Practical Research 1 (Qualitative Research) DAVID CABABARO BUENO, LPT, AB/BSE,MASE, MPM, MBA, Ed.D, DBA
Professor 6C Dean, Graduate School Director, Research and Publications Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City
Lesson 1: NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH (8:00-10:00)
Definitions of Research; Characteristics; Purposes; Importance of Research Characteristics of Successful Research Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Quantitative research emphasizes: Features or Characteristics of Qualitative Studies Limitations of Qualitative Studies Some Qualitative Approaches Importance of Qualitative Research across Fields and Daily Life Ethical Guidelines in Qualitative Research Worksheet #1 Introduction Statement of the Problem Scope and Delimitation Significance of the Study Worksheets
Performance Standard: The learner is able to use appropriate kinds of qualitative research in decision-making.
Learning Competencies: The learner:
defines research as a scientific inquiry;
describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of qualitative research;
illustrates the importance of qualitative research across fields;
describes ethics of research; and
submits at least 3 tentative research titles for approval by the teacher.
Performance Standard: The learner is able to formulate clearly the statement of research problem for qualitative research.
designs a research useful in daily life;
writes an acceptable research title;
describes background of a specific research;
states research questions or objectives;
indicates scope and delimitations of study;
cites benefits and beneficiaries of a specific research;
defends feasibility of the research topic;
presents written report of Chapter 1.
Purposes of Studying Research
To orient students to the nature of educational research: its purposes, forms and importance.
To provide information which helps students become more intelligent consumers of educational research: where to locate it, how to understand it, and critique it.
To provide information on the fundamentals of doing educational research such as selecting a problem, using available tools, organizing a project, etc.
To generate new theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove them, for example, the role of punishment in discipline.
Importance of Research
To determine the accuracy or otherwise and validity of popular beliefs, and practices by submitting them to systematic scrutiny.
To enhance, modify or refine our knowledge of phenomenon or various theories.
To generate new concepts and explanations of existing rules and policies, beliefs and practices.
To find answers to particular existing questions through investigation.
To evaluate the findings of other researches/studies or build on where they stopped.
To bring the legacy left behind by early scholars as well as the contributions of modern scholars to the limelight.
To seek validation or improvement for religious doctrines and practices, social interactions, economic improvement, politics, ideology etc., etc. to enhance quality of ordinary and spiritual life of man.
To collect and analyze data which will enable us provide information and advice to policy (or decision) makers.
Characteristics of Successful Research/er Wide–Reading Thorough
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Assumption about the world Research purpose
Quantitative A single reality, i.e., can be measured by an instrument. Establish relationships between measured variables
Qualitative Multiple realities
Understanding a social situation from participantsâ€™ perspectives
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Research methods and processes
- procedures are established before study begins; - a hypothesis is formulated before research can begin; - deductive in nature.
- flexible, changing strategies; - design emerges as data are collected; - a hypothesis is not needed to begin research; -inductive in nature.
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Research Orientation Researcherâ€™s role
The researcher is The researcher ideally an objective participates and observer who neither becomes immersed in participates in nor the research/social influences what is setting. being studied. Universal contextfree generalizations
Detailed contextbased generalizations
Differences of the two methods of research Sources of Differences
Qualitative Research Method
When in-depth understanding of a When to use specific issue is required it? To understand behavior, perception and priorities of affected community To explain information provided through quantitative data To emphasize a holistic approach (processes and outcomes) When the assessor only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for Recommended during earlier phases of assessments
Quantitative Research Method
To get a broad comprehensive understanding of the situation To get socio-demographic characteristics of the population To compare relations and correlations between different issues When accurate and precise data is required To produce evidence about the type and size of problems When the assessor knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for Recommended during latter phases of assessment
Objectives and To explore, understand main features phenomena Provides in depth understanding of specific issues Detailed and complete information, contextualization, interpretation and description Perspectives, opinions and explanations of affected populations toward events, beliefs or practices
To seek precise measurement, quantify, confirm hypotheses Provides a general overview Provides demographic characteristics Objective and reliable Apt for generalization Objectively verifiable Prediction, causal explanation
Data can be observed Data which can be but not measured counted or Mainly textual (words, measured. Involves pictures, audio, amount, video), but also measurement or categorical anything of quantity Mainly numerical and categorical values
Answers questions Answers a Answers arising during the controlled the discussion sequence of questions -How? questions with -Why? predetermined -What do I need to possible answers look for in more detail? -What? -How many? Questions are Questions are generally open ended closed
Looks at the whole Looks at Perspective context from within specific Searches for patterns aspects from Lends itself to the outside community participation. Seeks depth of perspective though ongoing analysis (e.g. Waves of data)
Individual interviews Key informant interviews Methods Semi-structured interviews Focus group discussions Observation
Quick counting estimates Sampling surveys Population movement tracking Registration Structured interviews
Non random (purposive)
Study design Flexible, the and assessor is the instruments primary instrument for data collection and analysis.
Random Fixed, standards control the assessor’s bias.
Questionnaire Checklist Predetermined tool types with open questionnaire questions with sequence and flexible and structure sequence
Analysis Use inductive reasoning Uses Involves a systematic and iterative deductive process of searching, categorizing methods and integrating data Descriptive Describes the meaning of research statistics findings from the perspective of Inferential the research participants statistics Involves developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences Analysis is descriptive
Features or Characteristics of Qualitative Studies
Field Focused/Natural Context.
Self as Instrument /Personal Contact.
Use of Expressive Language.
Depth of Perspective/Attention to Particulars.
Unique Case Orientation.
Focus on emic perspectives.
Limitations of Qualitative Studies Subjectivity Labor
at least 3 tentative research titles for approval…
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Selecting and Defining a Research Topic Theory Personal
experience Replication Library immersion Talk to experts in the field
Revitalizing Institutional Policy Grounded on Work-Life Balance of Employees in a Catholic Higher Education Institution in the Philippines
DAVID CABABARO BUENO http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326 firstname.lastname@example.org Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City, Philippines
First Section- Global situational analysis of the problem supported by the literature from different continents.
Second Section- Regional situational analysis supported by literature from the region of the study. Researchers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam must include literature from these countries to capture the ASEAN perspective in the study.
Third Section –Local situational analysis (Studies conducted in the Philippines.
Fourth Section -Gap in the literature that the study intends to address. Differentness of the study from other previous studies. Compelling reasons of the writer for choosing the problem.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM/ SCOPE/ SIGNIFICANCE…
State the general and specific statement of the problem.
Use objectives that show what the researcher shall do with the data and not words to indicate what the researcher intends to do as a research process.
Number the statement of the problem/s.
The scope and delimitation are well stated/ discussed.
The significance & beneficiaries of the study are fully identified & discussed.
Review the guidelines and principles in writing the introduction and prepare an initial draft of your introduction. You can have three to four paragraphs to introduce you research topic.
____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________
#3: GENERAL AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
Go back to your approved research title and formulate the general and specific problems. Let your teacher check your work.
______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
Specific Problems (You can have at least four to five specific problems) 1. 2.
#4: SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
Go back to your general and specific problems and think of the possible research design you will be using in your investigation and discuss in this portion.
Scope and Delimitation ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________
#5: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
Review the guidelines and principles in writing the significance of the study. Identify the beneficiaries of your research/ investigation and discuss. You can have three to five for this.
______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________
Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE and WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA (10:15 – 12:00) Selecting,
Citing and Synthesizing Related Theory, Literature and
Studies Sources Ethical
Standards in Writing Related Literature
of the Study
The literature review serves several important functions:
Convinces your reader that your research will make a significant and substantial contribution to the literature
Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.
Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to your research question.
Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".
Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.
Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual framework for your research.
Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
Sources of Information for the Literature Review ď ľThe
Computer Searches: Database Access to Literature and studies/ journal publications
How to Write on the Related Literature Computerize Be
as much as possible
systematic and thorough
the proper psychological orientation
the literature, do not reproduce it !!!
Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature
Report literature review with the highest level of accuracy
Give an unbiased description of observations and produce an objective discussion, never presenting false or misleading statements
Never manipulate results of previous studies
Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature
Carry out literature searches for original publications describing closely related work
Cite every publication that in some way contributed to the research
Avoid ‘citation stuffing’. While citing, an author should only refer to truly relevant papers for the conducted investigation, avoiding improper inclusion of their own articles
Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature
Compose a manuscript using your own words, ideas and materials
The use of the author’s own published work, without proper acknowledgment, can be considered self‐plagiarism
Protection of the author’s legitimate interests should always be regarded through the establishment of adequate material transfer agreements, restraining its field of use. If originally supplied by a person external to the publication and investigation, proper authorization should be obtained and citation made
Ethical Standards in Writing Related Literature ď ľ
Assure, prior to a manuscript submission that all the consulted authors are properly cited in the list of references
Give proper credit to all sources of information, assistance, and other relationships that were relevant for the research. It is the authorsâ€™ responsibility to appropriately cite and acknowledge individuals that provided assistance, through the supply of materials or providing useful discussion; funding sources; institutional or corporate support; and other
Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE and WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA …(10:15 – 12:00)
Research Designs; Participants in the study; Qualitative Sampling and Selection Data Sources; Interviews; Questionnaires; Focus Groups; Observational Evaluation Textual/Content Analysis (artifacts, documents, records) Personal Experience (journaling and other methods) Field Notes Ethical Consideration Data Analysis Transcribing Qualitative Data Using Qualitative Software Research Evaluation: Trustworthiness of the Study Validity and Reliability” Concepts in Qualitative Research Worksheet
Lesson 3: PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA COLLECTED and DRAWING CONCLUSIONS (1:00-3:00)
Data Processing, Organizing and Analysis
Preparing to Analyze
Organizing the Data
Summary of the Problem
Standard: The learner is able to describe
adequately quantitative research designs, sample, instrument used, data collection, and correct procedures and data analysis.
constructs appropriate instruments for data collection;
describes sampling procedure and sample;
plans data collection and analysis procedures;
decides appropriate sample for research;
describes correct procedures in data analysis; and
submits written form of Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of the research.
The research design is appropriate.
The research locale is fully discussed/ described. No need to present a LOCATION MAP.
Instrumentation. Construction, Try-out, Reliability and Validity. The instrument is valid and reliable.
Research Ethics Protocol/ Informed consent
The data gathering procedure is scientifically discussed.
ď ľWorksheet ď ľ Based
# 9: RESEARCH DESIGN
on the principles discussed relative to the research design, discuss in detail the appropriate design to answer the specific questions in your study.
ď ľWorksheet ď ľBased
# 10: PARTICIPANTS
on the concepts discussed relative to the selection of the participants, discuss in detail your sampling design in this section.
#11: DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
answer the specific problems posited in chapter 1 of your study, discuss the data gathering instrument(s) you will be using in this section.
#12: ETHICAL CONSIDERATION
in detail the ethical considerations and processes you have considered. Keep in mind the various principles discussed for this section. Ask your teacher to check your work!
#13: DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
in detail the process you will be using or doing to gather relevant data for your study. Keep in mind the various principles discussed for this section.
PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA COLLECTED
keywords from objectives as side-head of the Results and Discussion.
literature support of the data (in-
of the theory used (integrated) vis-à-vis the themes/ characteristics
a critique on the methods and theories used in the last paragraph.
Some authors classify qualitative analysis in this way: ď ľDescriptive
- - researcher gives an account of a place or process, helping to visualize the situation as a means of understanding it.
- - the researcher explains or creates generalizations to help develop new concepts or elaborate on existing ones with a goal to provide insights.
Some authors classify qualitative analysis in this way: Verification
- the researcher verifies assumptions, theories, and generalizations.
- the researcher provides judgments about policies, practices, and attempts to answer questions such as “How was a process implemented?”, “What was the process like?”, “How has it worked, for whom, and are there exceptions?”
#14: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
gathering and statistically treating the relevant data for your study, refer to the guidelines and principles regarding the presentation. Refer to the sequence of your specific problem and present the data/ themes accordingly.
#15: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the findings, you are now ready to formulate conclusions and offer recommendations.
Lesson 4: REPORTING AND SHARING FINDINGS/ WRITING PROPER ( 3:15 – 5:00) Planning
a Research Report
the Research Report
for the Research Report
References Appendices Curriculum Worksheet
The learner is able to write and prepare clear and complete research report and ready for oral presentation.
Competencies: The learner:
lists accurately the references used in the study;
prepares all the materials and documents to be appended; prepares curriculum vitae for inclusion in the final report; presents full written research report. prepares for oral presentation to be schedules by the research adviser and teacher.
Planning a Research Report
A research report has a relatively simple format. In general, it should achieve three objectives : It
should acquaint readers with the problem that has been researched;
It should present the data fully and adequately.; and
It should interpret the data for the reader and demonstrate exactly how the data resolved the problem that has been researched.
Principles of Writing
Evaluating the Research Report Step 1: The Problem
Is the problem clearly and concisely stated?
Is the problem adequately narrowed down into a research effort?
Is the problem significant enough to warrant a formal research effort?
Is the relationship of the identified problem to previous research clear?
Step 2: Literature Review
Is the literature review logically organized?
Does the review provide a critique of the relevant studies?
Are gaps in knowledge about the research problem identified?
Are important relevant references omitted?
Step 3: Theoretical Framework ď ľ
Is the theoretical framework easily linked with the problem?
If a conceptual framework is used, are the concepts adequately defined, are the relationships among these concepts clearly identified?
Step 3: Research Design
Is the research design adequately described?
Does the research design control for threats to internal and external validity of the study?
Are the data collection instruments described adequately?
Is the ethical consideration clearly discussed?
Is the data gathering adequately described?
Step 4: Sampling
Is the sample size adequate?
Is the sample representative of the defined population?
Is the method of selection of the sample appropriate?
Are the sample criteria for inclusion into the study identified?
Is there any sampling bias in the chosen method?
Step 5: Data Collection Methods
Are the data collection methods appropriate for the study?
Are the data collection instruments described adequately?
Are the reliability and validity of the measurement tools adequate?
Step 6: Data Analysis ď ľ
Is the result section clearly and logically organized?
Is the type of analysis appropriate for each variable/ theme?
Step 7: Interpretation and Discussion of the Findings Are the interpretations based on the data obtained? Does the investigator clearly distinguish between actual findings and interpretations? Are the findings discussed in relation to previous research and to the conceptual / theoretical framework? Are unwarranted generalization made beyond the study sample? Are the limitations of the results identified? Are recommendations for future research identified? Are the conclusions justified?
Format for the Research Report Title
Page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Abstract Introduction Objectives Review of Literature Research paradigm
Format for the Research Report Methodology Result
and Discussions Conclusions Recommendations References Appendices About the Authors
REFERENCES At least five from each continent Use recent sources (at least from year 2010 onwards, unless a justification is given
Arrange in alphabetical order Include all the names of authors which are cited in the body of the paper Double space in between referenced literature items; single space in between lines of each literature cited.
REFERENCES All references used in the manuscript should be traceable online. Prefer references which have earned citations already. The URL of the online article as reference must be copied and pasted in the end part of the reference with the words â€œretrieved on (date) from (copy the URL)â€?. Without the URL, the reference is understood as print only and hence has inherent problem of poor traceability.
If You are Interested in Doing More with Researchâ€¦
If You are Interested in Doing More with Researchâ€¦
Dr. David Cababaro Bueno (2017). Practical research 1 DepEd October 25 2017