

observation on seeing a

to begin

hand corner.

left

process,

and experience.

first

should be suited to the size of the canvas, the it

such minor

of

fully repays the trouble bestowed.

it

appreciated fine

most particular

one of the

,

generally be

Although a tedious and uninteresting

importance.

when

139

grey

when

fine

canvas with pale blue,

complaints are ;

the

colour

or light coloured

is

is

extremely

dif-

straw, salmon,

made against the worker and the

an almost insurmountable

A

obstacle.

wool,

white

ground should never be attempted on any but

the whitest canvas, nor should picted ever be

it

buff,

worked on any

subjects where a sky other.

'

is

to be de-

Delicate scarlet, smalt blue,

various drabs, dark purple, Spanish brown, gold colour, chrysophas green, claret,

and marron,

if well chosen, are

good colours for grounding. black,

that

it

on is

except for

Many

account of not,

gem

its

generally patterns,

of the neutral

tints,

There

is

so

all

both durable and

much

difficulty

with

sometimes soiling the fingers and work, speaking, it

has

a

advisable,

and

decidedly

harsh

at

which appear very beautiful

all

times,

appearance. as

grounds


—— CANVAS WORK.

140

by

mix with

daylight,

completely destroy

by

the greens and olives

their effect.

It

at

is

all

candle-light,

and

important to

times

secure at one time a sufficient quantity of the colour for grounding

of work, or

a piece

exactly to match

it

may

Gobelin, or tapestry stitch

moderately

fine or

afterwards

impossible

be

otherwise

it.

fine

to look well should

,

canvas

is

it

be worked on a

prettiest with single

wool

;

;

on a very fine canvas four years

since,

much used

in England, as

upon For

expressly

the threads of the

it,

patterns

beautiful.

it is

for

this

A

canvas was made about

but

stitch,

it

has not been

could not be

worked

warp and woof being unequal

in size.

Berlin patterns

drawn on the canyas

it

is

In Gobelin

not adapted for count icork .

although

decidedly good, stitch,

the colours should

be chosen as close as possible, but bright lights and dark shades

may

nevertheless be introduced.

when

A

the

work

is

very

good eye for colours

every other faculty, practice, yet

some

may

a natural gift,* and though this, like

is

be greatly improved by cultivation and

quick discernment and natural good taste will cause

to excel in the adaptation of colours

to the

Berlin

more than

others;'

but

most talented, length of time and patience are necessary

a perfect knowledge of colouring patterns.

According

to the

—hence

The numberless

maizes, salmons, esterhazys

*

Silk should not be used, or only

fine.

,

the

tints of

greys,

and greens,! not

lilacs,

to

difficulty of sorting buffs,

to

browns,

mention the

views of phrenologists, the eyes, although affected agree-

ably or disagreeably by the different modifications of the beams of light, or of colours, yet do not conceive the relations of different colours, their discord,

and have no memory of them.

harmony

or

Certain individuals are almost destitute

who yet have the power of vision acute. Fondions du Cerveau tom. v. t To the artist, the names of some of the colours employed in needlework may appear curious, but he must remember that wools and silks cannot he laid

of the power of perceiving colours,

Vide

Gall,

Sur

les

,


CANVAS WORK more

pinks,

distinguished

easily

geraniums,

scarlets,

tion than at first

and

blues,

greater ability for their ariangement and

yellows, require

disposh

would be supposed, and can only be understood

by those who have devoted much

attention to them.

hues of green, and every one

at least twelve distinct

There are

141

of these has perhaps twenty

gradations of

tint,

the

right

method

of intermixing which gives the beautiful effect to the leaves of a well-sorted to enter

group of flowers.

It

would be tedious

we

description of each,

a

fully into

our

to

readers

only

will therefore

instance three shades of rose leaves.

A

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

colour

dark green rose leaf

and two

greens,

The

be required.

will

foncean

a

rose

,

yellow

the

two

clarets,

For a white

shades

used

of

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;they

second

green whites,

green,

rose

should be

bright

leaf

a

a

distinct shades of a clear pink:

geranium,

be

too

White

slates,

but

a light yellow

and rich yellow-greens.

highest lights,

tint.

or

scarlet,

is

For

improve^ a

damask

and red pink, should be

rose , let the contrast be greatest in the darker

cannot

for the

for a

two French

black,

a faded rose

that the effect of pink flowers

their proximity to whites

used.

shades

five

For

olive,

colours

pink, and three

we may here observe

rose , black,

require

will

Devonshire greens.

two rose greens, a

black,

worked with

be

a dark Saxon green, two grass greens, and two Austrian

A

greens.

by

may

bright green rose leaf

or

soft

flowers

silver

must be

in

the lighter.

white wool

may

may

also

Where

silk is

be taken

be worked

either

greys, according to the

for

with

nature of

the

flower:

on a

palette and mixed according to the precise tint required; nor can they, thev have oeen inserted, be retouched, or their effect heightened or sub-

after

all

m

as

delicate

as possible,

and harsh

dued at command as painting. Hence, instead of a few simple colours from which all tints can be produced, the needlewoman is obliged to employ several thousand and it becomes necessary to distinguish them one from the other bv epithets however unscientific. 14 ;


CANVAS WORK.

142

White

shades in the centres equally avoided.

flowers best contrast

with rich olive greens.

Groups of flowers

and moresque patterns, should always have

,

one or more parts comprised of the hue of the ground;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; thus,

a

white flower in a group, worked on a white ground, pleases the eye,

and imparts a softness

whole

the

to

piece.

must

It

not,

however, be understood that the white flower rests unsurrounded

on the grounding, or

is

the

most prominent

liancy of colour and depth of shade

may

but the introduction of black in the leaves and

dark harsh

bril-

and

all

much

as

flowers,

edges on the ground, should be avoided as

On

possible.

Great

object.

be used on light grounds,

dark grounds, the brightest colours should occupy

the centre, the white flowers should be well shaded, the pinks and

yellows

full,

the blues clear, but

crimsons

tinge,

the

black

in most

of

on the

resting

of a

the

yellow tinge

leaves;

ground,

not light

the lilacs of a bluish

;

rich

barre

and

colours,

;

the

and the other parts

flowers,

should be

bright

but

not

brightest edges of the flowers and leaves, should

light.

The

be those which

are in the centre of the group.

In flesh colours there are six or eight hues, and at tints

in

We

each.

can only

say that the pattern

least

sorter

twelve

must

use his or her judgment in selecting from these to match the pat-

by making

the colours

more

conformable

tern, or

improve

what

intended to be expressed, or rather to nature.

is

it

to

Blues, not being generally good, require great care in selecting; hence, is

it

is

better to use the middle

possible, as

ment

for

the

being the best: black

tints in is

darkest colour, and the

should be yellow-greens and olives,

leaves

art

of

colouring,

it

round blue flowers

if at all admissible.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The above remarks are intended for those

studied the

every case where

almost always an improve-

who have

and to put them on

not

their

much guard


;

CANVAS WORK.

common

against a too

bright tion,

So

immediate contrast with utter darkness. the neutral

and dark shades give

tints

we have ventured

harmony of

and the ground,

of

the

make

and

to the dispo-

relative

We

desired.

or light

object, for

between the object

again revert

the

to

of instancing

sake

the

committed in

frequently

errors

have seen the

to

tone, not opposition

be

to

is

colouring of a white

one

brighter

the

to.

colouring

in

is

on various grounds, where we have attempted

sition of colouring

to show, that

life

by

manifest

be it

This we have endeavoured to impress by

more glowing hues. the few remarks

produced by opposi-

is

only

can

sun-shine

of

intensity

over anxiety for

in needlework, the

error

Brightness of colouring,

colours.

—the

14c

We

needlework.

Return from Hawking” worked on

canvas,

fine

with the white horse very well shaded, except that, with a view of adding to the portion of white

and

extra

its

white wool, heightened by a considerable

effect, silk,

This change of material,

was introduced.

of producing the

whiteness, instead

desired intent,

destroyed the roundness of the body of the animal, and gave

a

concave appearance to those parts intended to be the most promi-

When

nent.

white silk

is

employed,

its

colour

carefully

colour

;

In

borne in mind

may

however,

its

be)

is

every case where

in

introduced.

introduction

painting,

colouring

is

work first,

expedient

is

at

(whatever

silk

been

divided

,

as

and

into

which

that

intelligible,

contributing to

in

the

local

demands discernment This has been aptly

tints

both

in

illustrated

is

alone required, but

their

by

selection

and

is

and that

make

once more harmonious and delightful to the eye.

truth

its

at all times better avoided.

has

ornamental

or

must be

this

In a subject similar to the abovc r

7iecessary for rendering the imitation just

which

the

essential

is

hue should assimilate with that of the wool, and

the

In the

the

second

distribution.

the following example

:

let

us


CANVAS WORK.

144

suppose the principal figure in a piece to be dressed in sky-blue,

and another figure near

it,

be represented in

with an under vestment of bright yellow,

and

of less consequence in the subject, to

made

light be

the

let

scarlet,

would be utterly impossible

case, it

harmonious

to give

an

though found in nature

a

agreeable or

effect

be painted with the utmost exactness and truth' nation,

in such

:

each of these objects should

picture, although

to the

on both

to strike equally

nay, the combi;

would excite

itself,

feelings

of

disgust and aversion; whereas, if the principal figure were dressed in scarlet and white draperies, and the

not too light or bold a pleasing

next

figure

would then

be

by

attracted

gaudy combination of yellow and red must with

natural

warm

all

notice.

The want

the eye

as discordant

have

colours,

harmony

of

colouring

in

Patterns

may

in

dr aim on canvas

general be

the principal features second, third, and is

little

of

;

but in the

really

may

fifth

on which the

light

and

one of them at

these, or

possess

falls

such

the

offensive

to

colouring

follow

that the

in

it

is

of the

difficult,

these also (if

as

The

lines.

there

a sixth

is

only in those parts

brightest tints are to be placed,

least,

superiority

:

dark

the

to

Arabesques

veining not

is

and sixth shades

used) more attention will be required, as

patterns

stitches.

drawing are in

fourth shades

difficulty

counting

which

first,

the

is

into

consists in brilliancy.

commenced by working tints

as

Gaudy

must be shaded according

without any attempt at

and darkest

is

ear.

as

itself

were not the judgment sometimes

offend,

warped by the prejudice that excellence

foliage

and

where

instance, infallibly,

obtruded

first

sounds are to the

would more frequently

drawing,

blue, if

principal figure,

the

which could not have been the case in the former the

in

it

the effect would be harmonious

and another point of great importance would be gained,

:

eye

the

as

tint,

should be in

over

silk.

Berlin

any drawn patterns

of


CANVAS WORK. flowers

canvas work, that

for

working the

rules for

is

it

145

unnecessary to lay down any

Landscapes, figure pieces,

latter.

still

life,

and animals, even when properly drawn on the material, require Patterns of gems require but

the talent of an artist to execute. little

shade, and borrow most of their beauty from their

ment and the gold colours

colours

canvas

the

arrange-

Birds are not

set.

the

:

variety

of

plumage divides the parts into small portions,

their

in

which they are

when drawn on

work

to

difficult

in

but the outline must be correct, and the colours clearly marked. Crests and

when

coats

copied

This

may

paper.

impression from a pencil,

when

range

them

be

arms

of

from

are

a

more

worked on canvas

easily

drawn and coloured on checked

pattern

by giving

easily be procured,

the designer

he be sufficiently versed in heraldry) he will

(if

correctly

regretted that

and of the required dimensions.

much

labour and

expense

an

emblazonment in

or a slight sketch of the

seal,

often

are

ar-

It is

to

bestowed

although not incorrect, heraldically

on designs of

this kind, which,

speaking, are

yet totally devoid of grace and elegance, from the

artist

not sufficiently comprehending the service he

is

required to

render the needlewoman.

In working from Berlin patterns, the introduction of

wool in the leaves

wear.

flowers,

detrimental

is

on fine canvas,

In coarser work, such

improvement. wool, silk

and

to the

plumage of

In the

birds,

considered

as

indispensable,

and even more so

and in

gold, silver,

and

steel,

of

silk.

Its

addition

in

as

shells,

it

may

to the

be used,

In arabesques, silk

also

in

gem

heraldic displays, are

patterns.

may The

improved by the

use in other instances must be

In the former part of this chapter,

with

as cross stitch, with double

effect,

and certainly heightens their colouring. be

silk

sometimes an

is

left to taste.

we have spoken of

the en-

largement of Berlin patterns by working them on a canvas coarser


;

CANVAS WORK.

146

than the checks of the paper.

All patterns

may

be increased or

diminished in size according as they are worked on fine or coarse canvas, or in cross or tent stitch.

the Berlin pattern of the

â&#x20AC;&#x153;

As an

illustration, let

Return from Hawking.â&#x20AC;?

sign were worked on mosaic canvas, in tent stitch,

it

us take

If this de-

would occupy

a space of twenty-two inches in width, and sixteen inches in height

but

if it

were worked on a very coarse canvas, in cross

stitch, it

might be extended to eighteen feet eight inches in width, and thirteen feet

hundred

four

inches in height.

stitches in width,

and

six

This

pattern

counts

nine

hundred and forty in height


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

CHAPTER XV! Crochet.

c<

Behold in these what

leisure hours

demand,

Amusement.â&#x20AC;?

CoWPERi

!!

ROCHET tised,

work, although long not

did

within the

known and

prac-

attention

until

attract

particular

four

years, since

last

which time

brought to great perfection, and

has been

it

has

been applied with success to the production of

numerous ornamental works. mans,

chairs,

waistcoats,

worked

rugs,

and a variety of other

in crochet,

purposes demand. fleecy, size,

is

with

employing

When

it,

wool

an ivory needle,

and has therefore

;

it

articles,

bags,

may

is

used,

may

pillows,

otto-

cabats, purses,

be appropriately

that kind

This material,

offers

been

slippers,

wool, or cotton, as their various

silk,

generally preferred.

which we are acquainted at

Shawls, table elvers, mats,

carriage

if of

denominated a

the easiest kind of

six-thread

work with

be learned without eveS looking

much

practised

by

invalids

and


;;

CROCHET.

148 persons whose

may

All striped patterns

four

in

or

afterwards sewn

and

with wool without the least detriment to

may

be done in coarse and fine

and waistcoats

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

coarse netting

in

and the most

Gold and the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and

chenilles

for caps,

silks,

employed separately.

or

may

terns,

producing a rich and beautiful

may

Crochet

bags, caps, ;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

finer

silks.

or passing, can be intermixed with

either cord

on the

be strung

be

and bags

slippers,

work may be done with the

beads

Crochet work

pillows,

may

together

forms strong purses, bags, and slippers

it

delicate

silver,

appearance.

its

chenille for

in crochet silk, silk,

table-cover

a

that

so

lines,

lengths,

six

done in narrow widths,

desired) be

(if

and joined in the dividing

worked

has become impaired

sight either needs relief, or

Gold and

steel

and worked in various pat-

silk,

effect.

be divided into plain single crochet, plain

double crochet, plain stitch open crochet, and open crochet with or three

two,

one,

scribed

These

stitches.

varieties

Crochet, although in itself a most simple

mentary process

stitch, is difficult to

but we shall endeavour to explain the

in writing,

describe

be found de-

will

they occur, in the following directions for working.

as

for the instruction of those to

whom

it

ele-

may

not

be familiar.

Having wound through

a

a

skein of

draw another

chain of sufficient length

for the article

the

last

draw

wool,

make

it

it

is

this

is

it

loop

at

the end,

same

until

the foundation

Pass the needle through

foundation,

repeating the

drawn through,

serve as

to

intended to make.

made loop of through,

made

is

a

through this second another, and

loop,

moderately tightening each as

on,

so

this

at

and,

catching the

silk,

every successive loop

then returning along this row, repeat the same to form a second.

A

repejjtion of which, alternately

right

to

left,

and from

left

to

backwards and forwards, from right,

will

give the

first

and


CROCHET.

The work

easiest lesson.

cing by turns

be the same on both

will

produ-

sides,

Having accom-

one raised and one sunken row.

we may proceed

plished this,

149

make—

to

A SOFA PILLOW, OR TABLE COVER.

A

good

ivory

sized

thread fleecy,

or

steel

with

needle,

working

Instead of

be required.

will

crochet

the

six-

rows

backwards and forwards, as before described, begin each row sepa-

When

same end.

the

rately at

the last

finished,

draw the wool through, and cut

of three

or four inches.

number of

stitches,

must depend on

but with this

required size

ofl^

row

is

leaving an end

impossible to determine the exact

It is

that

of each

stitch it

the

article,

and

its

description of wool, half a yard in

;

length will generally be found to

and a calculation is

may

be understood,

to

First

stripe

one

scarlet,

black,

which

Second

—two

is

accordingly be

form a pretty shaded

stripe— three distinct

blues,

following,

it

easiest pattern.

rows in black, one dark one white;

sixty-five stitches,

The

made.

merely given as the

light scarlet, will

number about

scarlet,

reverse

one bright

same

the

to

the

stripe.

and

one

row of white,

reversing the same, as before, to black.

Third

stripe

—three pretty

stone colours or drabs, and one white,

reversed as before, to the black.

Commence

again,

as

with the

first

stripe,

with

scarlet,

and

repeat the three alternately.

For will

a moderate sized pillow, one skein of each coloured fleecy

be required.


CROCHET.

150

AN EASY TURKISH PATTERN FOR A TABLE COYER OR PILLOW.

No.

This or

an easy pattern of various

is

The same

pillow.

and

colour,

Make and

are formed

the chain in the usual

scarlet together,

work

way

re-

black, gold

two

Then with black

stitches of each,

on the top of the chain, bringing

found that the wool not in

The

be

will

scarlet,

with black.

alternately

wards and forwards as required

stitches

of white,

cover

a table

blue.

the wool not in use

be

colours, for

and six-thread fleecy

needle

The grounds

quired.

1.

which are made over

to

form the pattern

use

keeping it

back-

will

thus

by

the

scarlet, blue, orange,

and

it ;

be concealed

will

it.

colours on the white stripe, are

lilac.

On On On On All

down

— the black — the gold colour — white, the blue — the

scarlet

stripe

stripe

green,

white,

green, scarlet, gold colour,

blue, claret,

lilac,

the stripes

of black.

are

and

lilac,

claret,

to be divided

drab,

and

lilac.

and green.

and gold

by

claret.

the

colour.

two stitches up and


CROCHET.

ANOTHER TURKISH

151

PATTERN FOR A TABLE

COVER, ETC.

No.

This

bedside

either for

a table

of large ottomans, the carpet.

The

quired.

are

suitable

is

the tops

dividing line

is

cover, counterpane,

cover for

and a

Six-thread fleecy

2.

a

steel

formed of two

chair,

a

pillow

rug, or a

needle will be re-

clarets.

The

stripes

white, gold colour, blue, and scarlet.

The

pattern on the

scarlets,

On

two

blues,

white stripe

worked in two

greens,

two

blues, claret, white, lilac,

and

is

brown, and yellow.

the gold coloured stripe

—two

green.

On

the

blue

stripe

—two

scarlets,

two

greens,

drab,

white,

and

bright

brown, and orange.

On yellow.

the

scarlet

green,

white,

two

blues,

claret,


CROCHET.

152

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No

Six-thread fleecy, with

a

Commence with two

plain rows

3.

steel needle.

of

then

black,

one row of

straw colour for the ground of the border, the nine rows of which shades from the

are in

of yellow, two

straw colour to dark orange, thus

:

—two

of amber, two of orange, two

of gold colour, two

of light red browns, the last of which extends one row below the

border

pattern

the

rich bleu

de

This

of the centre

commence with

plain, then

centre

the

deep

row

— light

the

first

the

second, third, and

stitches

third

of

row

the

a rich full drab.

is

fourth rows the

in

great

care

it,

— middle

— Waterloo row — the pattern seventh row — dark

the sixth "the

row

and

neatness

Repeat the oattern.

is

being as

black.

these

which must be hidden except

blue.

yellow.

blue, the three

third

where they form part of the pattern. the fifth row

one row

blue.

pattern

requires

Work

the pattern as follows.

colours are required for working

On On On

or

France.

The ground

On On

of the border being in black,

;

light yellow.


— C KOCH El

When

the square

(if

completed, neatly run in the wools with a

is

which

will

produce a firm edge, on

desired)

may

be crocheted, but

rug needle, borders

15*

«nd some ingenuity

to

make

it

which the

side

requires great pains

the corners exactly match.

ANOTHER TABLE COVER.

No. 4

Commence with middle blue

four plain rows

the third, claret ;

The

pattern of the

first

The

lightest at the top.

The First

same

time.

Border

is

One row of

is

— white,

claret ;

in three shades of blue,

white.

is

formed thus:

and middle green.

—white, and dark green. — with a Fourth row — green. and Fifth row — and middle green. claret,

claret,

claret,

single stitch of white.

light

is

—the

in scarlet;

Three wools are worked

Second row

Third row

the second*

plain white finishes the border.

pattern of the second border

row

first,

outer ground of the border

the inner ground of the border at the

—the

the fourth, scarlet. ;


.

CROCHET.

154

Two

rows of plain

Then on

claret.

mence the palm pattern

as follows

rows —two —bright Fourth row— and Fifth row — and white. Sixth row — Seventh row— deep gold Eighth row —bright yellow. First and second

Third row

the

claret

ground com-

;

bright greens.

scarlet.

white.

scarlet,

blue, blue.

colour.

This

many

pattern

requires

also

of the rdws.

It

three

wools in

coloured

different

The

very handsome.

is

may

side border

be crocheted on. Six-thread fleecy, and a

needle, will be required.

steel

SMALL PINE-PATTERN TABLE COVER.

Iccrrc^iLrjDccmcoCBaoabcnmgfinaccI sr

££0 r ncpncs'

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No.

The chain and

first

— Third row — green. Fourth row— gold Second row

—gold

colour.

black.

colour,

ground of the border.

same

row

which

The

is

continues through the outside

inside

as the centre of the table cover,

the border

5.

ground of the border

—a

rich drab.

The

is

the

pattern of

composed of three shades of Saxon green, and

black.


— 155

CROCHET. small pine pattern for centre is:

The

— deep gold — Third row — Fourth row —white. row

First

Second row

colour.

blue.

scarlet.

In the next, or reversed row of the pattern, the colours

may

be

varied as follow:

row

First

— —green. scarlet.

Second row

Third row

— —

lilac.

Fourth row

The

six patterns

work

to

easiest

show

white.

in

They

are

wool,

which

six-thread fleecy

sized wool

this

and smaller

above given for table covers, will be found the

in

articles,

in

;

four-thread

perhaps the most

and are best calculated to

;

may

but they

in

about the same size as

burgh wool

is

most durable,

than fleecy

it

its

also cleans better

it

is

pillows,

Hamburgh

eight-thread

four-thread

Ham-

fleecy.

and has a more silky appearance

;

make,

for

or even German wool.

fleecy,

effective

is

of

be worked

by brushing,

The same

not so fluffy.

as,

from the closeness

patterns are also well

adapted for working in chenille.

Crochet table

covers are

made

up,

by turning

the

in

edges

neatly,

and sewing on a spaced fringe* of the colours of the

stripes,

and

They do *

head either of the colour of the

a

The

black.

fringe should

The mode

firmer

in

dividing

line,

or

about three or four inches deep.T

not require any lining.

If the

work be

for rugs, mats,

of making a suitable spaced fringe, will be found in the follow-

ing chapter on knitting. fringe

be

case

it

fr,

r.

1

should

Although we have given be

preferred, yet

a

directions

woven one

for

will be

a knitted

found

much


— CROCHET.

156 or

carpets,

have a firm inside

should

it

iining,

and be

backed

with a coarse woollen cloth or baize.

An

eight or ten-thread fleecy

N B.

f

crochet,

In the

directions

may

be used for the coarser

working the

for

must be borne in mind, that unless any other

it

mentioned, the

plain or

double crochet

articles,

different patterns

stitch is to

in

stitch be

be always em-

ployed.

A CROCHET SLIPPER.

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i8§llg5igggsgsilll5l§;ll a No.

The above or

crochet

direction

pattern

silk,

intended for a

slipper

in

German wool

in stripes across the front, continued in the

The

round the back.

are as follow

same

colours of the different stripes,

:

First stripe claret,

is

6.

—yellow,

with the

pattern composed of

lilac,

green,

bright scarlet, and blue.

Second

stripe

the

lilac,

pattern in stone

colour,

gold

colour,

green, white, and pink.

Third slipper.

stripe

The

— green

this stripe is wider

than any other on the

;

pattern on

it,

is

composed of

scarlet,

claret,

black,


CROCHET. gold colour,

and

stone colour,

white,

lilac,

157 gold

scarlet, blue,

colour,

lilac.

Fourth

stripe

pattern in blue, yellow,

white,

green, and

lilac,

scarlet.

Fifth stripe

pattern in black, yellow, green,

scarlet,

lilac,

and

white.

Sixth

stripe

blue, pattern

in

gold

pink, green,

colour, claret,

and white.

The narrow

round the back of the

stripes are repeated

may

the sole of which

For a moderate

succeeding rows until the

in the

eighty stitches,

—but

vary

in

The

increasing

well

size, as

as

width

is

made by

so

much

The

given.

dimensions

the

as

the

across

required

silk,

the

and increased

stitches,

some persons work

number cannot be

others, a positive

crochet

gentleman’ s-slipper in

sized

might be commenced with twenty-four

toe

slipper,

be formed of coarse crochet in black.

were

instep

tighter than

may

also

silk

a

for

slipper.

the addition of a stitch on each side

of the work.

The

in the front of the slipper are yellow, lilac, green,

stripes

and white, which crosses the across

of

its

the white stripe, and

commence with the

stitches

the third

scarlet ;

on one

width

stripes until the

front

Count the number of

instep.

on

the

back be of

other

slipper, to cut a

the

sufficient It

is

Continue

back.

length

to

these

be sewn to the

advisable before

commencing a

paper pattern of the desired size and shape.

The above form be made up by

side.

form

to

side,

chaussons to wear over the shoes, or they

the shoemaker in the usual

for ladies or gentlemen.

In crochet

silk

way

may

for slippers, either

they are extremely

warn

and durable.

The ends

of

the

wool

needle and run into the

or

silk,

work on the 15 *

are

to

inside.

be

threaded

with

a


CROCHET,

158

CHANCELIERE.

is

impossible to

each row varying,â&#x20AC;&#x201D; it of a proper border. it

size, as

Where

exact

is advisable to

the

it is

give the

pattern, first

number of stitches.â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

cut a shape

in

stiff

paper

of the top, and then of the

of the work, requisite to increase the width

The stitch on each side. must be done by maxing an extra in a contrary direction to of the band are to be worked

stitches

annexed the above engraving.-The those of the top, as shewn in for a chanceliere pattern will be folind suitable

No.

7.


CROCHET.

Commence green, on the

Work

of the next stripe

which

Work

chain

rows of ground

on which the pattern

black,

is

which

blue,

The chain

claret.

is

is

also forms the

exception of

the in

ground

the

centre

white.

and then repeat the second

stripe

with the colours reversed.

The above

if well

colours,

may

of course they

chosen,

are

exceedingly pretty, but

be varied according to fancy.

slipper pattern

No.

and also the Turkish pattern No.

6,

2,

equally adapted for a chanceliere.

Four-thread fleecy, and a

The

inside

with .the

ermine but

plain

stripe of the pattern in a rich

with

pattern,

a plain row of claret,

as before,

The

row of middle

plain

a

small

the

are

by working two

be worked in three shades of gold colour.

is to

row,

toe

same coloured ground.

The ground

of

the

at

and crochet the centre

in scarlet,

159

of

brioche

the

stitch,

or trimming,

ruff,

formed

of

leather

will

or

is

in

six

in

worsted,

cannot readily be

if it

*our times doubled,

needle

steel

chanceliere

or

are

made

to

eight-thread

may

fleecy.

easily

be

The

procured

a thick knitted fringe three or

so,

be a good substitute.

cloth.

be used.

separate and knitted

They

The bottom

should be made

is

up on a

very firm foundation, and stuffed between the lining and the work with wool.

A PLAIN CROCHET BAG IN SILK.

Commence stitches,

at the top

in crochet

with a chain of about one hundred and forty

silk

(black),

on

which

and then one row alternately every two middle blue. tern,

of which

The

blue afterwards forms

work a plain

stitches with

the

ground of the

one plain row should then be worked.

row,

black and pat-


;

(60

CROCK FT.

No. 8

The other

small parts

stars

in

and blue

are

yellow brown

light

ground on each

pattern

the

in

side of the pattern,

.

in rich

gold colour, the

one row

crochet ;

of

plain

and repeat the row of black

stitches.

The next ground

black,

is

the

pattern in

bright blue,

the

smaller stars of gold colour.

Repeat these the bag

until

with the dividing row of black and blue,

stripes

of a sufficient length.

is

It

is

be square

to

at

the bottom. If the

above colours are not approved, black, green, ponceau,

and white,

An

be

will

worked in gold

The dividing

equally good

may

stripe

be

if desired.

usual sized bag will

take

about seven skeins of crochet

silk.

A CROCHET BAG

Make

a

chain

of

fourteen

both ends together,

Join

WITH STAR-SHAPED BOTTOM. stitches,

In the next row (in order to keep the stitch

by

is

to

be

putting the

making two

made

a

needle

stitches in

in

claret

crochet

and crochet one plain row circle

seam or dividing under the

both

same

loops,

place,

flat,)

stitch,

all

silk

round.

every other

which

is

of

one,

instead

every other

done

and

stitch being


CROCHET. a

plain

same

the

Repeat

this

seam-stitch

gradually in

In the next row, work the seam-stitch in the

stitch

two plain stitches

place, leaving

one.

made

A as

in

circle sixteen

the

increasing,

diameter

stripes.

will

same

when

five

of claret, one

stitches

stitches

inches

seven

raised

with

and green

may now

be

row of

following pattern

of green.

may

five

of green.

green.

then be worked in green on the

ground.

No

When plain

stitches

of claret, three of green.

of claret,

stitch

claret

plain

about four

follows.

— Second row — three Third row — one Fourth row— a plain The

of

intersected claret

of

observing to keep

number of

surface

flat

produced,

be

between each, instead

times, always

place, the

a

Vandyke border in

row

First

1G1

within

five

rows of

the top of

9.

the

bag,

work

one

row of ground, repeat the Vandyke, and work two plain

rows of the

claret

ground. 12


CROCHET.

162

bag

This

is

and in black

gold,

be varied in colour as taste

worked in white and

and delicate

very pretty

and

blue

in

gold,

may

and

gold.

It

may

also

dictate.

PERSIAN PATTERN BAG.

The

pattern No.

A

chenille.

1

will

work very

green stripe

light

and

colour, lilac, white,

prettily for a

may

scarlet, for

be

the pattern ;

table-cover, will look

as arranged for the

bag in

introduced,

silk or

with

gold

but the colours

equally well.

A STAR BOTTOM FOR A BAG, WITH BEADS.

Make

a chain of fourteen stitches, join both ends together with

crochet one

the crochet, and

row, every other stitch

which

is

is

plain

to be

row

made

a

all

done by putting the needle under both

and making two

under one,

stitches

in the

until eight circles

a bead on in the

stitch

is

be a bead.

to

exactly over the

In

which

this is to be

are formed, every plain stitch

place,

having

but diminish the number of beads, by leaving

out one

bead in each division on each successive

the

row

last

;

last,

of

every

Crochet eight rows more, leaving the seam stitch

it.

same

same place

stitches between, instead of one

two plain

will leave

repeated

work the seam

stitch,

loops, instead ;

other stitch being a plain stitch, on which the next row,

In the next

round.

seam or dividing

will

have but one

bead in

each

circle,

division.

so

that

Then

crochet four plain rows, keeping the seam stitch in the same place as

before, then

one

plain

row

all

which forms the bottom of the bag.

round without a seem

stitch,


CROCHET.

163

A BAG WITH STEEL OR GOLD BEADS.

Make the or

a star bottom for the

diamond

—may

For

bag, as previously directed.

upper part of the bag, either of the annexed patterns

pine

be employed.

No.

10.

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aa ema BaBBBnaQQaaanBHBBBBBn

HBBBBH»BaaaaHa89HBssia«

naHgs»MnawB*»«auaram MaoDanuNaiaasieaKurvcaaoanaBBBiaHaBnni.'.T'.-

«aaiC9Bn3a»n.aian*oacaa;sifa

Hnan5a»ai«ae»ia»«an3nai*a

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ESS 5 SS 5SSS5 S 1 SSSSSS 33S 1

No. 11,

The

pine pattern

When

when two

finish,

the handsomest.

or three

two remaining rows

The

is

within five rows of the top of the bag, the pattern will

may

plain rows are to

be composed of

colours which assimilate best with

silver grey, purple,

For gold beads

be worked, and the

steel beads. steel,

are

black, ponceau,

and marron.

—-brown,

dark green, crimson,

violet,

and blue,

are to be preferred.

Any effect

pattern

intended

with gold cord.

for

beads,

may

be worked

with

equal


CROCHET.

164

ANOTHER BAG WITH STEEL OR GOLD BEADS, AND SILK OF TWO COLOURS.

No.

Make in

a star bottom

round

steel

it,

dark

a

Work

five

as

12.

Crocket the above pattern in

before.

Work

supposing tke ground black.

Repeat

green.

black

the

stripe

more plain rows of green in a

rows

five plain

with

beads.

steel

lighter shade,

and repeat

these stripes black and green alternately, until the bag be finished,

making each succeeding It

has always a good

stripe of green lighter effect

by crocheting

straight line

alternately

Dark green and ponceau, and

claret

two

than the

last.

break the

stripes, to

stitches of each colour.

and greens, ponceau and greys,

violet

and white

blues,

when working

and

blues, are

colours

which

will

prettily harmonise.

AN ELEGANT BAG IN BLUE, WHITE, AND GOLD.

Work crochet

a chain of about

six

stitches

plain rows of blue, and then one stitches,

length, with fine blue

in

Commence with

and join both ends together.

silk,

row blue and gold in

w hich forms the foundation of the r

pattern

three

alternate for

the

stitches of blue,

and

star

bottom of the bag.

On

the above circle, crochet a

two of

gold,

alternately.

of gold, and continue one

row of two

In the next row, two of bine and three

row

after another, increasing each time

one stitch of the gold in every division of each row, until they

amount

to

eight,

taking care to keep the

their right position

)ver each other.

two stitches of blue in


CROCHET.

The

gold must

by working four

1G5

be decreased three

stitches

of blue, and five

stitches

on the next row,

of gold

in ;

row there should be seven of the

next,

and one of

eleven of blue,

rows of blue, increasing a the

work

flat:

gold, followed

number of

sufficient

this completes

the bottom

Crochet one plain row of gold;

and in the next, rows

will

five

be

three

of white

next

and in

by two plain

stitches

to

keep

of the bag.

and, in

one stitch of white silk between each

In the next row, there will

the

and three of gold;

blue,

the next

five

stitches

white

row, of the

and three of

and one of gold.

insert gold.

gold;

These four

form a Vandyke pattern.

Crochet one plain row of white, one plain row of gold, then

two plain rows of tern on the

blue,

after

which commence the following pat-

blue ground.

No.

The hexagonal stars

in white.

blue and

figure

is

Finish the

13.

to be

worked in gold; the group of bag with two or three plain rows of

white.

AN OPEN CROCHET BAG IN CHENILLE.

Make a chain of six loops* and unite both ends. rows to form a round, increasing a sufficient number 16

Crochet in of

stitches


CROCHET.

166

each row to keep the work

iii

flat,

until fourteen rows are finished,

which forms the bottom of the bag.

ommence every

fifth

row three

a Vandyke pattern,

by making one

of the coloured ground, in the stitches of gold,

stitch of gold to

row.

In the next

and three of the ground

in the next,

first

;

of the gold, and one of the ground.

are

to

The two next rows

five

be plain

the

of gold, the second of black.

first

;

Work

two rows of open crochet in the same

second row. should be of a lighter shade th'an the

Two

colour,

but the

first.

rows of black, with one row of gold between, are then to

be worked in plain crochet, which,

repeated alternately with the

two rows of open crochet, complete the bag.

About

sixteen

and

of chenille,

skeins

twenty-four yards

of

gold cord, will be required.

OTHER PATTERNS FOR BAGS Either silk,

square

or

with coloured

round stripes,

patterns of steel or gold on

annexed designs

may

will be

bags

may

arranged

also

be worked in crochet

perpendicularly,

with small

each alternate colour, for which the

found

suitable.

Gold

be used in the place of beads.

No.

14.

cord, if preferred,


167

CROCHET.

No.

15.

No.

16.

A GREEK CAP IN CROCHET SILK.

Commence

top with a chain of fourteen stitches, unite

at the

On

the ends, and crochet one plain row.

every other

raised or dividing line on

the circle

round

may

The cap the

about

is

this, until

stitches

is

stitch,

as for the

make

a

bottoms

increasing must be continued until the diameter of

The

of bags.

next row,

the

six

the cap

be made

inches is

if it

and a

sufficiently

half.

deep

Work

;

be not large enough.

to be finished with a double gold braid,

points of the

rows

plain

occasional increasing

increasing lines, with

which meets

a gold band round the

bottom, and a handsome tassel at the top; or silk trimmings

They

be substituted.

require to be very neatly

made up

may

in the

inside.

A GREEK CAP IN COARSE CHENILLE

Commence

at

the

unite the ends, and sufficient

until

it

number of

top with

work

a chain of six or eight stitches;

in rows round

stitches in each

be about eight inches

in

row

and to

diameter.

round, increasing

keep the work

The

sides

may

a

flat,

be


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CROCHET.

iG3

worked in open

introducing a few plain lines of black

crochet,

and gold between each two rows of the open crochet.

The

colours

best

cap in chenille are black and gold

a

for

dark blue, black, and gold

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

claret, black,

and

gold.

A PEN-WIPER IN PLAIN CROCHET.

Commence with netting

a chain of

about

and

rows of green,

then

of plain

stitches

six

work

and crochet both ends together;

silk,

green

three

plain

one row of alternate stitches of

drab

and green.

The drab

now form

silk will

tern of green

is to

the ground on which the star pat-

Crochet a row with two stitches

be worked.

of green and two of drab

alternately

drab and three of green.

This

increasing one

another,

that colour

is

in ;

stitch

is

in the

repeated in each

the next row, two

of

continued one row after

to be

green

row, until

it

pattern

every time

counts eight stitches

in each division, taking care to keep the two drab stitches of the

ground exactly over each

The

pattern

is

now

to

other.

be decreased by

of drab and five of green;

in the next

working four

row,

stitches

seven of drab and

three of green; and in the next, eleven of drab and one of green.

Work of

two plain rows of drab, increasing a

stitches

fringe

keep

to

the

work

flat,

and

sufficient

finish

number

with a kind of

formed by two rows of open crochet in green.

A CROCHET NECK CHAIN.

The

chain

is

made by commencing with

then putting the needle through

and making

one plain

stitch.

It

the will

five

plain

stitches,

back of the second be found,

stitch,

by twisting the


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CROCHET. chain after every stitch,

which

is

the stitch that

one stitch

that is

169 appears

to

go

across,

always to be taken and crocheted.

A PLAIN PURSE IN CROCHET. Plain crochet-purses are

exceedingly strong, and

very prettily with a moderate sized netting in rows of the length of the purse are the

Make forty

in

on which

Then

five plain

These two

netting

scarlet

stitches,

colour.

cient

chain

a

crochet

.

hundred

of one

made

and

rows in the same

plain

rows in shade of green, or stone colours.

stripes are to be repeated until the purse is of a suffi-

width.

When

completed,

is

it

to

be neatly sewn up, or

The ends

joined by crocheting the two sides together. to be

be

most easily made.

silk

three

may

Those worked

silk.

are then

drawn up and the purse trimmed.

A PLAIN CROCHET PURSE WITH SQUARE AND ROUND ENDS. I

Commence with

a chain of fourteen

ends together, crochet one plain row

every alternate stitch

which

is

all

be made

to

a

and

joining both

In the next row

round.

dividing or seam-stitch,

done by passing the needle under both the correspond

ing loops in the place.

is

stitches,

This dividing

on each row,

making two

row, and

first

stitch

same

be repeated in the same place

to

is

until ten rows are

stitches in the

worked, when a sufficient num-

ber of plain rows are to be crocheted

according to the length

of the purse, until the side opening commences.

The opening alternately sufficient

of the

from right

number of

purse to left,

these

is

made by crocheting

and

are done 16 *

from :

left

to

plain

right:

rows

when a


CROCHET.

170

The

of the round end

but instead

part,

sewn up, with a

square, and

Make

the

to

one hundred and

sixty, or

stitch of this crochet

last

left

CROCHET PURSE.

hundred and

a chain of one

be

to

is

it

either corner.

tassel at

A PLAIN OPEN

seventy stitches

with

correspond

rows are again to be worked to

plain

former

the

five

stitches,

;

which again crochet

to

the fifth stitch of the chain

repeat this

:

whole length of the foundation, and return the row in the

the

same way by attaching every loop of the last row

each

;

tinued in the same way, but

by using two

more

or

fifth stitch to

to

it,

wrong

the

water, allowing

it

purse, and bring

to

all

stiff

remain until

is

stitch

of

to be con-

be varied, according to taste ?

When

purse

the

card-board,

outwards

side

it is

;

with

it

this will

:

worked

to

and sew the purse

damp

dry

is

a

little

stretch the

the stitches into their proper places and tighten

Then having sewn

them.

may

it

colours.

the size desired, cut a piece of

firmly

the centre

the whole of the purse

or crocheted

up

the sides,

draw

in the

ends and put on the trimmings.

A SHORT CROCHET PURSE.

Commence both

ends,

dividing be

at the

bottom with a chain of fourteen

and work round

lines, until a

formed.

On

this,

three inches in length.

and

flat circle

work It

round increasing by means

of

of about two inches in diameter

plain rows until the

purse be

about

must then be exactly divided, and each

side

worked backwards and forwards

ever

is

sufficient for the

stitches, unite

for about eight rows, or what-

depth of the snap.

The

pine pattern, No.


;

CROCHET. 11.

171

and the usual Vandyke are suitable

About

for short purses.

.

>ne hundred and twenty stitches will form a good-sized purse.

A SPRIGGED PURSE IN OPEN AND PLAIN CROCHET.

Commence with one row work

of open crochet, in gold coloured silk;

row of plain crochet with blue and gold colour

a

every two

The

stitches,

and then one row of plain

fourth row

next, or

is

alternately,

blue.

formed alternately of two stitches

of scarlet, and five of blue.

The

row

fifth

—four

of

stitches

and

blue,

white

of

five

alternately.

The

row

sixth

— four —

The seventh row The

eighth row

The

ninth

stitches of blue,

and four of stone

five stitches of blue,

— —blue

colour.

and two of pink.

plain blue.

row

and gold colour

in

alternately, as

the

third row.

The

and twelfth rows

tenth, eleventh,

—in

open crochet, in gold

colour.

Repeat the above, commencing as

at

second row.

OPEN CROCHET STITCH.

The

stitch

describe)

as

work one the

on

plain

needle,

chain

these

;

leaves

—make

pass this

needle

two.

:

stitch

and

through

;

the

which

of open crochet follows

at

the

the

the

worked chain

beginning.

silk,

silk

two on the needle

nearly

Bring the the

first

we can

as

the length

required silk

the

two

first

then draw the silk

which leaves one on the needle

;

round

loop of

which makes three

through ;

(as

of

needle through

bring the

draw

is

a

through

the

stitches stitches,

through this

one,


;

CROCHET.

172

make one bring as

r

it

plain

before,

through

Put

stitch.

the

now be found on

will

the

two

two, which

two double

the

;

finishes the

plain

stitch,

for

which was passed in the chain, and leaves an open This open crochet together,

stitches

the

stitch

—which

is

varied

is

;

then

is

the

stitch

space.

by making the two long

by omitting the

done

silk

draw

and leaves

that

stitch

allows

stitches,

and

needle,

draw

needle

the

The

one upon the needle as before.

between

the

the three stitches,

;

which leaves two on the needle

first,

the silk through these

made

over

silk

through the fourth loop of the chain

single

stitch,

and passing the needle through the next loop of the chain,

—thus

stead of missing one stitch,

and then an open It

may

This

space.

stitch,

and beads

in the following

and pass

may

manner

one on the

gives

Make of open

generally termed treble ope

:

let

the

with very good

it

three

crochet

in

silk,

double stitches,

This

stitch

purse.

WITH BEADS,

silk,

effect

beads be threaded on the

middle stitch of the

a star bottom

of fine netting

is

be introduced on

bead in the centre of each square.

a

makes a very pretty A PURSE

which produces alternate squares

This

of open space and stitches.

which

called double open crochet .

is

be varied by making three stitches successively,

also

without making any plain

crochet

in-

producing two stitches together,

with

IN PLAIN

steel

AND OPEN CROCHET.

beads

(as

directed,

page

162),

Work

three

rows

of a dark emerald green. a

light

green,

—then

either of

patterns on the dark green ground, as follows:

the annexed


CROCHET.

173

No. 17

No. 18

The

The ground

pattern in steel beads.

of the pattern

itself

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;ponceau. Work

two rows of open crochet in light

pattern, with

Repeat the

green.

two more rows of open crochet.

This

completes

the end of the purse.

The

centre is to be in piain crochet.

AN ELEGANT CR <HET PURSE WITH GOLD. ?

Commence with one row

of

purse, in fine white netting sixk.

open

crochet, the

length

in akernate stitches, of white and full blue, or white

No.

WorK

the

above

pattern

in

of the

Then, one row of plain crochet,

gold,

on

19

the

blue

ground.

Three rows of open crochet in white. Repeat the pattern and open crochet

and ponceau.

alternately.

or

ponceau


— CROCHET.

174

When

the purse

is

finished,

it

will

only two rows of open crochet where

found that there are

be

it is

joined, but this cannot

be avoided.

The same but

it

will

may

pattern

also

be worked in gold or steel beads,

then be advisable to omit the pattern in the centre of

the purse.

An

good

on the ground between the beads.

effect,

additional colour

may

be introduced, with very

In

a

moderate

sized purse, the pattern will be repeated seven times in the length.

A

few plain stitches

at the

top and bottom of the purse will be

desirable.

PLAIN DOUBLE STITCH CROCHET PURSE, PINE PATTERN.

Commence with ends,

chain of six stitches in ponceau, unite the

a

Work

and crochet round one plain row.

rows, increasing on each

one stitches First

on the

—three row— one

row

Second

Crochet two

row

last row.

Form

tween each

plain

Vandyke by working:

a

,

stitches ponceau, one drab. stitch ponceau, three drab.

plain

rows

of drab,

—then

following pattern in ponceau, on the drab

pines in height, and

sixteen

There should be ninety-

as usual.

seven in each row

;

commence with the

ground, working three

— eight

pine.

No.

30.

plain stitches be-


— CROCHET.

The opening

of the purse,

is

worked as

usual,

—backwards

by working eleven

a pattern, formed

forwards, with

175

and

stitches

on

each side of the opening in ponceau, in every two alternate rows. Finish

other

the

end

of the

purse

above, reversing

as

the

pattern.

PLAIN AND OPEN CROCHET PURSE.

Commence with one row

of open crochet, in fine green netting

then work,

silk ;

Five plain rows in shades of

On

the

second

row,

work two

On

from black

scarlet,

stitches

stitches.

third row,

two gold beads, in the following position

take

ponceau.

between

the second row, two steel beads, on the

every six

It will

to

with gold beads

ponceau

five skeins of

silk,

:

one of black, and two

of green, to form a purse about nine inches in length

ANOTHER PLAIN AND OPEN CROCHET PURSE.

No. 21.

Commence with two rows of

a

dead gold colour.

three distinct shades

of open crochet, in fine netting

Then

of blue,

— on

six

rows

of

plain

crochet

silk,

in

which the above sprig pattern


CROCHET.

176

may the

be worked in beads,

two

the blue.

last

in

Then,

the

three

rows

first

in

gold beads,

commencing in the second row of

steel beads,

\

Three rows of open crochet in the gold

colour.

Seven rows of black, with the Grecian border in ponceau, form a

to

stripe.

Repeat the three rows of open crochet in gold colour, and com-

mence again with the blue

The purse should three

skeins of blue

one of ponceau.

stripe as before.

be about nine inches in length. silk,

The

two of gold should be

silk

colour,

It will

take

one of black, and

fine.

A BRIDAL PURSE.

Work with

fine

one row the length of the purse, in treble open crochet, white netting

silk.

Then

—one

row

in

plain crochet,

of three alternate stitches of ponceau and gold.

No.

22.

Crochet eleven rows in white, with the above pattern in gold passing.

Repeat the row of ponceau and

gold,

—then

one row of treble

open crochet in white, and one row of treble open crochet in ponceau,

and again in white.

Repeat the pattern, width, finish

etc.

and when the purse

with one row

of

treble

is

of a sufficient

open crochet in white.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CROCHET.

177

Crochet up the two sides with ponceau to the opening, round

which work one plain row in ponceau, to strengthen the purse,

and give uniformity. If intended

for ord inary use, black or claret

silk

may

be sub-

stituted for the white.

A SHORT PURSE OR BAG, IN PLAIN STITCH DOUBLE CROCHET.

No. 23

No.

The above any bright toms

may

The border the If

be

siik,

square,

pattern,

adapted for short purses or bags in

are

patterns

coloured

24.

with

with

No. 24,

gold

fringe

a is

to be

cord of

or

passing;

gold beads

placed

at

as

for

purse, the

a

silk

must be

bot-

the bottom, with

Vandyke pattern above, over the whole of the other worked

the

a finish.

fine

if for

part.

a bag,

;

coarse netting silk

;

the

gold

cord or passing, being of an equal

size.

13


178

CROC TJ ET.

A babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cradle cover, or a carriage wrapper

No.

25.

In blue and white six-thread fleecy, with a large

Make

of white ground. to is

In the next row,

commence

the above pattern,

form the border in blue on the white ground. so

ners

pattern can be

designed, that the

by simply continuing

border being worked

The

ivory needle.

a chain of the required length, and crochet two plain rows'

centre

is

at

it

the

at

the

made

sides,

This border

perfect

the cor-

at

each row of the side

same time with that of the

centre.

composed of the annexed pattern.

This covering can be worked either square or in a long square. It

will

wrapper,

be

exceedingly

when

scarlet

warm and

useful

and drab, or blue and

as

an

open

claret fleecy

carriage

may

be


CROCHET.

For

used.

for

of these

either

done lightly and

loosely,

179

purposes,

the

crocheting

mats or rugs, eight-thread fleecy

is

preferable,

should

When

with a very large needle.

be

worked

and the crochet-

ing should be done as tightly as convenient.

ANOTHER SQUARE PATTERN WITH A BORDER.

may

These patterns

27.

No.

28.

be worked very prettily

border, the other for the centre

Every

No.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

other star in the border

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;-the

first

for the

ground of both being drab.

gold colour, the alternate stars

is

being blue

and crimson, those parts marked white in the engrav-

ing

black.

being

In

the larger

In

working, tke

centre

is

to

and crimson of which

be

may

must be run

be lined with

silk.

centre,

gold-coloured

carried

stars

the

the

small

figures alternately crimson

colour,

through

wool,

the

be introduced in

at

the

stars

are

all

gold

and blue.

both in the border and

whole piece, but the blue in short

lengths, the

back of the work, or

it

ends

may


*

CROCHET.

180

Two

rows of open crochet, in black are to be worked round

whole square when finished.

the

The it

may

stars

will be

j

be crocheted in one shade of each colour; but

and quite as easy,

prettier,

to

work them

in

various

shades.

A ROUND d’oYLEY OR MAT.

Commence with

The blue

the

for

stitch

a chain of six stitches,

Unite both ends.

fleecy.

all

in

black

eight-thread

round, increasing in every

row.

first

may

pattern

ground

Crochet

be formed in three shades of scarlet on a

shades

of three

the

darkest

shade of the scarlet

;

being on the lightest shade of the blue.

Second row

of light blue

one stitch of dark

is

alternately;

scarlet,

and

two

stitches

forming the commencement of a star

of six points.

Third row

—three

stitches

of the dark scarlet, and two of the

blue.

row

Fourth two of the

Fifth row

five

stitches

of

a lighter shade

of

scarlet,

and

blue.

five stitches of the lighter scarlet,

and three of the

--

as

second shade of blue. Sixth

row’

—three

stitches

of the lightest scarlet,

and

six

of

the second blue.

Eighth row

—one

stitch of the lightest scarlet,

and eight of the

darkest blue.

Ninth row

— one

plain

row of the darkest

Three plain rows of black

finishes the

blue.

D’Oyley.

In every row, increasing stitches are to be made in the blue

and

also

in

the

plain

rows of black.

4

I


CROCHET.

181

TRAVELLING BAGS. Travelling bags worked in eight-thread fleecy are very strong,

They may

manner

be mounted in the same

Any

bags.

we have given

of the patterns

as the usual

carpet

be suitable.

will

EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN CROCHET. Plain

r

crochet

—where

Plain double crochet

before the stitch practised, :

one

only

loop

is

made

in each

stitch.

used for the commoner kind of purses.

It is

Double

two loops are kept on the needle

This

the crochet stitch generally

is

and that used for working table-covers, stitch

taken.

—where

is finished.

It

crochet.— In

'

principally

is

where extra thickness

this,

employed

for

required, but

is

etc.

both meshes of the chain are

it

the is

soles

of

and

shoes,

not suitable for work-

ing patterns.

Plain

stitch elastic crochet

wards and forwards, of the

first

worked alternately in rows back-

is

taking the upper, then the under mesh

chain.

Plain

open

stitch

crochet

—as

described

at

page

170.

It

suitable

It

is

used for purses.

Open

crochet

purses, bags,

described

as

— — —

Double open crochet

Treble open crochet

To make a

stitch

make one

to

the

A

last,

at

page

is

stitch

suitable for bags, purses, etc.: see as

described

at the

for

,

or seam stitch

page 172.

page 172.

commencement and end of

of a chain

before the

which in the next row are

dividing

171.

etc.

to be

first

stitch,

a

row,

and

is

after

crocheted.

called also a raised stitch, is

by putting the needle through both meshes

of

the

chain,

made and


CROCHET.

182

working

two

in

stitches

the

same

These

hole.

always be made exactly over each other.

must

stitches

In crocheting

circles,

they form a kind of star pattern, and serve the purpose of

in-

.

They

creasing stitches.

with chenille

.

To

increase a stitch

To

decrease

Decreasing

True

make two

to

two

to take

stitches in the

same mesh.

stitches together or to miss

one

stitch.

always done in the same ratio as increasing.

is

or perfect stitch

,

when working

should not be employed

—when

working in

colours, the

different

keeping the stitches directly over each other, without any appearance of the

This requires

half-stitch.

to the beauty of the work,

—to

To fasten

—Lay

on

a few

the

stitches

ends of

with

the

This

needle.

ends

A

the

is

be tied and cut

to

greatly

pass them

neatest

last

adds

distinct.

stitch.

work in the second wool,

at the

back of the work.

down

a few stitches with

and strongest plan

but they

;

a

may

off.

dividing line

up and down,

it

wool contrariwise, and

the

both, or

and run the end in with a needle

To run

but

draw the wool through the

off-

To fasten crochet

care,

and makes the pattern more

—generally

formed of two stitches alternately

into the grounds of the stripes on either side.

HINTS ON CROCHET.

A

steel

workers

it

easier to

crochet

makes

is

generally

advisable

;

—with

expert

an ivory needle

is

work with.

The second

The

needle

the most even stitches, but

sized netting silk

coarsest or crochet

or gold beads.

is

prettiest for purses.

silk is best

adapted for bags, with

steel


CROCHET.

Where many

colours

are required in

^o not very frequently occur,

m

short

lengths

should always be

When

183

instead

of

attended to

it

advisable to

is

on

carrying

and the same

a pattern,

each

when working with

introduce

them This

thread. chenille.

beads are used, they are to be strung on the silk with

a needle.

The average number fine silk, is

and

In coarse

silk,

one hundred

ten.

From in fine

ninety to one hundred stitches form the circle of a purse silk.

One hundred and of a bag in crochet

A

of stitches for the length of a purse, in

one hundred and sixty.

table-cover

in

may

thirty stitches

be taken for the

round

silk.

six-thread fleecy,

is

generally

computed

at

about four hundred stitches in length.

Borders of flowers

may

be worked in crochet, but

it

would be

impossible to convey a complete idea even to the most experienced

worker,

unless

accompanied

nature of our illustrations

with

coloured

preclude

us

patterns,

from

offering.

which the

But

the

expert needlewoman will soon perceive the best method of copying

any pattern of

this description she

may

desire.


CHAPTER X\ il Knitting.

“Those

curious nets thy slender fingers knit.”

Waller.

“And

between the knyttynges flowers of golde.”

Hall’s

NITTING middle

was unknown in England

of the

that one

Chronicle.

century.*

sixteenth

until the

It

is

said

William Rider, an apprentice on Lon-

don-bridge,

seeing

at

the

house of an

Italian

merchant, a pair of knit worsted stockings from

Mantua, took the

which he presented

to William,

hint,

and made a similar pair

Earl of Pembroke, in

1564, and

* In the Rowleian forgeries, by Chatterton, “the marvellous boy,” as Words“ Mynworth designates him, the following verse occurs it is part of the etrelle’s Songe, Lie Syr Thybbot Gorges,” in the “Tragycal Enterlude of ;

jEila.”


England.* KNITTING.

that these were the

first

of the kind

made

in

185

We

*

learn

from Howell, that Henry VIII commonly wore cloth hose,f except

came from Spain by great chance, a pair of knit

there

and when his son Edward VI was presented with a pair

ings:

by

of long Spanish silk stockings,

deemed a

upon the

fact,

Scots

that the

Paris, took

company of

first

Fiacre

St.

lay

likewise

for

some claim

it is

certain that the art

Italy prior to our knowledge of

wore

who

land, in 1561, knit

Queen

her

majesty with a pair.J

this

have as it

how

early a

marriage to the duke of Savoy,

little

known,

In Eng-

we then

as

Elizabeth’s silk-woman, Mistress Montague, presenting

Knitting, however,

use, ere the stocking-frame, in a great measure, it

said to

Be

in England, but at

it

stockings were but

find

yet

is

had been seen in that country.

that

first

founded

it,

had been practised in Spain and

silk stockings at his sister’s

—the

to

Mezerai says, that Henry II of France

period does not appear.

in 1559

was

stocking-knitters, established

their patron,

been the son of one of the kings of Scotland.

may,

it

of knitting has generally been attributed to the

The

Spaniards

Thomas Gresham,

Sir

some importance.

gift of

The invention

at

silk stock-

and

does,

will

doubtless

As Elynour bie the As from the sone’s

was scarcely in

usurped

its

ever conspicuously rank was

greene lesselle

place;

among

syttinge,

hete she harried,

She sayde, as herr whytte hondes whyte hosen were knyttinge, Whatte pleasure ytt ys to be married ” !

The

introduction of this passage

those

was one on which some

stress

was

laid

by

who

fictions,

endeavoured to prove or disprove the authenticity of these literary from the art of knitting not being practised at so early a period,

Thomas Rowley

(as

Chatterton wished his readers to believe) being a priest

of the fifteenth century. * Anderson’s “History of t

The

stuff j

Commerce,”

vol.

i.

p.

400.

only stockings in use, at this period, were of cloth, or

sewn

together.

Vide chapter on

Silk,

page 47.

of milled


:

KNITTING.

186 the

domestic arts practised by the industrious poor,

and anon

5

*

by

ladies, as the voice of

mazes into action

their

for

of the

and by

mysteries,

its

calls

whose

blind,

almost equal to food

—warmth:

To

winter, in tippets

done as

making

poor

for tbs a

knee-caps,

ladies

source of subsistence,

the knitted spencer, the

warm

the in-

them,

amuse themselves in

comforters,

cuffs,

is

much

—how

useful and

the

and

shawls,

caps,

Independently of these,

?

to

no garments being so warm or

How many

durable as the knitted.

fingers

exercise aiford solace

their

has given employment, and imparted what,

it

ever

intricate

its

and amusement to their frequently too tedious hours. digent

:i

amusement.*

Knitting has long been the friend easily unravel

fashion

and

knitting

is

comfortable are

bonnet-cap, the glove for practising,

made

for children’s wear,

and now

more generally patronized and adopted than formerlv.

Besides

the mitt, and

various

articles

the useful, what stores of ornamental articles does

and bead-work

beautiful purses, bags,

*

The

stocking- frame

was invented

year 1589, by William Lee,

M.A.

of

is

singular:

marrying contrary

it

is

said that

to the statutes

ignorant of any other

means of

what

afford!

it

knitting produce

in the reign of St.

queen Elizabeth,

!

in

and

c

?

John’s College, Cambridge, a

The

of Woodborough, near Nottingham.

covery

will

origin of this

most important

Mr. Lee was expelled the university of the college.

subsistence,

Being thus

he was reduced

rejected,

dis-

for

and

to the necessity

of living upon what his wife could earn by knitting stockings, which gave a spur to his invention; and by curiously observing the working of the nee-

he formed in his mind the model of the frame which has proved of such important advantage to this branch of English manufactures dles in knitting,

In the frame-work knitters or stocking weavers’ Hall, pointing to one of his frames, and discoursing with a

is

a portrait of Mr. Lee

woman, who

is

knitting

The picture bears the following inscription with needles in the usual way. “ In the year f589, the ingenious William Lee, A.M. of St. John’s College, Cambridge, devised this profitable art for stockings (but being despised went af iron to himself, but to us and to others of gold, in memory

to France), yet

of

whom

this is

here painted.”

— Vide

Hutton’s View of London,

vol.

ii.

p. 605.


KNITTING, in the combination of the

187

we would here mention

two,

by

prising and splendid specimens of knitting done cottage

on the

girls,,

of Lord

estate

de

patronage and skilful management of

Yesci,

the

sur-

the poor Irish

under the kind

Hon. Mrs. Wingfield,

the

whose beneficent exertions have been extended both to their

in-

|

struction,

and afterwards

poor children

:

—the

this knitting, almost

tion

by

the disposal of the

to

fineness, variety,

and

labours

of these

perfection, exhibited

exceed belief as to the possibility of

its

execu-

the hand.

So many cleverly-written books of instruction, in the art

have of

knitting,

us to hope,

— and

late appeared, that it

far either

humbly endeavour

to

patience or tact to follow the

with a

little

too

much

tions of the simplest

with this useful

their

rival

assist

those,

ingenuity

who

and

kind, as a prelude

offer a

to super-

we would

:

have not

either

rules given (perhaps in

technicality),

of

would be presumptuous in

from our wish or intention,

sede their use, or to attempt to rather

in

some cases

few useful

to a better

direc-

acquaintance

art.

A VERY EASY STITCH FOR LIGHT SCARFS, SHAWLS, BABIES

,

QUILTS, ETC.

Cast on any number of

stitches,

with three-thread fleecy.

— No.

18 needles. First

row

—make

one;

knit

two together;

alternately to

the

end of the row.

Each succeeding row

Any number

of

is

colours

merely a repetition of the

may

be introduced by

first.

working

in

stripes.

This with

also

silk.

forms a very pretty

stitch

for

a

purse

)

if

done


KNITTING.

i88

A D’oYLEY. Cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by

— No. First

6 cotton, and

row

—knit

No.

one

14 needles.

pearl

knit one

nine ;

;

so on, alternately, to

ten.

pearl

one

;

j

and

end of the row.

the

two. —pearl one knit seven knit three knit — two. Fourth row — three knit three pearl one knit Fifth row—knit pearl one knit Sixth row—knit four four knit three Seventh row — knit Eighth row—knit two two knit seven pearl Ninth row— Tenth row—pearl nine knit

Second row

pearl

;

;

Third row

pearl

;

five

;

pearl

four.

;

;

pearl

five

four.

;

;

five.

;

j

pearl

;

;

pearl

pearl

three.

three.

five

;

;

pearl

one.

;

;

one.

;

Commence again

as

at first

row.

CHECKED, OH MATTED PATTERN. Cast on any number of stitches that can be equally divided by six.

three knit — —repeat the Fourth row—knit three Fifth and rows — repeat the

First

row

pearl

three.

;

Second and third rows

first.

pearl three.

;

sixth

This bags

;

stitch is

—with

fourth.

pretty for children’s socks, D’Oyleys, and large,

very coarse wool

it

makes a good mat.

HARLEQUIN QUILT WITH TUFTS. This

is

very pretty, and easily done in plain double knitting,

with six-thread fleecy, in pieces of six inches square,

—each

com-


KNITTING. partment

about

being

each

stitcbes

way

when

;

they are to be sewn together with a tuft of black wool,

finished,

each square.

at the corner of

The

twenty-four

189

may

tufts

be

made

the

in

manner

following

grooved wooden mesh, an inch in width thread black fleecy, about a dozen times

;

slip a coarse

:

:

—take

wind round

it

thread in

the groove, and tie the wool quite tight, leaving an end to

may

be drawn through and attached to the quilt

;

a

four-

it

that

cut the loops

of wool through on the opposite side of the mesh, then comb and shear

it

For a

neatly. quilt

two yards and a half square, two

twenty-five pieces will be required,

— and

if

the following plan, there will be one hundred

and

fifty-six blue, fifty-six tufts.

added in

A

made

fringe,

as

as

as

White

White

Blue

*

as directed

The annexed

scarlet or blue.

as

It will

fifty -six scarlet.

K-

and thirteen white,

take two hundred and at

plan

page 191,

-as

White

Blue

as-

as

White

Blue

White

Scarlet

White

Scarlet

White

Blue

White

Scarlet

Scarlet

*White

3S-

3IS

White

Blue as

as

as

as

-as

as

White

Blue

as

as

White

Blue

as

White

Scarlet

as

White as

-as

Scarlet

as

as

Blue

W'hite

V

-as

as-

i

[

Scarlet

White

White

Blue

Scarlet

White

I

as

as

as

as

as

as

may

be

one yard square.

is

asScarlet

hundred and

arranged according to

as


KNITTING.

190

TURKISH KNITTING. /

This

forms a very

Needles pointed at coloured wools,

end,

white

and

— say

any

on

Cast

pretty

either

number

of

diamond are

in two

pattern,

and two

required,

coloursr different

scarlet.

stitches

may

that

be divided

by

three.

row

First

—pearl

knit two together

Second row

two

;

row

;

row

alternately

Fifth row

N.B. ting,

—common

knitting,

pearl

knitting,

to the

same

to

with

scarlet

one

;

one

slip

;

end of the row.

the ;

slip

one

knit

;

with

white

;

—make

one

slip ;

with

scarlet;

slip

one;

pearl

end of the row.

—commence

All the

—make

repeating the same to the end of the row.

;

;

knitting,

;

the end of the row.

knit two together

Fourth

two

to

with white

repeating the

— common

alternately

Third one

;

knitting,

again from the

slip stitches are to

from the back of the

first

row.

be taken off as in pearl knit-

stitch.

RAISED KNITTING.

Two

different-sized needles should

be used, one double the size

of the other.

Cast on any even number of First row

stitches

that

with the small needle, alternately

may

be required.

make one

stitch,

and knit two stitches together.

— — row—

Second row

Third row Fourth

plain knitting, with large needle.

plain knitting, with small needle.

pearl knitting, with small needle.

Repeat, from the

1

first.

This kind of knitting

is

well adapted for hoods, muffs, cuffs, &c.


;

KNITTING.

191

KNITTED FRINGE. This

may

made of any

be

the purpose for which

two or more

colours,

Cast on eight

Knit two ;

When

a

it ;

may

also

be spaced with

six stitches in each.

stitches.

make one

;

wool or cotton, according to

sized

required

working alternately

knit two together

ne

is

it

knit two

;

;

make

;

knit one. ;

number of rows

sufficient

knit one

together

are

knitted

to

form the

length of fringe desired,

Cast off five stitches, leaving three to unravel for the fringe.

VANDYKE BORDER. Cast on seven

stitches.

First and second rows

Third row

slip

one

—plain

knitting.

knit two

;

turn over, knit two together

;

turn over twice, knit two together.

Fourth row over

;

—make

one ;

knit two together

Fifth

row

slip

one

knit

two

knit two

pearl one ;

;

;

turn

knit one. ;

knit two

;

turn over, knit two together

;

*

knit four.

Sixth row

—knit —

Seventh row

six ;

turn over, knit two together

turn over twice,

two together

knit

knit one. ;

knit two; turn over, knit two together;

slip one;

turn over twice,

;

knit

two

together.

Eighth row two

—knit

turn over ;

Ninth row turn over together.

;

slip

twice,

two

pearl

one

;

knit two together

;

knit two

pearl ;

one

knit ;

knit one. ;

one; knit two; turn over, knit two together; knit

two together: turn over twice, knit two


— KNITTING.

192

Tenth row

—knit

two

pearl

one

;

;

knit two

one

pearl

knit

;

;

two; pearl one; knit two; turn over, knit two together; knit one.

Eleventh row

knit two; turn over, knit two together;

slip one;

knit nine.

row

Twelfth

cast off

all

but seven

knit three ;

;

turn

over,

knit two together; knit one.

This finishes the

first

Vandyke

—commence

again as at third

row.

This border

is

generally

for muslin cui tains,

“ tidies” for the backs

N.B. the

By

may

knitted in cotton, and

for knitted

netted

or

fish

be used

napkins,

and

for

of chairs, or ends of sofas.

turn over,

is

meant

to bring the wool

forward over

needle.

A SCALLOPED FRINGE OR BORDER. Cast on nine First

row

stitches.

slip

bring the cotton forward, knit

one; knit one;

two together three times; bring the cotton forward, knit one. Second row

—plain

knitting.

Repeat these two rows nine times, plain knitting the additional stitches.

Knit three plain rows, ending these will form the

Make First

first

at the point;

the middle one of

half of the scallop.

the other half of the scallop, decreasing thus:

row

slip

knit two

one

Second row

bring the

together

cotton for-

;

;

ward, knit two together four times

knit seven. ;

plain knitting.

Repeat these two rows

alternately, until reduced to ten stitches.

Bring the cotton forward, knit two together three times there will

be the same number of stitches as

ment of the

scallop

at

the

;

when

commence-


;

KNITTING.

193

Knit three plain rows.

Commence

another scallop as before.

ANOTHER KNITTED FRINGE. Cast on nine or twelve

stitches,

according to the depth of the

required.

fringe

Slip one

knit one

knit two

;

;

be of the desired length

until it

repeat,

bring the wool forward, knit two together

;

bring the wool forward, knit two together

Cast off

and unravel the others

five stitches

knit one ;

;

then

:

to

form the

fringe.

A SPACED FRINGE FOR A CROCHET TABLE COVER, ETC.

Take

white,

inches, time.

and red

blue,

;

two of which are

Each

space

rather more

cut

them

composed of four double

is

knit one.

stitches,

or

same eight

of the fringe, including the head,

than four inches.

Cast on eight stitches in dark First row

lengths of about seven

into

to be knitted into the fringe at the

The depth

rows of knitting. is

of the same wool as that of the table cover

three skeins

slip

;

Take two

claret,

which forms the head.

bring the wool forward, knit two together

one

lengths

of the fringe wool,

and place be-

tween the needles; knit one: bring the wool forward, knit one; pass

the

fringe

wool back, knit one;

bring the wool forward,

knit one.

Second row

—plain

knitting. t

k

KNITTED INSERTION. Cast on nine stitches ;

slip

one ;

14

knit two together

;

bring the


m

KNITTING.

cotton forward, knit two together; knit one; bring the cotton for-

ward, knit two together.

may

This

be used for trimming muslin curtains,

etc.

BONNETS DE NUIT d’hOMMES. Ce bonnet Sur chacune coton est

le

l’envers

les ;

se

commence avec

Les

fin.

six aiguilles et

une de rechange.

quarante six a cinquante mailles, lorsque

se trouvent

ou quatre premiers tours

trois

deux suivants, qui

dans

se trouvent

le

en trous semblables a des crochets, dans lesquels on

ruban pour affermir

le

ce

troussis:

reste

L’on

bonnet.

de deux pouces, pour former

le

font

du bord, qui

une etendue s’appelle

re-

dans de petites c6tes, qu’on obtient en

consiste

tricotant alternativement quatre a cinq mailles unies, et quatre

cinq autres, suite

une

dont une sur deux doit etre a fenvers.

bonnet

et

a

interieurement. l’endroit soit est

remis

le

ou en forme

rempli du bonnet.

l’envers,

Tout

l’envers.

de trous ronds

rangee

servent a regler

l’ouvrage,

ainsi

Le bonnet

en dehors.

II

que sans cela

parce

a l’endroit par

etant

Le le

que

de crochet,

retroussis

seroit

on

le

retourne,

retroussis qui se

rempli qu’on

y

afin

CAP.

Cast on two stitches on each of the four needles.

—increase two plain row —increase one plain

Second

stitches,

stitch

le

a

que

trouve a Tenders,

fait.

Five needles are required.

row

qui

faut tricoter ensuite le

a

Vient en-

ornements se continuent

les

fini,

DOUBLE NIGHT

First

a

un

passer

fait

tricote encore

reste

se

bord, consistent

on each

needle.

on each needle.


KNITTING. Third row

on either ciently

—Seam the

side of

195

centre stitch on each needle, and increase

every alternate row, until the cap

it,

is

suffi-

wide.

Fourth

row

plain

every row, until

knit

the

cap

is

about

twenty-six inches in length.

Fifth row stitch of

— decrease

every alternate row, and seam the centre

each needle, so as to correspond with the increasing

at

the commencement.

OPERA CAP.

This

may

is prettiest

in double

German

wool, but three-thread fleecy

be used.

Cast on seventy-four

stitches, white.

Pearl one row, white.

Knit one row,


— 196

KNITTING.

Pear! one row

;

coloured.

Bring the wool before the Pearl one row,

) >

Knit one row,

\

Pearl one row,

) >

Knit one row,

\

The above forms

needle,

and knit two

stitches together.

white.

white.

the border.

First division

—coloured.

Pearl one row.

Knit one row, decreasing one

stitch at

each end.

Knit one row. Knit a fancy row, by taking two

stitches together,

keeping the

wool before the needle.

Second

white.

Pearl one row, decreasing one stitch at each end.

Knit one row, decreasing two Knit one row, decreasing one Knit a fancy row

stitches stitch at

at

each end.

each end.

as before.

Third

— coloured.

Pearl one row, decreasing one stitch at each end.

Knit one row, decreasing one

stitch at

each end.

Knit one row, without decreasing.

Knit a fancy row as

before.

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh

The

third division to

coloured wool.

be repeated, alternately with white and


KNITTING.

Eighth two

In these

creased in each

Ninth

white.

—coloured.

only two

divisions,

last ;

197

be de-

are to

stitches

be done in the row after the pearl,

this is to

decreasing one stitch at each end.

There should be forty

N.B. last

Make up

the

it

all

on each

stitches

and back

sides

and hem

on the needle in the

and make the borders at

side,

like the first.

cap by turning in the border to the fancy row,

round:

and under the

be tied behind,

to

is

it

wool, with tassels of the same.

chin, with ribbons or plaited

BAREGE KNITTING

Commence with any number by

left

row.*

Pick up thirty the

stitches

FOR SHAWLS.

may

of stitches that

be divided

and knit one plain row.

three,

Second row

—knit

three

bring

:

the wool forward, knit three

taking them off at the back; bring the wool forward,

together,

knit three.

$

Third row

— —repeat

pearl knitting.

Fourth row

second row

the

commenced by knitting

three

,

— except

together

and

that

then

it

to

is

knitting

be the

three plain stitches.

Fifth row

N.B.

—pearl

knitting.

In repeating

the

second

and fourth

rows,

always be commenced alternately with three plain ting three

When

they

stitches,

must

knit-

stitches together.

a pattern in one

or

more colours

is

to

be introduced,

break off the ground colour, and the colour then to be used

* If the pins are small, commence with eighty stitches be forty-six stitches on the needle instead of forty.

j

is

to

then, there should


KNITTING.

198

be fastened on in tbe following manner.

end of the

wool, and

Twist the ends of gether,

—Make

may

of colours

by making

off,

left

hand.

wool and that of the ground,

this coloured

the ground colour,

a slip knot in the

on the needle in the

it

commence again with

a loop, and

fastening on

again

as

to-

required for the pat-

knit in plain knitting the stitches

then fasten

tern,

pass

Any number

above.

thus be introduced, to form flowers or other pat-

which, however, are always done in plain knitting.

terns,

The wool

suitable for barege knitting,

embroidery

fleecy.

may

It

also be

is

done in

known

as

four-thread

fine cotton.

SHETLAND SHAWL PATTERN. This should be worked in fleecy,

fine cotton, or four-thread

embroidery

with No. 14 or 15 needles.

Cast on any number of stitches that First

forward,

—bring the knit one —

row

;

them

stitch over

Second row

Third row

be divided by

one

slip

:

six.

bring the wool

;

knit two together, bring the

slip

knit one. ;

pearl knitting.

—bring

forward, slip one

may

wool forward, knit one

;

the wool forward, knit three

;

bring the wool

knit two together, bring the slip stitch over them.

—pearl knitting. one row —knit one

Fourth row Fifth

one

slip

;

over them

stitch

slip :

;

knit one

;

;

knit two together, bring the

bring the wool forward, knit

bring the wool forward.

Sixth row

pearl knitting.

Seventh row over them

;

slip

one ;

knit two together, bring the slip stitch

bring the wool forward, knit three

forward.

Eighth row

—pearl

knitting.

;

bring the wool


KNITTING.

199

N.B. There are to be two plain stitches

end of each row,

the

at

beginning and

form an edge.

to

A SHETLAND KNITTED SCARF.

Commence with hundred First

row

the pattern of the

—knit

wool forward

two

and knit one, eight times

gether four times

:

pearl one

— Third row—plain Fourth row—pearl Second row

four

— repeat

times

;

bring

the

stitches

to-

;

two

knit

end of the row.

to the

pearl knitting.

Repeat, from the inches deep.

;

casting on one

scarf.

together

stitches

by

border,

width of the

for the

stitches

knitting. knitting.

row

first

Commence

until

the

pattern

the centra as follows

is

about fourteen

—working

:

one row

of pearl knitting, before the pattern commences. First

row

slip stitch

—bring

the wool forward, slip one; knif one, pass the

over the knitted one

;

knit one

one

pearl ;

;

repeat to

the end of the row.

Second and following rows

—repeat

the

first,

—every

row being

alike.

No. 17 needles, and four-thread embroidery If this fleecy

In

splitting, the

portant, together,

as

be

split,

wool

it

exactly

will frequently

by laying

a few stitches

imitates

break

;

fleecy.

the

but

ends contrariwise, and

the

may

be so knit

Shetland wool. this

is

not

im-

them

twisting

that the joins are

not

perceptible.

Both ends of the scarf knitting of the

border.

are to be

They may

ted,

or netted fringe, of the

fine

German

wool.

made

alike

by reversing

be finished with a

same wool, without

the

tied, knit-

splitting,

or

of


KNITTING.

200

A BRIOCHE.

The

brioche knitting-stitch is simply as follows;

forward, slip one

A

brioche*

bring the wool

knit two together.

;

formed of sixteen straight narrow

is

stripes,

and

sixteen wide stripes which gradually decrease in width towards the

top or centre of the cushion. or double

German

Cast on ninety knit two turns

;

turn

may

be

stitches,

in black,

made

in three-thread fleecy

wooden for the

pins,

No.

narrow

19.

and

stripe,

then three turns in gÂťld colour, and two turns

This completes the narrtfw

again in black.

The

It

wool, with ivory or

conical stripe

is

knitted as follows:

stripe.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;knit two

stitches,

knit these two, and two more of the black and turn ;

tinue this, taking each fime two more stitches

;

of the black, until

within two stitches of the top and turn; the wool will the bottom or wide part ol the stripe.

and con-

now

be at

Commence again with

the

black as in former narrow stripe, knitting the two black stitches the top.

at

By The

*

So

a

turn

,

we mean one row am' back

colours for the conical

called

of that name.

from

its

stripe

again.

nay be blue and drab, or

resemblance, in shape, to the well

known French cako


KNITTING.

any two, or four

colours,

each be

thus

different,

green, crimson, white,

French

the

blue,

deep

lilac,

the last conical stripe

narrow

first

stiff

which assort well together, or they

—white,

white, buff,

lilac.

and the brioche

stripe,

ruby,

colour,

finished,

is

may

stone colour, bright

scarlet,

gold

chrysophas green, and

blue,

When

:

201

is

is

it

to be

to be

knitted to

made up with

a

bottom of mill board, about eight inches in diameter, covered

with

The top

cloth.

drawn

is

with a tuft of soft wool cord and

tassels,

as

represented

down, or

stuffed with

;

together, and fastened in the centre

but they are generally preferred with a

fine

the

in

combed

engraving.

should be

It

w6ol.

BOURSE A LA JOSEPHINE. This

a very

is

skeins of silk will

with or without beads.

pretty purse,

Cast on seventy-five stitches, in second sized netting First

Three

be required, and twelve rows of beads.

—plain knitting. row—knit one bring

silk.

row

Second

;

one, pass the slip stitch

over

wool forward,

the

made with

If

it.

one

slip

beads,

;

knit

pass the

bead on in bringing the wool forward. Repeat the

first

and second rows

alternately,

to

complete the

purse.

GERMAN PURSE. Cast on one hundred First

bring

row— slip

the

silk

one;

stitches.

knit

forward, knit

one, pass

one

bring ;

one

;

J

slip

stitch

over

it;

the silk forward, pearl

continue to the end of the row

Every succeeding row r

the

is

the same.

hree skeins of coarse netting

quired.

It

silk,

and needles No.

forms a strong gentleman’s purse.

10, are re-


;

202

KNITTING.

A STRONG KNITTED PURSE. Cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by three

row

First the

—bring

wool forward,

the

over them

stitch

slip

;

— continue

slip

one; knit two, pass

the same to the end of the

row.

—plain row—knit two,

Second row

Third the holes

knitting.

may come

Fourth and

row

fifth

—same

Sixth row

This purse

and needles

as

the

pattern

is

commenced, that

—same

as second

and

third.

first.

take five

will

No

before

a diagonal direction.

in

of second-sized netting

skeins

silk,

It particularly requires stretching.

8.

OPEN STITCH PURSE WITH READS. Cast on sixty stitches in netting First

row

—knit

one

bring the ;

bring the silk forward, pass needle

;

knit two together

;

silk.

silk forward, knit

on a bead, placing

—continue

two together it

behind the

the same to the end of the

row, placing a bead every alternate pattern.

Second row

—same

—knit

Third row

—then

as the

one

continue as in

;

first,

without beads.

bring the silk forward, pass on a bead,

first

row.

Second-size purse twist, and needles No.

are required.

9,

HERRINGBONE, OR SHETLAND STITCH FOR A PURSE. Cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by

About eighty First row

will

four.

be required.

—bring

the silk forward, slip one

knit one, pass the ;


— KNITTING. stitch

slip

over

it

;

knit one

2C3

bring the silk forward^ pearl one

;

;

ropeat to the end of the row.

Every row

is

the same.

Three skeins of second-sized

and two needles, No.

silk,

13, will

be required.

A PENCE JUG, OR PURSE.

Five needles, No.

cla-

and green Hamburgh wool.

ret

Commence with

handle

the

;

—by

casting in five

in

stitches

and knitting in plain rows backwards and forwards until

claret, is

be required, and half a skein of

14, will

two inches on

Cast

six

on the same needle, twenty-six

stitches

second, and ten on the third

Knit from the

With

first

needle,

the second needle

the wool back, slip one

;

knit two together

rounds, until

needle,

which

two ;

pearl two ;

twelve

;

stitches

;

;

only

pass

over

slip stitch

seven of the end

it ;

then,

;

knit two.

knit two

alternately repeating

;

remain on the

second

finishes the spout.

Knit three plain rounds with green, green, and

alternately.

pearl two ;

plain, within

pearl two

two

pearl ;

knit two

knit one, draw the

knit one

on the

then,

;

the next needle

three

:

—knit

pearl two

knit the remaining stitches

On

it

long.

five

with

claret,

five

with

claret, three

with

every two stitches being alternately

plain and pearled.

Knit one plain round with claret ;

two

green

pearl

three

rounds

with

;

knit one round with green,

making

a stitch between every

stitches.

Pearl three rounds

with green ;

knit one

plain round

in ;

the

next two rounds, bring the wool forward and knit two together.


— 204

KNITTING.

Knit one plain round with

knit one

pearl three rounds

claret

;

;

plain round

two together

knit

rounds bring the wool forward and

in the next two

;

one plain round

knit

;

Divide the stitches on the four needles,

pearl

rounds.

three

;

—twelve

Then-

on each.

In plain stocking knitting, knit five rounds, decreasing one

each

ternately, at

end, and in the

middle

of the

al-

Knit

needle.

three rounds more, decreasing occasionally.

Divide the stitches on three needles, knit pearl three rounds

without decreasing

plain

a

round, and

with plain rounds,

finish ;

Draw

decreasing until only four stitches remain on each needle.

up

and attach the lower end of the handle

small opening

the

to

the side of the jug.

may

It

also

be worked in

silk.

STAR PATTERN SHAWL IN TWO COLOURS. Cast on four stitches in blue. First row

—bring the

wool forward, knit one (these two stitches

form the increase, and therefore are not the

wool forward,

them

knit

to be

two, pass

repeated)

the

;

bring

stitch over

slip

;

repeat the same to

the

end of the row.

;

—pearl — same row—same

Second row Third

row

Fourth

Repeat these rows

1

one

slip

are

one

and

finish

As

the

knitting in claret. as as

first

in blue.

second in

alternately,

claret.

in blue

and

claret,

hundred and eighty stitches on the needle

until cast

there ofl^

;

with a netted fringe. increasing adds

an irregular

have one, and others two knitted stitches

stitch,

PLAIN RIBBED MUFFATEES.

Four needles

will

be required.

some

at their

rows

will

commencement.


KNITTING.

205

Cast on each of three needles eighteen or twenty-four stitches according to the size desired. First round

—knit

pearl

three

three

;

;

Second and succeeding rounds

—repeat

— alternately. the

first.

GRAHAM MUFFATEES.

Two

colours are

are prettiest

generally used

in four-thread

Cast on forty-five

—say

embroidery

red

and white,

fleecy.

stitches.

Bring the wool forward, knit two together; >

white.

>

red.

repeat the same to the end of the row.

Knit

six plain rows.

Knit

six plain rows.

Bring the wool forward, knit two Knit

six plain rows.

Knit

six plain rows.

together.

Bring the wool forward, knit two together. Knit

six plain rows.

white.

They


KNITTING.

20G Knit

six plain rows.

Bring the wool forward, knit two

Knit

six plain rows.

Knit

six plain rows.

together.

1

red.

white.

Bring the wool forward, knit two together.

Take double

wool, and needles

double the

size.

Knit one plain row. Pearl one row. white.

Knit two plain rows. Pearl one row.

Knit one plain row. red.

Pearl one row.

^j>

Repeat these two red and white

and

finish with the

The

cuffs,

when

two

finished,

roll

ing represents them without the

Two

needle*,

No.

11,

stripes alternately

stitches together as at the

over at the top. *

four times,

commencement.

The engrav-

roll.

and two No.

16, will

be required.


;

KNITTING. Cast on thirty-five

—knit

row

First

207

stitches.

twenty plain

and

stitches,

double

in

fifteen

knitting.

Every second row

When

the same.

is

double knitting comes over tight

The

they are sufficiently large, knit or sew them up.

the

to

the

hand, the

knitting

plain

sitting

wrist.

wTh

Three-thread fleecy,

needles,

No.

are to be used.

16,

PATTERN FOR A CHAIR TIDY, OR d’oYLEY. Cast on one hundred and sixty-eight stitches. the

on which the pattern

foundation,

is

be

to

This

form

will

eight

repeated

times.

First

row

—pearl knitting. —knit two together;

knit three; knit two together;

Second row knit

one

bring the wool forward, knit one

;

ward, knit one knit one

;

Third row

;

;

—repeat

this

to

bring the wool

for-

;

the end of the row.

— knit

two together

knit one

knit tu o together

:

;

bring the wool forward, knit three

;

;

for-

knit two together

pearl knitting.

Fourth row

knit one

;

bring the wool

;

knit three

bring the wool forward, knit one

;

ward, knit two

knit one

knit two together

bring the wool forward, ;

knit two together ;

knit one

knit

two together

knit ;

;

one; bring the wool forward, knit three; bring the wool forward, knit two plain.

Fifth row

—pearl knitting. — one knit

Sixth row

two

slip

;

over them the

;

knit one ;

bring

wool forward, knit one

the

slip

stitch

over

them

the slip

;

;

together,

draw the

wool forward, knit one

knit one

;

;

slip stitch

bring

knit five; bring the wool forward, knit two.

the

bring

five ;

knit two together

;

draw

wool forward,


;;

208

KNITTING.

—pearl knitting. —knit two; bring

Seventh row

Eighth row

the wool forward, knit one ;

two together

;

knit one ;

the wool forward, knit one

knit two together

knit two together

;

knit

;

;

bring the wool forward, knit one

the wool forward, knit one

bring

;

knit three

bring

;

knit three ;

knit

;

two together.

Ninth row

— —knit

pearl knitting.

Tenth row

two

bring

;

knit two together

;

knit one ;

wool

the

bring the wool forward, knit one

knit three

forward,

knit two together

;

knit one

;

bring the wool forward, knit three

bring the wool forward, knit one

;

knit two together

knit one

;

knit two together.

— Twelfth row—knit two;

Eleventh row

pearl knitting.

bring the wool forward, knit five

the wool forward, knit one the

knit two

one

slip ;

over them; knit one % bring bring the wool forward, knit one

the

stitch

slip

;

knit five

This tidy,

bring the pattern

slip

may

be worked in cotton,

for light shawls, in four-thread

may

bring bring

wool forward, one

;

knit two

over them.

stitch

and finished with a netted

14 or 15

slip

;

;

together,

;

together,

;

fringe.

No.

It

embroidery

is

fleecy.

for

6,

also

a chair

very pretty

Needles Nos.

be used with either material.

DOUBLE KNITTING FOR COMFORTERS, ETC. Cast on any even number of First

knit one

;

slip

to

Every succeeding row row,

is

stitches.

—bring the wool forward, —continue the end of the

row

the

slip stitch in

is

the same.

one ;

pass the wool back,

row.

The

stitch knitted

in

the next.

Large sized needles, and four-thread fleecy

will be required.

one


— KNITTING

209

A KNITTED BAG, WITH BLACK OR GARNET BEADS.

# Thread half a bunch of beads on a skein of and cast on eighty-eight First

the

stitches.

and second rows

Third row

—plain

knitting without beads.

with a bead

knit one

one

slip

;

same alternately

Repeat from

first

claret netting silk,

row eighty-four

mencement of every row

;

knit one

repeat

;

end of the row.

to the

make

to

a

Observe

times.

at the

com-

slip-stitch.

Join up* the two sides, leaving an opening at the top, and finish

A

with two bars and gold chain. gold points,

the

is

prettiest

fringe of the garnet beads, with

trimming.

It

should have

a stiff

lining.

No. 14 needles, eight skeins of netting

silk,

and four bunches

of beads, including those for the fringe, will be required.

DOTTED KNITTING, FOR BABIES* SHOES, CUFFS, ETC. Cast on any even number of First

row

Second row

pearl one; knit

—-knit

one; pearl one.

Repeat these two rows

Two

No.

needles,

stitches.

one.

8,

alternately.

and German wool, are required. e*'"

A KNITTED BONNET Cast on ninety First, second,

Fourth

row

stitches,

in hair

>.!

CAP.

brown, for border*

and third rows—-plain knitting.

—bring

the

wool

forward,

knit

Then,

Commence with another Fifth, sixth,

tv.

—say white. —plain

colour

and seventh rows

knitting.

two

together.


210

KNITTING.

Eighth row-—bring the wool forward, knit two together,

t Repeat

these last four rows seven times:

der as before.

be drawn

up

is

to

it

under the chin.

Then the

cast

at

on forty

brown border

two ends, and strings attached

the

to be

head

three rows

This

is

and forms the band

piece,

run through

it,

to tie

to

tie

and commence another band with

stitches

as above,

and repeat the brown border. to the

then the brown bor-

forms a band of about four inches wide, which

It

of the to

pattern in white,

be sewn or knitted on

for the back.

A

ribbon

is

close to the head.

it

irxrT r r T n MUFF tt 'cp t\t IMITATION t \t rr a rin\r nf SABLE. sart.p OF IN Aa KNITTED r

r

,

,

r

iyt

Cast on seventy or eighty First, second,

Fourth row at the

back

;

stitches.

and third rows

—bring

the

—plain

knitting.

wool forward, knit two together, taken

continue the same to the

Repeat these four rows, until the piece be about 18 inches

long,

admitting that the shading comes in correctly.

Two No.

19 needles are required, and double

four distinct shades to match the colour of sable.

the lightest shade,

them again

then the second,

third,

ANOTHER MUFF. stitches.

German

wool, in

Commence

with

and darkest, reversing

to the lightest, as represented in the

Cast on forty-five

a

end of the row.

engraving.

ft


1

KNITTlNfi.

Every row

is

worked the same, with a

slip stitch at the begin-

pearl one; repeat to the end of the row.

knit one

ingj

21

;

twenty inches long

require a piece of about

It will

to

make

a

moderate sized muff, which must be lined with gros de Naples, stuffed with wool,

and

retain

in

it

shape.

muff may be sewn

and a

Cord and at the

quantity of horsehair to

sufficient tassels to

ends

or

match the colour of the

may

it

;

be drawn up with

ribbons.

a baby’s shoe.

Cast on thirty-six stitches in red

Knit

and

wool.

six turns, increasing a stitch at each row, to

form the toe

heel.

Knit the

German

six

more

turns, increasing a

at one

stitch

end

only for

toe.

Cast off thirty stitches on another needle sixteen stitches for eighteen turns, and

cast

;

—knit them

remaining

the off

on another

—knit

three plain

needle.

With rows;

white

— in

the

,

pick

up

the

thirty red stitches;

next, bring the wool forward, knit

Knit three plain rows

;

two together.

leave sixteen stitches on the needle, and

repeat the pattern in white across the instep seven times, which

afterwards to be sewn to the red knitting for the

Cast on sixteen stitches in white to correspond

Knit

two plain rows

;

—in

the

next, bring

is

toe.

w.ith the

the

other side.

wool

forward.


— ;

212

KNITTING.

knit two together the whole length of the

row

up

in red, taking

and make creasing

this side

now

instep are

:

— The

stitches both of the

Take

plain turns.

—knit

one plain

shoe

and the white in the

finished.

Pick up the

two together

;

of the shoe to correspond with the other, de-

of increasing.

instead

row

the stitches that were cast off for the toe

and instep

shoe

a larger needle, bring the

;

—knit

three

wool forward, knit

forming the holes to pass the ribbon through.

Knit three plain turns with a small needle.

In the next row,

bring the wool forward, knit two together.

Knit three plain rows

in

knit two together, until the off

the

bring the wool forward,

next,

;

sock be

Cast

of the height desired.

very loosely.

ANOTHER VERY PRETTY BABy’s SHOE. This

worked in

is

stripes with

two

colours.

Cast on twenty-eight stitches in blue,

—knit

one plain row

;

knit one plain row in white, adding a stitch at the end for the heel,

and turn

as before,

knit another plain row with blue, adding a stitch

;

and turn.

Repeat the above alternately without any additional until

there

are

eight

stripes of each

Knit one plain row in teen

stitches,

Knit the

blue,

and

beginning from the h thirteen

Knit one row with

remaining

blue,

.

in .n

side,

blue,

and turn.

the heel. shoe.

in

The

— add

turning, cast

off

seven

l

sht'hes

with white, and

and turn.- -( -ontinue until there are

rows of one colour, and four of the other. stitches

stitcherf,

colour.

Then

turn. five

knit the thirteen

seventeen to correspond with the

other

Finish this side like the other, decreasing for toe

and heel are then sewn up in the shape of a


213

KNITTING.

Take four and

ankle,

needles

needles.

Knit

a stitch

slip

;

,

and pick up the

putting an equal five plain

one

rounds

;

round the instep

stitches in each of three

bring the wool forward, to make

knit two, pass the slip-stich ;

the wool forward, and repeat

Knit

stitches

number of

the

same

over them

;

bring

for one round.

five plain rows.

Pearl four rows.

Knit

five plain rows.

Pearl four rows.

Knit two plain rows. Finish by bringing the wool forward, and knitting two together.

Knit two plain rows, and

The upper

cast

No. 14 needles, and three-thread are to be used.

them on the

off.

or round part of the shoe,

A

ribbon

may

is prettiest

fleecy, or

white.

German

wool,

be run in the open stitches to

foot.

a

double

in

babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stocking.

tie


KNITTING.

214 Cast on twenty-three

stitches in

brown, and knit six turns,

and

creasing one at each end. for the toe

Knit

now

There

six turns, increasing a stitch only at the toe.

Cast off twenty

be thirty-six stitches on the needle.

and knit the remaining sixteen $nd instep

side of the shoe

will

now

will

stitches,

One

for eighteen turns.

stitches,

in-

heel.

be made.

Cast on twenty stitches and work the other side of the shoe to correspond.

Pick up the

Knit two

with white across the instep.

stitches

turns, catching in one loop of the sides of the shoe, in each row, to join

them

together.

Knit one turn in brown, two in white, one in brown, two in white, one in brown.

Pick up the

The

stitches

which forms the

now

shoe and instep will

of the

on each

shoe,

side

be finished. of the piece

There should now be forty

instep.

stitches

on

the needle.

Knit seven turns in white at the

;

then nineteen turns, increasing a stitch

lowed by

fol-

eighteen turns, decreasing one stitch in every other turn.

Forty-four stitches will

now

be found on the needle.

pearl two alternately for five turns.

one row in

The

Knit three plain turns

beginning of every other turn.

shoe

red,

and cast to

is

Knit and

Knit two plain rows.

Knit

off loosely.

be sewn up into

its

shape, and the stocking

closed up.

Open babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

stockings

may

be made by continuing the knitting

as directed for the shoe pattern, p. 211.

A DOUBLE KNITTED SCARF, IN TWO COLOURS. Cast on thirty-six stitches in blue. First row

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;bring

back, knit one

the wool forward,

slip

one

repeat to the end of the row. ;

;

pass

the

wool


KNITTING. Eacli succeeding row

always comes under the It

require seven

will

is

the same, observing that the knit-stitch

slip-stitch.

rows

seven of white, seven of

of blue,

w hite. seven of

blue, thirty-eight of

215

r

blue, seven

of white, seven

of blue.

Cast off and draw up the

Finish with blue and white

ends.

tassels.

CABLE KNITTING. Cast oh any number of stitches that can be divided by First

row—pearl

six.

knitting.

—plain kniting. —pearl Fourth row—plain Fifth row—pearl Sixth row —plain knitting. Seventh row —pearl three Eighth row — Second row

Third row

knitting.

knitting.

knitting.

knitting.

on

stitches

slip

keeping that needle in front

knit the

to

always

a third needle,

next three stitches

the third needle again, and slip three more stitches on it

before

as

and knit

in front,

the

mxc

three

it,

then

;

;

knit the three stitches that were slipped on the third needle

take

;

keeping then

stitches ;

knit the three stitches slipped on tki third needle; continue

same

row; commence again as

the end of the

to

at

first

the

row.

KNITTED CUFFS. Cast

thirty

round

Second pearl one

stitches

on each of two

needles,

and

forty

on

and knit a plain round.

the third,

—pearl

pass the ;

one

silk

J

back,

pass

the

knit one,

silk

—by

back,

knit

one

;

which you make


;

KNITTING.

216 a

loop

repeat

stitch

this

times,

five

which

make, with

will

;

the loop stitch, thirteen from the last pearled stitch the pattern again

Third round

as

—pearl

one

knit

one

one, pearl

;

commence

one

slip ;

over

the slip-stitch

one, pass

;

beginning of round.

at

it ;

knit nine

;

knit two

;

knit

together

end of the round.

repeat to the

Fourth round

—same

as

third,

except that there will be only

seven plain stitches to knit. Fifth round

There as

at

—same

now be

will

as

third,

the same

with only five plain stitches.

number of

on the needles

stitches

the commencement.

Knit one plain round, excepting on the three division which are knitted

as

before.

round,

and when the

a

plain

round

They may be made

either

Repeat ficient

from

second knit

length,

stitches

to

of

suf-

with

the

are

cuffs

correspond

beginning.

needles No.

of

silk,

cotton, or

fine

wool, with

11.

COVER FOR AN AIR CUSHION. Cast on eighty

stitches,

on each of the three needles

;

knit

one round with the wool turned round the needle.

Second round

—knit

the

repeat this, slipping

first ;

second

every

stitch,

slipping

second stitch

it

over

the

over the former

one.

Repeat the

first

and second rounds

alternately.

A FISH NAPKIN, ifoYLEY, OR TIDY. Cast on ninety-six stitches ternately.

pearl ;

and knit sixteen rows

al-


— 217

KNITTING. Seventeenth row three

the

pass

;

stitches

—pearl

sixteen

the

repeat

three

six

last

;

within

alternately, until

bring the cotton forward, pearl

;

knit

back,

cotton

the

sixteen

last

of the

stitches

of the row, which are to be pearled.

end In

the

next row, knit the sixteen

stitches

the

at

beginning

and end which form the border, and reverse the pearled and knit stitches in the centre.

Repeat the seventeenth

when worked

to the size

and eighteenth rows with

required, finish

and

alternately,

border

the

as

at

the commencement.

The above may be

by

enlarged

by

of stitches that can be divided

casting on

any extra number

three.

A KNITTED MAT. Cast on forty-five stitches in fine twine row.

Cut some coarse yarn

lengths

into

and knit one

,

of about

plain

two inches,

and in the Second row needles, one

—knit

one

;

place a piece of the yarn between the

end on each side

;

knit

yarn between the needles, knit one

;

one, pass

the

end

repeat the same to

of the the

end

of the row, finishing with two plain stitches.

Third row

— —knit

plain knitting.

Fourth row

two, before placing the yarn, and continue as

n second row. It is better to

as

it

work

this

would be too heavy

mat

in lengths, and sew

to hold in the

hand

them

in one piece.

CLOSE STITCH FOR A WAISTCOAT, ETC.

To

be knitted in two colours,

—say

Cast on any uneven number of

claret

stitches.

together,

and

blue.


218

KNITTING.

First

row

—with

claret,

—knit

one

—knit

one

one

slip ;

;

repeat

the

to

end of the row. Second row one

pass

— with

claret,

;

wool back, knit one

the

;

bring the wool forward, repeat to

;

the

end

of

slip

the

row Third row

—with

claret,

slip

one

;

knit one

repeat to the end

;

of the row.

Fourth row

—bring

b^ck, knit one

the wool forward, slip one

the

pass

;

Fifth and sixth rows

—same

as

and second in

first

HONEYCOMB STITCH FOR A

blue.

BAG.

Cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by First round at the

back

—bring

:

;

plain stitch at the

—repeat —

to the

end of the round.

repeat the

making one

first,

extra

commencement.

—plain —bring the

Fourth round round

five.

the wool forward, knit two together, taken

knit three

Second and third rounds

Fifth

wool,

;

repeat to the end of the row.

knitting.

wool forward,

knit

three

knit

;

two

*

together.

Sixth and seventh rounds

Eighth round

—plain

—same

knitting,

as the fifth.

making one

additional

stitch, to

bring the pattern correct in the next row.

baby’s hood.

Cast on

which are

fifty

to

stitches,

and knit eighty

be rolled up to form the

front.

plain

rows

;

sixty

of


KNITTING.

Sow

219

together three inches of the cast on part

;

and draw up

the remainder for the crown.

Cast on

fifty stitches for

the hood, and

work

forty plain rows.

No. 18 needles, and double German wool.

When

may

finished, it

be lined with white silk or

satin,

and

knit,

and

trimmed with narrow satin ribbon.

LONG SLEEVES TO WEAR UNDER THE DRESS. No. 14 needles, and six-thread embroidery

fleecy.

Cast on forty-two stitches very

alternately

loosely,

pearl, three stitches, for twelve turns.

Knit ten turns Knit

plain.

turns,

thirty-five

plain,

—increasing

one

stitch

on each

turn.

Knit twenty

turns,

plain,

—increasing

one

stitch

every

other

turn.

Repeat the twelve turns as at the commencement.

OPEN STITCH FOR A LIGHT SHAWL, D OYLEY, ETC. 7

Cast on any number of stitches that can be divided by three. First row

—bring the

the bacl%; slip one

;

wool forward, knit two together, taken at

repeat to the end of the row.

Every succeeding row

is

the same.

JARRETIERES. Cast on eighteen

stitches.

Knit in double knitting in rows backwards and forwards, until of the desired length.


220

KNITTING.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN KNITTING. To

on

cast

—The

of

interlacement

first

the

on the

cotton

needle.

To

cast

off.

— To

knit two

the second, and so

on

stitches,

to the

and

to pass

which

last stitch,

is

the

first

to be

over

secured

by drawing the thread through.

To To

To To

— To bring the cotton forward round the narrow. — To by knitting two the with the cotton seam. — To knit bringing the by making a widen. — To

needle.

cast over.

stitches together.

lessen,

before

a stitch

increase

round the needle, and knitting the same when

A To

A A

turn.

— Two

rows in the same

—To change from —The —A row when

stitch,

it

cotton

occurs.

backwards and forwards

the stitch.

turn.

row.

needle.

stitch,

stitches

one end of the needle to the other.

the stitches are on two, three, or more

round.

needles.

A

plain row.

To pearl a To

rib.

— To

To bring as to

A

—That

rov:.

work

stitch.

knit with the cotton before the needle.

alternate rows of plain

the thread

make an open loop

composed of simple knitting.

— To

forward.

— To

and pearl knitting.

bring the cotton forward so

stitch.

—Made

by bringing the cotton

before the needle,

which, in knitting the succeeding stitch, will again taKe^its own place.

To

slip

or pass a stitch.

other without knitting T<i

ends

fasten on

the

contrariwise,

For knitting with presented in the

—To

change

it

from one needle

to the

it.

best

way

and knit silk

or

to

fasten

on

is to

place the two

a few stitches with both fine

cotton,

annexed engraving),

will

a weaver's knot

be found the

together. (as best.

re-


KNITTING.

To

under

take

— To

.

pass

without changing

other,

Pearl seam ,

N.B. The

drawn It is

at

and

,

221

the cotton

from one needle to the

position.

its

rib-stitch.

all

signify the same.

sizes of the needles are

given according to the filiere

,

page 94.

necessary in giving or following directions for knitting, to

caution knitters to observe a

medium

in their

work

— not

knitting

either too loose or too tight.

HINTS ON KNITTING.

A

plain stitch at the beginning of each row, called

Gaugain an edge as

it

at

stitch is a great ,

makes an uniform edge, and the pattern

its

commencement.

most

In

by Madame

improvement in most

knitting,

instances,

kept more even

is

the

edge-stitch

is

slipped. It

said

is

young;

it

that

knitting should be taught

curious

is

to

persons handle the needle, It is

observe

who have

easiest to learn to knit

learnt

by holding

gers of the left hand; the position of the

when thus It is

when those

in childhood.

the wool over the fin-

hands

is

more graceful

held.

it

is

separate needle, cast

it

readily

always advisable to cast on loosely.

When the

children,

to

how much more

requisite it

is

to

cast

off,

and continue the row on a

sometimes better to run a coarse

off stitches ;

silk

through

they are easily taken up when required,


KNITTING.

222

and the inconvenience of the in

stance,

working

idle

needle

is

avoided,

as

for

in-

children’s shoes.*

* It is not perhaps generally known, that the crimson caps worn by tho Turks (some of which are occasionally seen in this country), are knitted. The Fez manufactory of Eyoub, at Constantinople, established by Omer Lufti “ As we passed Effendi, is thus described, from a recent visit by Miss Pardoe. the threshold, a most curious scene presented itself. About five hundred fe-

males were collected together in a vast

awaiting the delivery of the wool

hall,

and a more extraordinary group could not perThere was the Turkess with her yashmac haps be found in the world. folded closely over her face, and her dark feridjhe falling to the pavement; the Greekwoman, with her large turban and braided hair, covered loosely with a scarf of white muslin, her gay-coloured dress, and large shawl the Armenian, with her dark eyes flashing from under the jealous screen of her carefully-arranged veil, and her red slipper peeping out under the long wrapping cloak the Jewess, muffled in a coarse linen cloth, and standing a little apart, as though she feared to offend by more Immediate contact and among the crowd, some of the loveliest girls imaginable.” This establishment is on a very extensive scale, three thousand workmen being constantly employed. The wool is spread over a stone-paved room, where it undergoes saturation with oil; it is then weighed out to the carders, and afterwards spun into threads of greater or less size, according to the quality The women then receive it in balls, each of fez for which t is to be knit. containing the quantity necessary for a cap and these they take home by half a dozen or a dozen at a time, to their own houses, and on restoring them, receive a shilling for each of the coarse, and seventeen pence for each

which they were

to knit

;

:

;

:

;

of the fine ones.

The

fez afterwards undergoes various operations, such as felting, blocking,

when

assumes the appearance of a fine close cloth. It is then who- works into the crown the private cypher of the manufacturer, and affixes the short cord of crimson which is to secure the tassel of purple silk, with its curious appendage of cut paper. The last operation is that of sewing on the tassels, and packing the caps into parcels condyeing,

etc.,

it

carried to the marker,

taining half a dozen each, stamped with the imperial seal.

Fifteen thousand caps a tnonth are produced at the manufactory of Eyoub. must not close the subject of knitting, without briefly alluding to the productions of Barege, the Shetland Isles, and Sanquhar.

We

The

village

of Barege, situated

the foot of these lofty mountains, knitting,

is

on the French

side of the

Pyrennees,

at

celebrated for that peculiar description of

where various coloured wools, and sometimes gold and

troduced to form most elegant patterns.

The

silver, are in-

knitting from the Shetland

isles

*


KNITTING. is

very similar to that of Barege, but generally of one

223 uniform colour.

The

wool with which the real Shetland knitting is done, is peculiar to these islands, and spun by the peasants the particular race of sheep from which it is produced said to resemble those in the mountains of Thibet, more than any other is ;

Sanquhar, in Dumfriesshire, was formerly celebrated for its but that branch of industry received a fatal the commencement of the American w*ar, although it still affords em-

European breed.

manufacture of knit stockings*, check

at

ployment there

for

made

numerous

is still

much

families

prized.

j

and the

particular

description

of stocking


;

CHAPTER

XVIII

Netting-

*Not

which her vaunteth most of soft silken twyne; Nor aine weaver, which his worke doth boast In

aine damzell,

skilfull knitting

In diaper, in damaske, or in lyne;

Nor Nor

aine skild in

workmanship embost;

aine skild in loupes of fingring fine

Might

With

cunning ever dare networke to compare.”

in their divers this so curious

Spenser. “ Ideal

visits I

sitting netting in

posting round your sylvan walks, or

often pay you, see you

your parlour, and thinking of your absent friend.”

Seaward’s

N

museum

the

of Montbijou,

served specimens of the

nets

at

Letters.

Berlin,*

made by

above three thousand years since; and in are

—instruments

the present day.

similar

to

These nets are such as were used

* This collection of Egyptian antiquities

General Minutoli, and

is

pre-

this,

and

some of the needles they em-

other collections,

ployed in

netting

are

the Egyptians

those

for

of

fishing

was formed by M. Passalacqua and

one of the most curious in Europe.


225

NETTING. and fowling, but we are not

if

to

infer,

were ignorant of netting of a

age, they

we may

credit

the

ancient

that

even in

this

finer description

writers, their

:

remote indeed,

productions of this

kind far surpassed those of modern times.*

There

is

scarcely a hunter or a fisherman

stand netting in requisite are,

by which

rudest

its

and simplest

a pin or mesh,

their

size

is

who

style.

does not under-

The instruments

on which the loops are made, and

consequently

haped into a fork of two prongs

at

determined each

;

end, the

and a needle ends of the

Their nets were made of flax, and some of the threads used for them were remarkable for their fineness; so delicate were these nets, says Pliny, (lib. xviii. c. 2) “ that they would pass through a man’s ring, and a single person could carry a sufficient number of them to surround a whole wood. Julius

Lupus who died while governor of Egypt, had some of these nets, each which consisted of one hundred and fifty threads; a fact perfectly

string of

surprising to those

who

are not aware, that the Rhodians preserve to this day,

Temple of Minerva, the remains of a linen corslet, presented to them by Amasis, king of Egypt, whose threads are composed each of three hundred and sixty -five fibres and in proof of the truth of this, Mutianus, who was thrice consul, lately affirmed at Rome, that he had examined it; and the reason of so few fragments remaining, was attributable to the curiosity of those who had frequently subjected it to the same scrutiny.” Herodotus (lib. iii. c. 47) also mentions this corslet, and another presented by the same king to the Lacedaemonians. He says, it was of linen, ornamented with numerous figures of animals worked in gold and cotton. Each thread of the corslet was worthy of admiration, for though very line, every one was composed of three hundred and sixty other threads, all distinct; the quality being similar to that dedicated to Minerva at Lindus.” in the

;

16


NETTING.

226

prongs meeting, and forming a blunt point,

which

will allow of

the needle being passed, either end foremost, through a small loop.

The

twine wherewith the net

by passing

the needle

to be formed, is first

is

alternately between

it

end, so that the turns of the twine

of the needle, and be kept on

we

ments

whether material,

A

is

it

may

still

must

The

the twine.

made with

a long loop of twine,

close

up

to the

round the

must be held

left

the

but

manner

fingers,

represented), is to be passed

except

the little

The

needle

is

twine

from

embrace the

little

brought round

may form

in front of

a

The twine

.

thumb and

then passed back again

By

finger also.

m

one

left-hand

the

allowing the

the upper front of the pin. pin,

hand between the

hand, so that the twine

position between

in this

first

knot above-mentioned, and under

needle being neld in the right

all

or pin

,

forefingers (in the

loose loop over

The mesh

a knot to this loop.

under and

be

for ;

hand between the thumb and two

left

thumb and

will

process of netting

'

be

first

by

attached

and held

loop, to

these instru-

the same.

then taken in the

round the

each

be fixed to any support, one end of the twine on the

needle being

fingers,

With

the forks.

explain the

to

at

be parallel to the length

be for a fishermanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s net or a plain purse of the finest

foundation

which

is

endeavour

will

it

by

it

may

wound upon

prongs

the

it

to

form a larger

this action the needle

the pin

;

and then must be

passed under the first loop, between the pin and the fingers hold-

ing

through the foundation loop

also

it

part

;

of

form the second in

its

position

loop.

more

it

and

by means of

is

in the

engaged. light hand,

thumb

is to

to

be held

the pin and the fingers, until the right

The all

over the

lastly,

This being done, the needle

hand can be brought round which

;

the twine which proceeds backwards from the

to

pull

needle

it

through the passage

being drawn

the fingers of

the left

out,

and

in

once

are to be dis-


NETTING.

227

engaged from the loops of the twine, except the

must

still

retain the second loop

which was formed round

this hold of

finger, the

means of

up

the

to

pin,

the

little

which

one,

little

By-

it.

twine must be

drawn

and the knot formed by these manoeuvres made

tight on the foundation.

A

process,

may

until

be made by a

is to

many have been formed on

as

some loops

by

these loops,

allowed

it

is

to be

to drop off

it

the

will

found hanging from the

be

knots, and sliding freely along

the pin

out, a

and

The

end.

row of equal

foundation

the

work

is

turned

over, so as to reverse the ends of that row, in order that in

that

in

which the

To commence again close

first

up

to

it

and

all

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;from

twine must

it.

be kept

left

to

right.

subsequent rows, place the pin last

row

the needle as before, only

of loops, that

instead

and of

through the loop of the foundation, pass

every new knot, through each

row already done, each knot being thus formed the loop above

net-

be done in the same direction as

bottom of the

the

to pass the needle

in succession, for

may

was made, namely,

this second

repeat the action with

having

it

by

attached

it.

Having thus formed one row of meshes, ting a second back again,

as

is filled,

to the right,

left-hand

row being done, and the pin drawn

wdiole

foundation

the

pushed on

at

of this

repetition

As

be necessary for the width of the net.

or covered

loops

of loops

succession

loop

at the

of the

bottom of

In using the needle, a sufficient quantity of

always unwound

off of

being moved freely round the pin and hand.

it,

to

allow

of

its


K2

NETTING.

The above engraving fore

illustrates the

knot made in netting,

tightened, showing the turns of the twine

is

it

be-

which form

it.

PLAIN NETTED GENTLEMANâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S PURSE. Five skeins of coarse netting

silk,

and a mesh No.

13,

will

be

required.

Net

on a foundation

you have

continue

until

full-sized

handsome

tack up the

some

When

time.

gather

up

Dark colours.

purse.

opening

stretcher, as in the

of eighty

;

stitches

ten inches in

damp

When it

this will ;

done,

slightly

width,

the

for

length net

up the

and put

annexed engraving, allowing

it

it

to

and

make a

sides,

and

on a purse remain for

taken off the stretcher, untack the opening,

the ends, and put on the trimmings.

b*ue,

Drown, crimson, and green, aro the most serviceable


NETTING.

2‘*J

a lady’s PURSE.

Four

skeins of fine netting

with a mesh

silk,

No.

10,

;

are pretty

when

another.

Cerise

be

will

They

the purse should be about nine inches in length.

required

netted with five rows of one colour, and three of

and

harmonize well

slates

;

—middle

and

blue

yellow drab, green and stone colour, gold colour and brown, black

and

and

blue, light green

claret,

found good.

will all be

a gentleman’s purse with ends of different colours. This

will take

No. 13 mesh. dark

two skeins of each coloured netting

Commence on

green, net

with ponceau on the stitches to

turn.

— Net

loops are

the purse.

Bright

net

;

back

and

twenty-five

last stitch

meet the green

them

on

return.

;

net

— Commence

of the foundation, net

thirty-five

the green, and re-

loop the needle in

;

a

backwards and forwards until the whole of the green

filled

the needle

stitches, return

forty-fivk

and return

thirty-five

and

silk,

a foundation of eighty stitches with

up.

Make

into the green

— Damp French

the same pattern with ponceau, looping ;

four points of each are sufficient

and stretch blue,

for

as before.

and stone

and middle green,

colour, claret

drab and crimson, will make pretty purses.

a lady’s purse with points.

Four a

skeins of fine

foundation

stitches,

thirty,

ceau

of

netting

ninety

and return back

and return.

making

with a No. 9 mesh.

silk,

stitches

with

on them

stone

net ;

colour.

forty,

Net on Net

and return

fifty ;

net

Proceed as with the former purse, with pon-

five points of

each colour.


230

NETTING. A PRETTY PURSE

The number of the

One

SILK.

of stitches on the foundation depends

Net

silk.

with a chine

WITH CHINE

rows with a plain coloured

three

Repeat these rows

silk.

and two of chine

reel of plain,

on the

size

and

five

silk,

alternately.

be required.

silk will

NETTING WITH BEADS.

When

beads are to be introduced, a fine long darning needle

be used instead of the netting needle, for

to

Thread the needle with a

rows.

each

row, or

bead as required, and pass

and pass the silk

silk

it

sufficient

may

quantity of silk for thread

each

on the top of the mesh, net a

stitch

of a row, as

part

is

working the bead

be necessary ;

under the mesh, and through the bead, pass the

back again under the mesh, and draw the bead with

it,

which

leaves the bead on the knot.

A PLAIN

NETTED PURSE WITH A BEAD MOUTH.

Four skeins of extra are

required.

twenty

— Commence

stitches,

mouth of

and

the purse

is

silk,

made

piece as

seven

follows

inches :

plain;

—net

forty-two plain

two bead; two

one bead

plain,

forty-two plain ;

a

mesh

No.

6,

—the

in

The

width.

annexed engraving

it.

No.

row

First

and

with a foundation of one hundred and

net a

represents one side of

netting

fine

stitches ;

30.

one bead stitch

alternately eight

times;

;

one

one plain-


NETTING. Second row

—net

forty-five plain;

23 one plain,

three bead;

,

alter-

alter-

nately eight times; forty-five plain.

row

Third

—net

forty-six

plain;

two bead;

two

plain,

nately eight times; forty-six plain.

A PRETTY SEME PURSE WITH STEEL OR GOLD BEADS.

Four

skeins of fine netting

Commence on plain

In the

row.

silk,

and

a foundation of one

stitch alternately.

second

row, net

The next row

mence with the bead

is

No. 8 mesh.

a

hundred a plain

stitches.

stitch

Net one

and a bead

In the fourth row, com-

plain.

stitch.

AN ELEGANT NETTED PURSE WITH STEEL BEADS. This

will

mesh No.

3,

require four

dation are joined,

Net

skeins of the finest netting

with very small

—the

The ends

steel beads.

silk,

and a

of the foun-

purse being netted round.

four plain rows before the pattern

commences.

six sprigs of beads in the round, five stitches

There are

between each, as in

the following engraving.

No.

In the sprigs.

first

The

31.

half of the purse there will be seven rows of these pattern

is

then reversed, to form the other end

:

the


NETTING.

232

of the sprigs meeting each other.

points

purse commences with the is

row of the

fifth

The opening

of th*

The

pattern

pattern.

graceful in the netting, than can be represented on

much more

the diamonds of the engraving.

PLAIN NETTED MITTENS.

Commence on

a foundation

of forty-eight stitches with a No.

12 mesh, and five skeins of fine black netting

rows

plain

;

With

forms the loops for the ribbon. plain

rows.

and net the remaining stitches to

same place

the

as

Net

stitches.

mesh, net five

first

Net

one, increase again,

rounds,

sixteen

the

first

increase

Unite the stitches

stitches.

rounds for the

length

thumb, decreasing one or two stitches each round

With

the

second

mesh net two

Net one round, taking the two

stitches

stitches

together,

Net

two or three rounds on a

still

finer

make

the

hand of the

as are

increasing

form the thumb on every alternate round in the

tended for the thumb, net seven

close.

which

size,

In the next row unite both ends, and net one plain

round, increasing on the twelfth stitch.

two

Net four

silk.

then one row with a mesh double the

necessary to

mesh.

to

make every

in

and as

in-

of the it

set

loop.

finish with

many rounds

mitten, and finish

as

directed for the thumb.

Run

in the ribbon to tie at the wrist,

a knitterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bag

Net on or union

the

with

a foundation of sixty stitches cord,

and a mesh No.

depth desired, net in a

gilt

been previously covered with

16.

and trim with

ring.

with

When

ring, or

lace.

coarse

the

bag

netting silk is

of half

one of wire, which has

silk in button-hole

stitch.

Net the


— NETTING. other half of the bag. a

bow

233

be drawn up with a ribbon, and

It is to

or tassel placed at the bottom.

A CHECKED OR DICE PATTERN PURSE. «-

Two

skeins of second-sized netting silk of a bright scarlet, and

two of dark

Make

a

slate colour,

with a mosh No.

10, will

be required.

foundation of ninety-eight stitches, and commence with

seven stitches of silk to the

scarlet, netting

seven rows.

seventh stitch of the

first

Join the slate-coloured

row of the

and again

scarlet,

net seven more rows on the next seven stitches of the foundation,

looping

the

in

last

on each

stitch

scarlet

row.

Repeat these

squares of scarlet and slate colour, until the purse be sufficiently long,

— reversing

This it,

is

the squares.

not the usual

as being the easiest.

tern No. 30,

may

Whenever

the

way

A

of netting this purse, but

we

prefer

round star of seven beads, as in pat-

be effectively added in the centre of each square. silk is cu* off,

enough must be

left

to

make a

Wodver's knot with the next colour.

GRECIAN NETTING, OR FILET ROSE.

No.

This 9 and

is prettiest

worked with

18, are required.

fine

Net one

silk,

plain

32.

when two meshes, Nos.

row with the

large mesh.


NETTING.

234 In

next row, use the

the

put the

small mesh,

round the

silk

lingers as in plain netting, pass the needle through the finger loop,

into the

first

and from that pass

stitch,

the second through the second, and finish

the

first,

stitch

and again draw the

by pulling the

drawing your fingers from the finger be netted,

a small

is

is

to be repeated to the

last

first

silk

tight

and withstitch to

across the

movements form the

end of the row.

draw

through the

The next

loops.

loop that appears to go

These

twisted together.

into the second,

it

stitches

pattern,

The next row

is

which plain

netting with the large mesh.

This

may

be used for mittens, purses, curtains, scarfs, &c., of

course varying the size of the material and the meshes.

A PURSE IN GRECIAN NETTING.

Net with

ai

three

rows on a round foundation of

plain

fifty stitches,

No. 9 mesh.

In the next row, with a No. 18 mesh, net the stitch as described in the

When

preceding.

cient for one

as

many

patterns

are done as are suffi-

end of the purse, net the opening backwards and

forwards in plain netting on the small mesh, and finish the other

end with Grecian netting as

before.

MITTENS IN GRECIAN NETTING. Net

plain

six

black netting

No.

18, to

with

the

rows on a foundation of with a mesh No.

9.

Grecian

netting

as

fifty stitches

with fine

Net one row with a mesh

form the holes for the ribbon.

small mesh, and one

mence the mesh.

silk,

Net four plain rows

row with the large mesh. before

described, with

Com-

the small

Unite the two ends, and in the next round, increase by


NETTING.

235

netting two stitches in one in the sixteenth loop.

and increase again, and then continue

Net fourteen rounds of the

pattern, increasing as before in every

Finish by netting

net five rounds of the pattern. stitches

every loop, with the

in

Net one row, taking two

needle.

six stitches,

Unite the stitches intended to form the thumb, andt

third round.

mesh two

Net

end of the round.

to the

The hand

of plain netting. the same way.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Trim

loops

to

is

silk

on'

the No. 9

twice round the

together,

and three rows

be continued and finished in

the edges with lace.

NETTED FRINGE. With

a

stitches to

same. fringe

row.

No.

mesh, net the length required,

18

drop off on the left-hand end.

For the

row, take a

third

desired, the

flat

allowing the

Net another row the

mesh of the width of the

grooved edge being downwards, and net one

These loops are then

The

knotted two and two.

to be cut

;

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;they may be

size of the

thus

mesh mentioned

is

left,

or

adapted

for a fringe of coarse cotton, or four-thread fleecy.

SINGLE DIAMOND NETTING.

No.

Net on alternate

a foundation stitch is to

twice round the mesh,

be

with fine

made

silk,

a loop

33.

and No. 10 mesh. stitch,

by putting

Every the

silk


— NETTING.

236

TREBLE DIAMOND NETTING. Net

three plain rows for the

First row

the

mesh

;

—make

;

—net

Third row require

;

—net

make

repeat to the end of the row.

a loop stitch

—net

;

;

make

a loop

repeat to the end of the row.

;

one or two plain

last alternately to the

Fourth row

then ;

the silk twice rouid

a plain stitch over the loop stitch

net two plain stitches

;

by putting

net three plain stitches

Second row stitch

commencement

a loop stitch,

stitches,

as the pattern

may

the

two

net a plain stitch

repeat ;

end of the row.

make

three plain stitches ;

a loop stitch

;

re*

peat to the end of the row.

N.B. Always withdraw the mesh before netting the loop This netting purse, about

is

best adapted for D’Oyleys, tidies, etc.

forty or forty-five

stitches

will

stitch.

If for a

be required for the

foundation.

DIAMOND NETTING OF FIVE STITCHES.

No.

Commence on First to the

row

a foundation of

—make

34.

any odd number of

stitches.

one loop stitch; net five plain, stitches

end of the row

finish

with a loop

stitch.

repeat ;


NETTING. Second row

—net

plain, over

one

loop

make one loop

stitch ;

out the mesh

slip

stitch

237

;

net four plain

;

repeat

;

finish

with a

slip

out the

plain stitch, over loop stitch.

Third row

mesh

—net

one plain

net three plain repeat ;

Fourth row

—net

out the mesh

slip

finish

;

Fifth row loop

—net

stitch

one plain

slip ;

stitch.

out the mesh

;

net

stitch.

two plain

;

repeat

;

;

net one

net one plain, over loop stitch

mesh

over

plain,

over loop

with a plain

finish

net one plain, over loop stitch

;

net one

;

stitch,

;

out the

slip ;

mesh

plain

repeat ;

;

one plain, over loop stitch

net ;

net two

plain, over loop stitch

a

with a plain

one plain

loop stitch

mesh

out the

slip ;

;

loop stitch

make one

;

;

make

out the

slip ;

with a plain

finish

stitch.

Sixth row

—net

two plain

net one plain, over loop stitch ;

net one plain, over loop stitch

a loop stitch ;

peat

finish

with a plain

Seventh row

make

—net

;

make

;

net one plain

re;

stitch.

two plain

net one plain, over loop stitch ;

net two plain

a loop stitch

repeat ;

;

finish

;

with a plain

stitch.

Eighth row

—net

over loop stitch

with a plain

Ninth row

slip ;

;

out the mesh

out the mesh

;

net one plain ;

;

net one plain repeat

—finish

stitch.

—net

over loop stitch

with a plain

Tenth row

two plain

slip ;

out thp mesh

slip ;

out the mesh

net one plain,

;

net one plain ;

;

repeat

finish

stitch.

—net

over loop stitch

make

three plain

slip

;

two plain

slip ;

;

slip ;

net one plain, ;

net one plain

a loop stitch

out the mesh

net one plain, over loop stitch

out the mesh

repeat ;

finish

;

with a plain

stitch.

Eleventn row over loop stitch

—net ;

one plain;

net two plain

slip ;

out the mesh; net one plain,

net one plain, over loop stitch

;


NETTING,

233

make

a*

loop stitch

out the

slip ;

stitch.

mesh

repeat

;

finish with a plain

1

Twelfth row net three

—net

plain

with a loop

one plain

;

net one plain, over loop stitch

net one plain, over loop

;

stitch

repeat ;

;

finish

stitch.

Commence

again as at

first

row.

SEME PURSE, DIAMOND PATTERN. Extra No.

netting

fine

silk,

with

steel

gold beads, and a mesh

or

3.

Net on a round foundation of seventy-two plain rows.

stitches

;

net four

In the next row, place a bead on every sixth stitch;

in the next, on every fifth and sixth stitch, and in the next, again

on every

sixth, so

as

to

form a diamond.

and repeat the pattern in beads, so

as to

Net four

plain rowT S

come in the centre

stitch

of the former rows.

The above

pattern

is

intended for the opening of the purse, in

may

beads, reversed in the centre.

It

different coloured stripes, each

alternate stripe

in steel beads.

also

be used for a purse in

having the pattern


NETTING.

239

PLAIN OPEN NETTING, OR FILET A BAGUETTE

No.

Commence with row of loop

36.

three or four rows of plain netting

stitches,

—made

by putting the

;

then one

twice round th®

silk

Repeat from the three rows of plain netting.

mesh.

FOND DE BERLIN. Le fond de Berlin

se tricote de la

autour du moule

;

au

vante, on la cherche

qui se trouve dessus la navette,

tiree

par

lieu

avec ;

et l’on tire

la,

de prendre tout de suite la

fay ant courbee un peu vers fortement

le

Apres

comme

il

la

il

s’en

prendre garde a

la maille sui-

la

elles

tension

du

Elle est achevee

oreille.

cela,

on passe

le fil

autour

vient d’etre enseigne, jusqu’a

sont toutes egales fil

celle

soi

Lorsqu’on pte

trouve alternativement de grandes et de

rangee suivante,

fois

on y passe La maille voisine un peu

de la rangee, en observant d’alterner.

fin

mailles,

Dans

fil.

s’avance et forme une petite

et l’on procede,

une

le fil

pointe de la navette a travers

aussitot de la maniere ordinaire.

du moule, ia

maniere suivante: apres avoir

quelques rangees de mailles ordinaires, on passe

fait

mais

il

les

petites.

faut bien

;

parce que de deux noeuds fun


NETTING.

240 doit etre

lacbe, lorsque la maille est

est tricotee

comme

un peu

qui est entrelacee, se trouve

celle

suivantes, elle

que

premiere rangee,

la

plus

est

grande, et se

rangee

troisieme

comme

la seconde,

la maille

voisine de

premiere, et la quatrieme

la

Dans

et ainsi de suite.

La

petite.

mais dans

etroite,

les

commodement

aussi

tricote

les autres.

FILET ROSE. C’est presque

de

et

faites,

comme

fil

fond

de

petite

oreille,

troisieme

La rangee a

tricotee

est

doit

a

semblable

filet

;

comme

suite, la

la

a

le

mais dans

La

dessus.

forme

la

d’une

f ordinaire

:

premiere, et ainsi de suite.

accoutumee, mais

de la maniere

tricote

se

etre

ce

de

tout

prenant

;

comme

qui se trouve

en

meme que

de

fait

suivante

seconde

la

telle

on met

autour du moule

faut la chercher,

il

fond de

ordinaires

filet-rose,

le

passer

le

qui se tend aussi

se

troisieme

sans maille,

a travers

Berlin,

voisine

la

une

le

de mailles

rangees

de commencer

?

tricoter

maille

la

y

s agit

qu’il

maniere que se tricote

quelques

a

de coutume,

avant de le

meme

de la

Lorsqu’il

Berlin.

premiere,

et

la

quatrieme

se continue de la sorte jusqu’a la

fin.

FILET A BATON ROMPU.

Une

fort

espece de

belle

En

un baton rompu. une

fois

du

autour

1’ ordinaire

la

filet,

c’est

celui

ressemble

qui

commenqant une rangee, on passe

moule, et

seconde se

la

sans

fait

maille

se

tricote

fil

comme

a

qu’il soit necessaire

;

le

a

autour du moule, mais

fil

premiere,

la

espece pair,

et

ainsi

de tricotage,

parce

qu’a

la

il

la

de suite

troisieme

doit

faut que les mailles

derniere

de

cbaque

Dans

pas etre passe autour du moule, lorsqu’il

soient

rangee, l’a

ete

de passer semblable

etre

alternativement.

le

a

a

le

en fil

cette

nombre ne

do'it

la premiere.

*


NETTING.

Quand

et

egales

a

une

maniere

a

finie,

se

il

L’on

deux.

sur

petite

la

semblable

fait

La

accoutumee.

la

du

fin

de grands et de

trouve une

grande

ensuite

mailles

les

rangee

troisieme

premiere, et la quatrieme

la

de suite jusqu’a ents,

rangee est

premiere

la

maille

241

a

la

seconde, et

Trois sortes de carres

filet.

est

ainsi differ-

de parfaits et de longs, se sucsedent

petits,

alternativement dans ce tricotage,

et

lui

donnent une

fort

belle

apparence.

FILET ROND.

Le

filet

rond

ference, qu’au

en

on

haut,

mailles

Partout

tricote

se

comme a

lieu de passer

deviennent rondes, et le

fil

V ordinaire, avee

une

navette dans

De

haut en bas.

de

passe

la

la

cette

dif-

maille, de

bas

cette

maniere,

beaucoup

le tissu reqoit

les

d’elasticite.

a fair d’etre tors.

NETTED MITTENS WITH SILK AND WOOL. First

round

—net

on a foundation of one hundred and twelve

stitches with black netting silk,

Second

round

mesh half an inch Third round first

plain

netting

No. 13 mesh. with

blue

over

wool,

an

ivory-

deep.

—with

silk,

—netting

two

stitches in one, with

the

mesh.

Fourth round

—same

as second.

Fifth and sixth rounds

Seventh round

—blue

—with

black

silk.

wool, with ivory mesh.

An

India-rubber

band, or a ribbon passes through this row, to secure the mitten at the wrist.

Eighth and ninth rounds

Tenth round

—blue

—black

wool, on

silk.

ivory mesh,

inch in width. IT

—one

quarter

of an


NETTING.

242

Repeat alternately two of black, and

one

of blue,

eight

for

rounds.

Tbe

nineteenth round

will

alternate rounds of silk

tinue the other

be two of black

and wool,

part in the same

or four rounds of black

silk,

—when

form the thumb, which

be united to

stitches are to

is

fifteen

netted

manner, and finish

in

Con-

until of sufficient length.

with three

silk.

NETTED CUFF WITH SILK AND WOOL. First stitches,

and

mesh No.

on

a

foundation

of

ninety-six

and a

floss silk,

11.

Third row

German

—net

rows

second

and net one plain row with middle blue

—with

an ivory

mesh

wide, with

buff

mesh, net two stitches in one

with

half-an-inch

wool.

Fourth row

—with

small

wool.

Net fourteen rows

and small meshes

alternately with the large

for the inside half of the cuff.

Nineteenth,

twentieth,

and twenty-first rows

— in

dark

brown

wool.

Net two rows with the small mesh on blue rows

seven finish

of

wool, in

shades

silk,

from brown

to

alternately with light

buff,

and

with an edge as at the commencement.

This cuff

is

to be

sewn up

at the side, or it

may

be worked in

rounds.

The fancy

stitches

D’Oyleys, curtains, directions,

etc.

in

netting It

by merely using

is

are

easy

to

best

calculated

for

scarfs,

apply any of the above

the cottons, wools, and meshes, of the

size best adapted for the various purposes.


:

CHAPTER XIX Braiding

c<

Show me

Applique.

ani»

the piece of needlework you wrought.”

Beaumont and Fletcher.

RAIDING,

although

ornamental needlework, great beauty in

gold

and

and

is

— The

executed by

Greek

kind

simple

of

capable of

nevertheless

perfection.

silver,

inhabitants of the

the

most

the

costly

works

Turks and

the

islands, are

princi-

pally of this description.

Braid either

the

may

article

intermixed pattern (the possible),

be worked upon velvet, cloth, satin,

equally

is

the

with

suitable, according, as

work

is

gold, is

lines of

designed the

for;

it

may

be

and

material.

The

as

to

on velvet

The

recherche.

which should be kept curved

working, consists in keeping the braid or

adapted

but braiding

most elegant

must be drawn on the

or leather

silk,

much

principal

cord exactly in

as

art in

a

line


BRAIDING AND APPLTQUrf.

244 with

the

drawing, taking care that the

various

beauty of the work depends on making the pointed,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

their

extreme

equal

length.

Much

;

Every

stitches should be

the

piece

separate

finished,

the material, with

by passing

flat

and

end

through, and gold cord

side of the braid, the line

is

keep the braid, in every

to

within or without the line of the pattern, which,

be

under

intended

of the drawing

should be carefully preserved above that of the braid

must always be taken

at

and of an

regular,

of braid or cord must its

Where

a braid needle.

sewn on by the

to be

sharp turns

well

of the

must be done by properly' sewing the braid points

commenced and

are

scrolls

rounded and even, and the corners sharply turned.

if

and care

;

part, either

not attended

will completely destroy the effect of the design.

to,

Groups of braids ;

sometimes worked

flowers are

but this description of work arranged,

beautifully

it

has

is

common

a

most beautiful specimens are occasionally

The

prettiest

kind of braiding

companied, on one or both

work adapted

of

By

for

sides,

is

appearance

nevertheless

j

to be seen.

that where a silk braid

with a fine gold cord,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

bags, folios, sachets, boxes, note

is

ac-

a species

cases, &c.

a skilful admixture of different coloured braids with gold braid

union cord, in a vermicelli pattern,

may may

and where braid alone

can be varied by the

and

coloured

in different

very tedious, and unless

gold

cord,

a

splendid

is

effect

used,

of epine with gold passing, or It is

on, as,

it

be

produced.

Gold or

be tastefully introduced

silk.

preferable to use the silk of the braid itself for sewing

from

its

it

thus matching exactly in colour, the stitches can-

not so well be detected.

This

may

be done by cutting off a piece

of braid the length of a needleful of

thread as required. finished, should

;

addition

silk,

and drawing out each

All braid work, except that on velvet,

be passed under a

roller,

the

face

when

of the work


BRAIDING AND APPLIQUE. being covered with tissue paper:

much

beauty of

to the

Applique

is

colours, in the

form of flowers or other

at their

figures, are placed

This

edges with braids or cord. in

some instances with so much

has rivalled embroidery, and for

it

as cloth,

and

on the

which forms the ground, and are

work has been practised ingenuity, that

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

one or more pieces of different shapes

surface of another piece

wards secured

and adds

this flattens the braid,

appearance.

its

the laying of one material over another,

where

instance,

for

245

after-

style of

and

taste

many Turkish

designs seems almost preferable to any other kind.

may

Applique

be composed of pieces of cloth, velvet, satin,

shape of flowers,

or leather, cut into the

The

pattern should be

latter

may

If velvet, satin, or

thin

consist

also

paper pasted

at

which renders them

will

back, before

the

firmer,

above materials.

necessary to have a

be

applique

the

are to be carefully tacked

edges

worked with braid or

down on

cord, the

the

material,

colours of which

The

twisted silk

;

French knots.

leaves

may

These and the

may

be

but where flowers are intended to be

;

represented, a braid, the colour of the flower or leaf, ferred.

cut out,

is

and prevents their unraveling.

pieces

varied according to taste

it

for the

that forming the ground,

of either of the

be used,

silk,

upon

silk,

or other designs.

drawn upon the material intended

applique, and a corresponding one

which

scrolls,

be veined

with braid

and the centres of some flowers (See page 122.)

is

to be pre-

or cord, or with

may

be worked in

Vine leaves are peculiarly adapted

to this description of work, the tendrils of

which may be formed

of union cord.

For bags and

folios,

a

very pretty kind of applique

made, by using various coloured merino.

Velvet

applique,

silks

edged

may

be

on a ground of cachemir^or

with

gold

cord,

on

satin,

or


BRAIDING AND APPLIQUE,

246 velvet,

is

also suitable for bags, slippers, sachets, caps, pillows, etc.

edged

Satin,

leather, or

with

kid,

sometimes used

chenille, is

stamped with designs in gold

or

:

placed on

and may be further enriched, by the margin of the

cord,

being cut into

turned into a

circle at

or

scallops

Vandykes, and the

each point.

For

with good

effect,

may

when embroidery can be introduced

compartments, giving

a very rich

it

gold cord

table-cover borders, otto-

mans, and other large pieces of work, a set pattern

of the

morocco

also

when

should be edged with gold braid

satin, velvet, or cloth, the latter

leather

as ;

be used

into

some

and Persian-like ap-

pearance.

A

beautiful description of applique, combined with embroidery,

was much in vogue a few years

since, particularly for handscreens,

where the flowers and leaves were formed of embroidered with gold bullion.

were

made

others

flat,

leaves, carefully laid

with a

fine

silk ;

were

velvet,

and the

stalks

Some

of these â&#x20AC;&#x153; fleurs de fantaisieâ&#x20AC;?

raised

by numerous small velvet

one partly over the other, and tacked down

these leaves

(

lames de velours) required to be

accurately cut with a steel punch.


CHAPTER XX tOork.

“With

stones embroider’d, of a wondrous mass;

About the

border, in a curious

fret,

Emblems, impresas, hieroglyphics

set.”

Drayton.

IIE Germans excel

in

all

kinds of bead work,

some of which are extremely beautiful are as

principally applicable to small folios,

presse-papiers,

card

and

;

articles,

cigar

they such cases.

Purses and bags are made of beads, but their weight renders them sometimes objectionable.

The limits

paucity of colours in which this

terns, or for

description of

work

glass

beads

working flowers in neutral

tints

can be obtained,

gem, and

to arabesque, :

scroll pat-

other designs, such

as flowers and figures, are sometimes executed, but, from the

of the

proper shades, they are extremely defective.

want

The opaque


BEAD WORK.

248 turquoise beads, are

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;among

used

generally

the most beautiful of those manufactured,

grounds

the

for

an

opal

bead, lately intro-

;

duced,

extremely pretty intermixed with others.

is

Besides glass beads,

and

and

gilt

beads, are frequently used for

steel

for the sake of variety, being

latter,

dark purple

The

fine twisted

work

are generally taken

canvas on the

Beads of into

cotton thread

Half cross

by

kinds

with wool or

silk,

portions

principal

whether on cotton or

frequently with a pleasing

The

effect.

totally inadmissible

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

art,

at

silk

Germans

are

of gold and silver threads,

use of beads, however, in

if

to imitate paint-

we have any regard

is

not in good keeping

;

Germany, that

it

is

with

so gross an infringement of

the most beautiful bead

cotton

or

silk ;

but

it

is

infinitely superior.

tion of netting,

are

also

a

is

it

method of producing the same poses

work, as

raised

all

is

heavy

frequently done

in

the proprieties of art,

cannot be too scrupulously avoided.

Some of fine

for

but to enrich

parts of the drapery and other portions of the design with

of beads, or

worked

canvas, and not un-

when we wish

least,

the

of which

In historical subjects, even the admixture

the laws of good taste.

masses

silk,

two threads each way of the

commonly introduced by

are

the higher departments of the ing, is

from Berlin pat-

waxed sewing

usual method of working them.

slant, is the

all

a

used for this purpose in Ger-

is

or across

stitch,

patterns, the

their

the ;

tint.

designs for bead

many.

kind of work

this

sometimes manufactured of a

terns: the beads are attached to a canvas

but a

plain and cut,

beads, both

silver

work

is

done in

tricot ,

with a

more laborious and expensive

effect,

although for some few pur-

Purses made with beads, in imita-

very pretty, but perhaps more curious

than useful.

With

respect to beads,

it

may

not here be improper to observe


BEAD WORK. that a great difference

and

gilt

in

the quality of

all

cent, in their value

:

soits of steel

much

beads, causing a variation sometimes of as

or four hundred per first

exists

249

as three

who cannot

to those

at

perceive the difference, time will soon show the inferiority in

the wear of the one in comparison with the other.

Bead work may be done on canvas of to the size of the beads

the ;

several

sizes,

according

canvas usually employed measures

about thirty-eight threads to the inch.*

* It is, perhaps, not generally known, that all the glass beads used for needlework are manufactured at Murano, near Venice. Tubes of coloured glass are drawn out to great lengths and fineness, in the same manner as those of more moderate lengths are made in this country for thermometers; these are cut into

very small pieces, of nearly uniform lengths, on the upright edge of a fixed

These elementary cylinders are then put into a mixture of fine sand and wood ashes, where they are stirred about until their cavities get filled. This mixture is then put into an iron pan, suspended over a moderate fire, where, by being kept continually stirred, they assume a smooth rounded form. They are then removed from the fire, cleared out in the bore, and strung in bunches, chisel.

constituting the beads as

we meet with them

of these beads, packed in casks, are exported to

in commerce. all

Great quantities

parts of the world.


:

CHAPTER XXI NccMcroork of

tlje

©nglisl) (Slacens ani> princesses.

u And, round about, her worke she did empale

With a faire border wrought of sundrie Enwoven with an yvie-winding trayle

A

goodly worke,

Such That

as

dame

full fit for

flowres,

kingly bowres

Pallas, such as

Envie

j

pale,

all good things with venomous tooth devowres, Could not accuse.” Spenser.

M She wrought so well in needle-worke, that shee,

Nor

yet her workes, shall ere forgotten be.”

John Taylor.

HEN tents

this

volume was commenced, a

was framed,

to

list

which we intended

of con-

to adhere,

and each chapter has been written in accordance

The

with the plan. in

covered

that

the

steps

of

its

we had already exceeded

present

one was proceeding

predecessors,

when we

the limits proposed, and

dis-

we


NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS. ere

unwillingly obliged

more

subject

much

deed of

treat

to

briefly than

was

this

interesting

portion

of our

at first intended, to the sacrifice in-

valuable material.

In a former chapter, mention has been

daughters of

the four

251

Edward

made of

the

works of

the Elder, as also of the astonish-

ing labours of Matilda, consort of William the Conqueror.

The

— Adelais,

duke

second wife of Henry of Lorraine,

mention

The

is

—was

made

I,

the daughter of Godfrey,

celebrated for her needlework

Bishop Burnet,

“ she

“ In

the third act of his

Henry VIII

and Campeius, are introduced

,

Take thy

also,

lute

represents Katharine as engaged

The

her presence.

to

my

wench:

in

the

“ Needles

celebrated for her needlework “

Shakspeare, in

scene

com-

:

Sing, and disperse them, if thou canst

Taylor,

greatness,’*

with her women, when the two cardinals, Wolsey

at needlework

mences with

her

wrought much with her own hands,

and kept her women well employed about her.”*

Q. Kath.

and an especial

queen of Henry VIII, Katharine of Arragon, devoted

first

most of her leisure hours to needlework. says

;

of an embroidered standard, of her work.

I

Read

soul

grows sad with troubles:

leave working.

:

Excellency,”

speaks

:

that in the seventh

King Henries

raigne,

Daughter of the Castile King, Came into England with a pompous traine Of Spanish ladies, which she thence did bring. Fair Katharine

She

,

to the eighth

And

King Henry married was,

afterwards divorc’d, where vertuously

(Although a Oueene), yet she her days did passe In working with the Needle curiously,

* “

History of the Reformation/’

p.

192.

of her

as


;

NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS.

252

As

Towre, and places more

in the

beside,

Her excellent memorialls may be seene Whereby the Needle’s prayse is dignifide

By

her faire Ladies, and herselfe a Gtueene.

Thus far her paines, here Her workes proclaime her

her reward

is

iust,

prayse, though she be dust.”

Anne Boleyn, who was educated

Court of Francis

at the

I,

de-

voted a large portion of her time to the occupation of the needle, in working tapestry.* Sir

Thomas

Chaloner, in his elegy on

mends her not only

for her beauty,

Lady Jane Grey, com

but also for that which was a

greater charm, her intelligent and interesting style of conversation.

He

speaks of her stupendous

in eight,

— the

and

Italian,

well

grounded.

besides

He

skill in

Greek,

Latin,

that

of her

further

languages, being well versed

Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic, French, native

land,

in

which she was

observes that she was a proficient in

instrumental music, wrote a beautiful hand, and was as excellent

her needle, f

at

Of broken workes wroght many

a goodly thing,

In castyng, in turnyhg, in florishing of flowres,

With

*

burres rowgh, and buttens surffyllyng,

Anne Boleyn,” vol. 125. Peter de p. known by the name of Brantome), in his MeDames illustres,” informs us, that Anne de Bretagne, the mother

Vide Miss Benger’s “ Life of

Bourdeilles (more

moires des

i.

generally

assembled three hundred of the children of the under her personal superintendence, they were instructed in the accomplishments becoming their rank and that the girls devoted a great portion of their time to the working of tapestries.

of Claude, wife of Francis

I,

nobility at her court, where,

:

t In the

Town

Library at Zurich, are three autograph Latin

letters

of

Lady

Jane Grey, addressed to her preceptor Bullinger, in a beautifully clear and a few grammatical errors have been remarked in them. There regular hand is also a toilet, embroidered by her, which she presented to Bullinger. ;


:

;

:

NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS.

253

In nedell worke, rasyng byrdes in bowres,

With

Of

vertue enbased

all

tymes and howres.”*

needlework of Queen Mary, we have

the

now no

but from the following sonnet of John Taylors, that

some of her labours were in existence in his

traces,!

would appear

it

time.

“ Aer daughter Mo^ry here the scepter swaid,

And .der

though shee were a Queene of mighty power,

memory

Which by

will never be decaid,

her workes are likewise in the Tower,

In Windsor Castle, and in Hampton Court, In that most pompous roome call’d Paradise

Who

euer pleaseth thither to resort,

May

some workes of hers, of wondrous price. it no dis-reputation To take the Needle in her Royall hand Which was a good example to our Nation To banish idleness from out her Land. And thus this Glueene, in wisdome thought it fit, The needles worke pleas’d her, and she grac’d it.”

Her

Queen

see

greatnesse held

Elizabeth, like her

sister

Mary, has

by

the same author for her needlework.

at

Oxford,

is

preserved a copy of the

binding of which

when

also

In the Bodleian Library Epistles

of St.

said to have been embroidered

is

been extolled

by

Paul,

the

that queen

princess. i

When

this great Glueene,

By any terme For when the Yet

shall

whose memory

shall not

of time be overcast world, and

all

her glorious fame

Crowne of Lawrell. In the Library of the British

therein shall rot

for ever last.

* Skelton’s 1 It

is

highly illuminated

;

Museum

is

preserved

Queen Mary’s Psalter. was once a

the exterior bears the remains of what

binding of splendid embroidery.


NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS.

254

When From

many

she a maid, had

troubles past,

by Maries angry spleene; And Woodstocks and the Tower in prison fast, And after all was England’s peerlesse Queene. Yet howsoeuer sorrow came or went, She made the Needle her companion still,

And

Iayle to Iayle

in that exercise her time she spent,

As many

A

Needle

great

Royall and renown’ d.”

imprisonment

her solace

those

at

At

reading and composition. Scotland, she gave

skill,

of Scots, needlework was a great source of

During

her

afforded

her

a Captive, or else crownd,

still

woman

To Mary, Queen amusement.

know

living yet doe

Thus she was

the

Tutbury

at

not

intervals

time she held

day

four or five hours every

Castle,

it

devoted

to

her court

in

to state affairs j

she was

have her embroidery

accustomed to

frame placed

room where her privy council met, and while she

the

needle,

she

listened

to

discussions

the

her

of

in

plied her

ministers,

dis-

playing in her opinions and suggestions a vigour- of mind and a quickness

her

of perception which

astonished the statesmen around

times, she applied

herself to literature, particularly

at other ;

poetry and history.* tunate

queen

Scotland.

are

At

Several pieces

preserved

Mary

castles

of

formerly

At Holyrood

;

of this unfor-

the a

nobility

splendid

in

bed

but this was unfor-

Palace, in her chamber

shewn a box covered with her needlework.

Of

the industry of

some remains favourite

possible

all

Queen Mary, Princess of Orange, we have

in the palace at

her c

of the work

Stuart and her ladies

tunately burnt by accident. is

the

House, was

Allanton

embroidered by

in

amusement.

methods

for

Hampton She

Needlework was

Court.

used,”

Bishop

says

reforming whatever was amiss

Mrs. Jameson’s Memoirs of

celebrated

Female Sovereigns

,

vol.

i.

;

Burnet^ she took

p. 243.


NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS. ladies

from that

off

and

read

to

to

which not only wasted their time,

idleness,

many

but exposed them to

work

temptations.

She engaged many both

wrought many hours

she ;

255

a-day herself,

with her ladies and her maids of honour working about her, while

one read to them

all.

The

female part of the court had been, in

the former reigns, subject to

cause for

it

but she freed

:

was not

picion, that there

that sort

much

so

much

and there was great

censure ;

her courts

so

from

entirely

as a colour

all

have

The and

Queen

late

amusing her

seemed

proper employment.â&#x20AC;?*

its

was

of

she did divide her time so regularly, between her closet

:

and business, her work and diversion, that every minute to

sus-

for discourses

Charlotte was exceedingly fond of needlework,

solicitous

that

the princesses should excel in

In the room in which her Majesty used to

art.

family, were

some

cane-bottomed

chairs,

same

the sit

with

and when playing

about, the princesses were taught the different stitches on this rude

As they grew

canvas. in

this

older,

a portion of each

day was spent

employment, and with their royal mother as their com-

panion and instructress, they became accomplished needlewomen.

The Queen wore on the

coming of with silver

age. ;

the wearers. silk for the

executed. at

herself embroidered the dresses

fete

given

which the princesses

on the occasion of the Prince of Wales

These dresses were in white crepe, embroidered

they were exceedingly elegant, and so we are told were

Her Majesty

Dacca

likewise embroidered a dress in

Princess Royal, which was tastefully and Several sets of chairs, some of which

may

beautifully still

be seen

Frogmore and Windsor, likewise show the superiority of the

royal needlework.

These were the labours of her younger days,

but Her Majesty afterwards amused her leisure

History of his

own Time,

hours with knit-

vol. iv. p. 225.


NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS.

$c,56

amount of work

ting and knotting, and the

Towards

marvellous.

thrown

her

of

authority)

The

subjects

profited

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;the

Queen

so done

of a queen.

labours

the

the beautiful

and other and

patience,

Princess

was

also

of

at

of

Stuttgart,

and elaborate specimens of needlework, covering

chairs, sofas, screens,

The

much

ornaments

principal

are

skill,

were

indisputable

of Wiirtemberg, devoted

handsome palace of the King of Wiirtemberg

the

perfectly

to knitting, the

the

of

is

works

finer

life,

informed on

are

Among

needlework.

to

we

(as

by these

Royal,

Princess

time

her

her

of

close

and Her Majesty taking altogether

aside,

poorest

the

articles of furniture, all

the

of

taste

specimens

lamented

late

queen.

Sophia particularly excelled in needlework, and occupation

favourite

the

of

the

Princesses

it

Augusta

and Amelia.

The self

to

own

Mary, Duchess of Gloucester, daily amuses

Princess

with

her

needle

which

she

does

any

;

We

hands.

and scarcely a charity bazaar

not

believe

however

assistance,

some of the work of her

contribute that

Her Royal Highness

trifling,

herheld,

is

in

the

refuses even

once

she

labours

undertakes.

The work done by

now

widely

an anger ladies

of

Duchess of York,

the late

The

dispersed.

but she was assisted

all,

Her

and protegees.

labours

magnitude, as almost to defy

at

Oatlands,

Duchess was the projector

belief.

in the

execution by her

various

are so

and of such

Berlin patterns were then

unknown, or but just invented, and her designs were on

In

canvas.

the

Palace,

are

a

sofa

Royal Highness. side

and

out,

one

and

The

of six

backs,

are entirely

back and seat of the sofa

the

of is

elbow

ante-rooms chairs,

seats, sides,

needlework. a

is

and

the

at

all

drawn

Buckingham

work

of

and borders, both

The

Her in-

pattern on the

basket turned on one

side,

out


;

NEEDLEWORK OF THE ENGLISH QUEENS. of which

surrounded with a border of various leaves

are

;

in

different

shades of green

shamrock, and the

stitch ;

arranged as to extend over the

falling, so

flowers are

these

centres

257

The

thistle.

ground

:

and

flowers

German

in

is

amongst which are the ivy, borders

are

There

stitch.

vine,

in

tent

a

deep

is

border in front of the sofas and chairs, in marron, with a kind of arabesque, or rather

that

time of Louis Quatorze

the ground of this

;

tremely rich, and the colours on that the effect outside,

are

colour, but we suppose

the sofa, and

cution

;

they are

they are

all

to

alike

done in

by

furniture worked

it

but

different,

ex-

of the sofa, both inside and

The ground

match.

to

is

in the

are so thoroughly brought out

it

The ends

is perfect.

worked

much used

border

of

style

have been white beautiful

in

now

a

cream

chairs

match

and exe-

taste, design,

There was

silk.

;

is

the

also another set of

Duchess of York, consisting of

chairs,

ottomans, and sofas, in tent stitch, drawn out on satin, and

we do

not

know

of any

Did we not Adelaideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

work

fear to

retirement,

and useful labours.

and making guests

come

The

at

it

splendid

in fil tire previously to this date.

intrude on the sacred threshold

of

Queen

how much might be said of her extended Her introduction of needlework as a fashion,

a requisite to those ladies

her court,

skilled

the

caused

many

to

who were

admire, and

the invited in

time

be-

taken up for

convenience.

works which might be cited of many

ladies of the

in that which was only

present day would never perhaps otherwise have been in existence and, through

this,

thousands

in

the

humbler ranks of

been and are supported, not to mention that taste are daily called forth

We

much

have

life

ingenuity and

which might have been unknown.

understand that Her Majesty and her Royal Highness the

Duchess of Kent are admirers of needlework, and patronise IS

it.


CHAPTER XXII Conclusion.

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE.

11

Taylor, their better Charon, lends an oar,

Once swan of Thames, though now he

no more.”

sings

Pope’s Dunciad,

N the “

water-poet,

The

edition

extremely

rare,

we

we have frequently

the course of this volume,

quoted from a poem,

written

and prefixed

by John Taylor,

to a work, entitled

Needle’s Excellency, of which the twelfth

was published in 1640.

are tempted to reprint this

This work being

poem verbatim from

the original edition.*

* A copy of this book was in the collection of the late Francis Douce, Esq. which he bequeathed to the Bodleian Library, at Oxford. It is an oblong “ The Needle’s Excellency A New Booke The title runs thus quarto. wherein are diuers Admirable Worlces wrought with the needl?. Newly Inuented and cut in Copper for the pleasure and profit of the Industrious. Printed for James Boler, and are to be sold at the Signe of the Marigold in Paules Church :

yard.

The

12th Edition enlarged with diuers

new workes

as needleworkes


::

;:

;

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE.

*259

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE. u

To

and trades, J writ the needles prayse (that never fades) So long as children shall be got or borne, So long as garments shall be made or worne, So long as Hemp or Flax or Sheep shall bear Their linnen woollen fleeces yeare by yeare So long as Silk-wormes, with exhausted spoile, all

dispersed sorts of arts

Of their own Entrailes for mans gaine shall toyle Yea till the world be quite dissolu’d and past So long

at least, the Needles use shall last: though from earth his being did begin, Yet through the fire he did his honour win And vnto those that doe his service lacke, Hee’sf true as steele and mettle to the backe.

And

He

hath

Yet

like

I

per se eye, small single sight,

a Pigmy, Polipheme in fight:

As

a stout Captaine, bravely he leades on, (Not fearing colours) till the worke be done, Through thicke and thinne he is most sharpely set, With speed through stitch, he will the conquest get And as a souldier Frenchefyde with heat, Maim’d from the warres is forc’d to make retreat So when a Needles point is broke, and gone, No point Mounsieur, he’s maim’d, his worke is done And more the Needtes honour to advance, It is a Taylors Iavelin, or his Launoe;

purles

&

others neuer before printed.

1640.”

On

the

title

page

is

an engrav-

ing of three ladies in a flower garden, under the names of Wisdome, Industrie,

and Follie. “ The praise of the Needle,” as given above, is prefixed to the work, then “ Here follow certaine Sonnets in the Honorable memory of Queenes and great Ladies, who have bin famous for their rare Inventions and practise There are six sonnets to Glueen Elizabeth, the Countess of Pembroke, and others some of which we have quoted in the preceding chap-

with the Needle.”

;

ter.

The

seventh

is

addressed “

To

all

degrees of both sexes, that love or liue

by the laudable imployment of the needle.” served in the Library of the British

Museum.

Another copy of It

this

book

is

pre-

appears to have gone through

and its scarcity is accounted for by the supposition, that such books were generally cut to pieces, and used by women to work upon or

twelve impressions

;

transfer to their samplers.


:

:

:

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE.

260

And

for

my

Countries quiet,

I

should

like,

That women-kinde should vse no other Pike. It will

To

increase their peace, enlarge their stor

use their tongues

The Needles

lesse,

and

Needles more,

their

sharpenesse, profit yeelds, and pleasure,

But sharpenesse of the tongue,

bites out of

measure.

A

Needle (though it he but small and slender) Yet it is both a maker and a mender

A

graue Reformer of old Rents decay d,

Stops holes and seames and desperate cuts displayd,

And

We No No No No No No No

thus without the Needle

we may

see

should without our Bibs and Biggins bee;

Smockes, our nakednesse to hide,

shirts or

garments gay, to make us magnifide shadowes, Shapparoones, Caules, Bands, Ruffs, Kuffh, Kerchiefes, Gluoyfes, Chin-clouts, or Marry-Muffes, cros-cloaths,

Aprons, Hand-kerchiefes, or Falls,

Table-cloathes, for Parlours or for Halls,

no Towels, Napkins, Pillow-beares,

Sheetes,

Nor any Garment man or woman weares. Thus is a Needle prov’d an instrument

Of profit, pleasure, and of ornament. Which mighty Gtueenes haue grac’d

And That

The

in

hand

to take

high borne Ladies such esteeme did make, as their Daughters Daughters

up did grow

Needles Art, they to their children show.

And

as 'twas then an exercise of praise, So what deserves more honour in these dayes, Than this which daily doth itselfe expresse, A mortall enemy to idlenesse. The use of Sewing is exceeding old, As in the sacred Text it is enrold v

'l

Our Parents

Who

first

in Paradise began,

man The mothers taught their Daughters, Thus in a line successively it runs hath descended since from

For generall

profit,

and

to

for recreation,

From generation unto generation. With work .ike Cherubims Embroidered ;

The Covers And by the

man:

Sires their Sons,

rare,’

of the Tabernacle were.

Almighti’s great command, we see, That Aarons Garments broydered worke should be;


:

;

:

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE.

261

And

further, God did bid his Vestments should Be made most gay, and glorious to behold. Thus plainly, and most truly is declar’d

The For

As

needles worke hath it

bin in regard,

still

doth art, so hke to natvre frame,

if it

were her

Sister, or the

same.

Fiowers, Plants, and Fishes, Beasts, Birds, Flyes, and Bees, Iiils,

Dales, Plaines, Pastures, Skies, Seas, Rivers, Trees

There’s nothing neere at hand, or farthest sought,

But ^ith the Needle may be shap’d and wrought In clothes of Arras

I

have often seene,

Men’s figurd counterfeits so like haue beene, That if the parties selfe had beene in place, Yet art would vye with natvre for the grace. Moreover, Poisies rare, and Anagrams, Signifique searching sentences from names,

True History,

or various pleasant fiction,

In sundry colours mixt, with Arts commixion, All in Dimension, Ovals, Squares, and Rounds,

Arts

life

included within Natures bounds

So that Art seemeth meerely

naturall,

In forming shapes so Geometricall

And With

though our Country everywhere is fild Ladies, and with Gentlewomen, skild

In this rare Art, yet here they

Some

things to teach

Thus

skilfull, or unskillfull,

may

discerne

them if they list to learne And as this booke some cunning workes doth teach, (Too hard for meane capacities to reach) So for weake learners, other workes here be, As plaine and easie as are

ABC.

This booke, and of

may take may make,

each

each good use

it

All sortes of workes, almost that can be nam’d,

Here

And From

how

are directions for this

they

may

be fram’d

kingdomes good are hither come,

the remotest parts of Christendome,

much paines and industry, From scorching Spaine and freezing Muscovie From fertill France and pleasant Italy From Poland Sweden Denmarke Germany Collected with

,

,

And some

,

,

,

of these rare Patternes haue beene

Beyond the bonds of

i

,

faithlesse

24

Mahomet:

fei

j


,

,,

THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE.

262 Prom

And

spacious China, and those

Kingdomes

East,

from Great Mexico the Indies West.

Thus

are these workes, farre fetcht,

and

dearely bought,

And

consequently good for Ladies thought. Nor doe I degrodate (in any case)

Or doe esteeme of

other teachings base,

For Tent-worke Raisd-worke Laid-worke Frost-worke Net-works, Most curious Furies or rare Italian Cutworke, Fine Feme-stitch, Finny-stitch New-stitch and Chain-stitch, Braue Bred-stitch Fisher-stitch Irish-stitch and Queen-stitch The Spanish-stitch, Rosemary -stitch, and Moivse -stitch, ,

,

,

,

,

,

,

The

smarting Whip-stitch, Back-stitch,

All these are good, and these

And And

&

the Crosse-stitch ,

we must

allow,

these are everywhere in practise now. in this Book, there are of these

With many Here

And

,

,

others,

some

store,

neur seene before.

Practise and Invention

may

be

free,

as a Squirrel skips from tree to tree,

So maidt may (from

their Mistresse, or their

Mother)

Learnt; to leaue one worke, and to learne an other,

For her * they make may choyce of which is which, s) p from worke to worke, from stitch to stitch,

And

Vntil, "i time, delightfull practice shall

make them

perfect in them all. workes may haue this guide, ornament, and not for pride:

(Witt

orofit)

Thus

loping that these

To To

s

iue for

'merish vertue, banish idlenesse,

For these ends, may

this

booke haue good successe.”

Taylor was a very remarkable eccentricities, th.j

)

lis 3

;

and among other of his

Highlands, with a horse and servant, without a penny in his

*cket,

]

man

he undertook to perform a journey from London to

and engaging not

to

receive

any

alms.

The account

of

journey, which he wrote partly in prose and partly in verse,

a very remarkable picture of the manners of that period.

He

ras

welcomed by the hospitality of his countrymen throughout

this

journey, and he appears not only to have suffered very few

privations, but to

have fared sumptuously

Winstanley, in his

Lives of the

for

many

Poets” says, “

weeks.

He was

born


THE PRAISE OF THE NEEDLE. in Gloucestershire, where

bound apprentice yet though

it

to a

he went to school

;

263

and was afterwards

waterman of London, a laborious trade

be said that ease

is the

:

and

nurse of poetry, yet did he

not only follow his calling, but also plyed his writings, which in

time produced above fourscore books, which I have seen several others

unknown

King James and Kang

to

me

;

besides

some of which were dedicated

;

Charles

I,

meanness of his education to produce works of

sidering the

to

and by them well accepted, conin-

genuity.”*

* Sir

Egerton Brydges, in the

*

Censura

the "Water-poet’s pieces; and in his

Litteraria,’

Restituta’ the

has given a long

same

list

of

diligent explorer of

the recondite and dusty paths of literature, has laid before us another of his

marvellous exploits, together with an abstract of another work of Taylor’s not -

entered in the

“This

Censura.’

scarce tract

is

entitled,

‘John Taylor’s

performed from the twentieth of July

last,

In which time he passed, with a

last

Voyage and Adventure,

1641, to the tenth of September fol-

sculler’s boat, from the citie of Lonand townes of Oxford, Gloucester, Shrewsbury, Bristol, Bathe, Monmouth, and Hereford. The manner of his passages and entertainment to and fro, truly described. With a short touch of some wandring and some fixed such as are Brownists, Anabaptists, Famalies, Humorists, and schismatiques Foolists, which the author found in many places of his voyage and journey. Printed at London by F. L. for John Taylor, and may be had at the shoppe ” of Thornes Baites in the Old Baily, 1641 8vo., pp. 32.’

lowing.

don

to the cities

;

,


t


SUPPLEMENT TO THE

HAND-BOOK OF NEEDLEWORK.

FROM

HUBS.

$

T.

B.

wm

©MKBMJT AOT)

Ij

il a b 1

1

p

I)

x

a

.

:

PETERSON AND BROTHERS, 306

CHESTNUT STREET.


I

\

V


;

PREFACE.

In introducing

this

little

Mrs. Gaugain has nothing tion of for

what she has

Work to

before said

to the notice of the public,

announce farther than a

— that nothing more

an inexperienced pupil of moderate capacity

is

repeti-

requisite

to enable her to

execute any of the following elegant designs, than a knowledge of the elementary stitches of Knitting,

used in forming a stocking:

seam

or

stitch,

which any

a take-in

child

may

viz.

stitch,

which are simply those

—a plain

a back stitch*

stitch,

and an increase

stitch,

all

of

be taught in the short space of half an

hour. It

may

not be here out of place to mention, that

all

the terms

used in this book will be found explained on the folding leaf or table,

and

*

A

which can be extended while working any of the

will thus save

back

form a line

stitch

down

much

by many

receipts

trouble in turning over the leaves.

knitters

is

termed a seam

a stocking, in imitation of a seam.

stitch,

from

its

being u sed to


*3

U

15 IS


THE KNITTING RECEIPTS.

SIGNS USED IN

A, take in three loops into one, by slipping the

loop off backwards,

first

without knitting ; knit the second and third loops together, then

the

lift

first

over the taken-in loop. B, a back, ribbed, seam, or pearl

wool

in front of pin

wool

in front, before

B3

all

;

commencing the

or B6, three or six

stitches to

stitch,

by

knitting

off backwards with

it

back or pearled stitches must be done

back

(having

so,

stitch.)

stitches; the figures indicate the

number of

be worked.

O, make a

by

stitch,

bringing the thread to the front, (by passing

it

under

the right wire, to the front.)

Ob, make a back or pearled

stitch,

by

casting the thio&d quite round the

wire.

P, a plain stitch or loop.

P2

or P4, two, or four plain stitches or loops, as the figures

work a back

may

be.

you were going

S, slip stitch, take off a stitch without working, as if

to

stitch.

S2, slip two stitches off without working.

T

take in (or narrow) stitch, by knitting two loops togedla*

Ts, take

in,

by

slipping the

first

loop

;

knit the next

;

slip the first

over

the knit one. j^,

take in back stitch, by pearling two together, having the wool in front.

Row,

signifies

Round,

a

row

a

row from one end

quite round,

when

of pin to the other.

the work

is

done on more wires than

tw6.

Plain row, a row Back,

or

all

plain stitcfces.

pearl row, a row worked exactly contrary

Front row, is worked with the thread Back row, with the thread in front. Bring forward,

Cast second

way

;

till

off,

by

bring the thread in front, so as to

knitting the

two

to the plain

row

behind.

first stitches, slip

the

make

an open stitch*

first stitch

over the

knit a third, and slip the second over the third one; continue in this

the whole

is

cast

off.


-


MINIATURE

KNITTING, NETTING, AND CROCHET BOOK


KNITTING.

QUEEN VICTORIA LONG PURSE.

Worked

m stripes, running round the

white, or fawn.

If for

For a gentleman, black and

twist.

and 2 hanks each

Purse, of mazarine blue and

a brideâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s purse, white silk and extra fine gofd

Two

cerise colour.

pins,

No.

19,

colour, are required.

Cast on 90 stitches with mazarine blue. 1st

Row, Ob,

repeat to end of row.

jl,

2nd Row,

plain.

3rd

Row,

plain.

4th

Row,

pearl.

5th

Row, with White,

6th

7th

Row, *0, plain Row, plain.

8th

Row,

Ob, repeat

Cast

first

end

all

but 2 stitches, work them

it

row with white and blue

off ;

damp and

up a

third for each side of

rows

for

0,

to

each end

stretch

Purse

attach tassels

;

it

until

you have 9 inches

on a stretcher until dry

draw up the

cast-on

and rings of gold or

and

;

sew

cast-off

steel.

;

bnng

j^.

the rest of row.

pearl.

Repeat from worked.

j,,

all

the thread before the wire to

make 19

the O, then

work the

plain row.


274

KNITTING.

LONG PURSE, PRETTY OPEN This very pretty Purse

is

worked

in shaded silk, or plain.

hanks of any colour of second sized purse 19 are required.

(It

is

much

STITCH.

silk,

enriched, and looks well with steel or

one bead between the

gold beads in every other row

r ;

When

worked,

damp and

pin

it

out

till

dry

going purse, by drawing up the cast-on and

72

Three

and two wires of No.

;

make

it

up

cast-off ends,

T

and P.)

as the fore-

&c.

Cast on

stitches.

1st

Row, O, T,

2nd Row, Ob,

P, repeat to end.

B.

Repeat as these two rows, If a fine Purse

is

until

you have 9 inches worked.

wished, the third-sized twist, and wires No. 21

are required.

SET OF OPEN SQUARE D’OYLEYS.

( Cut represents

Eighteen required.

is

the general

One hank

of

number

Dutch

First pattern .) knit, therefore

cotton No. 14,

9 of each pattern

required for each.

Note.— These are quite

different

is

and 2 wires No. 20, are

from the Twenty-one close D’oyleys.


275

KNITTING.

FIRST PATTERN

Cast on 72

stitches,

and work 12 plain rows.

3th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

P, T, O,

Pv

14th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all

but

15th

Row, P6, T,* edge

16tli

Row, P6, edge

1

stitches,

Row, P5,* edge stitches, T, O, 18th Row, P6, edge stitches, pearl, Row, P7,* edge

20th

Row, P6, edge

21st

Row, P8,* edge

stitches,

stitches,

P6.

P6.

but ten stitches, stitches,

edge

stitches,

P6.

edge

stitches,

P7.

edge

stitches,

P6.

P4, repeat, all

stitches,

stitches,

T, edge

but

O, T, P, T, O, P, repeat,

work them stitches,

thus, O, P3, O,

all

pearl, all but

17th

19th

edge

O, P3, O, A, repeat,

work them stitches,

O, T, repeat, edge

all

P5.

but 11 stitches,

thus, O,

T, P, T, O, edge

stitches,

P6.

but

edge

stitches,

P6.

pearl, all

O, A, O, P3, repeat,

work them

thus, O,

all

but 10

A, O, P, edge

'Stitches,

stitches,

P6.

22nd Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge stitches P6.

23rd

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

P2, T, O, P2, repeat,

edge

stitches,

P6.

24th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

P6.

;

Continue repeating from 13th row, until you have a square the 12 plain rows

;

work them.

Cast

all

but

off.

SECOND Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;oYLEY PATTERN. Cast on 72

stitches.

Work

12 plain rows before commencing.

13th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

P4, O, A, O, P3, repeat, edge

stitches, P7.

14tli

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

15th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

P2, T, O, P3, O, T, P, edge

stitches,

P7

16tli

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

P6.

17tli

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

P, T, O, P5, O, T,

edge

stitches,

P7.

18th

Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

P6.

Observe the changes in the edges.

P6.


276

KNITTING.

19tli

How, P 6 T,* edge

20th

How, P6, edge

stitches,

21st

How, P6, edge

stitches,

,

stitches,

O, P7, O, A, edge

stitches,

O, P7, O, T, P6.

pearl, all but

edge

P2, O, T, P3, T, O, P,

edge stitches, P7.

stitches,

P6.

22d Row, P6, edge

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

23d How, P6, edge

stitches,

P3, O, T, P, T, O, P2,

edge

stitches,

P7.

stitches,

pearl, all but

edge

stitches,

P6.

24th

How

P6, edge

Repeat, until you have a square

all

but 12 plain rows, then work

these 12 plain rows, to correspond with the beginning.

Finish with a narrow fringe out

;

P6.

a cut one

is

best, as

it

Cast

it

off

can be combed

when washed.

PRINCESS royal’s MUFF, SCALE STITCH.

This Muff, in imitation of Chinchilla Fur, or Siberian Lamb’s Skin, is

Twelve shades of

extremely simple and pretty.

clear bright grey,

the darkest shade about two shades from black, the lightest the next

shade

They

to white.

are

worked from dark

to light,

light to dark, as the following receipt will show.

hanks of each shade, and two bone

pins,

No.

7,

and then from

About

are required.

six small

It is all

worked with Berlin wool, wound double. Cast on, for a child, 61 stitches 1st

How,

a lady, 81. edge stitch P.

(with darkest shade,) P, S, repeat to end,

2nd Row, plain

Repeat as

5th, 4th, 3rd, for a child,

all

1st

8th, 9th, 10th,

off

for ;

1

the row,

edge stitch P.

*

and 2nd Rows, with the 2nd,

3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th,

1th and 12th shades, then 11th, 10th, 9th, 8th, 7th, 6th,

and 2nd.

and about

This

finishes

one

and cast-on rows together (on the wrong

Observe, there

is

a

stripe.

Make

five for a lady.

T

it

Work

four stripes

up by joining the

side).

in this edge.

cast-

Roll up a sheet and


KNITTING.

277

a half of wadding, folded into a stripe of about three-eighths wide, to

work

the size that will admit of the

quarter of a yard, for each

arm

Cuffs are very pretty and 3 ver

gown

slipping over

sew on a thick shaded

round the arm holes

then draw"

it,

it

up

twisted cord about one

hole.

warm worked

way,

in this

for

wearing

sleeves.

COMFORT, SCALE STITCH.

This Comfort

Work

Muff.

hanks

for

a gentleman

and two pins No.

fleecy,

same

in the

is

Cast on 71 stitches

;

About

ends long enough

to

six

7, are required.

work

A Comfort of proper length

foregoing

stitch as

in claret, four plies fleecy, or very dark blue.

it

until

it is

the length required.

should go twice round the neck, and the

When

cover the chest.

finished,

it is

folded dou-

ble, (the long way.)

babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hood,

This Hood

garter

worked with three

is

plies white fleecy.

Roll up 60 rows, which form the front of the cast-on part

worked, line

rows of narrow

by a

rosette of

satin

;

it

back

50 loops

curtain,

with white

Work

80 rows.

then sew together three inches

draw up the remainder of the

Cast on for

the crown.

When

;

stitch.

satin,

;

cast-on part for

work 40 rows.

shaped as a cap, and three

ribbon drawn through the forehead, and finished

same ribbon.

Two

skeins of fleecy, and two pins of

No. 2 are required. 1st

Repeat as

Row

this

Row, S edge till

the

stitch, rest plain.

whole

is

babyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s coverlet, in

This

light

and

pretty Coverlet

is

finished.

garter st

worked

tch.

in stripes of blue

and whit*


278

KNITTING.

alternately.

Eight skeins of blue, nine

are required.

Two

pins No.

plies fleecy,

and

six of while

2.

Cast on with blue 130

stitches.

Row, S edge

stitch, plain.

2nd Row, S edge

stitch, plain.

Repeat

two rows until you have about 4^ inches wide of

1st

as these

blue worked.

Then work

the white about 3 inches wide.

working the white and blue alternately

until

it is

Continue

finished.

FRINGE.

This Fringe

is

useful for trimming Baby’s Coverlets, Shawls, Scarfs,

D’oyley’s, &c., &c.

It is

worked with the Cast on 8

1st

Row, Ob,

j,,

Continue working as ;

this

row

until

you have

cast off four stitches, pull

double.

as

much done

down

as will

the other four

along the Fringe.

VERY BEAUTIFUL

TIDY. #

For backs of Chairs, ends and backs of

*

wound

repeat.

go round the Coverlet all

wrool

stitches.

This

is

the same pattern as the

Sofas.

(It is also

useful for

Open Mitten, and the Baby’s Cap, and same

as centre of Shetland Shawl, all of which are most beautiful.


;;

KNITTING. Scarfs, Bed-Covers, Shawls, &c.)

and 2 bone

pins,

No.

Row,

Three hanks Dutch

No.

cotton,

18,

12, are required.

Cast on 112 9th

279

Work

stitches.

S, P4, edge stitches,

8 plain rows.

P4, T, P2, O, T, O, T, O, P, O. P2,

repeat 5 more times,

edge

stitches,

T

;

P5.

10th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

pearl, all but

11th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

P3, T, P2, O, T, O, T, O, P3, O, P2.

edge stitches, P5.

fT, P2, T, P2, O, T, O, T, O, P3, O, P2; repeat from mark thus

f

4 more times,

edge

stitches,

T, P4.

2th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

pearl, all but

13tli

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

T, T, P2, O, T, O, T, O, P5, O, P2

14th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

pearl, all

15tli

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

T, P2, O, P, O, T, O, T, O, P2, T,

16th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

17th

Row,

S, P4, T, edge stitches, P, O, P3, O, T, O,

1

edge

repeat 5 more times,

but

stitches,

edge

stitches,

P5.

edge

stitches,

P5.

edge stitches, P5.

P4,

Tâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

f P2,

O, P3,

from mark thus

f

pearl, all but

edge stitches, P5.

T, O, P2, T, P2,

T

O, T, O, T, O, P2, T, P2, 3 more times

;

;

repeat

then P2, O, P3, O, T,

O, T, O, P2, T, P3,

edge

stitches,

P5.

edge

stitches,

P5.

18th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitches,

pearl, all but

19th

Row,

S, P4, edge stitohes,

P2, O, P5, O, T, O, T, O, P2, T,

repeat,

Row,

20th

P5.

S, P4, edge stitches,

pearl, all

but

T

edge

stitches,

P5.

edge

stitches,

P5.

Repeat from 9th row, until the work measures one square and a then

half ;

Note

.

work

the 8 plain rows as at the beginning

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;When washed,

it

EDGING.

Pins and cotton as in former Receipt. Cast on 1st

Row,

cast ;

should be slightly starched.

1 1

stitches.

S, P2, O, T, O, T, 02, T> 02,

T.

it off.


KNITTING.

2S0

2nd Row, P2, B, P2, B, P2, O, T, O, T, P. 3rd

Row,

S, P2, O,

4th

Row,

cast off 2 stitches.

Repeat from

round

cast

it

T, O, T, P6.

first

it off,

;

Work

the remainder thus, P5, O, T, O, T, P.

row, until you have the length required to go

and sew

it

on Tidy.

PRINCE ALBERT PURSE.

This

is

a very handsome purse, knit in two colours of Albert blueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

and deepish buff (or gold colour) a

stripes, there is

open

One

stitch.

rows of No.

row

and

silk,

of steel beads

;

steel

the buff part

reel of each of the silks,

On

beads. is

the blue

three rows of

2 wires of No.

19,

and 8

10, steel beads, are required.

Cast on 122 stitches with Albert blue. 1st

Row,

plain.

2nd Row, plain. 3rd

Row,

pearl.

4th

Row,

*plain

5th

Row,

pearl.

6th

Row,

plain.

;

every stitch put down a bead.

When worked,

tie

on the

buff,

and woik with

it

as fol-

lowing 7th row. 7th

Row, P edge

8th

Row,

9th

Row, P edge

10th

Row,

stitch,

stitch, j,,

11th

Row, P edge

stitch,

Row,

pearl.

Now

13th

Row,

plain.

14th

Row,

plain.

Work a

edge

stitch,

P

repeat to end,

edge

stitch,

P*

repeat to end,

edge

stitch,

P.

j,

;

repeat to end,

Ob

;

;

.

pearl.

12th

*

Ob,

pearl.

Ob, tie

j,

on blue, and work as following 13th row.

plain stitch, then pass a bead quite

work another

stitch

and pass a bead down.

down

to the stitch

Continue in the same

worked: then

way

to the end.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 281

KNITTING. 15th

Row,

pearl.

ISth

Row,

plain

17th

Row,

pearl. plain.

;

18tli

Row,

19th

Row, P edge

20th

Row,

21st

Row, P edge

every stitch put down a bead.

Tie, and

work

as following 19th row.

stitch, j,,

Ob

repeat,

edge

stitch,

P.

repeat,

edge

stitch,

P.

repeat,

edge

stitch,

P.

;

pearl. stitch,

Ob,

j,

;

22nd Row, pearl. 23rd

Row, P edge

24th

Row,

Repeat from

damp

it

Ob

;

row, until you have about 6 inches worked

first

slightly with a

it

stretch

stitch, j,,

pearl.

on a

little

stretcher,

till

add

tassels,

then

thin

gum

dry

then sew up the cast-on and cast-off

;

and rings of

Pin

water.

edges, leaving a space for admitting the

end

;

money.

straight out, or

it

Draw

it

up

at

each

steel.

;

CHINEE TRIANGULAR WRAPPING SHAWL, GARTER STITCH.

Worked

in shaded Berlin wool, (or

brown

if preferred,)

Shawl

is

for border,

it

can be worked in plain wool,

and blue or

pinjc for middle.

formed into a triangular shape simply by being

let

The

out at the

slanting side.

Two

pins No.

Row,

4 ounces of the centre colour, and 2 of the border

Cast on 3

are required. 1st

8,

stitches.

S, P2.

2nd Row, *0, P3.

Repeat in

this

way

at the slanting edge,

This

is

O

makes a

you have 21

Row,

Row, O, P4.

S, P3.

stitches of

brown, then

and work with the blue as follows

the slanting side.

then work the 3 stitches This

until

3rd

4th

To form

off quite plain;

the

by

O

this

:

bring the thread in fro

you

will perceive

pretty loop all along the slanting side.

you h

tie

on


KNITTING.

282

Row,

1st

introducing blue, O, P, blue, *P20, brown.

2nd Row, S, Pi 9, brown, P2. blue. 3rd

Row, O, P2,

4tb

Row,

blue, P20, brown.

Pi 9, brown, P3,

S,

blue.

So continue, keeping the 20

stitches

increasing, as before, on the blue.

brown,

sures 1^ yards, then

work about 38 rows

letting out, as before,

on the slanting

and always

for border,

Continue increasing plain,

until

^mea-

with brown, always

side.

SUMMER NECKERCHIEF.

The

foregoing Receipt, worked in Berlin wool, white centre, and

pink or blue border, on No. 10

mer

extremely well

pins, looks

or Dress Neckerchief, (consequently

it is

not

worked

for a

Sum-

so large.)

SIMPLE AND PRETTY DRESS KNIT CUFFS.

Worked with One

Taylorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s white cotton, No. 6, and 2 wires, No. 20.

of the edgings in this book looks well

Sew

of the Cuffs.

part of work, to 1st

Row, Ob,

fit

j,,

3 small

common hooks

the wrist.

Cast on 28

repeat to end.

*

P20, before working the j

first stitch,

this is to prevent a

pass the

to the top

so as to

hook

and bottom

in to the

open

stitches, rather loose.

Every row

Continue, until you have sufficient

round the blue

sewed

to

is

go round the

brown

gap in the work.

the same. wrist.

ball to the back,

and twist

it


283

KNITTING.

ANOTHER VERY SIMPLE CUFF.

This

may

either be

worn with an edging

or not.

Two

No,

pins,

20, and a reel of Taylorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cotton, No. 6, are required.

Cast on 32 stitches ;

Row,

S, P,

edge

Repeat

until

you have

1st

stitches,

they must not be tightly put on.

B

Ts, O, P,

sufficient to

;

repeat to end of row, edge P2.

go round the

wrist.

Cast

it

off

j

add hooks same as the foregoing Cuff.

*

The

foregoing Receipt

stitches.

quired

BEAUTIFUL PURSE.

;

Two

makes a

beautiful Purse.

Cast on 110

wires of No. 18, and 3 hanks 2nd sized twist are re-

work about 9

inches, then cast

it off.

BEAUTIFUL LACE EDGING.

This Edging Fringe, and

on 14

is

stitches.

is

sometimes used

for the

Shetland Shawl instead of a

very pretty for trimming Tidies, Bed-covers, &c.

Cast


284 1st

KNITTING.

How,

S, P2, O, T, P, O, T, P, 02, T, 02, T, P.

2nd How, S, P2, B, P2, B, P3, O, T, P, O, T, P. 3rd

How,

S, P2, O,

4tli

How,

S, P2, B, P2, B, P5, O, T, P, O, T, P.

5th

How,

S, P2, O, T, P, O, T, Po, 02,

6th

How,

S, P2, B, P2, B, P7. O, T, P, O,

7th

How,

S, P2, O,

T, P, O, T, P3, 02, T, 02, T. P.

T, 02, T, P.

T, P.

T, P, O, T, P7, 02, T, 02, T, P.

8th

How,

S, P2, B, P2, B, P9, O, T, P, O, T, P.

9th

How,

S, P2, O, T, P, O, T, P14.

Cast off

all

but 13 stitches,

work them

Repeat from

thus, P7, O, T, P, O,

T, P.

row.

1st

RUSSIAN CROCHET-STITCH BED-COVER.

This Bed-Cover worked in squares stitch

forming a

sort of ridge.

When

is

simple and rich looking, the

the squares are all worked, they

are sewed together, so that the ridges of the one other, which produces a very good

square there

some

is

plies of

a small

tuft

soft cotton

At

effect.

of cut cotton

;

which

lie

contrary

is

it

firmly.

Double

then cut

it.

from the mesh, and tying up, and give

it

Each

tuft

sixpence, or larger.

it

it

called 4 plies

gauging No. 1st

Row,

a stitch or two, to keep

it

together,

should be quite round, and about the size of

*

No.

6,

Dutch

cotton, (hard twisted,)

What

1

and a hook

13.*

plain

French tambour

stitch,

* In gauging the hook, the part to be measured

above the hook.

then

round the centre very

Cast on 24 chain stitched with the coarsest twisted cotton. is

the

made by winding

round a mesh about an inch wide ;

withdrawing

use,

to

the corners of each

as described in this book,

is

that part of the stem directly


KNITTING.

285

under the head of French or double tambour this

and every row work a single chain

would

omitted,

in that

your hand, so as

2nd Row, work

the

work next

until

in double

tambour

the fore-finger of the

A

before described.

fit

work

turn the

in

cutting off the cotton.

which

all

is

the outer part of

*Repeat as 2nd Row, are done, join them, as

plain border, of a quarter of a yard deep, of this

round, looks very well

squares, to

when

;

stitch, if

Now

hand.

left

the end of

(This single

but instead of taking the

stitch,

loop, take the undermost,

you have a square crochet

stitch all

a stitch.)

work back again without

to

upper part of the

row diminish

At

stitch.

stitch.

it is

worked

in four lengths

and four

;

in each of the corners.

RUSSIAN CROCHET-STITCH PURSE.

Albert blue, (or a good claret colour,) with or without steel beads,

A

look well.

hook gauging No.

17,

and three hanks of common sized

purse twist, are required.

Cast on 108 chain

Work until

stitches, rather loose, for

you have about

S.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Damp

six inches.

Arabic and water, and stretch P.

it

out

If beads are wished, use

till

it

to the last stitch

in the bead

last

row

;)

Join at

Draw up

then

up

worked

work

this

;

;

;

stitch,

The

a plain stitch ;

(which fastens

at the erul

to

end

first

and

then a bead as before,

to

;

slipping a bead

stitch,

Purse by crocheting or sewing up the

work

gum

beads are put on in

by merely

then crochet the

add steel rings and tassels

Observe, always to

dissolved

about 12 rows are required

each end, leaving a space in the middle

the ends

little

dry.

No. 10

every other row, and every other

of row.

Continue working

with a

thread them on the silk before commencing.

down

a long Purse.

exactly as described for bed-cover stitch.

to

admit the money.

complete the Purse.

of the row the single chain

stitch.


;

286

KNITTING.

THE ROY, TRIANGULAR NET NECKERCHIEF, OR COIFFURE A NEGLEGEE. This

is

net in shades of blue and stone coloured Berlin wool

(six ;

shades of stone colour, six of blue, and one of white the white and

and then the

working down

to the

;

lightest stone colour

hanks of each shade, a

flat

darkest blue

down

;)

commencing with

then one row white

Two

to the darkest.

bone mesh No.

and as

8,

many

small

netting

needles as shades are required.

Cast on 2 loops with white. 1st

Row,

2nd Row,

increase on the 1st loop, then 1 plain stitch. tie

on the 2nd shade,

1 plain

increase on middle loop, and on

;

the last loop.

3rd

Row,

tie

on the 3rd shade, 2 plain

increase on middle loop, 1 plain

;

increase on last loop.

4th

Row,

tie

on the 4th shade, 3 plain

increase on middle, 2 plain

;

;

in-

crease last loop. 5tli

Row,

tie

on the 5th shade, 4 plain plain

6th

Row,

tie

;

;

increase on the middle stitch, 3

increase on last loop.

on the 6th shade, P5 stitches

P4

increase on middle loop,

;

;

increase on last loop.

7th

Row,

tie

on the white, P6 stitches crease on last loop

;

;

increase on middle loop,

P5

;

in-

this finishes the coloured stripe.

Continue and work the shade of stone and blue alternately, always increasing on the middle loop, and on the

last

loop, until

you have

about 140 stitches; then work the border with the white and blue as then

before

work

still

in the shades of blue

from the 2nd darkest up

;

to

the white, (increasing all the time as before

have the border double the breadth of the 1-|

inch wide, and

stitches into

work

a

row

each of the loops.

ail

;)

stripe.

by

this

Now

means you

take a

mesh

round the Kerchief, working two

This fringe row should be done with


2«7

KNITTING.

Damp

the third lightest shade.

corner of this Kerchief

is

and

stretch

turned down.

out

it

The

dry.

till

top

looks extremely well as a

It

loose covering for the head.

COMFORT.

Six hanks dark mazarine or Albert blue,* 4 plies fleecy, and a pin

No.

8,

are required.

Cast on 54 1st

Row,

S, plain, and 3

5th

Row,

S,

P2 edge

stitches

6th

Row,

S,

P3 edge

stitches

working

it

tween the

B

more rows.

— T, repeat T —B, pick np a

all

you have

and draws with the

up B,

7tli

Row,

S, plain, and 3

Row,

S,

P3 edge

stitches

12th

Row,

S,

P3 edge

stitches,

from the row below,

which

lies

across be-

just knit and the one on the left pin,

on the

first stitch

all

11th

along; edge stitches P3.

stitch

that part of the loop

it is

;

stitch

the picked

stitches.

pin

left

;

repeat B, and

edge stitches P3.

along,

more rows.

—T, repeat, up

fpick

edge stitches P3. stitch,

and

B

;

repeat to end,

edge stitches P3. 13th

Row,

S,

P3 edge

stitches, pearl or

14th

Row,

S,

P3 edge

stitches, plain,

* This colour not being very fore beginning,

soap in

it;

wash the wool

also put a

little

fast, it

in

back row,

edge stitches P3.

and 2 more rows.

comes off in the working, to prevent which, be

lukewarm

water, dissolving a

little

piece of white

pearl ash, (about half a table spoonful;) then rinse

again in lukewarm water; wring

it

well,

and shake

it

while drying.

it

Black wool,

and other dark colours, have often to be washed before working. t Observe in every other

B, otherwise after the B.)

it

open row, the pick-up

would be uneven, (be

stitch

careful not to

must be worked before the

work one upon

the end of the

row


288

KNITTING.

VERY

TJfe'EFULj

WARM, AND PRETTY BOOT FOR A

This Boot has a coloured shoe

front,

colour going across the forefoot.

and three times

toe is

joined up after

at heel, as is

it

The

and a white shoe part

leg,

is let

BABY.

with

This Boot

following receipt will show.

worked.

Four pins

of blue, four plies superfine fleecy, and one

stripes of

out six times at

of No. 11, and one

hank

hank

white, are required.

Cast on 23 stitches with colour. 1st

Row,

S, plain

2nd Row, S, plain stitch stitch

3rd

Row,

S, plain is for

(this is the sole part.)

at the

;

end of row increase a

3titch,

from the row below, and working

— ;

by picking up a then knit a plain

(this is for toe part.)

increase a stitch at the end of the row, as before

heel part

repeat as 2nd and 3rd rows two

;)

Row,

S, plain, letting out at toe part, as before.

9th

Row,

S, quite plain

14th

Row,

S, plain, four more rows,

8th

it,

;

more

(this

times.

repeat as 8th and 9th rows two more times.

have worked according

which

finishes at toe part.

to the receipt,

eight ridges,* besides the cast-on row.

you

If

you must now have

—Now

work the

toe

part as follows.

19th

Row,

S,

P9

leave the other 22 stitches on the pin, take a third pin,

;

and work back the toe 20th

Row, P 10;

this

stitches as follows.

makes one ridge

for the toe part; repeat

20th rows nine more times.

10 ridges

19th and

This concluded, you have

now

for toe part.

39th Row, S, P9, feast on 22 stitches for other side of shoe, to correspond

with the other 22 stitches that were 1

0th

Row,

*

Two

1

Cast-on

passing

it

S, plain, and three

rows form a is

on

more rows, which

left

on the

pin.

finishes at heel.

ridge.

done by forming a loop on one of the fingers of the

to the right

hand

pin.

left

hand, and


KNITTING.

289

44tli

Row,

S, plain to toe, all but three stitches,

45th

Row,

S, plain to heel

;

T

50th

Row,

S, plain, taking in at toe,

51st

Row,

plain, all but three stitches

Repeat 56th

Row,

Now

as 50th and 51st

S, plain.

it

;

P.

work them

;

T, P.

thus,

off sole part.

pick up the 22 stitches that were cast on before,

the

Tie on the white wool

22 picked-up stitches

;

the last stitch of the 10 stitches with the

on the

left

first

pin

:

has the 22 white stitches on

Work

it,

and work

work them, working

on

it

(but do not cut off the white, as

pin that

and one of the pin

it is

#

tie

;

required again;)

stitches

on the colour,

work two rows

as before described, then four with white, as before, then

it

two with coloured, then four with white, and two with

Again work with white

finishes forefoot.

remaining

back again,

to the

again as these two rows, with white, always working

the last stitch and one of the side loops together

only with

and work

a separate pin

to

the 10 stitches

it

correspond

of the 22 stitches that

10 stitches before working

lifting the last of the

together.

work

turn and

first

to

at the heel,

then pick up on

the 10 stitches on the forefoot (or toe) part, and

were

T, P.

thus,

rows two more times.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Then cast

with the 22 on the pin. with

work

repeat as 44th and 45th rows two more times.

side stitches plain to the heel.

colour.

This

the forefoot stitches, then the

Next row work

as follows,

in white, from one side of heel to other.

Row,

S, plain

;

repeat as this

P2.

Cast

*

Do

using tne

it

it

join

off

Then

up

tie

row 22 more

times, then

work

six

rows

B2

t

on the coloured, and work B2, P2,

the boot by

sewing the ridges together on the

;

not break off the white, but leave ;

twist

wrong

side.

it

and the

ball

you

it

and every other row when you are not

are knitting with so as not to

This must be done with either of the

20

make

a long loop

balls not in use.

on


290

KNITTING

wrong

side,

then down the leg,

outlets of toe

down

to

;

then turn

form a square

down

round the ankle,

the 10 ridges for toe, and

draw a

toe ;

platted)

along the sole and up

all

to tie

it

to the top

sew them

of flat

piece of ribbon (or worsted

little

with.

LONG BOOT.

If for a

long stocking, work 24 more rows white before finishing

with colour

at top.

UNDER OR SLEEPING STOCKING.

This Woollen Stocking, useful,

worked

and

is

also used

in three plies u

for

Lady

any

and four ivory or bone

soft fine

pins,

Cast on 64 1st

Round, P2, B2

Repeat as

first

quite plain, until

;

take-in

until

plain

work

it

by working seven

and

fasten

them

again take

to

the

are

Betty,’

Two

do.

all

round ;

in,

;

measuring

then take-in, and

Now

six stitches

then six plain rounds

repeat all round ;

then work

extremity of toe part.

stitches plain,

in all but 12 stitches off

wool yarn will

then work seven rows plain.

then take-in, so repeat

you have taken

Lady

as long as a stocking,

;

five stitches,

very

10, are required.

you have an inch worked

you have got

;

No.

is

They

repeat to end.

row

so repeat all round

stockings,

stitches.

from the very top of stocking down

Begin and

silk

Betty,” or hard twisted “

or if that cannot be supplied, cuts wool,

wearing under

as night or sleeping stockings.

;

and

;

then

so repeat until

draw them up with a needle


291

KNITTING.

BAG

PURSE CORD, (NOT PURSE

IN

This Bag below, or

is

make up on

may

Two

lining.

on 48

it

SILK,)

SPIDER-NET PATTERN.

a piece of pasteboard, with a white lining

be drawn with rings and

tassels,

and worn without a

skeins of cord, and 2 pins, No. 14, are required.

stitches.

Work

Cast

5 plain rows.

6th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, O, P, O, T, P,

7th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, pearl,

8th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, O, P3, O, A, repeat,

9th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, pearl,

10th

T, repeat, edge

stitches,

edge

stitches,

P3 P3

edge

stitches,

P3

edge

stitches,

P3

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, T, P, T, O, P, O, repeat, edge stitches,

11th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, pearl,

stitches,

P3 P3

12th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, A, O, P3, O, repeat,

edge

stitches,

P3

13th

Row,

S, P2, edge stitches, repeat,

edge

stitches,

P3

Repeat from 6th row

work

the 5 plain rows.

This

stitch

until

you have the bag about

Cast

makes a very

edge

it

3-8ths long, then

off

pretty Tidy, a Scarf, Shawl, &c., &c.

VERY BEAUTIFUL SHADED BAG. This Bag

is

worked

in 15 shades of scarlet,

commencing about

three

shades from the very darkest that can be had, and shading successively

up

to the bright military scarlet,

Bag.

work

The

stitch in

which terminates

which the Bag

is

at the top

of the

worked, resembles a round net

in gold colour all over this shaded ground,

and has really a rich


———

— 292

KNITTING.

and harmonious

effect.

have seen

(I

worked

it

purse twist, and gold twist for the net

The

splendid.)

material

When

worked, make

Bag

Work

may

was made up on a If

tassels.

up by sewing

many ways, to

done in

wool, a small

hank

silk, 1

in shades of green ;

which was really

be purse twist or Berlin wool.

either

it

together at the bottom of the

a knit handle, and add shaded

be made up

in gold

it

may

work

tassels

suit the taste of the

to

or

suit;

it

The Bag

wearer.

foundation, with a rich gold cord and gold

hank

of each colour, and 3 of yellow

if ;

in

of each shade, and 6 of gold colour or yellow, and

5 wires of No. 19, are required.

Cast on 150 stitches with yellow,

(gold colour.) 1st

Round,

plain.

2nd Round, pearl, and

1

more round.

Tie on the darkest colour, and work as follows 4th Round, *S2, P6, repeat

all

Repeat

round.

:

as 4th round 6

Tie on the yellow, and work as follows

more times.

:

11th Round, plain.

12th Round, pearl, and 1 more round.

Tie on the second darkest shade, and work as follows 14th Round, P4, S2, P2, repeat

Now

round, and 6 more rounds.

repeat from 1st round with the shades in succession, as these

You

two.

all

:

will perceive in

two more shades

Then work

;

work on

working the until

pattern, each time

you have worked up

as follows for top of the

Bag

it

takes in

to the lightest.

:

Tie on the yellow, and work. 1st

Round,

2nd Round,

S2,

plain. pearl,

is to lift

two

and 4 more rounds.

stitches off

from the

left

pin on to the right without working.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KNITTING.

Work

293

the Handle with double silk or wool, and 2 wires of No. 16

Cast on 8 stitches with lightest shade. 1st

Row, Ob, j

i

,

repeat to end of

row

;

work 3 more rows.

Tie on the yellow, and work as follows 5th

Row,

plain.

6th

Row,

pearl.

Now

tie

on the second

lightest,

and work as

1st,

and 3 more rows

Work

then again with yellow, as 5th and 6th rows.

:

on in

this

the succession of shades until you have about 4^- inches done the middle of the handle

continue

still

;

as before, only

;

;

way

this is

work back

with the same shades from the dark one you have just finished with,

up

Cast

to the lightest.

Fasten

it

and sew

it off,

it

up

to

make

the handle round.

inside of the Bag.

Another method of working the Handle

and 2 pins No.

is,

with double wool or

silk,

15.

Cast on 8 stitches with the lightest pink. 1st

Row, *0,

j,

Every row of

repeat to end of row.

;

the handle

is

the

same

as this.

Work

a

little less

than an inch with each of the five following shades, 2nd lightest, 4th, 6th, 8th,

and join

may

and 10th it

then 8th, 6th, 4th, and 2nd

be round

;

lightest.

;

up lengthways, by sewing

sew

it

on,

and

it

Cast

it

off,

together, so that the handle

finish as before described.

JVTUFFETEES.

Work

*

When

Defore

these in Albert blue wool, over a white foundation, as before

an open

stitch occurs at the

commencing, and pass

it

edge of a back row, have the thread in front

quite round the wire

j

then work the

j,.


KNITTING.

294

They

described.

work

margin

are

worked

at the

bottom of the MufFetee

pearl rounds.

Before casting them

Five wires of No. 18

deep.

Bag

in the

more pearl rounds of the

four

only

at the

beginning

blue, so as to

make

a broader

stitch,

also at the top

work

four

more

;

off,

they should be about

3;j-

inches

8 small hanks of blue Berlin wool, and

;

6 of white, are required. Cast on 80

stitches, for

a Lady.

ANOTHER MUFFETEE.

Worked rich

in stripes of a bright full pink or cerise colour, and a deep

brown

Two

or claret.

wires of No. 17, and 9 small hanks of pink

and 3 of brown are required. 1st

Row, 'brown,

2nd Row,

pearl.

Row,

plain,

Cast on 50

stitches.

plain.

*Tie on the pink. 3rd

Repeat from round the hand

and 5 rows more. 1st

row

tightly.

until

you have got

Sew them

WARM MUFFETEE S FOR Worked same can be worked

as

much worked

as goes

up.

BOYS.

They

as foregoing MufFetees, in four plies fleecy. all

one colour, 21

stitches,

2 pins No.

9,

and

1

hank

of wool, are required.

PETITE NET ECHARPE FOR THE NECK.

This

is

netted in four shades of Berlin wool, either pink or blue, and

* Before beginning every other row, twist the

wool you are not working with round

the one you are working, so as to prevent a long loop of worsted behind.


— KNITTING.

a white

2 rows of each shade, working from darkest up

;

receding from lightest colour

to darkest, so that

in the centre of the light part of stripe, this stripe, the

shade, and

work

as before

stripes

draw up the ends

;

A

stitches.

(this is to ;

Net 4

mesh

flat

or.

to

white, and

comes always

—consequently, when repeating the

2nd darkest

prevent the 4 rows of dark com-

if

;

;

the white

Recommence with

dark shades meet.

ing together.) stripe

295

wished wider, work

add a shaded

another

Cast on 170

tassel to each.

and 6 hanks of each of the colours, are

No.' 7,

required.

HANDSOME CROCHET BAG. This Bag

and plain

is

composed of a round bottom and

The

twist alternately.

shaded

2nd

stripe

One hank

stripe

dark green, the 6th

:

stripe following

silk, the 1st

shaded purple, the 3rd

scarlet, the 5th stripe

chinee twist

colours are arranged as follow

round part in gold coloured shaded blue, the

stripes of

the

dark

brown, the 4th stripe stripe

shaded yellow.

of extra coarse purse silk of each kind, and one of white, 3

of the yellow shade, a crochet handle, and a steel crochet needle, No. (that

1,

Bag

is,

is all

the very coarsest needle of the kind,) are required.

worked

in

double tambour

Cast on 3 chain stitches with shaded yellow

round 1st

;

then work as follows

Round,* work two

2nd Round, work

The

stitch.

join ;

them

form the

to

:

stitches in

1 plain stitch,

every

stitch, so as to increase

work twof

in

next stitch

;

it.

repeat this

all

round.

* I always carry

on a thread, as

it

makes the work much more

solid

and more

even. t

Observe, in working the two,

first

work on the wrong

side of the

work a

stitch,


KNITTING.

296

3rd Round, work 2 plain stitches, work two in next stitch

;

repeat this

all

;

repeat this

all

repeat this

all

round.

4th Round, work 3 plain stitches, work two in next stitch round.

5th Round,

work 4

plain stitches,

work two

in next stitch

;

round.

Thus you

perceive there are fewer stitches

made every round

;

so

continue in proportion until you have got your round piece, measuring

4 inches in diameter, then work in the every stripe

work a

worked about 6 rounds

is

This Bag

plain round in white.

a cord through 12 small rings

same

bottom

size at the

;

add

;

stripes ;

as before described

always between each

is

not lined, but

tassels at the side,

shaded yellow look

;

stripe

drawn with

and one the

best.

KETTLE HOLDER.

Two

hank

pins of No. 7, and one

fleecy, as this colour

washes

Cast on 21

Row, *0,

1st

S, T, repeat to end

Knit on This

is

the

same

and the Polish

which forms a

way *

;

this

stitches.

every row it is

is

the same.

square.

Russian Shawl, Hassock, and Comfort,

Shaded Cushion, and Brioche.

of ridge in the round before, then work the stitch in the usual

sort

makes no

To make an O

;

until

stitch as the

Pelisse,

of 9 plies fleecy, (say purple

best,) are required.

hole,

at the

and

I

think

it

much

the best

way

of increasing.

beginning of a row, you must have the thread in front of

the wire before beginning, which makes a stitch

when you work

the T.


KNITTING.

297

ELEGANT KNIT SCARF, WITH COLOURED WAVED ENDS.

This Scarf tre,

is

worked with two

and with English wool,

plies

colour look very well, going from light colour ;

and shades of

down

to

ends.

Two

in the cen-

Shades of gold

a pretty bright maroon

scarlet look extremely rich

going lighter than the military shade.

hank of each

Lady Betty Wool

in shades, for the

and

beautiful, not

hanks of white, and one

of the six shades of English embroidery wool, and two

ivory pins, No. 10, are required.

Observe

to

cast

on and

off very

loosely.

Cast on 132 stitches with white.

How,

1st

plain,

and 7 more rows.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Tie on the darkest shade, and work

as

follows.

9th

Row,

P5 edge

S,

stitches

T, T, T, T, O, P, O, P, O, P, O, P, O,

P, O, P, O, P, O, T, T, T, T, B, repeat

10th

Row,

S,

P5 edge

stitches P,

Repeat

9tli

B23, repeat to end,

edge

stitches,

P6.

edge

stitches,

P6

and 10th rows again.

Tie on the 2nd darkest shade, and work as the darkest shade

Having done

so,

work every shade

then again from 2nd lightest colour.

Now

By

work

this

the pattern

same way up

which

then 8 rows

finishes

to

the lightest

one

the pattern over

12 times in white ;

one end.

to darkest,

means you have worked

coloured stripe as before finishes

in the

all

;

stripe of

22

times.

then work again the

plain with white.

This


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 298

KNITTING.

Commence Row,

lsc

S,

P5 edge

the centre pattern as follows

stitches,

P2, O, T, P3, O,

T

T, O, T, O, P3, O, 2nd Row, S, P5 edge 3rd

Row,

S,

;

P5 edge

edge

stitches,

P6.

but

edge

stitches,

P6

P

;

repeat

edge

stitches,

P6.

but

edge

stitches,

P6.

Row

,

S,

P5 edge

stitches, pearl, all

5th

Row,

S,

P5 edge

stitches,

T

;

repeat

6th

Row,

S,

7th

Row,

S, P5, edge stitches, P, T, O, P,

8th

Row, S P5 edge

9tli

Row,

S, P5, edge stitches, P2, O, T, P, O,

10th

Row,

S,

11th

Row,

S,

but

stitches, pearl, all

O, T, O, T, T, O,

P

;

but

T

P5 edge

stitches, pearl, all

P5 edge

stitches, P,

S,

P5 edge

Repeat from finished,

as

1st

P6

edge

stitches,

P6.

repeat

;

edge

stitches,

P6.

edge

stitches,

P6.

T, O, T,

but

P

;

T, P, O, T,

jO ,

edge

stitches,

P6.

edge

stitches,

P6.

edge stitches, P6.

repeat

stitches, pearl, all

but

edge

row, until the centre

stitches,

the other end

;

P6.

When

long enough.

is

should measure about three yards

it

stitches,

T, O, P3, O, T, O, T, O, T, P2, T, O,

T, O, T, O, P, T, O,

Row,

edge

T, O, T, O, T, O, P5, O, T,

repeat

stitches, pearl, all

P2, O, T, O, T, O, T, O,

12th

T

P2, O, T, P, T, O, T, O, T, O, P3, O,

O, T, O, T, P2, O,

P5 edge

T

T, O, P3, T, O, T, O, T, O, P, O,

stitches, P,

4th

r

O, T, O, T, *T, O,

repeat

stitches, pearl, all

O, T, O, P3, T, O,

:

is

worked

first.

Some casting

Now

ladies prefer

off,

as

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

this is to

first

quite even out 4

* This T, T,

over the

make

both ends

up the

work

is

last.

till

with a

dry

;

little

dissolved

gum

but before

first ;

then cast

off.

;

stitches,

in the same.

described, as I do not dislike the

Damp

each end.

first

working the centre of white

the border as I have before described

return to the cast-on row, and pick

other end

work

work

and work the I

generally

unique appearance

and water, and

stretch

at it

add a fringe of white

formed into an A, by working

T

;

then the other T, and

lifting the


KNITTING.

299

CAP FOR WEARING UNDER THE BONNET. It is

worked

in Berlin wool,

oured and white, and tied

and composed of

Four hanks white and 8 of

of ribbon.

stripes alternately col-

back and under the chin with a piece

at the

blue,

and two pins No.

9,

are

required.

Cast on 82 stitches with blue.

P

Row, S edge

stitch, plain,

edge

stitch,

2nd Row, S edge

stitch, pearl,

edge

stitch,

P.

Row, S edge

stitch, plain,

edge

stitch,

P.

1st

3rd

4th

Row, S edge

stitch pearl,

5th

Row, S edge

stitch,

6th

Row, S edge

stitch,

7th

Row, S edge

stitch, plain,

T P,

T

repeat

;

M

to

end of row,

,

repeat

;*

edge

stitch,

P.

edge

stitch,

P.

edge

stitch,

P,

edge

stitch,

P. P.

8th

Row, S edge

stitch, pearl,

edge

stitch,

9th

Row, S edge

stitch, plain,

edge

stitch;

P.

10th

Row, S edge

stitch, pearl,

edge

stitch,

P.

11th

Row,

S,

T

edge

T

stitches,

T

repeat

;

to

end of row, T,

P

edgo

stitches, P.

P

M, P

12th

Row,

13th

Row, S edge

stitch, plain,

14th

Row, S edge

stitch, pearl,

S,

edge

15th

Row,

S,

T edge

16th

Row,

S,

P

stitches,

stitches,

T

;

repeat

M

;

Repeat from 9th

stitch,

P.

edge

stitch,

P.

stitches,

T,

P

edge stitches, P2.

to 12th

to

edge

edge

row.

16th row, and again from 9th

12th row.

* This Made-stitch is it.

T to end of row,

repeat

Tie on the white, and repeat 13th to

edge stitches, P2.

repeat,

'

edge stitches, P, â&#x20AC;˘

;

It is that part

going to work. stitches

on

done by picking up a

stitch

from the row below and working

of the loop between the stitch just worked, and the one you are

When you

either side.

pick

it

up,-

you

will perceive

it

will

draw with both


800

KNITTING.

Tie on the blue, and repeat 13th 9th

to

16th row, and again from the

16th row.

to the

Tie on the white, and repeat from 9th

to

Tie on the blue, and repeat from 9th

to 16th

16th row.

row, and from 9th

to

12th row.

Tie on the white, and repeat from 13th

16th row, and from 9th

to

row.

to 12th

Tie on the blue, and work one plain row.

Turn down

a small piece of

over the forehead, of the

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

open row

first

first

;)

this

hem

coloured stripe, so as to form a

hem,

(the piece turned in for

is

from the centre

must be done before the

side stitches are

picked up.

Now

pick up and work the stitches

down

should be about thirty in number worked. hack, and

all

along the top of the Cap

Cap, and work as row, T. of it

row all

Repeat fifth

j

T

to

end of row

row, plain

;

;

;

Cap

pearl

;

there

them

all

then pick up the other side of

Next row, plain

before.

the side of

Next row

sixth row, pearl

;

second row, pearl

row P,

fourth ;

M

then cast

;

third ;

repeat to end

off.

Now hem

round, as before described, for front part.

STRONG GUARD FOR A LADY OR GENTLEMAN.

Three hanks

of

common

sized purse silk,

and 2 wires of No, 20 are

required.

Cast on 4 1st

Row, Ob, j

A ;

Every row

is

stitches.

repeat to end of row.

worked the same.

Work it

to the length required.


;

NETTING. LONG NET PURSE FOR A LADY.

Worked

with purse

Cast on 90 stitches ;

up

net

silk ;

twist,

two

sizes finer

than the common.

work with a mesh, No. 18

it

requires 3 skeins

;

the cast-on and the last

the sides together

row worked

;

are those that are joined.

All netting

is

improved by damping and stretching out

till

dry.

LONG NET PURSE FOR A LADY.

Work ence

:

with silk the same size as

the

first

five

rows are

first

net purse,

plain, the sixth

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;only

worked

this differ-

as a plain

row


302

NETTING.

instead of putting the thread once round the needle before working,

pass

it

twice round

rows plain

The

;

work

;

sixth row, if

following

row

by

until

this

means

it

forms a row of long loops, then 5

you have 84 rows.

wished

to

be twisted as in plate, work

it

and the

in round netting, as described in following receipt, only

keeping in mind that the thread must be passed twice round the mesh in sixth row.

ROUND NETTING

FOR. A

GENTLEMANS LONG PURSE.

Cast on 100 stitches with second-sized purse twist, mesh No. 16;

work 100

Mode netting

;

rows.

of Netting

loop, bringing still

.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Form

the loop round your fingers as in

it

up behind

the mesh, between the

keeping the fingers and loop on them

verse the needle, and pass dation,) passing the

draw

it

it

netting

down through

mesh and

in the

the

first

same

position

re;

loop, (on the foun-

withdraw your

fingers from the loop, as in

continue every loop in this way.

;

fore-finger,

needle in a slanting direction over the mesh;

quite through, then

common

common

pass the netting-needle and thread quite through the finger-

This makes a

very strong purse.

The

following

Open Netting

receipts

may

be worked for Veils, Caps,

Purses, Scarfs, Shawls, Mittens, Cuffs, Sleeves, Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;oyleys, Fish-cloths, Toilet-covers, Curtains, &c.


303

NETTING.

HONEYCOMB NETTING FOR

Worked worked

China

in white

it is ;

finished

by

silk; this veil

VEIL.

1st

it

is

the silk should be ;

about the thickness of the third-sized purse

No.

usually dyed after

is

a netted scollop border

mesh

twist, the

for veil,

12.

Row,

plain.

2nd Row, work the 2nd loop

first,

the 1st loop second, then the

4tli

loop,

then the 3rd loop.

Proceed in

this

3rd

Row,

plain.

4th

Row,

net the 1st loop plain

;

way

to the

end of row.

then proceed as 2nd row

finishing stitch

;

plain.

You will

perceive in the 4th

mencement and end of

row you have a

the row,

which

is

not in the second.

occurs on every alternate twisted row, so as to

come

in their proper places,

or plain

row

loops, then this

know,

those

is

done

two loops

;

you

plain stitch at the com-

by withdrawing

make

the

This

the twisted loops

mesh

after the third

will observe a sort of twist in one of the

plain, the fourth loop a sort of twist

;

you

will

by

in the following row, that the two loops that are plain are

you work, by taking the

the second row.

You must

last first,

regulate the

and

first last,

number

as described in

of stitches to be cast


â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 304 on

NETTING.

tor a veil

fashion.

by

those usually worn, as they vary

The mode

will be required for

say 20

and then 20 rows

stitches,

ascertain the width after

when

adopt,

I

I wish to

any piece of work, ;

is

by

and length of 20

much

know how many

by working a few

means you

this

stitches

.

then

measuring the width and length, you would wish

the width of the

piece,

little

you

according to

will have

200

if,

it

stitches

stitches

will exactly for

to

example,

be 10 times

stitches to cast on.

VERY PRETTY LONG GRECIAN NET PURSE FOR A LADY.

Worked with

the finest-sized purse twist.

You may work the plain may work

rows in a bright colour, and the open rows in white, or you it all

one colour, according

on 100

stitches,

an open one,

with meshes Nos. 12 and

19.

Cast

and net about 100 rows, alternately 6 rows plain and

as described in receipt.

1st

Row, No. 19 mesh,

7th

Row, No. 12 mesh,

8th

Row, No. 19 mesh side loop

* Twist the

to taste,

first

and 5 more rows.

:

twist* the 1st and 2nd loops together, and net the

repeat to end of row.

and second loops together, by forming the loop on your

as in plain netting;

round netting, then

;

plain,

plain.

pull the needle

fingers,

and thread quite through, as described in

insert the point of netting-needle into the first loop, as in the


805

NETTING. 9tli

Row, No.

19 mesh, plain, and 5 more rows.

15th

Row, No. 12 mesh,

plain.

16th

Row, No. 19 mesh,

1 plain stitch,

and proceed as 8th row.

GRECIAN NET FOR A VEIL.

Worked

with white China silk

cast ;

on even numbers

work with

;

two meshes, the one No. 9, the other No. 16. 1st

Row, No.

9 mesh, plain.

2nd Row, No. 16 mesh; twist the

1st

and 2nd loops together, (as described

in preceding receipt,) then net the little side loop, as described

in receipt for long Grecian purse

The

veil is

worked

in this

way

:

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

immediately before

a plain

row with

this.

large mesh, and

a twisted row with the small, always keeping in mind you begin and

end every other twisted row with a plain

come

in

its

pointing to the top; pass

point of the needle through the

again catch the

now

tion,

first.

I

;

it

is

it

with the

it

through the

finger-loop, as in

common if

it

it

through;

The next

netting.

stitch

were a loose knot on the

the loose part of the second loop that

was twisted

do not think, however, that the Grecian net can, by any descrip-

be reduced to practice, without some previous knowledge of

the publication of the (

along to the second loop; pull

a very small loop, which appears as

side of the twisted stitch

through the

the twist

Having now the second loop on your needle,

have the first loop only on the needle; draw

withdraw your fingers from the is

it

first loop.

by gently raising the point of needle; pull

first loop,

second; this done, you will

worked

make

proper place.

common way,

to be

stitch, so as to

first edition, I

am happy

and some brought the net with them

to

it.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Shortly

to say that several ladies

show) they had worked from

without any other assistance.

21

after

informed

me

this receipt


P 800

NETTING.

SINGLE DIAMOND NETTING.

Row, *P, oP

1st

2nd Row, P, 3rd

4th

Pl Row, oP, P; Row, Pl, P

;

;

Explanation of Terms.

—P, a

;

repeat to end of row. repeat to end of row.

repeat to end of row. repeat to end of row.

plaiu

stitch.

of passing the thread once round the off,

pass

stitch,

it

twice round the

mesh

to

—oP, a long loop

mesh

form the long loop.

formed by working the present loop

to

;

instead

before netting the stitch

l,

a loose

meet the short one in tho

preceding row.

DIAMOND OF FIVE STITCHES FOR A LONG PURSE.

Work *

You

with mesh No.

will perceive,

18,

and second-sized purse twist

when you withdraw

long and a short loop alternately.

the

mesh from

this

;

3 skeins are

row, there will be a


;

NETTING.

Work

required.

Cast on 73

over

completes the purse.

1st

;

this

Row, oP, P5

;

2nd Row, Px, Pl,

stitches.

307

the following receipt eight times

repeat to end of row; finishing stitch

W,

P4,

W;

W,

P3,

W, Px

oP.

is

repeat to end of row, finishing stitch

is

Px. 3rd

Row, Px, Pl, is

4th

Row,

P, Px, Pl, is

5th

Row,

repeat to end of

;

row ;

finishing stitch

Px.

W,

P2,

W,

P,

W, Px

;

repeat to end of row

;

finishing stitch

P.

P, Px, Pl,

W,

Px, P; repeat to end of row; finishing

stitch is P.

6th 7th

Row, P2, Px, Pl, Px, P Row, P2, Px, oP, P2

;

repeat to end of row

11th 12th

Row, Pl, Px, P3, Px

9th

10th

Row, P3,

ditto,

P.

ditto,

P.

;

ditto,

ditto,

P.

;

ditto,

ditto,

P.

;

ditto,

ditto,

P.

ditto,

Pl.

;

W

ditto,

;

Repeat from Explanation of Terms. stitch,

W,

the cross

is

only

to

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;oP, show

first

row.

see Index of net terms it

;

Px, a plain

was a long loop in the former row

withdraw the mesh before working the next

iwo plain

finishing stitch is P.

ditto,

;

W, Px, Pl, W, P Row, P2, W, Px, Px, Pl, W, P Row, P2, W, Px, P, Px, Pl,W Row, P, W, Px, P2, Px, Pl,

8th

;

ditto,

loop, (see

Index

;

P2,

stitches.)

LEAP NETTING.

Cast on 5 stitches for every pattern you wish

mesh No.

14,

and cotton No. 50.

;

2 loops

for each

edge

j


NETTING.

308 1st

Row, 2

plain for edge, *3 plain

the next

2nd Row, 2 plain

increase 4 in next loop

;

repeat to end of

;

for edge

;

^gather in

row from

all

row from

of

3rd

Row,

4th

Row, 2

all

;

increase 4 in

2 plain for edge.

;

the loops that were increased on

the two loops above-described, into nine loops in

star

(you will find

one'' stitch,

on the increased loop,) 4 plain

;

repeat to end

2 plain for edge.

star,

plain.

plain for edge, *2 plain, increase, 4 in next loop, increase 4 on

next loop, 1 plain; repeat to end of row from

star,

2 plain for

edge.

5th

Row, 2

plain for edge, *1 plain to

6th

Row,

Increase 4,

end of row from

from

plain, repeat

is to

you must net

net so

first

keep up the number of

;

repeat

2 plain for edge.

row.

many given

five times to

gather in the 9 loops, 3 plain

;

star,

stitches into

one loop

:

so, to

increase

give four loops, as one must be knit to

cast-on stitches.

DOTTED NET.

1st

row.

Row, oP,

in the

same loop increase 2

stitches

;

repeat to end of

All the rows are the same.

Explanation of Terms the mesh, as in a plain crease 2 stitches

by

.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;oP, instead of passing the thread once round

stitch,

pass

it

twice round before netting

netting 2 stitches in the

same

loop.

;

in-


NETTING.

309

FRENCH GROUND NET.

1st Row, P, oP repeat to end of row, 2ndRow, Px, Pl repeat to end of row. 3rd Row, *oP, fP repeat to end of row. 4tli Row, Pl, Px repeat to end of row. ;

;

;

;

Row,

5th

P, *oP, JP; repeat; end and stitch simply oP.

Repeat from 2nd row. Explanation of Terms.

—oP,

before letting’ off your loop on the

foundation, pass your needle and thread quite through the finger loop, as Cescribed in Grecian net, then insert the point of needle

tne top loop,

which you

will find exactly above;

in a slanting direction, to the right of the

first

to

Net

come

part one.

it

off;

partly

by

up through the

which presents 'This

exception,

be a plain

so doing,

little

when

itself

loop it

is

stitch at the

first

top loop.

You therefore

this

it

of receipt.

at the

oP

last

row

from that

—jP, with

will at every other twisted row,

beginning and

row

net

being a very small

represented in the receipt thus it

loop on the last

causes the second loop on the

above the top loop,

occurs, as

as will be seen in 5th

it

row,

last

loop on last row, through

which, with the point of your needle, draw up the row.

down through

on the second

it

this

must

finishing of the row,


NETTING.

810

SCOLLOP FOR BORDERS OF VEILS, COLLARS, CAPS, ETC.

1st

Row,

2nd Row,

cast on one loop for each scollop flat

mesh No.

1,

3rd

Row, round mesh No.

15, net

4th

Row, round mesh No.

15, plain.

The

thread

I

you wish.

increase 12 into each loop.

each of the increased loops off plain.

used for the above meshes was about the fineness of the

hird-sized purse twist.

ANOTHER SCOLLOP FOR BORDER.

1st

Row,

2nd Row,

cast on 1 loop for each scollop required. flat

mesh No.

1,

increase 22 loops on each.

4tli

Row, round mesh No. 14, net each of Row, round mesh No. 19, oP, increase

5th

Row, round mesh No.

14, net all the long loops only.

6th

Row, round mesh, No.

14, plain.

7th

Row, round mesh, No.

14, plain.

3rd

the increased loops plain.

2 loops into the same

SCOLLOP.

1st

Row,

cast on a plain stitch for each scollop required.

stitcfc


NETTING.

2nd Row, 3rd

flat

mesh No.

1,

Row, round mesh No.

increase 20 into each loop. 14, net all the increased loops,

mesh No.

4th and 5th Rows, round

311

each plain.

14, plain.

LONG PURSE OF OPEN STITCH OF SINGLE TAMBOUR. Cast on 160 single chain 1st

Row, 3 chain

stitches.

row

stitches, not attached to the cast-on

by working a

attach a

;

row

on the fourth

stitch

of the cast-on

2nd Row, always make your attached

stitch

on the centre one of

stitch,

stitch

of

foundation.

the 3 chain stitches

worked

Every succeeding row for

is

forming the purse, join

together about attach stitch

2j?

may

;

in the last row, then three chain stitches.

done in it

up

this

When

way.

sufficient is

done

way, by tambouring

in the usual

inches at each side, and draw

it

up

at

it

The

each end.

be a bead stitch

PLAIN FRENCH TAMBOUR LONG PURSE, (SOMETIMES CALLED DOUBLE

TAMBOUR.)

Work gives

with a fine ivory hook

worked on

Mode

this

hook being coarser than

and wrong

the right

of Working

.

stitch.

loop.

first

loop,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Cast on 100

and catch the

The

purse

is

alternately

side.

loops in single chain stitch, having

the last of the cast-on loops on the needle.

in the

the silk,

;

the appearance of an open

it

silk

2nd row,

from behind

insert the

pull

it

needle

through the

;

You have now

and pull

it

2 loops on the needle, then catch the thread,

through the two .oops

this ;

in every loop to the end of

the purse

row

;

forms one

90 rows worked

stitch.

So

repe;

in this ivay

t

form


;;

312

NETTING.

FRENCH TAMBOUR LONG PURSE. Cast on 130

This

worked with a

is

a gentleman’s, and 110 for a lady’s purse.

stitches: for

sized purse twist,

and

fine needle

and ivory handle, and common-

worked on one

all

loop,

which

you began it is

fastens

the last

2nd row, commence

it.

row

on,

and work

sufficiently wide, then join

it

When

side.

the end of the row, cut off the thread, and

draw

at the

you come

through the

it

same

same way.

in the

by tambouring

it

which

stitch

Continue

together

;

to

last

till

4 skeins

twist are required.

OPEN TAMBOUR Cast on 220 stitches

;

work with a

PlfRSE.

fine

tambour needle and handle

8 skeins of third-sized purse twist are required.

Row, begin with one

1st

on a

stitch

of the cast-on stitches on the needle, throw

on your needle, by casting the thread over

insert the

it ;

needle into the second loop, catching the silk in from behind, and pull it

through ;

stitch,

pull

you now have three loops on it

through the

first

the needle, again cast on a

two on the point of the needle

;

there

now two loops on it, again cast on another, pull it through the two you have now only one loop, cast on one, pull it through the one having now one on the needle, commence as before described. are

This

stitch is

worked on every other loop

unworked, which forms the open part of

only, thereby leaving one stitch.

Continue working

thus as

many

times as you think sufficient for a purse

This

stitch

makes a very

side,

as

beautiful purse

worked

join

it

up.

;

on the right

all

always cutting the thread off at the end of each row, (but leaving

much

follows

:

of the thread as will fasten

it

neatly behind

;

)

working

as


NETTING.

Work 2 bour

stitch

318

open rows with white, then 10 plain rows of double

tarn,

with light blue, 2 open rows of white, 10 plain rows of

double tambour

stitch

with black

;

repeat this 3

more

times,

which

forms the purse.

The purse

is

much improved by working

on the black, and on the blue, a pattern in

a pattern in gold colour

steel

and gold beads.

OPEN TAMBOUR STITCH. Cast on 200 stitches with third-sized 1st

Row,

twist.

3 double tambour stitches, 3 chain stitches

of row, always

making

;

repeat to end

the double stitches three stitches apart from the

last

2nd Row, work the 3 double tambour stitches of the last

stitches

round the three chain

row.

Repeat as

last

row

till

the purse

is finishea.


/

0


/

THE

SHAWL, COLLAR, SLIPPER, O

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THE

ROYAL SHETLAND SHAWL, LACE COLLAR,

CHINA PURSE RECEIPT BOOK. /

MIIEOo

$

T.

B.

Ij

i3T

o

il

a

SB

'in

©(DIEISo

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11

p

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a

:

PETERSON AND BROTHERS, 306

CHESTNUT STREET.


I

ADDRESS.

In presenting

this little

Gore most sincerely duce the sible,

trusts,

receipts in the

Manual

to the

Ladies, Mrs.

that as her study has been

most careful and

explicit

be

and recommend Work-table.

sufficient to

this

induce

all

B.

to pro-

manner

combined with the elegant appearance of the

illustrated, will

J.

pos-

articles as

Ladies to patronize

cheap and valuable companion

to

the


FOLDED.

SHAWL

WOOL

SHETLAND

THE

OT

ILLUSTRATION


.

;

THE

SHETLAND WOOL SHAWL. FOR

CENTRE.

TIIE

Cast on 200 stitches on needles No.

Row

First

.

—Knit

two

together

;

—Plain Third Row — Knit two thread forward

knit

two*

\

knit one

together ;

thread forward

;

;

thread' forward

;

the

knit knit

;

At

knit three together. ;

;

end of this row ,

knit the two last stitches.

—Plain Fifth Row. — Knit two Fourth Row.

knitting.

knit two together

one

two

thread forward;

knit three together

;

;

flam

one;

knit ;

knit

knitting.

thread forward

three

knit

one

:

knit

knit one.

Second Row.

three

thread forward

;

together ;

forward;

thread

two

knit

;

;

together;

two together

knit ;

thread forward

one

7.

;

two together

;

thread forward

;

;

—Plain Row. — Knit

Sixth Row.

Seventh

;

;

knit two together

knit one

knit two together

knit one

hread forward

thread forward ;

thread forward

;

;

thread forward

thread forward

;

knit

;

knit ;

knit one.

knitting.

three

knit three ;

;

at the ;

thread forward

;

thread forward

end of

this

knit three together ;

knit three together ;

row bring

the thread forward

;

knit two.

Eighth Row.

—Plain

knitting.

These eight rows must be repeated

till

a square

is

knitted.

22

/


;

LACE COLLAR

822

BORDER FOR THE SHETLAND WOOL SHAWL. THIS

IS

FOR ONE HALF.

Cast on 600 stitches on needles No. First

Row — Knit .

one eight times

two together four times ] thread forward

knit two together four times ;

thread forward

together four times ;

together four times

—Purl — Plain Row. — Purl

knitting.

knitting. ;

commence again

having knitted a piece half a yard

second row

;

;

;

knit two

as

at

first

in depth, knit six

row.

After

rows plain and

knit two in one, and so on, third plain

then six rows of plain and purled. stitches

;

then six rows of holes worked thus, one row plain,

thread forward

must be knitted together

mencing from

knit one eight times

;

knit ;

knit two

purl one.

Third Row.

purled alternately

;

purl one

;

Second Row.

Fourth

3.

To form

in the centre

and

at the

ends,

com-

the plain rows.

THE LACE COLLAR.

No. Needles, No. 26.

Cast on 36 First

Row

.

stitches,

—Cotton forward

I.

Cotton, No. 50.

knit 2 plain rows.

knit one ;

*

;

the corner two and three

cotton forward

;

knit one


; ;

RECEIPT BOOK. slip

one

knit two together

;

cotton forward

two together

;

;

—Purl

;

them

knit one

;

one

slip

;

;

knit

knit one.

;

knit three

;

cotton forward

;

slip ;

pass the slip stitch over them

cotton for;

cotton forward

;

knit one

;

forward ;

knit three ;

them

knitting.

.

knit two together

ward

cotton forward

pass the slip stitch over

Row — Cotton

Third

pass the slip stitch over

;

;

Second Row.

one

knit one

323

slip ;

one

;

knit two together

pass ;

the slip stitch over them.

—Purl —Knit one

Fourth Row.

Row.

Fifth stitch

knitting.

over them

knit one

slip ;

knit one

;

one

;

cotton forward

knit one ;

;

—Make one purl one Row. —

;

pass the slip

cotton forward

;

them

pass the slip stitch over

cotton forward.

two together

;

;

cotton forward; knit three;

pass the slip stitch

cotton forward; slip one;

them

pass the slip stitch over ;

;

cotton forward

;

knit

cotton forward. ;

Eighth Row.

row

;

;

the rest.

knit

Slip

knit two together three

knit one

;

knit two together ;

;

over them;

knit two together

;

cotton forward

Sixth Row.

Seventh

one

slip ;

knit one

—Make one purl

the rest

;

commence again

iepeat the above eight rows fifty-four times,

and

as at first

cast off loosely.

LACE FOR COLLAR. No. Needles, No. 26.

Cotton, No. 50.

Cast on 17

Row.

First

gether

;

forward

forward

knit one

Slip one ;

knit two together ,

knit two together

stitches.

knit two

;

thread forward

;

I.

;

;

thread forward

knit two together

thread forward

;

;

;

;

knit two

knit one

;

knit two together

thread ;

;

thread forward

;

knit two plain.

to-

thread


324

R0Y4L BRIGHTON SLIPPER.

TIIE

Second Row.

Row

Tfurd

.

—All —

knit one

tog-ether

forward

one

;*

repeat second and

;

;

third

the lace

row

into

;

all

row

this

completes the pattern.

;

on one

be'

picked up, and knit one plain

the fourth row, knit two together ;

the ;

fifth

After

;

must

the second row, knit two together every twelfth stitch

on

put the thread twice round the needle, and

on, the stitches

so

row

first

After the heading, then cast off

repeat the second

two together, and

knit two

;

;

plain

knit two

;

stitches

;

sewn

is

forward

knit two together

rows until you have seven plain

on the left-hand needle

row

six stitches for the border

thread ;

knit two' together, and so on as in the

your right-hand needle.

knit the last

you have

knit two

thread forward

;

;

thread

plain until

Slip

row, plain

;

the third ;

thread forward

knit ;

then cast

off.

;

THE ROYAL BRIGHTON SLIPPER

Make

a chain of fifteen stitches in single crochet;

twelve rows, which

on one

side

the front

;

crochet two

the middle stitch of every row, until you have completed

stitches in

;

is

sufficient for the front.

crochet thirty rows, and join

Take up twelve

them

to

stitches

the other side of

then catch the stitches up round the top, and crochet one

row.

For the very loose

frill,

to

crochet three stitches in every loop in single crochet,

form a

full frill.


;

LACE COLLAR

When

325 and sew on a cork

finished, turn the slipper inside out,

dien pass a ribbon round under the

The above

is

frill,

and

tie

so'

- r

the bow.

exceedingly pretty in eight thread shaded Berlin wool

THE LACE COLLAR.

No.

II.

\

Needles, No. 26.

Cast on 53

Row —Knit

First

.

the thread forward together.

Second one

;

;

one

Row

.

—Knit

(a)

one

from

Finish with

.

Third forward

from

Row

.

five

;

(c) .

Fourth

;

Finish with .

;

purl one

one

;

;

knit two

knit one.

purl two together purl three ;

:

;

purl turn

Repent

purl two together. ;

purl one

1

}

(

;

thread forward

—purl one

Row — Knit

round the needle

;

knit two

;

—knit two.

—Knit

knit

purl one

round the needle

it

;

knit one

<3

thread forward, turning

{b)

knit two ;

;

the thread round the needle

row.

knit two together

;

;

Finish with

.

1

thread forward

knit one

Repeat from

purl

stitches,

purl one

;

No. 50.

Cotton,

one

;

knit two together ;

knit two together. ;

purl two together ;

Repeat

knit one.

;

purl seven

thread

;

turn the thread ;

turn the thread round the needle

29*

;

purl


;

LACE COLLAR RECEIPT BOOK.

326

;

Fifth Row.

ward

—Knit

two

thread forward

;

Repeat as in the

—turn the thread round knit two

;

(a)

row from

first

;

knit two

Finish with, thread

.

to-

for-

knit two.

;

Sixth Row. needle

from

Finish with

.

purl two together; knit one.

the needle

gether.

(d)

Repeat from

three together.

;

—Knit

one

two

purl

;

turn the thread round the

;

purl two together.

purl one

Repeat

;

(b)

Finish with

.

Row.

Seventh

—thread round the needle

—Knit

thread forward

four ;

Repeat as in third row from

(c)

Finish with

.

as the second

purl two

;

;

two together

knit

;

row

knit one.

—thread

forward

knit ;

four.

Eighth Row.

—Knit

one

;

Repeat as

purl three together.

needle

turn the thread round the

purl four

;

in fourth

row from

(d)

Finish

.

;

with

—turn

the thread round the needle; purl four

Ninth Row.

—Commence again, sewn on

After the lace is

,

as at

first

knit one.

;

row.

must he picked up and two plain

the stitches

:

roios knitted , then cast off rather tightly.

LACE FOR COLLAR. No.

II.

Needles, No. 26.

Cotton,

Cast on 17 First

Row.

Slip one

purl two together together

;

knit one ;

twice round

Second

;

;

knit one ;

;

thread twice round the needle ;

thread twice round the needle ;

knit two together ;

Row —Knit .

seven ;

purl two together

50.

stitches.

thread twice round

one; thread twice round

round

knit one

No.

;

;

knit

;

purl two

knit two together

;

thread

five.

purl one

;

knit two

;

purl one

knit ;

purl two together; knit one; thread twice ;

knit two.


;

RIBBON PURSE RECEIPT BOOK.

Row —Slip

Third

one; knit one; thread twice round; pun two

.

together; knit one; thread twice round

Knu

the

purl two

to-

purl two together

;

;

rest plain.

Fourth

Row

.

—Knit

knit one

gether ;

knit one

;

;

thread twice round

.

knit one

purl one

;

thread twice round

Seventh

knit

five.

knit two; purl one; knit two;

;

thread twice round ;

purl two together

;

knit one

;

purl two together

knit two. ;

.

;

;

;

knit two

;

knit two together

;

knit one

;

thread twice round

;

;

seven; purl one

Row — Slip knit one

together

purl two

purl two together

;

;

;

;

knit two together

Row —Knit

Sixth

knit two.

thread twice round

;

thread twice round

;

;

purl two together

knit one

;

thread twice round

together

thread twice round ;

one

.

together

;

;

Row — Slip

Fifth

twelve

thread twice round

one

knit one

;

thread twice round

;

;

;

purl two

;

purl two together

thread twice round

the rest ;

plain. j

Eighth

Row

.

—Cast

off five, leaving seventeen stitches ;

purl two together; knit one

more; thread twice round round

;

purl two together

;

;

knit two

;

commence again

;

knit nine

thread twice

at first

row.

THE CHINA PURSE.

One Piece

of Shaded China Ribbon.

Bone Knitting

Cast on in plain knitting thirty stitches sufficient for the purse.

the ribbon, as join

it

it

You

must be

knit thirty rows,

it

which

is

;

careful, in knitting, not to turn

will spoil the design of the purse.

up neatly, and trim

Pins, No. 7.

When

with gold or silver ornaments.

finished,


.

r


;;

;

T.

&

PETERSON

B.

BROTHERS' PDBLICATfONS.

THIS CATALOGUE CONTAINS

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and Best Selling Books

Describes the Most Popular

ia the

World

Ike Books will also be found to be the Best and Latest Publications by They are the most Popular and Celebrated Writers in the World. also the most Readable and Entertaining Books published.

Suitable for the Parlor, Library, Sitting-Room, Railroad Camp, Steamboat, Army, or Soldiers’ Reading.

PUBLISHED AND FOR SALE BY

T. E.

PETERSON & BROTHERS,

Philadelphia.

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Rates.

Copies of any of Petersons’ Publications, or any other work or works Advertised, Published, or Noticed by anyone at all, in any place, will be sent by us, Free of Postage, on receipt of Price.

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Com-

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Complete in two

Lady of

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in two vols., paper cover. Price $i.00; or in one vol., cloth* $1.50.

The T wo Sisters.

Complete in two

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Three Beauties.

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or

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Retribution: A Tale of Passion. Two $1.00

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paper cover. Price One Dollar;. or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

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Deserted Wife. Two

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By

One Dollar

;

vols.,

papei

or bound, in

vol., cloth, for $1.50.

The Dead

The

Story.

Trice One Dolor in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Kate Aylesford. Two one

The Lost Heiress. Two

or in

vols.,

Two vols., paper cover.

;

;

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lar

paper cover. Price One Dollar one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

;

The Jealous Hushaml. Two vol-

River. Two

The Wife’s Victory. Two

vol-

umes, paper cover. Price One Dollar or in one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

Price $1.00

volumes, paper cover. or in cloth, for $1.50.

,

or in

;

The Discarded Daughter. Two

The Pearl of Pearl The ;

Two vols

paper cover. Price One Dollar one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

volumes, paper cover. Price $1.00 or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Tlie

vol-

umes, paper cover. Price One Dollar or in one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

in one or two volumes, paper cover. Price $1.00 ; or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Price

Two

volumes,

One Dollar;

oi

vol., cloth, $1.50.

Broken

Engagement.

Mrs. Southworth.

Price 25 cents.

0)

-


;

2

T. B.

PETERSON & BROTHERS’ PUBLICATIONS IlltS. ANN S. STEPHENS’ WORKS. The

Tlie Rejected Wife. One volume, paper cover. one volume,

Price One Dollar

;

or in

cloth, for 1.50.

Fashion and Famine.

One

volume, paper cover. Price $1.00; or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Mary Denvent.

One volume* paper cover. Price One Dollar or in one volume, cloth, for $1.50. ;

Heiress.

One volume, paper One Dollar o.t in o.io

cover.

Price

volume,

cloth, for $1.50.

Tlie Old

;

Homestead.

One volPrice One Doila/ ’ or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

ume, paper cover.

The

edition of these books in one vol-

ume, paper cover,

“ Railway

the

is

Edition.”

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Bride* One

Price

Dollar; or in cloth, $1.50.

Tlie Young Pilot of tlie Belle Creole. Price $1.00 in

Linda. paper

or $1.50 in cloth.

;

Robert Graham.

The Sequel

to,

and Continuation in paper

;

of Linda. Price $1.00 or $1.50 in cloth.

The Lost Daughter. paper cover. bound in one

Price

Tw'

vols.,

One Doll-.

;

or

vol., cloth, $1.50.

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vols.,

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bound

Price

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;

paper cover. Price One Dollar one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

oi in

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;

or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

The Banished

Son. Two

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Helen and Arthur.

;

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Two

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umes, paper cover. Price One Dollar or in one volume, cloth, for $1.50. Ernest Lin wood. Two volumes, paper cover. Price One Dollar or in one volume, cloth, for $1.50. *

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or,

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or

;

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vol., cloth, $1.50.

;

and Matrimony.

paper cover. Price One or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

MRS. HENRY WOOD’S BOOKS. The Shadow of Ashlydyat. The Mystery. One Two

paper cover. Price Oue or in one vol., cloth, for $1.25.

vols.,

Dollar

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Two

Price One Dollar vols., paper cover. or in one vol., cloth, for $1.25.

The

Castle’s Heir.

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octavo, paper cover. Price One Dollar ; or in one vol., cloth, for $1.25.

Verner’s Pride. Two vols., paper cover.

octa vo,

Price $1.00; or in one

We

also publish a “ Railway Edition” of all the above, each one in one volume,

The cents

Price

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Earl’s Heirs. ;

vol., octavo, Price Fifty cents or ;

paper cover. Price Fifty cents one vol., cloth, 75 cents.

The Channings.

One

each.

Price

Fifty

or one vol., cloth, 75 cents.

;

or in

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paper cover. Price 75 cents

;

or in one

vol., cloth, $1.00.

Aurora Floyd.

Price 50 cents a finer edition, in cloth, for $1.00.

Better For Worse.

vol., cloth, for $1.25.

paper cover.

paper cover.

bound in one vol., cloth, 75 cents. A Life’s Secret. One vol., octavo,

tavo, paper cover.

;

or

One

vol., oePrice 50 cents.

Martyn Ware’s Temptation. One vol., paper

cover.

Price 25 cents

The Foggy Night

at OfFord.

Price 25 cents.

THE GREAT NOVEL OF THE WAR. Shoulder Straps. A novel of New Fork and the Army in 1S62. By Henry Morford, editor of the “New York Atlas.” It is the book for Ladies! Gentler

men! Soldiers! Wives and Widows, Fast Young Ladies, Slow l oung Ladies, Married Men and Bachelors, Toung Ladies about to be Married, and those who have no Matrimonial Prospects whatever! Stay-at-Home Quards, Government officials, Army Contractors, Aldermen, Doctors, Judges, Lawyers, etc. Complete in two large volumes, illustrated, aud neatly done up in paper covers, price One Dollar a copy or bound in oue volume, cloth, for $1.50. We also publish a “ Railway Edition” of it, complete in one vol., paper cover, price One Dollfi ;


PETERSON & BROTHERS’ PUBLICATIONS

T. B.

3

CHARLES DICKERS’ WORKS. ILLUSTRATED OCTAVO EDITION.

Pickwick Papers,

David Copperfield, Cloth, Barnaby Rudge, Cloth, Martin Cliuzzlewit, ...Cloth,

Cloth, $2.00

Nicholas Nickleby, Cloth, Great Expectations, ...Cloth, Lamplighter’s Story, ..Cloth, Oliver Twist, ..Cloth, Bleak House, Cloth,

2 00 2.00

Little Dorrit,

Cloth, 2.00

Old Curiosity Shop,.... Cloth, Christmas Stories, .....Cloth, Dickens’ New Stories, A Tale of Two Cities,

Dornbey and Son,

Cloth, 2.00

American Notes and

Sketches by « Boz,”.... Cloth, Price of a

set,

“ “ “

2.00

2.00 2.00

Pic-Nic Papers,

2.00

2.00 2.00 2.0<?

2.00

2.00 2.00

2.00

Cloth, 2.00

in Black cloth, in 17 volumes Full Law Library style

$32.00 42 0C 4S.00 50.00 60.00 60.00

Half calf, sprinkled edges Half calf, marbled edges Half calf, antique Half calf, full gilt hacks, etc

PEOPLE’S DUODECIMO EDITION.

Pickwick Papers,

Little Dorrit,

Cloth, $1.75

Dombey and

Nicholas Nickleby,... Cloth, 1.75 Great Expectations, ...Cloth, 1.75 Lamplighter’s Story, ..Cloth, 1.75

David Copperfield,

Cloth, 1.75

1.75 1.75

Dickens’ Short Stories, Message from the Sea,

1.75

1.50

Price of a set, in Black cloth, in 17 volumes Full Law Library style Half calf, sprinkled edges

calf, gilt edges,

1.50 1.50

$29.00 .

Half calf, marbled edges... Half calf, antique Half calf, full gilt hacks, etc Full calf, antique Full

35.00 42.00

44 00 50.00 50.00 60.00 60.0C

backs, etc

ILLUSTRATED DUODECIMO EDITION. Sketches by 44 Boz,”... Cloth, Pickwick Papers, Cloth, $3.00

Tale of Two Cities,. ...Cloth, Nicholas Nickleby, ....Cloth,

1.75 1.75

Barnaby Rudge, Cloth, 1.75 Martin Cliuzzlewit,. ..Cloth, 1.75 Old Curiosity Shop, ....Cloth, 1.75

Cloth, 1.75

Cloth, Oliver Twist, Bleak House, Cloth, A Tale of Two Cities, Dickens’ New Stories,

Cloth 1.75

Son,

Christmas Stories. Cloth, Sketches by “ Boz,”.... Cloth,

Barnaby Rudge,

3.00

3.00

Cloth, 3.00

David Copperfield,

Cloth, 3.00

Martin Cliuzzlewit, ...Cloth, Old Curiosity Shop, ...Cloth,

Oliver Twist,

Cloth, 3.00

Little Dorrit

Cloth, 3.00

Christmas Stories, Bleak House,

Cloth, 3.00

Dombey and Son

Cloth, 3

3.00

Each of the above are complete in two volumes

Dickens’

1.75

,

illustrated

New

|

1.75

I

Message from

“ “

«

M

Half calf, antique Half calf, full giit hack Full calf, antique

Fuil

edges, backs, etc

.

Stories, the Sea,

Price of a set, in Thirty volumes, bound in Black cloth, gilt backs “ ** Full Lav/ Library style

calf, gilt

Ofc

Cloth, 3.00

Great Expectations,...Cloth, Lamplighter’s Story, “

3 0C

3.00

1

7(

1.7J

$15. Ot 55. Oi 90. 0C 90.00 100.0C 100.00


4

T. B.

PETERSON & BROTHERS PUBLICATIONS. 1

CHARLES DICKENS’ WORKS. CHEAP EDITION, PAPER COYER. Q his edition is published complete in

Twenty-two large octavo volumes, in paper

cover, as follows. Price Fifty cents a volume.

Pickwick Papers.

Oliver Twist. Lamplighter’s Story.

Great Expectations. A Tale of Two Cities. New Years’ Stories.

Dombey and

Barnaby Rudge. Old Curiosity

Sliop.

Little Dorrit.

Holiday Stories. Martin Chuzzlewit. Bleak House.

David Copperfield.

Dickens’ Short Stories. Message from the Sea.

Sketches by « Boz.” Dickens’ New Stories.

Christmas Stories.

American Notes. This

Son.

Nicholas Nickleby.

Pic-Nic Papers.

LIBRARY OCTAVO EDITION. IN SEVEN VOLUMES. edition is in SEVEN very large octavo volumes, with a Portrait

on

steel of

Charles Dickens, and bound in the following various styles. Price of a

set,

“ “ “ “ “

**

lt

in Black Cloth, in seven volumes, Scarlet cloth, extra,

$14.00 15.00 17.50 20.00 21.00 25.00 25.00

;

Law

Library style, Half calf, sprinkled edges, Half calf, marbled edges, Half calf, antique, Half calf, full gilt backs, etc.,

“ *f

CHARLES LEVER’S WORKS. Fine Edition bound separately. ,

Charles O’Malley, cloth, Harry Lorrcqucr, cloth, Jack Hinton, cloth, of Ours,

i.50

1.50

Valentine Vox,

1.50

1.50

Davenport Dunn, cloth,

Tom Burke

1.5Q

Arthur O’Leary, cloth, Con Cregan, cloth Knight of G wynne, cloth,.,

$1.50

cloth,. 1.50

1.50

150

,

cloth,

Ten Thousand a

Year,.... 1.50

CHARLES LEVER’S NOVELS. All neatly done

Charles O’Malley,. ...Price 50 50 Harry Lorrequer,

50

Tom Burke of Ours, 50 Jack Hinton, the Guards-

Horace Templeton, man,..

50

up in paper

cts.

covers.

Arthur O’Leary,

Gil Bias? “

50

cts.

The Knight of Gwynne*, 50 Kate O’Donoghue, 50 Con Cregan, the Irish Davenport Dunn,

50

*

50

LIBRARY EDITION. complete in FIVE large octavo volumes, containing Charles O’Malley, Harry Lorrequer, Horace Templeton, Tom Burke of Ours, Arthur O’Leary, Tack Hinton the Guardsman, The Knight of (’wynne, Kate O’Donoghue. etc., handsomely printed, and bound in various styles, as follows:

THIS EDITION

is

Price of a set iu Black cloth. “ Scarlet cloth,

“ “ “

“ **

Law Library sheep, Half Calf, sprinkled edges, Half Calf, marbled edges, Half Calf, antique,

7

S'

.

50

8.0C 8.75 12.00 12.50 15 00


; ;

T. B.

PETERSON & BROTHERS’ PUBLICATIONS.

5

WILKIE COLLIMS’ GREAT WORKS. Dead

Tlie

Secret.

Hide and Seek.

One volume,

octavo, paper cover. Price fifty cents or bound in oue vol., cloth, for 7 5 cts. or a fine 12mo. edition, in two vols., paper cover, in large type, for Oue Dollar, or in one vol., cloth, for $1.50.

paper cover. bound in one

;

vol., octavo,

fifty

cents;

or

After Dark. One Price

cover.

one

Path; or, Basil. Complete in two volumes, paper cover. Price One Dollar or bound in one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

Tlie Crossed

fifty

vol., cloth, for

vol., octavo, paper cents ; or bound in 75 cents.

SigBits A-foot ; or Travels Beyond Railways. One volume, octavo, paper Price 50 cents.

cover.

;

Tlie Stolen Mask.

One

Price

vol., cloth, for 75 cent$.

Tlie Yellow Sister Rose.

Price 25 cents.

Mask.

Price 25

cts.

Price 25 cents.

COOK BOOKS. Petersons’

New Cook Book;

Miss Leslie’s

Book.

or, Practical

Cloth.

wife.

Mrs. Hale’s By

Receipts for the HousePrice $1.25.

New Cook

Book.

One volume,

Mrs. Sarah J. Hale. Price $1.25.

bound.

New Cookery

Being her

One volume, bound.

New Cook Book)

Widdiiield’s

or Useful Receipts for the Housewife and the Uninitiated. Full of valuable receipts, all original and never before published, all of which will be found to be very valuable and of daily use. One vol., bound. Price $1.50.

Miss

new book. Price $1.50.

last

.Leslie’s

for Cooking. volume, bound.

New

Receipts

Complete in one

Price $1.25.

MRS. HALE’S RECEIPTS. Mrs. Hale’s Receipts for By

Mrs. Sarah

J.

One

Hale.

tlie

Million.

MISS LESLIE’S

BEHAVIOUR BOOK.

Miss Leslie’s Behaviour Book. A Ladies.

Containing 4545 Receipts. bound. Price, $1.50.

vol., 800 pages, strongly

complete Guide and Manual

foi

Price $1.50.

FRANC ATELLI’S FRENCH COOK. Francatelli’s Celebrated French. Cook Book.

Tlie

Modern

Cook. A Practical Guide to the Culinary Art, in all its branches comprising, in addition to English Cookery, the most approved and recherche systems of French, Italian, and German Cookery; adapted as well for the largest, establishBy CHARLES ELME FRANCAments, as for the use of private families. TELLI, pupil to the celebrated Careme, and late Maitre-d’ Hotel and Chief Cook With Sixty-Two Illustrations of various to her Majesty, the Queen of England. dishes. Reprinted from the last London Edition, carefully revised and considerably enlarged. Complete in one large octavo volume of Six Hundred pages, ;

strongly bound, and printed on the finest double super-calendered paper. Three Dollars a copy.

J. A.

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The Three Cousins. *

By J. A. Two vols., paper. Price or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Tlie

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Two

$1 .00

or

;

The Watchman,

Price

Complete

in

two

large vols., paper cover. Price $1.00 or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

;

One vol.,

fifty

cents

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volPrice $1.00; of in cloth for $1.50.

umes, paper cover.

Sartaroe.

Two

vols.,

A Tale

of Norway.

paper cover.

Price $1.00;

or in cloth for $1.50.

GREAT WORKS.

MRS. DANIELS’ octavo, paper cover. Price or one vol., cloth, 75 cents.

Tlie

paper cover. Price $1.00; in cloth for $1.50.

vols.,

bound

lie Wanderer. Complete in two volumes, paper cover. Price $1.00 or in one vol., cloth, for $1.50.

Marrying for Money.

Diary of an Old Doctor*

bound

;

Tlie Poor Cousin. Price 50 cents alsingham. Price 5f Kate

W

cents.


6

T. B.

PETERSON & BROTHERS’ PUBLICATIONS, ALEXAISDES DUMAS’ WORKS.

Count of Monte - Cristo.

By-

Alexander Dumas. Beautifully illusOne volume, cloth, $1.50 or in two volumes, paper cover, for $1.00.

trated.

The

;

Conscript. Two Price

cover.

vols.,

One Dollar

paper

or in one

;

volume, cloth, for $1.50. autille; or tlie Fate

of a Coquette. Only correct Translation

from the Original French. Two volumes, paper, price $1.00 cloth, $1.50. ;

Three Guardsmen.

Tiie

Price

75 cents, in paper cover, or a finer edition in cloth, for $1.50.

Twenty Years to the

A

After.

“Three Guardsmen.”

Sequel Price 75

paper cover, or a finer edition, one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

cents, in ;.u

Bragelonne; the Son of Athos: being the continuation of “ Twenty Years After. ” Price 75 cents, in paper, or a finer edition, in cloth, for $1.50.

Mask.

Tlie Iron

tinuation of the

Being the con-

“Three Guardsmen.”

Two

Price One vols., paper cover. Dollar; or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Louise

La

Valliere;

The

or,

Second Series and end of the “Iron Two volumes, paper cover. Price $1 .00, or in one vol., cloth, $1.50.

Mask.”

’Tiie

Memoirs of a

Pliysician.

Beautifully Illustrated. Two vols., paper cover. Price One Dollar or bound in one volume, cloth, for $1.50. ;

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A Seof a Physician.” Price $1.00 ; or in one vol., cloth, for $1.50.

quel

Two

to the vols.,

“ Memoirs

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Six Years Later;

or,

Taking of

A

Continuation of “The Queen’s Necklace.” Two vols., paper cover. Price One Dollar ; or in one the Bastile.

vol., cloth, for $1.50.

to and continuation of the Countess of Charny. Two volumes, paper. Price or in one vol., cloth, for $1.50.

$1.00

;

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or,

The

Fall of the French Monarchy. Sequel to Six Years Later. Two vols., paper cover. Price One Dollar; or in one sloth, for $1.50.

FRANK

E.

Sequel

to,

and

final end of “ Andree De Taverney.'’ One vol. Price 75 cents.

The Adventures

of a Mar-

quis. Two 1.00

;

vols., paper cover. Price or in one vol., cloth, for $1.50.

The Forty-Five Guardsmen. Price 75 cents, or a finer edition in one volume, cloth. Price $1.50.

The Iron Hand.

Price 75 cents, in paper cover, or a finer edition in one volume, cloth, for $1.50.

Diana of Meridor.

Twovoluraes, paper cover. Price One Dollar cr in one vol., cloth, for $1.50. ;

Edmond to

Dantes.

Dumas’

Being a Sequel

celebrated

novel

of

the

“ Count of Monte-Cristo.” Price 50 cts. Annette ; or, The Lady of the

Pearls. A Companion to

“Camille.”

Price 50 cents.

The Fallen Angel. Love and

Life in Paris.

A

Sfcjry cf

One volume.

Price 50 cents.

The Man with Five Wives. Complete in one volume. 'Price 50 cts.

or, The Planter of the Isle of France. One vol-

George ume.

;

Price Fifty cents.

Genevieve

The Chevalier of One volume. Illus-

or,

;

Maison Rouge. trated.

Price 50 cents.

The Mohicans

of Paris.

50 eta

Sketches ini France. 50 cents. Isabel of Bavaria. Price 50 cts. Felina de Chambure or, The ;

Female Fiend.

Countess of Charny;

volume,

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The Horrors of Paris. 50 cents. The Twin Lieutenants. One vol.

Price 50

cts.

The Corsican Brothers.

25 cts

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Harry Coverdale’s Courtship Lewis Arundel. One vol., cloth. Price $1.50 or cheap edition in paper and Marriage. Two vols., paper. ;

Price $1,00

;

cover, for 75 cents.

or cloth, $1.50.

Lcrrimer Littlegood. By author Fortunes and Misfortunes of Harry Backet Scapegrace. Two vols., of “Frank Fairleigh. ” paper.

Frank

Price$1.00; or cloth, $1.50.

Fairleigh.

One volume,

clotn, $1.50 ; or cheap edition in cover, for 75 cents

paper

Price $1.50 or cheap edition Cloth. in paper cover, for 50 cents. ;

Tom

Racquet;

Maiden Aunts.

and

His

Illustrated.

Three

50 cents.


— ~ J@*GET UP YOOl CUU35S FOSS 1864! NEW AND SPLEIIDID PEEMIUMS *

1

{

I

-

!

THE BEST AND CHEAPEST

|

IN

THE WORLD

This popular Monthly contains more for the money than any Magazine in the world. In 1864, it will have nearly 1000 pages, 25 to 30 steel plates, 12 colored patterns, and 900 DOLLARS A YEAR, or a dollar less than wood engravings and all this for only magazines of its class. Every lady ought to take “Peterson.” In the general advance of prices, it is the ONLY MAGAZINE THAT HAS NOT RAISED ITS PRICES. EITHER TO SINGLE SUBSCRIBERS OR TO CLUBS; and is, therefore, emphatically,

TWO

i

1

THE MAGAZINE POE THE TIMES The stories in “Peterson” are conceded to he the best 'published anywhere. Mrs. Ann Stephens, Ella Rodman, Mrs. Denison, Frank Lee Benedict, the author of “Susy L‘s Diary,” T. S. Arthur, E. L. Chandler Moulton, Gabrieli e Lee, Virginia F. Townsend, Rosalie Grey, Clara Augusta, and the author of “The Second Life,” besides all the most popular female writers of America are regular contributors. In addition to the usual number of shorter stories, there will be given in 1864, Original S.

Pour

Copy-righted Novelets, viz: THE MAID OF HONOR— a Story By ANN

S.

of

Queen Bess,

STEPHENS.

THE LOST ESTATE— a By

Story of To-Day,

the author of “ The Second Life.”

MAUD’S SUMMER AT SARATOGA, By FRANK LEE BENEDICT. FANNY’S FLIRTATION, By ELLA RODMAN In its Illustrations also, “Peterson” is unrivaled. The publisher challenges a compare son between its SUPERB MEZZOTINTS AND OTHER STEEL ENGRAVINGS and those in other Magazines, and one at least

is

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COLORED FASHION PLATES IN ADVANCE, It is the ONLY MAGAZINE whose Fashion Plates can be relied on. Each number contains a Fashion Plate, engraved on steel, and colored from Fashions later than any other Magazine gives; also, a dozen or more New Styles, engraved on Wood; also, a Pattern, from which a Dress, Mantilla, or Child’s Costume can be cut, without the aid of a mantua-maker so that each number, in this way, will SAVE A YEAR’S SUBSCRIPTION. The Paris, London, Philadelphia and New York Fashions are described, at length, each month. Patterns of Caps, Bonnets, Head Dresses, &c., given. Its

COLORED PATTERNS IN EMBROIDERY, CROCHET, &C. The Work-Table Department of this Magazine IS number contains a dozen or more patterns in every

WHOLLY

SUPERB COLORED PATTERN FOR SLIPPER, PURSE

NEW

&c., &c., &c.

Every month, a

CHAIR SEAT,

or

—each of which, at a retail store, would cost Fifty Cents. “OUR,

UNRIVALED. Every

variety of Fancy-work; Crochet,

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&c., is given

COOK-BOOK:.”'

The Original Household Receipts of “Peterson” are quite famous. For 1864 our “Cook-Book” will be continued: EVERY ONE OF THESE RECEIPTS H^S BEEN TESTED. This alone will be worth the price of “Peterson.” Other Receipts for the Toilette, Sick-room, &c., &c., will

he given.

NEW AND FASHIONABLE MUSIC in every number. Equestrianism, and all matters interesting to Ladies. TERMS:— ALWAYS

One Copy

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One year, One year,

Also, Hints on Horticulture,

ADVANCE.

IN

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Three Copies

for

-

-

-

-

$2.00

5.00

I

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C LIABLE

PETEBSOJST,

Mo. 306 Chestnut ^QT’All Postmasters constituted Agents ; but any person sent gratuitously, if written for.

mens ,

>

,

——

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may

St. s

get up a club.

Phila. Speci-

j


WORLD. To

Sutlers! Pedlars! Booksellers!

7.

News Agents!

etc.

PETERSON & BROTHERS,

B.

*

ETo.

808 Chestnut

PUBLISH THE

Street, Philadelphia,

MOST SALEABLE BOOKS

IN

THE WORLD,

AMD SUPPLY ALL BOOKS AT VERY LOW RATES. The cheapest place

world to buy or send for a stock of

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kinds of Books, suitable for

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persons whatever, for Soldiers, and for

Army, and for all other reading, is at the Bookselling and PubHouse of T. B. PETERSON & BROTHERS, Philadelphia.

the

lishing

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person wanting any books at

all,

in

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to a dozeu, a hundred, thousand, ten thousand, or larger quantity

of books,

had better send on

WORLD,”

which

is

their orders at once to the “

AND PUBLISHING HOUSE

EST BOOKSELLING

at T. B.

CHEAPIN

PETERSON & BROTHERS,

THE

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Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, who have the largest stock in the counand will supply them and sell them cheaper than any other house

try,

the world.

in

We

publish a large variety of Military Novels, with

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of which are the best selling

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Enclose one, two, dollars, or

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more, to us in a

all

on their sending for one.

twenty,

letter, or

fifty,

a hundred, or a thousand

per express, and write what kind

you wish, and they will be packed and sent to you at once, per way you may direct, just as well assorted, and the same as if you were on the spot, with circulars, show

of books first

bills,

express or mail, or in any other

&c., gratis.,

All we ask

is

to give us a trial.

may want at all, no matter by how small or how large your order may be, to the Cheapest Publishing and Bookselling House in the ivorld which is at Address

whom

all

orders for any books you

published, or

,

T. B.

PETERSON Ifo.

And

&

BROTHERS,

306 Chestnut

Street, Philadelphia,

they will be packe d and sent to you within an hour after receipt L

t)f

the order, per express or railroad, or in any other

way you may direct.

»

1

Agents, Sutlers, and Pedlars wanted everywhere, to engage in thet

ealtf^fVar popular selling Books, all of which will be sold at very low rates.


(

J


,

3

1

97 00450 0846

date due 0 5

JAN

1

i9i ;

«$

DEC 04

2 (14

JUUL&.20

1

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P-J

— DEMCO

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38-297


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