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Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research) DAVID CABABARO BUENO, LPT, AB/BSE,MASE, MPM, MBA, Ed.D, DBA

c

Professor 6C Dean, Graduate School Director, Research and Publications Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City


Lesson 1: NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH (8:00-10:00)   

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Definitions of Research; Characteristics; Purposes; Importance of Research Characteristics of Successful Research Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Quantitative research emphasizes: Features or Characteristics of Qualitative Studies Limitations of Qualitative Studies Some Qualitative Approaches Importance of Qualitative Research across Fields and Daily Life Ethical Guidelines in Qualitative Research Worksheet #1 Introduction Statement of the Problem Scope and Delimitation Significance of the Study Worksheets


Performance Standard: The learner is able to use appropriate kinds of qualitative research in decision-making.

Learning Competencies: The learner: 

defines research as a scientific inquiry;

describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of qualitative research;

illustrates the importance of qualitative research across fields;

describes ethics of research; and

submits at least 3 tentative research titles for approval by the teacher.


Performance Standard: The learner is able to formulate clearly the statement of research problem for qualitative research.

Learning Competencies:

The learner:

designs a research useful in daily life;

writes an acceptable research title;

describes background of a specific research;

states research questions or objectives;

indicates scope and delimitations of study;

cites benefits and beneficiaries of a specific research;

defends feasibility of the research topic;

presents written report of Chapter 1.


Purposes of Studying Research 

To orient students to the nature of educational research: its purposes, forms and importance.

To provide information which helps students become more intelligent consumers of educational research: where to locate it, how to understand it, and critique it.

To provide information on the fundamentals of doing educational research such as selecting a problem, using available tools, organizing a project, etc.

To generate new theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove them, for example, the role of punishment in discipline.


Importance of Research 

To determine the accuracy or otherwise and validity of popular beliefs, and practices by submitting them to systematic scrutiny.

To enhance, modify or refine our knowledge of phenomenon or various theories.

To generate new concepts and explanations of existing rules and policies, beliefs and practices.

To find answers to particular existing questions through investigation.

To evaluate the findings of other researches/studies or build on where they stopped.

To bring the legacy left behind by early scholars as well as the contributions of modern scholars to the limelight.

To seek validation or improvement for religious doctrines and practices, social interactions, economic improvement, politics, ideology etc., etc. to enhance quality of ordinary and spiritual life of man.

To collect and analyze data which will enable us provide information and advice to policy (or decision) makers.


Characteristics of Successful Research/er Wide–Reading Thorough

Understanding

Independent

Opinion

Originality Effectiveness


Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Assumption about the world Research purpose

Quantitative A single reality, i.e., can be measured by an instrument. Establish relationships between measured variables

Qualitative Multiple realities

Understanding a social situation from participants’ perspectives


Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Research methods and processes

Quantitative

Qualitative

- procedures are established before study begins; - a hypothesis is formulated before research can begin; - deductive in nature.

- flexible, changing strategies; - design emerges as data are collected; - a hypothesis is not needed to begin research; -inductive in nature.


Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Researcher’s role

Generalizability

Quantitative

Qualitative

The researcher is The researcher ideally an objective participates and observer who neither becomes immersed in participates in nor the research/social influences what is setting. being studied. Universal contextfree generalizations

Detailed contextbased generalizations


Differences of the two methods of research Sources of Differences

Qualitative Research Method

 When in-depth understanding of a When to use specific issue is required it?  To understand behavior, perception and priorities of affected community  To explain information provided through quantitative data  To emphasize a holistic approach (processes and outcomes)  When the assessor only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for  Recommended during earlier phases of assessments

Quantitative Research Method

 To get a broad comprehensive understanding of the situation  To get socio-demographic characteristics of the population  To compare relations and correlations between different issues  When accurate and precise data is required  To produce evidence about the type and size of problems  When the assessor knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for  Recommended during latter phases of assessment


Objectives and  To explore, understand main features phenomena  Provides in depth understanding of specific issues  Detailed and complete information, contextualization, interpretation and description  Perspectives, opinions and explanations of affected populations toward events, beliefs or practices

 To seek precise measurement, quantify, confirm hypotheses  Provides a general overview  Provides demographic characteristics  Objective and reliable  Apt for generalization  Objectively verifiable  Prediction, causal explanation


Data format

 Data can be observed  Data which can be but not measured counted or  Mainly textual (words, measured. Involves pictures, audio, amount, video), but also measurement or categorical anything of quantity  Mainly numerical and categorical values


 Answers questions  Answers a Answers arising during the controlled the discussion sequence of questions -How? questions with -Why? predetermined -What do I need to possible answers look for in more detail? -What? -How many?  Questions are  Questions are generally open ended closed


 Looks at the whole  Looks at Perspective context from within specific  Searches for patterns aspects from  Lends itself to the outside community participation. Seeks depth of perspective though ongoing analysis (e.g. Waves of data)


 Individual interviews  Key informant interviews Methods  Semi-structured interviews  Focus group discussions  Observation

 Quick counting estimates  Sampling surveys  Population movement tracking  Registration  Structured interviews


Sampling

 Non random (purposive)

Study design  Flexible, the and assessor is the instruments primary instrument for data collection and analysis.

 Random  Fixed, standards control the assessor’s bias.


Questionnaire  Checklist  Predetermined tool types with open questionnaire questions with sequence and flexible and structure sequence


Analysis  Use inductive reasoning  Uses  Involves a systematic and iterative deductive process of searching, categorizing methods and integrating data  Descriptive  Describes the meaning of research statistics findings from the perspective of  Inferential the research participants statistics  Involves developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences  Analysis is descriptive


Features or Characteristics of Qualitative Studies 

Field Focused/Natural Context.

Self as Instrument /Personal Contact.

Interpretive Character.

Use of Expressive Language.

Depth of Perspective/Attention to Particulars.

Inductive Analysis.

Dynamic Systems.

Unique Case Orientation.

Context Sensitivity.

Empathic Neutrality.

Persuasiveness.

Focus on emic perspectives.


Limitations of Qualitative Studies  Subjectivity  Labor

is inherent

intensive

 Misunderstanding  Time

of Novices

Intensive

 Limited

Generalizability


Worksheet

#1

Construct

at least 3 tentative research titles for approval…

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Selecting and Defining a Research Topic Theory Personal

experience Replication Library immersion Talk to experts in the field


Research Title


Research Title


Revitalizing Institutional Policy Grounded on Work-Life Balance of Employees in a Catholic Higher Education Institution in the Philippines

DAVID CABABARO BUENO http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326 docdave3090@gmail.com Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City, Philippines


INTRODUCTION 

First Section- Global situational analysis of the problem supported by the literature from different continents.

Second Section- Regional situational analysis supported by literature from the region of the study. Researchers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam must include literature from these countries to capture the ASEAN perspective in the study.

Third Section –Local situational analysis (Studies conducted in the Philippines.

Fourth Section -Gap in the literature that the study intends to address. Differentness of the study from other previous studies. Compelling reasons of the writer for choosing the problem.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM/ SCOPE/ SIGNIFICANCE… 

State the general and specific statement of the problem.

Use objectives that show what the researcher shall do with the data and not words to indicate what the researcher intends to do as a research process.

Number the statement of the problem/s.

The scope and delimitation are well stated/ discussed.

The significance & beneficiaries of the study are fully identified & discussed.


Worksheet

#2: INTRODUCTION

Review the guidelines and principles in writing the introduction and prepare an initial draft of your introduction. You can have three to four paragraphs to introduce you research topic.

Introduction

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________


 Worksheet

#3: GENERAL AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS

Go back to your approved research title and formulate the general and specific problems. Let your teacher check your work.

General Problem

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Specific Problems (You can have at least four to five specific problems) 1. 2.

3. 4


Worksheet

#4: SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

Go back to your general and specific problems and think of the possible research design you will be using in your investigation and discuss in this portion.

Scope and Delimitation ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________


Worksheet

STUDY

#5: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE

Review the guidelines and principles in writing the significance of the study. Identify the beneficiaries of your research/ investigation and discuss. You can have three to five for this.

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________


Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE and WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA (10:15 – 12:00)  Selecting,

Citing and Synthesizing Related Theory, Literature and

Studies  Sources  Ethical

of Information

Standards in Writing Related Literature

 Framework  Definition

of the Study

of Terms

 Worksheets


The literature review serves several important functions: 

Convinces your reader that your research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature

Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.

Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question.

Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".

Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.

Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.

Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research.

Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.


Sources of Information for the Literature Review ď ľThe

Library

ď ľOnline

Computer Searches: Database Access to Literature and studies/ journal publications


How to Write on the Related Literature  Computerize  Be

as much as possible

systematic and thorough

 Get

the proper psychological orientation

 Emphasis  Review

relatedness

the literature, do not reproduce it !!!


Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature 

Report literature review with the highest level of accuracy

Give an unbiased description of observations and produce an objective discussion, never presenting false or misleading statements

Never manipulate results of previous studies


Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature 

Carry out literature searches for original publications describing closely related work

Cite every publication that in some way contributed to the research

Avoid ‘citation stuffing’. While citing, an author should only refer to truly relevant papers for the conducted investigation, avoiding improper inclusion of their own articles


Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature 

Compose a manuscript using your own words, ideas and materials

The use of the author’s own published work, without proper acknowledgment, can be considered self‐plagiarism

Protection of the author’s legitimate interests should always be regarded through the establishment of adequate material transfer agreements, restraining its field of use. If originally supplied by a person external to the publication and investigation, proper authorization should be obtained and citation made


Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature ď ľ

Assure, prior to a manuscript submission that all the consulted authors are properly cited in the list of references

ď ľ

Give proper credit to all sources of information, assistance, and other relationships that were relevant for the research. It is the authors’ responsibility to appropriately cite and acknowledge individuals that provided assistance, through the supply of materials or providing useful discussion; funding sources; institutional or corporate support; and other


Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE and WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA …(10:15 – 12:00)            

Research Designs; Participants in the study; Qualitative Sampling and Selection Data Sources; Interviews; Questionnaires; Focus Groups; Observational Evaluation Textual/Content Analysis (artifacts, documents, records) Personal Experience (journaling and other methods) Field Notes Ethical Consideration Data Analysis Transcribing Qualitative Data Using Qualitative Software Research Evaluation: Trustworthiness of the Study Validity and Reliability” Concepts in Qualitative Research Worksheet


Lesson 3: PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA COLLECTED and DRAWING CONCLUSIONS (1:00-3:00) 

Data Processing, Organizing and Analysis

Preparing to Analyze

Organizing the Data

Data Analysis

Data Interpretation

Worksheet

Summary of the Problem

Findings

Conclusions

Recommendations

Worksheet


 Performance

Standard: The learner is able to describe

adequately quantitative research designs, sample, instrument used, data collection, and correct procedures and data analysis.

 Learning

Competencies:

The learner:

constructs appropriate instruments for data collection;

describes sampling procedure and sample;

plans data collection and analysis procedures;

decides appropriate sample for research;

describes correct procedures in data analysis; and

submits written form of Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of the research.


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

The research design is appropriate.

The research locale is fully discussed/ described. No need to present a LOCATION MAP.

Participants

Instrumentation. Construction, Try-out, Reliability and Validity. The instrument is valid and reliable.

Research Ethics Protocol/ Informed consent

The data gathering procedure is scientifically discussed.


ď ľWorksheet ď ľ Based

# 9: RESEARCH DESIGN

on the principles discussed relative to the research design, discuss in detail the appropriate design to answer the specific questions in your study.


ď ľWorksheet ď ľBased

# 10: PARTICIPANTS

on the concepts discussed relative to the selection of the participants, discuss in detail your sampling design in this section.


Worksheet

#11: DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT

To

answer the specific problems posited in chapter 1 of your study, discuss the data gathering instrument(s) you will be using in this section.


Worksheet

#12: ETHICAL CONSIDERATION

Discuss

in detail the ethical considerations and processes you have considered. Keep in mind the various principles discussed for this section. Ask your teacher to check your work!


Worksheet

#13: DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

Discuss

in detail the process you will be using or doing to gather relevant data for your study. Keep in mind the various principles discussed for this section.


PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA COLLECTED


 Use

keywords from objectives as side-head of the Results and Discussion.

 Intercontinental

text citation)

literature support of the data (in-

 Validation

of the theory used (integrated) vis-à-vis the themes/ characteristics

 Provide

a critique on the methods and theories used in the last paragraph.


Some authors classify qualitative analysis in this way: ď ľDescriptive

analysis

- - researcher gives an account of a place or process, helping to visualize the situation as a means of understanding it.

ď ľInterpretive

analysis

- - the researcher explains or creates generalizations to help develop new concepts or elaborate on existing ones with a goal to provide insights.


Some authors classify qualitative analysis in this way: Verification

analysis

- the researcher verifies assumptions, theories, and generalizations.

Evaluative

analysis

- the researcher provides judgments about policies, practices, and attempts to answer questions such as “How was a process implemented?”, “What was the process like?”, “How has it worked, for whom, and are there exceptions?”


Worksheet

#14: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

 After

gathering and statistically treating the relevant data for your study, refer to the guidelines and principles regarding the presentation. Refer to the sequence of your specific problem and present the data/ themes accordingly.


Worksheet

#15: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 After

the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the findings, you are now ready to formulate conclusions and offer recommendations.


Lesson 4: REPORTING AND SHARING FINDINGS/ WRITING PROPER ( 3:15 – 5:00)  Planning

a Research Report

 Principles

of Writing

 Evaluating  Format

the Research Report

for the Research Report

 References  Appendices  Curriculum  Worksheet

Vitae


Performance

Standard:

The learner is able to write and prepare clear and complete research report and ready for oral presentation.

Learning 

Competencies: The learner:

lists accurately the references used in the study;

prepares all the materials and documents to be appended;  prepares curriculum vitae for inclusion in the final report;  presents full written research report.  prepares for oral presentation to be schedules by the research adviser and teacher. 


Planning a Research Report 

A research report has a relatively simple format. In general, it should achieve three objectives :  It

should acquaint readers with the problem that has been researched;

It should present the data fully and adequately.; and

It should interpret the data for the reader and demonstrate exactly how the data resolved the problem that has been researched.


Principles of Writing

Neatness Precision

and Clarity


Evaluating the Research Report Step 1: The Problem 

Is the problem clearly and concisely stated?

Is the problem adequately narrowed down into a research effort?

Is the problem significant enough to warrant a formal research effort?

Is the relationship of the identified problem to previous research clear?


Step 2: Literature Review 

Is the literature review logically organized?

Does the review provide a critique of the relevant studies?

Are gaps in knowledge about the research problem identified?

Are important relevant references omitted?


Step 3: Theoretical Framework ď ľ

Is the theoretical framework easily linked with the problem?

ď ľ

If a conceptual framework is used, are the concepts adequately defined, are the relationships among these concepts clearly identified?


Step 3: Research Design 

Is the research design adequately described?

Does the research design control for threats to internal and external validity of the study?

Are the data collection instruments described adequately?

Is the ethical consideration clearly discussed?

Is the data gathering adequately described?


Step 4: Sampling 

Is the sample size adequate?

Is the sample representative of the defined population?

Is the method of selection of the sample appropriate?

Are the sample criteria for inclusion into the study identified?

Is there any sampling bias in the chosen method?


Step 5: Data Collection Methods 

Are the data collection methods appropriate for the study?

Are the data collection instruments described adequately?

Are the reliability and validity of the measurement tools adequate?


Step 6: Data Analysis ď ľ

Is the result section clearly and logically organized?

ď ľ

Is the type of analysis appropriate for each variable/ theme?


Step 7: Interpretation and Discussion of the Findings Are the interpretations based on the data obtained?  Does the investigator clearly distinguish between actual findings and interpretations?  Are the findings discussed in relation to previous research and to the conceptual / theoretical framework?  Are unwarranted generalization made beyond the study sample?  Are the limitations of the results identified?  Are recommendations for future research identified?  Are the conclusions justified? 


Format for the Research Report Title

Page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Abstract Introduction Objectives Review of Literature Research paradigm


Format for the Research Report Methodology Result

and Discussions Conclusions Recommendations References Appendices About the Authors


REFERENCES At least five from each continent Use recent sources (at least from year 2010 onwards, unless a justification is given

Arrange in alphabetical order Include all the names of authors which are cited in the body of the paper Double space in between referenced literature items; single space in between lines of each literature cited.


REFERENCES All references used in the manuscript should be traceable online. Prefer references which have earned citations already. The URL of the online article as reference must be copied and pasted in the end part of the reference with the words “retrieved on (date) from (copy the URL)�. Without the URL, the reference is understood as print only and hence has inherent problem of poor traceability.


If You are Interested in Doing More with Research…


If You are Interested in Doing More with Research…


Practical research 1 DepEd October 25 2017  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno (2017). Practical research 1 DepEd October 25 2017

Practical research 1 DepEd October 25 2017  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno (2017). Practical research 1 DepEd October 25 2017

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