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Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development Journal IMRaD Journal ----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development Vol. (IMRaD) 2 JuneJournal 2019 ISSN 2619-7820 IMRaD Journal, a peer-reviewed and refereed journal aimed to circulate institutional and scholarly articles, faculty and student researches, and other scientific works.

Solid and Laboratory Wastes Management Ingenuities towards Eco-friendly School Initiatives David Cababaro Bueno http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326 Dean, Graduate School for Professional Advancement and Continuing Education (G-SPACE) Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City, Philippines =================================================================================================== Abstract- Indiscriminate disposal of waste by students establish one of the main disciplinary problems that hinder the prospects of the philosophy of education Studies have found that a better physical environment that includes superior energy performance contributes to increased learning and productivity. The study focused on the analysis of the eco-friendly ingenuities of various school stakeholders based on solid and laboratory wastes management initiatives. This study utilized the descriptive cross-sectional design of research. It involved a total number of thirty-six STE teachers, eighty-four YES-O officers, and the sixty SSG officers among STE implementers. The instrument was subjected to reliability test. The study concluded that there was no significant variation in the assessment of the participants on solid waste management initiatives, while there was significant difference on laboratory waste. The growing concern with eco-friendly issues and their impact on general awareness among stakeholders requires functional management strategies. Thus, the schools should always observe environmental ingenuities on solid and laboratory wastes management. Keywords: Environmental management, ecological ingenuities, STE implementers, descriptive crosssectional design, Zambales ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION Indiscriminate disposal of waste by students establish one of the main disciplinary problems that hinder the prospects of the philosophy of education (Okoye, Onyali, & Ezeugbor, 2015). Studies have found that a better physical environment that includes superior energy performance contributes to increased learning and productivity. This, in turn, affects performance and achievement(Bueno, 2019). The present study gathers practical initiatives for public secondary schools to become more environmentally sustainable. Sustainable development means meeting the needs of all people now, including protecting the natural habitats that are essential to our survival, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Sustainable development is highly needed to protect the environment for future generations, make our economy more environmentally sustainable, and improve our quality of life and wellbeing (Bueno, 2019a; Bueno, Rojas, Gutierrez, & Mallari, 2019a; Bueno, 2019). A study conducted by Sandham (2014) showed that the students were perceptibly aware of concerns with waste and waste management practices in their schools and local environment. It was also obvious that the students had a critical cognizance that poor waste management would have a negative effect on the country as well as on them as the individual. This prominent awareness, however, was not obvious in the students’ waste management practices. Moreover, researchers (Ancheta, 2017; Ioan, Onose, & Raluca, 2012; Perez, 2014; Paghasian, 2017; Sandham, 2014) have emphasized that waste management practices activities were minimal at the school environment. Since school students are seen as one of the key agent of change to work towards a more sustainable future, they should be engaged as young as possible and given a quality array of continuous learning to improve their knowledge on environmental problems such as poor solid and laboratory wastes management. Inappropriate solid wastes management in schools especially in lessdeveloped countries, constitute one of the major factors leading to declining environmental health condition (Oloruntoba, Shendell, & Elemile, 2011; Matsumoto & Saizen, 2017; Oloruntoba et al., 2011; Pham, 2014; Pickers, Study, & Carlos, 2011; Ramos & Pecajas, 2016; Vitamog & Tactay, 2012). Such persistent problem calls for proper integration of environmental awareness among students and other school stakeholders, particularly by the teachers in their teachings. Topics for possible integration such as waste management, pollution, forest conservation and climate change were exposed by (Labog, 2017). According to the researcher, teachers’ integration of environmental awareness influences sustainable development practices, and such integration and practices can be enhanced by reaching out to communities outside the school and by

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----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development (IMRaD) Journal strengthening the established linkages to other environment-related agencies in order to achieve sustainability. Moreover, in the Philippines, various forms of participatory arrangements had been tested and supported by development projects to demonstrate benefits of multi-sectoral empowerment and alliances in increasing environmental management systems. Such networks had proven to complement traditional forms of government control, fill gaps and tackle emerging issues in a more holistic and efficient approach ( Acosta, VL., Paul, JG., Ricana, M.V.F., Maceda, LR., & Aguinaldo, EC.2011). Given the foregoing scenarios, all science teachers should have a strong foundation in the science safety culture appropriate to their educational level among schools. While, Industrial scientists often state that it is easy to tell when an individual’s attention to laboratory safety began, there is still a need to help high school students and teachers in all science subjects to progressively increase their understanding of best practices to ensure the safety of students and themselves in the scientific learning experience. It is therefore imperative to create a culture of safety in the science classroom from the first meeting of the class. Instilling a general understanding of safety in the laboratory is the responsibility of the teacher. There are many resources to guide the educator in adopting an appropriate set of safety rules for a given laboratory setting. Thus, it is recommended that the number of students be 1. Eco-Friendly Practices of and setting to minimize manageable for a particular class improper laboratory waste management among schools (American Chemical Society, 2016). Lastly, it is one of the responsibilities of the schools to prepare young people for the future. Such approach is based on the belief that schools perform better when they take responsibility for their own improvement that should be reflected in their ethos, day-to-day operations and through education for sustainable development. Thus, the present study addresses such environmental concerns on solid and laboratory wastes management ingenuities among secondary schools towards ecofriendly initiatives.

METHODOLOGY This study utilized the descriptive cross-sectional design of research. Bueno (2016) defined descriptive study as a design to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause of particular phenomena. Descriptive research seeks awareness with the subject, portrays selected distinctiveness of the subject accurately and provides the necessary background for the formulation of a more

precise problem, for subsequent more specific study and for the development of hypotheses. It is the most common means of obtaining information with the use of questionnaires, personal interviews with the aid of the study guide or interview schedule and observation. The researcher believed that cross-sectional design is the most appropriate strategy to use because the study was made to describe the eco-friendly practices STE implementers in a given period of time. The study involved a total number of thirty-six (36) STE teachers, eighty-four (84) YES-O officers, and the sixty (60) SSG officers among STE implementers in the Division of Zambales. The research instrument covered solid and laboratory wastes, the main items in the study on the eco-friendly practices. The adopted survey-checklist was tried to school heads, Science teachers, selected students and parents from selected national high schools in the division for face and construct validity only. The instrument was subjected to reliability test. The alpha coefficients were .83 (solid waste ingenuities), and .80 (laboratory waste initiatives). An alpha coefficient of 0.70 or higher indicates acceptable levels of internal reliability, which means that all the items in the same category measure the same attribute. The data were statistically analyzed using Mean, and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at .05 level of confidence (Bueno, 2019).

RESULTS and DISCUSSION Solid Waste Management. The eco-friendly initiatives relative to solid waste are reflected in Table 1. Encouraging students to reduce waste paper always initiated by the heads and teachers and oftentimes done by the janitors, recycling items such as papers, aluminum cans and plastic bottles, and segregating dry solid wastes to wet solid waste are observed by the STE teachers, but oftentimes observed by the SSG officers and YES-O officers. Sharing periodicals with associates instead of receiving multiple copies is oftentimes observed by all respondents; and saving of used manila papers, envelopes, and folders for in-house reuse is always observed by them. The computed overall means are 4.32; 3.97; and 3.97 for the STE heads, SSG officers and YES-O officers, respectively. One of the greatest challenges facing developing countries is the unhealthy disposal of solid waste which resulted from human activities of development and survival (Ioan, Onose, & Raluca, 2012; Perez, 2014; Paghasian, 2017). Thus, there is strong evidence which suggests that individual or group awareness and attitudes towards waste generation and management is

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----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development (IMRaD) Journal critical in the effort to respond to the waste management challenge. Moreover, it comes as no surprise, that there existed an abundant literature on waste management attitudes and behavior and on the limited use of recycling (Oloruntoba et al., 2011; Pham, 2014; Pickers, Study, & Carlos, 2012). Table 1 Eco-friendly Practices in terms of Solid Waste Management Solid Waste Initiatives Encourages students to reduce waste paper. Recycles items such as papers, aluminum cans and plastic bottles. Segregates dry solid wastes to wet solid waste. Shares periodicals with associates instead of receiving multiple copies. Saves used manila papers, envelopes, and folders for inhouse reuse. Grand Mean

STE Teachers WX DR

4.57

4.38

A

A

SSG Officers WX DR

YES-O Officers WX DR

4.17

O

4.19

4.07

O

3.97

O

O

4.30

A

3.89

O

3.81

O

3.92

O

3.54

O

3.60

O

4.42 4.32

A O

4.20 3.97

A O

4.30 3.97

A O

In many cases, the most efficient and cost effective way to manage waste is to not have to deal with it at all; therefore waste diversion and waste minimization are often a primary focus for most integrated waste management plans. Specific goals and targets are defined in a plan. In many jurisdictions, the sector must follow the provincial and municipal goals and targets as identified in acts, regulations, and bylaws. Waste management is largely regulated by legislation and policy implemented at the municipal level, but there are significant provincial regulations that may come into play. In some instances, regulations may also be relevant, particularly if dealing with hazardous substances or shipping waste across provincial boundaries (Acosta, et al. 2011). The key aim of the strategy is to achieve fully sustainable waste management. This means minimizing the problem of waste we leave behind for future generations to contain, maintain and monitor (Quiroga, Hamhaber, Nehren, & Paul, 2011). Where waste is produced, it means dealing with it in a way which minimizes impacts on the environment and contributes positively to economic and social

development. The waste management strategy indicates waste prevention is the preferable option. Where this is not possible, the next best option is the reduction of waste at source through clean technologies and processes that require less material in the end product and produce less waste ( Pham, 2014).Where further reduction is not practicable, products and materials can sometimes be reused, either for the same or a different purpose. Recycling recovers materials from waste and converts them into a marketable or usable product. The disposal of solid waste to landfill in most part is the least suitable waste management practice and is placed towards the bottom of the hierarchy. According to Perez (2014) segregating the waste is also doing part in waste management. Avoidance of having trash is one way of lessening the garbage problem in the country. Using materials that are environmental friendly, to minimize and solve the garbage problems of the Philippines. Waste from offices can be classified by its physical state as solid. It consists of different materials such as paper, plastic bottles, etc. By origin, waste from office premises is included in commercial waste, which forms 6% of the 434 million tons of total solid waste produced annually in UK (Waste Watch, 2004). Waste arising regularly in offices can be divided mainly into two and a third minor category. Firstly, waste from paper, envelopes, packaging, printing and writing supplies are generated as a result of the day-to-day activities. Secondly, wastes such as catering items, food and drink containers and tissues are generated from normal everyday needs of the people working in offices. A third more minor category is redundant equipment and furniture. Some analysis show that offices contain over 80% discarded stationery (Waste Watch, 2004). Waste paper is graded across Europe into different categories based on quality. Some general grades are computer print-out, white office paper, cardboard, newspapers, multi-grade office waste papers, magazines and pamphlets, brown paper bags, wrapping and paper sacks. Packaging waste is a major component of the commercial waste stream. It includes paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metals, wooden pallets and aluminum and steel food and drink cans. The best practicable environmental option for packaging waste is minimization and reuse where possible, followed by recovery by recycling or energy recovery. Another step to improving waste management in schools is to improve their accountability, and similarly, the regulations placed on them. Schools and educational facilities can be one of the largest waste generators in some communities. Thus, the school personnel especially the school janitors are trying to design and practice a recycling plan, which includes the determination of the types and quantities of waste,

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----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development (IMRaD) Journal collection, and identification of what can be reduced at resource and what can be recycles, segregation of waste materials found in the school campus, reuse these materials as much as possible. If the materials are no longer in good condition, they try to sell them or dispose them properly. The school administrators and teachers can also do these activities by doing the same thing before throwing these from their offices and classrooms like manila papers, envelopes, periodicals, folders and other wastes. They can also store final documents on disk rather than making final copies on papers. Moreover, health is another basic human desire. We want to do away with garbage that breeds flies, roaches, rodents, and harmful bacteria that can spread disease caused by these wastes. When we recycle plastic, we conserve petroleum, the raw material for plastic. When we recycle paper, we conserve trees. When we compost, organic matter and minerals are returned to the soil and enrich it, minimizing the need for artificial fertilizer. Income can be generated from the sale of recyclable and/or composted materials and objects made of recyclable materials. Schools which care to make money from waste need a higher-order system to coordinate the activities involving human resources and possibly, some infrastructure. Preventing the use of excess materials, reusing materials, recycling and buying recycled content products reduce a school’s impact on the environment by saving energy, mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing the need for raw materials to make new products, and decreasing the amount of material put into landfills. Laboratory Waste Disposal. The laboratory waste disposal as aspect of the eco-friendly practices are presented in Table 2. Conducting a chemical inventory to eliminate out-of-date chemicals is oftentimes observed by the respondents. Reducing the quantity of hazardous chemicals stored to the minimum necessary for quality instruction is oftentimes observed by the STE teachers and YES-O officers by sometimes observed by the SSG officers; while purchasing chemicals in smaller quantities is sometimes observed by the SSG officers and YES-O officers. Inspecting stored chemicals for signs of leakage, rusting, and peeled labels; and installing spills or leak protection in chemicals storerooms are oftentimes observed by the STE teachers and YES-O officers, but sometimes by the SSG officers. Thus, the computed means are 3.62; 3.22; and 3.47 for the STE teachers, SSG officers and YES-O officers, respectively. The waste generated in a high school laboratory can be first categorized as either hazardous or nonhazardous. Most non-hazardous material can be disposed in the normal trash. Hazardous materials can

only be disposed at approved disposal facilities and require proper labeling and handling procedures. The corrosive wastes can be neutralized to render them nonhazardous. Some carbonate compounds such as sodium or potassium carbonate best neutralizes acids. The use of a carbonate precludes overrunning neutrality to the basic side. Likewise, a mild acid such as boric acid is best used to neutralize basic streams. Table 2 Eco-friendly Practices in terms of Laboratory Waste Disposal Laboratory Waste Disposal Conducts a chemical inventory to eliminate outof-date chemicals. Reduces the quantity of hazardous chemicals stored to the minimum necessary for quality instruction. Purchases chemicals in smaller quantities. Periodically inspects stored chemicals for signs of leakage, rusting, and peeled labels. Install spills or leak protection in chemicals storerooms. Grand Mean

STE Teachers WX DR

SSG Officers WX DR

YES-O Officers WX DR

3.53

O

3.44

O

3.42

O

3.96

O

3.37

SO

3.47

O

3.57

O

3.33

SO

3.31

SO

3.58

O

3.06

SO

3.73

O

3.49 O 3.62 O

2.91 SO 3.22 SO

3.45 O 3.47 SO

Remember to fully label all waste materials so there is no confusion as to the constituents added to the container. Periodically these materials will be collected and sent for disposal to a qualified facility. Exotic or reactive solvents should be stored in a separate, individual container for disposal. One method to minimize the amount of stored aqueous metal wastes is to form a sulfide precipitate of the heavy metals and decant the aqueous portion. Sodium or iron sulfide can be added in excess to a neutralized metal solution to precipitate all the metals. Be sure to neutralize, as dangerous fumes of hydrogen sulfide gas are formed if either of these materials are added to an acid solution. Do not attempt this method unless you are familiar with the chemical reactions involved (American Chemical Society, 2016). Keeping the laboratory room safe and clear is not difficult. It requires only an organized procedure and the will to carry it out. In school

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----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development (IMRaD) Journal laboratory rooms, cleaning time should be set aside as part of the laboratory period and not be crowded into few moments before or after the bell (Pham, 2014). Lastly, a regular inspection and check-up must be arranged to assure that good housekeeping is an integral part of the laboratory activity, not merely a set of rules on paper (School of Science Journal, CEU, 2000). Laboratories generally use a variety of toxic, corrosive, reactive and flammable materials. If these are stored close together in fragile containers, there is a risk of breakage and spills that release materials to the environment. Proper storage of chemicals requires the use of prudent handling and storing practices and a wellconstructed lab facility. Provide sufficient clearance for shelves and racks to allow removal and return of the largest container without tipping. Tipping containers when returning them to shelves, cabinets and refrigerators may cause the contents to drip or leak. Provide secondary containment made of material appropriate for chemicals stored on counters and near drains. Reduce the risk of bottle breakage. Whenever possible, order concentrated acids and flammable solvents in plastic-coated bottles. Small containers are more durable and less likely to break than large containers. Use rubber or plastic bottle carriers or bottle jackets when transporting glass containers. Keep containers closed with tight-fitting lids when not in use so contents cannot evaporate or escape a tipped container. Return chemicals to their proper place after use or at least before leaving the work station at the end of the day. Properly label containers with the chemical’s name and its primary hazards. Chemical symbols alone are insufficient identification. This labeling is not required for portable containers that receive hazardous chemicals from labeled containers if the chemical is used and controlled by the same employee who performed the transfer within the same work shift. As a general rule, avoid storing chemical containers in fume hoods. Containers may interfere with the air flow, clutter work space, and could potentially spill into cup sink drains. Avoid storing chemicals under sinks (American Chemical Society, 2016). Prior to ordering any chemical for use in a laboratory, determine anticipated rate of use, shelf life, required personal protection and handling procedures, appropriate storage location and disposal method. The shelf life of a chemical may not be the same as its expiration date. Expiration dates are based on known instabilities when stored under normal conditions of temperature and humidity. Extended periods of storage, contamination during transfer of contents or exposure to high heat or humidity can cause degradation of even stable chemicals. Write the date received on each chemical container and the date

opened on all containers. Maintain an inventory of chemicals stored in each lab. This inventory information should include the chemical name, number, storage location, and the size and number of containers. The annual update of each laboratory inventory is a logical time to review the on-going need for chemicals in storage. Many labs have accumulated stockpiles of old, unneeded chemicals as procedures have changed or research projects have completed. Moreover, limit quantities on site to those that can be used prior to the anticipated expiration or degradation date. Strive to purchase no more than a five-year supply of chemicals with stable shelf lives. If the smallest commercially available container of a needed chemical exceeds a fiveyear supply, purchase it. Many school classrooms and laboratories contain a wide variety of dangerous chemicals that are outdated, inappropriate, toxic, reactive, explosive, or worse yet, unknown. These chemicals are often purchased in excessive amounts, stored incorrectly, and disposed of improperly; putting students, teachers, staff, and the environment at risk. In addition to these unused chemicals, many schools accumulate chemical waste from laboratory experiments for years. Following are some suggested practices to reduce the risks associated with school laboratories (American Chemical Society, 2016). Variations on the Assessments of the Ecofriendly Initiatives. The variations on the assessments of the three groups of respondents regarding solid and laboratory wastes eco-friendly initiatives among STE implementers are shown in Table 3. The null hypothesis is accepted for the variable solid waste management, and rejected for the variable laboratory waste initiatives. The eco-friendly solid waste management practices are routinely done among STE implementers. The laboratory waste disposal like conducting a chemical inventory to eliminate out-of-date chemicals; inspecting and reducing the quantity of hazardous chemicals for signs of leakage, rusting, and peeled labels; and installing spills protection in chemicals storerooms are frequently initiated. Table 3 Variations of the Assessments on the Eco-friendly Initiatives among STE Implementers Variables Solid Waste Management Laboratory Waste Disposal

F value

P value (.05)

Decision

Interpretation

2.78333

.101614

Accept Ho

Not Significant

5.62168

.018936

Reject HO

Significant

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----------------------------------------------------Institutional Multidisciplinary Research and Development (IMRaD) Journal Towards Becoming an Eco-friendly School. Managing school environment has posed great challenges over the years to the government, principals and administrators. The challenges range from location, beautification, waste materials, landscaping, sanitation, greening, and so forth. Environmental improvement also brings economic benefits, including reduced wastedisposal costs, a significant expense for many schools all over the country. From an environmental perspective, schools encompass many diverse activities. Even large schools with sophisticated environmental management systems and resources have difficulty responding to changing campus needs and ensuring environmental compliance. Smaller schools face an even greater challenge, because they must respond to the same environmental requirements with a much smaller organization and budget. The most effective strategies for improving overall school environmental is the conduct compliance audits to identify areas of vulnerability, establishment of programs to improve energy and water conservation and creation of a framework for a management system that can sustain and improve environmental compliance. These audits can serve as simulated inspections that help educate and create campus-wide awareness of compliance. A strong conservation management program, including the development of written instructions and training programs, promotes compliance with regulations, and ensures that wastes are managed safely (Labog, 2017). CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The growing concern with eco-friendly issues and their impact on general awareness among stakeholders requires functional management strategies. Thus, the schools should always observe environmental ingenuities on solid and laboratory wastes management. A school environmental management strategy may be attuned like creating top management support by adopting environmental policy statement for these schools; establishing a team of employees including all teachers and students to identify and brainstorm environmental improvement and conservation ideas; identifying operations where large quantities of solid and laboratory chemicals are used; seeking employee and student suggestions, and finding other ways to involve them in the environmental program; and building stability into the green school program; and by making these efforts long lasting through integrating environmental improvement into the core operations and curriculum. Other researchers may consider the limitations of the present study. This research just presented the basic and common ingenuities of the

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Profile for Dr. David Cababaro Bueno

Solid and laboratory wastes management ingenuities towards eco-friendly school initiatives  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno

Solid and laboratory wastes management ingenuities towards eco-friendly school initiatives  

Dr. David Cababaro Bueno

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