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the berlin 2018 issue

YOUNG CINEMA a magazine for emerging filmmakers published by – the European Shortfilm Centre

CHANGES AND TURMOIL – a letter from the editor, Zsuzsanna Deák

Dear Friends, Welcome to the Berlinale 2018 issue of World of Young Cinema! The world is changing, and in particular, the film world is changing. We are living in exciting times, when gender equality is becoming more and more important every day. At the end of February, the epicentre of this turmoil will undoubtedly be the Berlinale, where all representatives of the film industry will once again gather to celebrate The Seventh Art, the world of which has gone through quite a metamorphosis over the last year. This is why we decided to dedicate a whole section to the topic “women in film” in this issue of our magazine. Starting on page 42, you can read about how the celluloid ceiling has recently been challenged, what role feminism plays in this new era of filmmaking, and how brave women have conquered a field strongly dominated by men. Meet the Oscar-winning producer of Ida, marvel at how the numbers of female film directors changed over the decades, and learn about the history of Teddy, the Berlinale’s queer prize. As always, we discuss in detail the festival itself. We proudly present the 2018 edition of Mapping your Mind – a collection of exciting drawings created by Berlinale Shorts filmmakers specially for our readers. We have made a useful map to help you find your way in the labyrinth of the festival, its sections and the European Film Market, and you can get to know about the various programmes the Berlinale offers to emerging filmmakers. Through the current issue’s interviews, you can meet the festival director, the organizers of the Berlinale Talents, and a member of this year’s short film jury, a Golden Bear winner himself. And last but not least, you are invited to read about the creative power behind Berlinale Shorts, the GWFF first feature award, and the early work of the president of the competition jury.

Here’s to an exciting, mind-blowing and illuminating festival!

CaLL FoR ENTRy 2019

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Adam Harangozó

Máté Muszka

Brave, Bold, Berlin – Features, Shorts, Talents, EFM – all about the Berlinale

illustration by Máté Muszka


Ella Csarnó

Mapping your Mind – a celebration of creativity Female Focus – women in film

Contributors – without whom this magazine wouldn’t exist, page 3 Changing Perspectives is Changing the Game – the first films of jury president Tom Tykwer, page 6 From the Berlinale Shorts to a Palme d’Or – an interview with festival director Dieter Kosslick, page 8 Berlinale at a Glance – your guide to the festival, page 10 “In the Cinema, I Am, Ideally, Not Alone” – the portrait of Berlinale Shorts curator Maike Mia Höhne, page 12 Ecstasy of Movement – the curator on this year’s selection, page 14 “To Dream We Are Wild And Free” – an interview with this year’s Berlinale Shorts jury member Diogo Costa Amarante, page 16 “Instead of Talking About Diversity, we Prefer to Practise it” – talking to the organisers of Berlinale Talents, page 30 “Berlin Is My Second Home” – Berlinale Talents alumni and this year’s participants speak, page 32 EFM Facts and Figures – your map to the labyrinth of the European Film Market, page 38 Finding Your View – the GWFF Best First Feature Award, page 40 Women and Films in Berlin – films directed by women in the history of the Berlinale, page 44

The first film that made you say “wow”? My dad was a huge sci-fi fan and made me watch the classics when I was way too young. I don't remember which came first, Solaris, Blade Runner or the Alien trilogy, I just remember that I was very scared and very impressed. The first film I found on my own that made me feel this way was Dead Man.

“Women are Braver in Taking Risks” – an interview with Oscar–winning producer Ewa Puszczyn ´ska, page 50 Three Frames About Gender in the Film Industry – snapshots revolving around the issues of gender in film, page 53 Right. 2018 Will be the Year of Feminism – what will the future bring for women in film?, page 56 The Year Ahead in Festivals – where to submit and go in 2018, page 59 Anniversary with a Need to Disagree – Vienna Shorts returns, page 60


Film of your choice for a first date? Something neither of us has seen yet.

Choosing something together, that way I always learn a lot about the other... or The Room by Tommy Wiseau. If she gets it, that's a start.

It’s depends on my partner(s).

Film of your choice for a quiet night in on your own? I'm powering through Mad Men right now, I had an Adventure Time binge last year. I also re-watch my comfort movies a lot, like Frances Ha.

The Congress, Dogtooth or Synecdoche, New York (or the equivalent episodes of Adventure Time)

No, I've only ever been once, I loved it. Maybe someday.

If I imagine Iggy Pop and Bowie living together, or people treating refugees in a humane way, then yes, of course. Otherwise, world citizen for life.

South has always been kind to me.

Depends on where I am.

Like, famous people? Carl Sagan. Or Bohumil Hrabal.

The cast of Tod Browning's Freaks (maybe if I dig even deeper, it's Brit Marling)

Oh, well, both. But maybe Jim Jarmusch. Now that I think of it, Coffee and Cigarettes would be perfect for a first date.

Bits of Ridley but mostly Jim Jarmusch.

Shame or Only Lovers Left Alive.

Are you a Berliner?

Cutting the Celluloid Ceiling – feminism in filmmaking, page 46 We need to Talk about Teddy – the particular urgency of the Berlinale’s queer prize, page 48

Probably the original Star Wars trilogy in my childhood. Luke fighting and redeeming his father was just very strong emotionally for me (or even if I'm projecting this retrospectively, lightsabers... come on, you know it to be true)

Yeah, a real Bearliner!

North or South? I'm bipolar.

Your secret crush? Tom Hardy, of course!

Ridley Scott or Jim Jarmusch? Ridley Scott.

Festival Panorama – the best festivals for first features, page 62

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Brave, Bold,


illustration by MĂĄtĂŠ Muszka

Besides the red carpet glamour of its competition line-up, the dazzling showcase of experimental, pioneering and socially responsible films of its side sections, and its radical and independent short film programme, the Berlinale offers everything film lovers could wish for. With its numerous talent programmes, workshops, and various platforms and channels where creative talent finds information, collaborators and co-production opportunities, this is the festival to be at for seasoned and emerging filmmakers alike. Immerse yourself in the Berlinale buzz!

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by Janka Pozsonyi

Being the leader of Jury at the prestigious Berlinale is always an honour, but most definitely a difficult task to accomplish. This year, this great challenge was accepted by a true visionary, a Berlinale-favourite, director-writer-composer Tom Tykwer. Whether he is stretching the concept of time in Lola Rennt and Cloud Atlas or displays the glamourous and deeply sinful 1930s in Babylon Berlin, his vision never stops expanding. We followed his path of storytelling and reversed time a bit, to see how it all started. Born and raised in Germany, the young Tom Tykwer had a special connection to cinema from very early on. At the age of 11 he started experimenting with a Super8 camera. After high school, he moved to Berlin to work as a projectionist and later as a programmer of Moviemento Cinema, which led him into the circle of young German filmmakers. In 1990 he made his first 16 mm short film called Because, a tense and complex story of a single night, told from three different perspectives. A young couple is having a heated argument, and as the perspectives change one after another, we learn more and more about their intentions, their emotions and roles in their relationship. His interest in stories of difficult romances, shaking up time and space and different perspectives is easily

spotted in his early films, not to mention the visual style: in Because he found his cinematographer, Frank Griebe, who hasn’t left his directing side ever since. In his second short film Epilogue, Tykwer continues to experiment with the different sides of a single story. In the beginning of the 13 minutes, we “in medias res” stumble into the end of what seems to be a violent argument between a man and his wife – also played by the same actor and actress (Isis Krüger and Thomas Wolff) who were the couple in Because, so in a way, it’s continuing their story. After his wife loudly orders him to leave, the man pulls out a gun and shoots her, and then sits down for a second to think through what has led to this moment. As we reverse their past few minutes, the perception of their relationship changes, which also has an effect on the bloody outcome. The interesting visuals and cyclic storytelling eventually rewarded Tykwer with his first shot at the Berlinale too: Epilogue was presented in the Panorama section, in 1992. After that, it won’t take long for Tykwer to get into the longer format: in 1993 he presents his first feature called Deathly

photo by Joachim Gern






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Maria, a suffocating psychological thriller focussing on the strange life of a sad housewife. After a tough childhood, she slowly falls apart next to her lifeless husband, without trying to fight back and get free – her only resistance is writing letters addressed to herself, and spying on the downstairs neighbour, who seems to be as lonely and desperate as her. The dark and twisted atmosphere matches up with her identity-crisis and struggle in her life, tied together with the soundtrack, also written by Tykwer himself (just as for Because, Epilogue and all of his movies later on). Stepping into the world of features doesn’t mean that he’s entirely giving up on the short film format: later in his career, he is involved in two anthologies, with two short films. In 2004, he makes one called True, as part of Paris, I Love You, starring Natalie Portman and Melchior Derouet, a young couple in the heart of Paris. She is an actress, he is a blind student. One day she calls him to end their relationship, and the boy rewinds their entire relationship and gets back to the beginning, in order to find what went wrong. But as we can see in all of Tykwer’s previous shorts, knowing the past can change the whole perspective of the present. In 2009, on

the side of directors such as Fatih Akin and Wolfgang Becker, he directed a short segment called Feierlich Reist in the collective film called Germany 09: 13 Short Films About the State of the Nation: an 8 minute short film about an important businessman, flying from one country to another, living his repetitive life, that starts to mess up his mind. still from Epilogue

Tykwer has presented two of his features at the Berlinale: Heaven (2002) and The International (2009), which were both opening films of the festival, and the two anthologies he participated in were also selected for the programme. Seeing his first films, it’s clear that the vision and the rave were there from the very beginning: the returning pattern of strong female leads, delving deep into troubled minds, and mixing up time and space as we know it.

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PALME D’OR – YOUNG CINEMA IN BERLIN interview by Zsuzsanna Deák

photo by Ulrich Weichert

The Berlinale is fiercely dedicated to the discovery and nurturing of young talent. With numerous side sections and professional programmes for the new generation, this festival is the perfect starting point for emerging filmmakers. Festival director Dieter Kosslick has been leading the Berlinale since 2001 and has introduced a diverse range of new programmes. We reached Mr Kosslick by email to ask him about the Berlinale’s initiatives focussing on young cinema.

Dieter Kosslick was born in Germany in 1948. He became the director of the Berlin International Film Festival in 2001. Mr. Kosslick has launched numerous new sections and programmes within the Berlinale, e.g. Perspektive Deutsches Kino for young German film, the Co-Production Market, the World Cinema Fund and the Culinary Cinema. Under his leadership, the festival has become one of the largest and most significant film festivals in the world.

nurturing talent “You can apply to the Berlinale World Cinema Fund (WCF) which offers either production or distribution funding. For German films there is the annual Kompagnon-Fellowship of the Perspektive Deutsches Kino where eligible directors and screenwriters of short and feature films can apply. In addition to a stipend for screenplay or any other film project, the “Kompagnon” also provides a mentoring programme, alongside professional coaching to help to augment the filmmaker’s artistic signature and improve industry networking opportunities. Not a funding platform but nevertheless an important networking platform is Berlinale Talents. The same applies to the Berlinale Co-Production Market which brings every year producers of selected projects together with potential co-production and financing partners.”

short films at the Berlinale “The short film often allows the artist to explore more rigidly their style and thematic quality which later will become their signature. Since 1995, the Berlinale awards the Golden and the Silver Bear for short films. In 2010 the Golden Bear for best short film went to Ruben Östlund’s Händelse Vid Bank and in 2017 he won for

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his feature film The Square the Palme d’Or in Cannes.”

famous masters mentoring the young “The Berlinale itself offers some sort of mentoring through its platform Berlinale Talents, where famous and experienced filmmakers share their knowledge with the up-coming generation. At last year’s Berlinale director Paul Verhoeven who was the president of the international jury discussed his recent film Elle on the opening panel, whereas screenwriter and director Alumna Ana Lily Amirpour shared her creative process with the audience in a brainstorming session drawing on influences ranging from Bruce Lee to Back to the Future.”

where to submit a first feature “Everyone who wants to get their first feature come across is very welcome to submit his/her film to film festivals like the Berlinale and make use of the various platforms which support up-coming talents and artists.”

later his feature debut with Temporada de Patos (Duck Season) at the film festival in Guadalajara, which in turn lead to other international film festival. In 2008 his film Lake Tahoe screened in the Berlinale Competition where it won both the Silver Bear Alfred Bauer Prize and the FIPRESCI Prize. For example we have followed the career of Rafi Pitts in several ways. His film It’s Winter made its debut at the Berlinale Competition 2006. In 2007 he received funding from the World Cinema Fund to produce his feature film The Hunter. The Hunter was then selected for the Berlinale Competition 2010. Another success story is that of German filmmaker Fatih Akin. In 2004 his film Gegen die Wand (Head-On) won the Golden Bear and FIPRESCI Prize. This was his international breakthrough which made him known internationally. This is also a way the Berlinale can boost the career of a talent.”

following up talent and success stories “All sections of the Berlinale develop long-term relationships with many of the filmmakers who made their first steps in Berlin and we do follow their film productions. If these film productions are ready in due time and can be watched, we certainly consider them if think they should be part of our programme. But talents may also come back to the festival in different ways, for example if they submit projects to other platforms of our film festival, as the Berlinale Co-Production Market or the World Cinema Fund (WCF) or take part in the initiative Berlinale Talents.

photo by Marc Ohrem Leclef


Fernando Eimbcke for instance, was invited in 2003 to the Berlinale Talents and celebrated one year

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Berlinale at a Glance Are you new to the festival? Have you been coming for years but are still uncertain about the various programme sections and Berlinale professional projects? Consult our guide below to help you find your way around the labyrinth of the festival. PROGRAMME




Red carpet glamour and trend setting with new films from all over the world. What’s new, what’s important, which are the trends? The final selection is made by Festival Director Dieter Kosslick.

The Panorama challenges its audience and has the confidence to explore new avenues. Artistic vision, the courage to be different, a desire for the unfamiliar, a profound historical awareness or pioneering personalities: the objective of the Panorama is to seek out new impulses in the prevailing trends and in cinematic creation.



Avant garde, experimental works, essays, long-term observations, political reportage and yet-to-bediscovered cinematic landscapes: the International Forum of New Cinema, Forum in short, is the most daring section of the Berlinale. Documentaries and feature films are given equal consideration. The films in the Forum straddle the line between art and cinema.

The short film is radical and independent, at times controversial, disturbing, testing the limits of our comprehension. With the introduction of a separate section, the festival management wanted to underscore the importance of short films for the film industry in general.

GENERATION This section is home to cinematic works that are thematically and aesthetically linked to the experiences of children and young people. In two competitions, Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus, discoveries from state of the art world-cinema and on a par with young people are presented.

HOMAGE The Homage honours outstanding film personalities of international renown. A film series shows their most important works. The presentation of the Honorary Golden Bear as a lifetime achievement award in the course of a gala event is one of the highlights of the Berlinale.

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Perspektive Deutsches Kino showcases thematic and artistic trends among next generation German filmmakers, and the known as well as the unexpected. Both feature and documentary films at least 20 minutes in length are screened, practically without any formal limitations.

RETROSPECTIVE The Retrospective is always dedicated to an important director or a film history theme. The Retrospective brings German and international films back to the big screen, often with a restored version or new copy. Contemporary film is positioned within a historical context. Berlinale Classics Berlinale Classics carries on the Retrospective torch by presenting new restorations independently of the Retrospective’s current theme. Films screened in this section are introduced by a prominent festival guest.

Forum Expanded Forum Expanded presents film, video, installation and performative works on varying themes and in multiple venues across Berlin, providing a critical perspective.


EUROPEAN FILM MARKET The EFM is one of the most important international film industry gatherings. Film buyers and sellers, producers, distributors and financiers get up-to-date on the latest productions and developments in the global film scene, negotiate film rights and make or foster business network.


The series presents films that have been longlisted by the German Film Academy’s nominating commission for the German Film Awards (aka Lola).


The EFM Industry Debates address current developments in the film and entertainment industry. They foster the exchange of views amongst industry professionals.

BERLINALE SPECIAL Under the auspices of the Berlinale Special the festival shows new and extraordinary productions and honors great cinema personalities by showing their films. Films which deserve special attention due to current events can also be shown as part of the Berlinale Special. BERLINALE SERIES Since 2015 Berlinale Series has been part of the Berlinale Special. By invitation of the Festival Director, Berlinale Series screens a curated selection of exceptional serial formats as world and international premieres every year.


The Drama Series Days provide creators and producers of highquality drama and documentary series with innovative platforms and channels to present and sell their new works.


The EFM Producers Hub features free consultancy to producers on new financing and distribution strategies as well as the recently launched “Presentations and Talks” where selected speakers introduce projects and ideas relevant to producers.


DocSalon is a central meeting point for buyers, sellers, directors, producers and distributors of documentary films.


A communication and networking platform for the African film industry and all EFM participants who want to know more about the African market.


In cooperation with Berlinale Talents, the EFM also features an initiative for the up-and-coming generation of market-goers. Nine selected sales & distribution professionals from Berlinale Talents are present at the EFM, and 40 of the films developed during the Berlinale Talents Project Labs are presented to EFM visitors.


EFM Horizon provides opportunities for discovering the newest relevant technological developments and forward-looking trends and for taking advantage of networks in sectors bordering on those of the audio-visual industry.

CO-PRODUCTION MARKET 550 experienced international producers, film financiers and film distributors as well as representatives from funding bodies, sales agents and TV channels come together to initiate international co-productions. Here they can find high-quality international projects, good business contacts and new opportunities for cooperation.

BERLINALE TALENTS One of the most exciting initiatives at the Berlinale, Berlinale Talents brings 250 selected talents together with professionals from the international film industry. Besides the fruitful association of established filmmakers with the award-winners of tomorrow, Berlinale Talents offers tailored coaching in all areas of film-making. Furthermore, the development of selected film projects is supported during and after the event.

BERLINALE RESIDENCY The Berlinale Residency programme supports writer/directors from around the world in developing their new fiction, documentary film or crossmedia projects. Three filmmakers are given the opportunity to maximize the potential of their projects and to find their audiences, without limiting the creative qualities of the stories they want to tell. The writer/directors receive three monthly grants of €1,500 each, enabling them to live and work in Berlin for the duration of the programme.

WORLD CINEMA FUND The World Cinema Fund works to develop and support cinema in regions with a weak film infrastructure, while fostering cultural diversity in German cinemas. The World Cinema Fund supports feature films that could not be made without additional funding: films that stand out with an unconventional aesthetic approach, that tell powerful stories and transmit an authentic image of their cultural roots.

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photo by Sarah Bernhard

“IN THE CINEMA, I AM, IDEALLY, NOT ALONE” – A PORTRAIT OF MAIKE MIA HÖHNE, THE WONDERWOMAN CURATING BERLINALE SHORTS text by Ella Csarnó Last summer Maike Mia Höhne celebrated 10 years curating for Berlinale Shorts, the springboard for short film directors with a voice. 2018 will be the 11th time that she gets to walk down the red carpet, enjoying the glamour, as we get to witness the fruit of her year-round work. Renowned for its power to introduce new names to major international competitions, at Berlinale Short we get to watch new talent find amplification, all thanks to her curator care. But who is Höhne, and how is it that she just knows fresh art when she sees it? Curator, lecturer, producer, writer, mother of two – Maike Mia Höhne is the multitalent short cinema needed. Sensitive and intelligent, she has a holistic, 360-degree view of this radical genre that she admittedly loves. “To me, shorts are like diamonds” – she says, but apart from her deep understanding of this flexible form, she has another superskill: the seasoned eye and excellent taste of someone who has been watching over 1000 films every year, for over a decade now. Though many of us do not watch short films so often in our daily lives, there are certain times of the year when we all pay attention. Berlinale is one of them: even though the festival is best known for its feature-length films, Berlinale Shorts, curated by Höhne, with world and international premieres, has also proven to be worthy of attention. Exactly because access to and information about shorts is limited to the average viewer, short film festivals and competitions carry

the burden of having to show us the very best, the newest and most radical ideas. What we expect is a snapshot of contemporary new talent, a picture of the Zeitgeist both in aesthetics and topic. This is exactly what 47-year-old Maike Mia Höhne has been doing – and while each year she makes her mark on the world of shorts, she also amplifies the voices of newcomers and new ideas, which, according to her, is the most exciting part of her job. And most important too, since the film that earns the Golden Bear becomes eligible for next year’s short film Oscar. Getting picked by her in itself is a great deal, not only for the pride of being recognised, but for the financial security of any future project by the nominated filmmaker. “The Bear, the Palms on a poster generate incomparably more for a film’s exploitation than a small festival in the middle of nowhere that simply serves as an »end game«. Immensely important and great, but not really helpful in terms of the future and financing of the next project” – she writes.

of democratisation and digitalisation, which creates exciting new pictures, and the fact that simpler production favors the work of bold filmmakers. Or at least she certainly does. Berlinale represents what is up and coming, so in the selection process, when Höhne and her colleagues fight their way through over a thousand applications each year, they look for distinct voices and radical innovation in both aesthetics, story and execution. Though watching an enormous amount of films each year sounds like the ultra-marathon of the film industry, the process itself, according to Höhne, is completely unromantic, taking place in the Berlinale Office on Potsdamer Platz, where the team works the list off in groups of two.

She argues that shorts, which have a much bigger chance to be shown in exhibition spaces and in collaborations, have to be different from feature-lengths in their very nature. These films are almost never watched all the way through, but benefit greatly from the community aspect of the cinema or the exhibition space, a topic that is especially dear to her.

Born in Hanover, Germany, she first studied medicine before switching to visual communications. She lived in Hamburg and later spent years abroad, studying and working in Cuba and Argentina. This experience, she says, has opened Latin America for her and made a great impact on her work, laying the rails for her international focus.

This also means that she is hard to surprise, but when she is, she knows she has seen something worthy of the Berlinale’s attention. She has many references in her head and recognises fresh ideas from instinct. “Telling a story in film, predominantly means telling a secret.” – she writes. A good storyteller keeps the viewers from getting bored before the secret is revealed.

For Höhne, shorts are about “together” – filmmakers must not only tolerate, but build on the fact that their works will be shown alongside others in screenings, in exhibition spaces. These films are also almost never seen in their entirety, the viewers on average see less than half before walking out. “The wish of filmmakers, artists to be recognized should be understood absolutely. The longing of filmmakers and artists to solely rule the cinema space with their work, within the short form, is difficult to fulfil” – she argues. Though this calls for a less individualistic concept of filmmaking than what we are used to think about, she also argues that whether or not the film scratches our itch has a lot to do with the creators: “Over the years, my observation has been that it also involves the profoundly human, that it is about the people themselves who have produced the works.”

Having worked in the film industry throughout both the 1990s and 2000s she witnessed enormous changes in the way film is made and perceived, from shooting only in 16 mm to the inexpensive production budgets of today. She applauds this process

Since 2001 Höhne has also worked, amongst others, as a freelance writer, she has also been active for many years as a lecturer and moderator at film events. Her writings show a consciousness about shorts not limited to the Berlinale’s screenings.

Höhne will keep looking for radically new art that does not want to accomplish anymore. She says good art wants simply to be shown, shown in the cinema, in the cube, it wants to enter in the discussion. Finding the best and giving it a nudge – that is her part in the story.

Read more at: The Future of Short Film: The Narrative – Approaches by Maike Mia Höhne cinematographic clusterlady

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translated by Egbert Hörmann

The beginning states the point (also of view). In 2018 this now is the film Des Jeunes Filles Disparaissent. 400 years after a wolf or a pack of wolves have killed 58 young females in the countryside outside Paris, girls vanish mysteriously again. Why? What we get to see/ contemplate are concrete moments, places and situations, reflections of our everyday life today. The menace is not gone and very much still with us – but we now confront it more consciously and more alert and challenge certain systems again – #timesup #metoo. A short film can be the starting point for the big league – Hopptornet / Ten Meter Tower by the directors Axel Danielson and Maximilien Van Aertryck had its first international screening in 2016 in the Berlinale Shorts competition. This film, for all its radical simplicity, gave, for all the world to see, a visual expression to the question of how a certain, very special moment feels and what hesitation and a certain point of no return, what courage and honesty towards oneself look like. It is interesting to note that this film was made by two individuals. Collective film making is happening more and more. Directing duos. Confidently sharing and developing. A vision together. The right now much discussed tired and tested notion of the single film directing genius (generally male) is challenged by a self-confident younger generation that

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does its thinking together. Even single film makers are mostly supported by a group, by friends and collaborators. This is not only due to the fact that in times of a multitude of films a multiplication of attention is important – this attitude also bestows strength, the wish and will to go on working, the will to jump into the life of the film industry and business that is often compared to back stabbing and a pool of sharks. still from Farbtest Rote Fahne photo by Deutsche Kinemathek

The year 1968 was also the year of another Big Jump. Which weapon will bring about change – the film or the machine gun. The question of arms and the weapons to choose was not just a matter of discussion for a few, but wide spread and collective, and in the year 1968 everybody was overwhelmed by politics and historical developments. Women experienced a new wave of feminism, everybody was influenced by mass demonstrations, by violent state power, by the march on Washington, by Vietnam. Film festivals were aborted. And there was a group of young men

To interfere, to find strategies of selfempowerment in order not to feel victimized and isolated and to understand still from Hopptornet

that there exist possibilities of action. The short film can interfere, be part of the action of change, and film makers, male and female, do so – as artists to actively stand up on their chosen place in society. This will be a very “involved“ year. The selection for the competition of Berlinale Shorts and the special programme “1968 – Red Flags for Everyone” will put a special emphasis towards these topics and issues and try to define and shape the film year that has only just begun. We will be very excited and happy to hear from you all, your thoughts, comments and reactions.

photo by Sarah Bernhard

The curator of Berlinale Shorts, Maike Mia Höhne has sent her thoughts on this year’s selection to the readers of World of Young Cinema.

and women that saw film as a possibility to intervene in the course of events. Antigone is the proof that the question, the matter of courage has always been part of humanity. Fundevogel und Alaska, lived and experienced as subjectivity within a given society – „I want to move into the realm of the boundless, back to myself, maybe… it could be already too late! I want to be wrapped in threads to end the confusion! To confuse you all, in order to flee towards myself!“ (Else Lasker-Schüler, 1902)

still from Hopptornet

photo by Konstanze Habermann


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“TO DREAM WE ARE WILD AND FREE” interview by Adam Harangozó and Zsuzsanna Deák

Diogo Costa Amarante is a Berlinale regular. He was a Talent Campus (now Berlinale Talents) participant in 2009, he returned with his short film As Rosas Brancas to the Berlinale Shorts selection in 2014, and came back to win the Golden Bear for Best Short Film with Cidade Pequena in 2016. Diogo was born in Portugal where he graduated in law before making his directing debut with the short documentary Jumate/Jumate, which brought him immediate success with several international festival awards. This year, Diogo is the member of the Short Film Jury. He told us about the social responsibility, surprises, and a big, warm, cozy and lovely bear. You studied law. What made you change your mind to become a director? I didn’t change my mind. Circumstances drove me into filmmaking. It was an organic switch. It was never a premeditated decision but something that, the way I perceive it, was supposed to happen. 10 years ago I took vacations from the office to participate in a film contest, after that, year after year, project after project, it naturally became my full time occupation. You seem to be interested in both documentary and narrative fiction – do you feel there are strong boundaries between the two? When Godard was asked about the boundaries between documentary and fiction, he said that “If you want to make a documentary you should automatically go to the fiction, and if you want to nourish your fiction you have to come back to reality.”

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You are in the process of developing your first feature. How is it a different experience from making short films? Do you plan to return to shorts and documentaries after this? The biggest difference is the amount of time and work you have to dedicate to the writing. Particularly, the challenge of creating characters from scratch. In almost all my previous films I cast and worked with people I knew before. Because of that, the films, even when totally fiction, in my head, they were closer to a lyrical portrait of them rather than fictional characters moving inside a fabricated story. Even in the feature I’m writing, although it’s obviously a fiction, the plan is to enrich it with documentary elements afterwards. Make the narrative constantly interact with the non staged movement occurring in the public spaces which will infuse the images and situations with life and spontaneity. Consequently I never feel I’m moving from documentary to fiction or vice versa. It’s almost impossible for me to conceive a film where those two elements don’t coexist.

still from As Rosas Brancas

How do you feel about the current state of the short film form? In my opinion it’s alive and in very good shape. I risk to say it will always be. One of the things that characterizes the short form and makes it so interesting, is its natural openness to adapt and incorporate the genuine vision of its makers without external standards or compromises concerning conventional markets that will always prefer films and forms that play safe. Because they need less to exist, shorts are lighter in weight, and consequently faster in their ability to adapt to and incorporate the present time of the authors, their ideas, questions and even trends and technology. The short format is, by its number and diversity, less reverential to a sort of historical doctrine that teaches how it was made before and should be done in the future. Short films will always be the teenagers of this story. Young, rebellious, provocative, inappropriate, why not disturbing? They don’t ask for permission to exist and invade festivals, markets, museums, our computers, they remind us how important it is, for a few moments, to dream we are wild and free. Do you see issues of gender inequality in short film productions? Is that something you plan to discuss at the Berlinale? From my experience, from the point of view of the technical crew there is still a tendency for gender preferences connected with specific roles on a production. I guess that happens as a direct consequence of the broader gender stereotypes. Fortunately that is

changing. Specially concerning the artistic authorship. I feel gender issues are being definitively overcome. As a jury member, what will you look for in the shorts and in the filmmakers? To be surprised. If you could choose freely between shorts and features, would you make more shorts or do you feel that it is a form or a phase that a filmmaker leaves behind after a while? I love shorts so I hope they will never stay behind. I don’t subscribe to that point of view that a short it’s a welcoming card for a feature. They are different formats and pose different questions. In your docs, you deal with people in financial hardships, homelessness – do you feel that filmmakers have a social responsibility? We all have social responsibility, filmmakers or not. You were a talent and a competitor at the Berlinale. What does the Berlinale mean to you? A celebration of love for film in its numerous expressions. A vision of the world brought to Berlin by its programmers. A faithful audience that comes to all screenings with their heart and mind open, available to receive. A festival that welcomed my work with joy and respect. A place where I meet people I love and care for. To sum up: when I think of Berlinale I think of a big, warm, cozy and lovely bear.

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mapping your mind

illustration by Máté Muszka

To illustrate better the relationship between directors and their work, the filmmakers whose short films have been selected for the Berlinale Shorts programme were asked to draw spontaneously something about their film, using a pencil and a piece of paper – or any other medium they could think of. Anything would do – a symbol, a landscape, fresh and raw, straight from their imagination.

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A group of medieval knights disembark on the banks of the RĂ­o de la Plata. They are looking for an ancient tomb in which they must perform an exorcism ritual. During the trip they make several games to pass the time, these games make them do things that they had never imagined. T.R.A.P is a neo-romantic story that proposes to break with the stereotypes imposed by the dominant discourse.

Manque La Banca Argentina

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Through the poignant and personal story of 13 year old Khushbu, Circle explores her gang-rape, emotional abuse at the hands of her grandmother, who orchestrated the rape, and her child marriage to a man she does not know. Where does the circle begin? And can there be any release?

Jayisha Patel UK/Canada/India

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Believing his sister is being lured away by the same people he's trying to escape, Mudiaga tries to make amends before it is too late. Shot in Abraka, Nigeria, and drawing from Western and film noir traditions, Besida is a meditation on repentance and fate.

Chuko Esiri Nigeria

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Prussian cultural heritage (rat excrement, safran, diamond dust)

The film displays a geographic construct in accordance with “our” collective perception of Africa presented by the media. The setting is an seemingly African village, inhabited by Germans and a mine, in which a Formula One car is discovered during an excavation.

Ulu Braun Germany

We encounter the protagonist, “Joachim”, as he is trying to procure energy carriers, taken from the village, for a mysterious shaman in order to realize their vision, “The Collective Energy Project”, through which he will finally catapult himself at full speed out of the story/history. A Museum for Prussian Culture serves as a nexus within the village, harboring seemingly characteristic features of western consumer culture. WOYC by 23



A coyote loses his wife and children from an attack of wolfs. Overwhelmed by anguish, he tries to process the experience. Besides grief and delusion, evil begins to take up more and more space.

Lorenz Wunderle Switzerland

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photo by Marie Rouge

A Tasmanian tiger goes round and round in his zoo enclosure. A glacier slowly melts. Facing its predicted disappearance, nature exerts its fury, bursting out of the frame and resisting its extinction through transformation.

Vergine Keaton France

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Jay aspires to become a Jai Alai player, and Irma has just become a pilot. The two young girls travel through time to assassinate a small town dictator, to revise history. They join the local members of the resistance. A widow is also plotting her own revenge against the same man. Together they get caught up in a bizarre adventure with a talking chicken, a videoke machine from the future, a set of violent triplets and prank calls from the 90s.

Keith Deligero Philippines

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Ines is an Israeli woman from Tel Aviv and the creator of the film and the main protagonist. She makes contact with men from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip through dating websites and apps. Captivated by the liberty enabled by the post-internet era, she goes on a journey through the Occupied Territories, despite it being prohibited by Israeli law and considered a social taboo. Straddling the virtual and physical worlds, the film seeks to challenge national, sexual and artistic boundaries.

Ines Moldavsky Israel, Palestinian Territories

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Fael wants to give his girlfriend a gift. Meanwhile his disease called "passion" screams loudly through the streets of the city. Sometimes our heart falls for the wrong person.

Marco Antônio Pereira Brazil

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Solar Walk shows the journey of individuals and their creations on through time and space. Any meaning attached to our daily actions only exists from the perspective of the individual, but such understanding is not required when looking at it from the perspective of a solar system. It’s about the melancholy of accepting chaos as beautiful and cosmic. Passion for creation is projected through the unique and playful texture of the animation craft itself.

Réka Bucsi Denmark

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photo by Peter Himsel

photo by Peter Himsel


World of Young Cinema asked Project Manager Christine Tröstrum and Programme Manager Florian Weghorn about the 2018 edition of Berlinale Talents. They told us all about secrets, success stories and pots of jam and honey. What does this year’s motto “Secrets” mean to you personally and professionally? Without secrets, stories and cinema would not exist. We will focus on the messages and meanings between the lines of cinematic stories and in the depth of images this year. For us it is important to look at the unexplored paths within the film business. We want to get away from mastery; our volatile business needs transparency and we want to encourage everyone to share secrets and knowledge. What are the most outstanding successes you can think of from the recent history of Berlinale Talents? They are numerous and it’s really difficult to just pick one. To mention two of them: The Square, edited by our 2010 alumnus

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Jacob Schulsinger, was awarded the Palme d’Or in Cannes last year. And The Wound, directed by John Trengove and produced by Cait Pansegrouw and Elias Ribeiro, made it onto the Academy Awards shortlist in the category Best Foreign Language Film. Moreover, 2018 marks the first year that one of our workshops was both suggested and fully conceptualised by two alumni. This definitely also counts as a big Berlinale Talents success, because their return (altogether 10 alumni are returning as experts!) demonstrates the vitality of our alumni network. The fact that our alumni believe and trust in Berlinale Talents is the most valuable asset for us. Are you personally involved in the international programmes (Sarajevo, Buenos Aires etc.)? How do the different Talents programmes work together? Yes, these are strong partnerships. Our involvement is tangible on different levels and depends on what is needed. We develop the general setups and the event formats together with the local organisers and agree on guiding principles for the encounters. Everything is based on mutual exchange and inspiration. However, the

photo by David Ausserhofer

seven Talents International initiatives in Buenos Aires, Durban, Guadalajara, Sarajevo, Beirut, Tokyo and Rio de Janeiro are run autonomously in each respective country and every programme is tailormade for the specific regions. We meet twice a year with the whole group of organisers and everybody informs the others about new programmes and initiatives. It feels like an extended family and we’ve learned a lot from each other over the past ten years. Are your doors open during the year to young filmmakers? Can they get in touch with you, ask Christine and Florian for advice? They most certainly are. We are convinced that an open door policy benefits everyone. The moment we give advice, we also learn something about the filmmakers and their ambitions and that is an indispensable input. Also, we do not stay put in Berlin all year long, but attend the other seven Talents International initiatives and talk with emerging filmmakers on site. Describe your most personal feelings about Berlinale Talents in three concise sentences! First of all Berlinale Talents is demanding – on all levels. To us, Berlinale Talents is a pot full of delicious jam and sweet honey and should last more than six days. It is moving to meet people from about 80 countries every year in such a peaceful and inspiring environment.

Could you name some programme highlights to look forward to? Among others, we are happy to welcome directors such as Gus Van Sant, Lav Diaz and Kamila Andini, the composer - ichi Sakamoto, the Ryu legendary director of photography Nancy Schreiber and this year’s Berlinale Jury President Tom Tykwer on the Berlinale Talents stage. Another highlight is our world building workshop, hosted in a new partnership with the United Nations and Alex McDowell’s powerhouse at the World Building Institute. The session focuses literally on street corners as those busy yet intimate spaces from which stories can emerge. And we present two case studies on producing and distribution, featuring female producers and directors from France, Argentina, and Spain, many of whom are alumni of our program. What does gender equality mean to Berlinale Talents? Gender equality is a topic that is very dear to Berlinale Talents, and has been for many years. For us, diversity is a state of mind and being, rather than an outspoken political agenda. Here’s an example: our selection committee is a diverse group of people, hence the selection of Talents is a selection of diverse Talents – 50/50 as it turns out, 128 women and 122 men. Instead of talking about diversity, we prefer to practise it.

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BERLINALE TALENTS – THEN AND NOW World of Young Cinema asked three Berlinale Talents alumni about their experiences and spoke to three others who are getting ready to participate in the extraordinary programme this year. The six of them constitute three pairs who have collaborated in highly successful productions: God’s Own Country, Estiu 1993 and City of Sun, all three winning numerous awards at many prestigious international film festivals last year.

The Alumna: Dea Kulumbegashvili The 2018 Talent: Arseni Khachaturan

Dea writer/director/producer from Georgia. Arseni on Dea: I have worked with Dea on a film City of the Sun, which she co-wrote and produced, as well as on her own short film Lethe which premiered at Director's Fortnight in Cannes. She is uncompromisingly devoted to her art and is ready to challenge herself and her team. For me, as a cinematographer, accepting this challenge leads to new discoveries and exploring things in my work which I have never thought of.

After the Berlinale Talents, I made a short film, then co-wrote and coproduced City of the Sun. We had a separate screening for the Berlinale Talents. It was very interesting to see the enthusiasm, and to receive questions from the participants. 32 WOYC by

Arseni is a 24 year old cinematographer. He lives in New York and works internationally. Dea on Arseni: “Arseni is very dedicated to his craft. However, his most valuable quality for me is his openness to experiment. He has a sensitivity that allows him to grasp the essence, the importance of the moment.”

My best memory from the Berlinale Talents is meeting people at breakfast, discussing all the films that everyone watched last night. Such different point of views …

I was surprised by the informal atmosphere that gave space for discussions, conversations about everything, not only about filmmaking. I was very inspired by some of the masterclasses. I guess being inspired by someone who has more experience in filmmaking, being there, discussing challenges or difficulties she or he had on their own sets, or in their process working on films, counts as the benefit, as much for the professional life as for personal growth.

I am grateful for the network of professionals that Berlinale Talents offers to filmmakers. It is also very important to know that there is such a diverse network of filmmakers represented at the Berlinale, that Talents have many possibilities to build future collaborations. There is a dialogue that starts at Berlinale Talents events between young filmmakers, that goes on for a much longer time in the future.

“Secrets” are what makes characters in films interesting to me. Not the secrets that I as a viewer should try to uncover, but rather the secrets that will never be exposed. Something that stays untold, unexposed, and will make me to return to those films to re-watch. Because the character there did not reveal everything, did not turn his or her purpose in the film just into a quest to follow the plot, to investigate the events or to anticipate the resolution.

illustration by Máté Muszka


At the Berlinale Talents, I anticipated meeting young, talented filmmakers from diverse backgrounds and from all around the world. I guess this is the most important aspect of the talent labs – to bring something from your own experience and to share the experience that others have. Being a filmmaker often requires the dedication to one specific project that might go on for years. That narrows the point of view at times and meeting other filmmakers who shared, and often challenged my point of view, is perhaps the most valuable aspect of the experience of the Berlinale Talents.

I am interested in meeting directors who will attend this networking platform as well as editors and fellow cinematographers at the Camera Studio. I am interested in making connections that will last for years and might lead to successful collaborations in the future. I want to be able to gain knowledge through seminars and masterclasses, as well as through discussions with other participants which I will be able to use in my work.

I am happy to be selected for the 2018 edition, and believe that the initiative provides an incredible opportunity to meet filmmakers from different fields of work and with different standpoints as well as listen to and learn from the masters. I am excited to attend the Camera Studio workshop and get updates on the latest equipment developments and technologies.

I don't know why I was chosen, but I hope that it's because at the moment, as a young filmmaker, I am able to share some of the challenges I am facing in my work and discuss experiences and ideas with other participants.

To me Berlinale Talents is about exchanging knowledge. The platform gives an opportunity for cultural exchange without any borders, keeps you updated on the latest directions in cinema as well as technological developments, and this knowledge is vital for anyone in this fast-changing industry.

Cinema for me is about an intimate relationship between the filmmaker and the world, and it is indeed a very private territory. This year's theme “Secrets” is very interesting for me and the Berlinale Talents provides an ideal environment for discussing, sharing and understanding this precious aspect of making a film and how we communicate our messages and emotions on screen.

The mutual project: City of the Sun City of the Sun (directed by Rati Oneli) had its world premiere at Berlinale Forum, and went on to win a great number of important international prizes, including Best Documentary at the Sarajevo Film Festival and a FIPRESCI award.

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The Alumnus: Jack Tarling The 2018 Participant: Manon Ardisson

British producer based in Newcastle and London. He founded Shudder Films in 2009. Their credits include God’s Own Country and Await Further Instructions, a mystery-sci-fi-horror directed by Johnny Kevorkian and starring David Bradley (Game of Thrones, The Strain). Manon on Jack: “Jack is resourceful, supportive and talented, he fights until the end for his projects, and it feels good to have him on your team. I also love his dry sense of humour – so British!”

The Berlinale Talents was a chance to attend my first international A-List festival and film market. It was a lot more fun than most of the schemes I had done previously! Socialising is really encouraged, and we had the opportunity to explore the festival, the market and the city as well as attending seminars and networking. I enjoyed the freedom to pick and choose which events to attend, and to have free time with other young filmmakers from many different nationalities.

“Secrets?” For me the secret is that every film is a completely different challenge! You have to find a new way of working every time.

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For me, often more important than the content of the seminars is the chance to see influential people in person – it makes it a lot easier to approach them at events, or more formally, if you have seen them speak previously.

I still have friends and professional contacts from that time, 8 years ago, and have worked with many Talents from my year and other years. I have also been able to seek advice from filmmakers in other countries when we have been planning to film there, or cast from there, or when one of my films is being released there. In terms of skills, I learnt a lot about how major festivals work, and how to approach a film market.

illustration by Máté Muszka


I believe I have a good instinct when it comes to finding stories that will connect with audiences, and talents who will deliver those creatively. I think I was chosen because the two films I produced, God’s Own Country and La Soledad, were well received and won awards on the festival circuit last year.

My best memory? Probably stealing flowers from the festival lounges and using them to blag our way into clubs with all our new friends, claiming that our film had won third prize at the festival and that everyone in our multicultural group were the distributors from different countries. This worked several times!

The film industry is always changing in terms of stories, talents, distribution, technology and more. Being part of the Berlinale Talents is a unique opportunity to take the time to reflect on the latest, most exciting developments, and discuss them with my peers. I like being challenged, and to think about the next big thing. It is also an amazing – and fun – way to network with promising and talented filmmakers from all over the world.

I want to continue working as an independent producer in the UK, making content for a global audience. I’m interested in working across different formats, not only feature film but also series and short form content.

Independent film producer, originally from France but based in London for the past 10 years Jack on Manon: “Manon is one of the most dedicated and hardworking people I've ever collaborated with. We quickly developed a very honest and trusting relationship, and she added enormous value to the production through her creative insights and practical problemsolving abilities.”

I am hoping to be challenged, to learn about the latest developments in the industry, and to shed a new light on existing issues. It’s very rare to have the time and space to think about the bigger picture, and Berlinale Talents gives its participants a unique framework to achieve this. I also hope to meet talented filmmakers, and I look forward to catching up with those I already know.

“Secrets?” For me keeping secrets is a bad habit we all have in the film industry. The Weinstein scandal this winter highlighted the very serious issue of sexual harassment in our industry, the lack of recourses for victims, but also the fact that colleagues and peers were willing to do keep that crime secret. This for me also highlights a broader issue of transparency in the industry, that starts with peers not feeling like they can talk honestly to each other. I hope that’s something we can discuss openly during the Berlinale Talents.

The mutual project: God’s Own Country God’s Own Country (directed by Francis Lee) won Best Director in the World Dramatic Competition at Sundance 2017, the Manner Magazine Jury Prize at Berlinale 2017, the Michael Powell award for Best British Feature at Edinburgh, Best British Film at the British Independent Film Awards 2017, and many other awards.

Ana 32-year-old film editor from Barcelona. Carla on Ana: “Ana is a wonderful editor and an equally wonderful person. She has a great sensitivity and an enormous capacity to empathize with the characters and understand all the nuances of a story. She edits form the emotion, so she has an extraordinarily capacity to draw the character’s journey and make the audience go with them. She is also a dancer, so the rhythm is in her veins, she finds the pace, the shot’s breath, she chases the right tempo for each scene. Ana is an ally; she can really get into the director’s mind and understand what you want to tell and how, so you never feel lonely if you have Ana next to you.”

“We all have secrets” is the first sentence that comes to my mind after hearing this year’s motto “Secrets”, and also the idea of finding out about other people’s secrets. But since I am not very comfortable with this idea, I prefer to think about this subject as “all the things we don’t know”, “the unknown” as an abstract concept and one of the most powerful forces that moves us.

I don’t know exactly how the Berlinale Talents could really affect my editing career but I really hope I will learn many things that I can apply to my work and, and why not, maybe meet some people that I could collaborate with in the near future.

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I believe that my strengths lie in having a strong sensitivity, also in having the ability to face film footage with an open mind, free from any preestablished ideas or formulas. It could also lie in having a high level of expectation and demand regarding the final result. And finally in being able to achieve good results, while establishing a close and positive relationship with the directors I work with.

Some years ago, just after I finished my studies, I applied for Berlinale Talents once but I was rejected. Since then I’ve been working non-stop, learning so much from each and every project I´ve worked on. Some years ago I started travelling to some festivals for the openings of the films I edited. Those experiences have been very enriching, interesting, and eye-opening. They have also been complementary for the loneliness of the editing room and the sedentary lifestyle. When I attended the Berlinale last year for the opening of Summer 1993, I suddenly felt that it was time to apply again.

The mutual project: Estiu 1993 Estiu 1993 (Summer 1993) premiered in the Berlinale Generation Kplus in 2017. It won the Jury Prize in that section, and also the GWFF award for best first film.

writer and director from Barcelona. Ana on Carla: “Carla is a talented director with very strong ideas. She is a perseverant person and has balanced qualities between strength and softness. She is very kind and open minded regarding her work, but at the same time demanding. I think these are important qualities to have in order to do a good job, and to achieve excellence. Working with Carla was a wonderful and unique experience for me, and I am grateful to have been part of Summer 1993.”

illustration by Máté Muszka

The Alumna: Carla Simón The 2018 Participant: Ana Pfaff


I think that the organisers of the Berlinale Talents chose me because of the editing work I did for Summer 1993, which was one of the awarded films in the last edition of the Berlinale. Hopefully it was not only because of that, because during the past years I’ve been lucky enough to have worked in many great and interesting projects and that might have caught their attention as well.

I’m pretty sure I can say Berlin is my second home, and both – my film and myself – are somehow children of the Berlinale Talents.

The Berlinale Talents experience totally exceeded my expectations. I met interesting people, I actually made some friends with whom I’m still in touch and with whom I still share my worries and wishes about filmmaking. The talks I attended and the films I saw were indeed inspiring. And what to say about the Script Station? I would highly recommend it to everyone: writing can be very lonely and the fact that you have some days to share your work and to talk about it in depth was a huge step forward for my writing process.

There were very interesting talks that helped me understand a bit better how the European film industry works. The events that explained the work of young filmmakers who had previously attended the Berlinale Talents were particularly inspiring. On a personal level, I remember very well the Dine & Shine dinner as I met a lot of people there. At that time I was living in London and it was also very useful to meet some Spanish filmmakers with whom I still have a very close relationship.

I was a Berlinale Talent in 2015. Before arriving to Berlin I wanted to meet a lot of people and share our experiences. I was also expecting to get inspired by the events organized for the Talents and by all the films I would be able to see. I was also hoping to go back home with some interesting feedback about my project, Summer 1993, as I was a participant at the Script Station.

My best memory? We did a very relaxed pitching session about our projects for the Script Station. I remember it was a very special moment because it was the first time I had been talking in public about our film. The conversations I had about that pitching afterwards were also a huge push to keep working and developing Summer 1993.

It was very beautiful to share our projects with the other Script Station participants. They all taught me how important it is to trust what you’re doing and keep writing and re-writing until you’re absolutely satisfied. The feedback of Selina Ukwuoma, who was my script editor at the Script Station, was also a piece of gold for the project!

Secrets? On the one hand, I think every film has lots of secrets, and this is why cinema is so interesting. You watch a story, you have the experience of meeting some characters and you get certain emotions through them. And then, afterwards, you need to reflect about what the filmmaker wanted to say, the message behind the story, and the secrets hidden behind what you just saw. On the other hand, I believe filmmaking is a self-taught art. Other professionals can tell you their way of making cinema but you have to find your own way, and this is something you can only learn by making films. That’s why I also think that filmmaking is an art full of secrets itself.

Berlinale Co-Production Market As part of the 68 Berlin International Film Festival, the European Film Market (EFM) opens its doors on 15 February 2018. The exhibition spaces at the Martin-Gropius-Bau (MGB), the Marriott Hotel at Potsdamer Platz and the Gropius Park constitute an industrial event within the Berlinale.

17–20 February 2018


550 experienced international producers, film financiers and film distributors as well as representatives from funding bodies, sales agents and TV channels come together to initiate international co-productions. Talent Project Market

EFM Facts and Figures (source of data:

The European Film Market, taking place annually in February during the Berlin International Film Festival, is an early indicator of the film year that lies ahead. But this year’s EFM is different, because it celebrates its 30 year anniversary. Since its first edition at the 38th Berlinale, EFM has become one of the most important film markets worldwide. EFM is not just a meeting point for the film industry, but also a place that opens to new market participants, business fields, products and distribution paths with highquality content, positioning itself as a platform for innovation and change in the film trade.

9 550





1 050


EFM participants

Market screenings Market premieres

1 720 Buyers


(Martin-Gropius-Bau and Marriott Hotel)



EFM stands and offices


Ten up-and-coming producers present their projects to Berlinale Co-Production Market participants in one-on-one meetings and meet experts to learn more about international co-production.

EFM Industry Debates

A unique opportunity to discuss current issues that are relevant to the international film industry. Top experts from all areas of the entertainment industry are brought together to offer their in-depth insight and to spark the debates that shape the business.

EFM Producers Hub

As an exclusive place to promote new projects, EFM Producers Hub is also accessible for financiers and buyers who can talk about new financing and distribution strategies, as well as the recently launched “Presentations and Talks” where selected speakers introduce projects and ideas.

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Ten selected novels with outstanding potential for film adaptation are pitched to an audience of internationally established producers, film right holders and literary agents, who will have a chance to join the conversation.

Berlinale Africa Hub

A communication and networking platform about new distribution and marketing models, virtual reality and 360° projects by African filmmakers and producers, as well as African VOD and SVOD platforms that have emerged in the last few years.

Berlinale Talents Market Hub

Providing creators and producers of high-quality drama and documentary series with innovative platforms and channels to present and sell their new works, as well as share insight and trends that will dominate the upcoming year.

An initiative for the up-and-coming generation of market-goers, where nine selected sales and distribution professionals from Berlinale Talents are present with their own booth. In addition, 40 of the films developed during the Berlinale Talents Project Labs are presented. Lola at Berlinale The series co-organised by the Berlinale, the German Film Academy and German Films presents, films that have been longlisted by the German Film Academy’s nominating commission for the German Film Awards (aka Lola).

Since 2009, DocSalon is a central meeting point for buyers, sellers, directors, producers and distributors of documentary films, with tha aim to boost networking and exchange in the documentary sector.

Provides opportunities for discovering the newest relevant technological developments and forward-looking trends and for taking advantage of networks in sectors bordering on those of the audio-visual industry.

Drama Series Days


Canada in Focus Programmes, new initiatives and more | What does the EFM consist of? The EFM does not only indicate the name of the international fair, it also designates a venue for various programmes, discussions, panels and debates about and for the international film industry. Here is the list of sub-programmes that attract professionals.

Books at Berlinale

A high number of Canadian producers and other film professionals have the opportunity to introduce themselves and Canada's film industry and filmmakers in greater depth.

EFM Horizon

EFM Startups

A networking opportunity that presents 10 leading tech entrepreneurs from throughout Europe and connects them with the film and media industries.

CoPro Series

Eight drama series projects looking for international co-production and financing partners, will be presented at the fourth CoPro Series Pitch and Networking event, as part of the Drama Series Days.

NETWORKING The EFM is an opportunity to discuss, debate and exchange ideas Propellor FilmTech Meetup

A monthly speaker and networking event with the aim to explore the touchpoint between the film industry and the start-up & tech world.

VR NOW Summit

It demonstrates how entertainment is advancing today through fantastic stories and opinions of international VR figureheads, content creators, producers and IP owners from both worlds.

Tech Meets Distribution

Focussing on connecting technology companies with audiovisual content distributors (from traditional film distribution to VoD, streaming platforms and online aggregators), with the aim of sparking a constructive and open discussion for enhanced collaboration.


The multi-part event will examine blockchain via presentations, case studies and a co-creation workshop, presenting participants from film, TV and digital media with the newest applications and approaches.

Creative AI

An overview of the latest developments in the field of artificial intelligence and creation through five spotlight presentations from different creative industries to see how to create perfectly tailored entertainment for the viewers. WOYC by 39


photo by Maximilian Bühn /Wikimedia

Besides the Talents programme, the Berlinale hosts another initiative for helping emerging filmmakers: the festival not only invites debutantes to compete with more established directors but also offers them the chance to match their films against other first timers, in their own award. As Cannes has its Caméra d'Or for the best first film, the Berlinale also presents the GWFF Best First Feature Award. The prize has been awarded since 2006 and comes with €50,000 that is split between the director and the producer. The prize is funded by the GWFF (Gesellschaft zur Wahrnehmung von Film- und Fernsehrecht), a company which works with copyright issues and remuneration claims. At the same time, one of their goals is to support young talents through scholarships, artist-in-residence programmes and film promotion. The criteria for eligibility is that the film needs to be the director’s first fiction

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As a first film director, being chosen to a film festival must feel like being a small fish in a big pond. But it is not only about entering this strange new world but it’s also a moment of truth and possibly a defining movement in the future oeuvre of the director – think Godard’s Breathless or Welles’ Citizen Kane. feature that is over 60 minutes. It must have its world premiere at the Berlinale, and also, it has to compete in one of the main section of the festival (Competition, Panorama, Forum, Generation or Perspektive Deutsches Kino). This means that the film can win both the Best First Feature and the other awards as well, which has precedents starting from the very first recipient of the prize: Pernille Fischer Christensen also won the Jury Grand Prix Silver Bear for her film En Soap, and later prize winners Adrián Biniez’s Gigante (2009) and Mohamed Ben Attia’s Inhebbek Hedi (2016) were nominated for the Golden Bear. There are other curiosities in the history of the award. Usually one thinks of first time directors as newcomers to the industry but for example the 2016 nominee James Schamus was already an accomplished producer and screenwriter with a BAFTA, a Cannes prize, three Academy Award

photo by John MacDougal

nominations, and was, by the way, a CEO of Focus Features. Australian director Kim Mordaunt had a career in documentaries before winning the award with The Rocket in 2013. Nominations for the GWFF Best First Feature Award are decided by the heads of each award section with the festival director. In 2017, 16 directorial debuts were competing. Every year the festival director appoints a three member international jury who select the winner. Since the founding of the prize more than 10 years ago, the juries included such talents as Oscar winning screenwriter Diablo Cody, directors

Winners 2006: Pernille Fischer Christensen for En Soap (Soap) 2007: Rajnesh Domalpalli for Vanaja 2008: Kumasaka Izuru for Asyl (Asyl: Park and Love Hotel) 2009: Adrián Biniez for Gigante (Special Mention to Fredrik Edfeldt for Flickan (The Girl) 2010: Babak Najafi for Sebbe 2011: Andrew Okpeaha MacLean for On the Ice (Special Mention to John Michael McDonagh for The Guard and to Marie Kreutzer for Die Vaterlosen (The Fatherless) 2012: Boudewijn Koole for Kauwboy (Special Mention to Emin Alper for Tepenin Ardi (Beyond the Hill) 2013: Kim Mordaunt for The Rocket (Special Mention to João Viana for A batalha de Tabatô (The Battle of Tabatô) 2014: Alonso Ruizpalacios for Güeros 2015: Gabriel Ripstein for 600 Millas (600 Miles) 2016: Mohamed Ben Attia for Inhebbek Hedi (Hedi) 2017: Carla Simón for Estiu 1993 (Summer 1993)

Taika Waititi and Joshua Oppenheimer, and actors, actresses, producers, directors from all over the world. Last year the jury members were Guatemalan director Jayro Bustamante, French actress Clotilde Courau, and Saudi filmmaker Mahmoud Sabbagh. Not coincidentally, all three had previous experiences with the festival: Courau’s screen debut was shown at the 1991 Berlinale while Bustamante and Sabbagh were actually nominated here for their first features. Last year’s winner was the Catalan film Estiu 1993 (Summer 1993) by Carla Simón, which was also nominated for a Crystal Bear and won the Grand Prix of the Generation Kplus International Jury. The director presented her project at the Berlinale Co-Production Market 2016 before going on to win the award the following year. She, as every winner since 2008, was also awarded with a viewfinder: not only a symbol of their art but also a practical instrument in their future filmmaking. As our issue revolves around the topic of gender, the distribution of the winners (not counting the special mentions) is the following: 10 male and 2 female directors.

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2017 saw a lot of turmoil in the global society – strong statements were made, game-changing hashtags were created, and movements were launched in order to raise awareness about the situation of women. The action rooted in the film industry, and from there, with the help of #MeToo and #TimesUp, spread like wildfire to every other area.

illustration by Máté Muszka

The Berlinale has been an exceptionally supportive event for women for a very long time, so we are eager to see how the movement will reach the 2018 festival. Until the daily news of the Berlinale reaches us all, find our “Female Focus” material on the following pages!

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FILMS DIRECTED BY WOMEN IN THE HISTORY OF BERLINALE The first few editions of the Berlinale weren’t the field of female directors: only one or two movies directed by women were selected for the competition programme. But from the early eighties, the changes in society and the film industry, as well as the expansion of the Berlinale’s programme, have favored female creators. They also have the opportunity to submit their films




'51 Begone Dull Care (CAN) by Evelyn Lambart and Norman McLaren



1959 1951

'59 Hest paa ferie | Sommerferien eines Pferdes (DEN) by Astrid Henning-Jensen

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'65 Le Bonheur | Glück aus dem Blickwinkel des Mannes (FRA) by Agnès Varda

Die Vier im Jeep (SWI) by Leopold Lindtberg and Elizabeth Montagu













































'75 Örökbefogadás | Die Adoption (HUN) by Márta Mészáros '77 Ortsfremd...wohnhaft vormals Mainzer Landstraße (GER) by Hans Sachs, Hedda Rinneberg Woschozdenie | Die Erhöhung (RUS) by Larissa Schepitko

illustrations by Máté Muszka


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'79 Vinterborn | Winterkinder (DEN) by Astrid Henning-Jensen

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'74 Straf | Die Strafe (NTL) by Olga Madsen 2




not only to the competition programme, but also to the Panorama and Forum sections and the Kinderfilm programme, which became the Generation section in 2006, devoted to children and young people. Below, using the Berlinale archive, we have collected the numbers of films made by female directors, which have been screened at the Berlinale since its first edition.

'68 Asta Nielsen by Asta Nielsen


'81 Goraczka | Fieber (POL) by Agnieszka Holland

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Also look out for Cinefemme


Her Film Project

text by Adam Harangozó

Alliance for Women Film Compose

Gamechanger Films Women in Film Film Finishing Fund European Women’s Audiovisual Network

Gender based filmmaking initiatives help filmmakers who identify as female to achieve visibility, address gender bias in the industry, and explore new directions of their crafts. The following programmes and grants are just some of the few aimed at advocating diversity in film. The Writers Lab Created by IRIS and New York Women in Film & Television, and funded by Meryl Streep and Oprah Winfrey, the Lab aims to promote mature female voices in cinema through screenwriting. Launched in 2015, this yearly four-day long workshop is aimed at female writers over the age of 40. The talents, chosen only for the merit of their scripts, participate in panel discussions and sessions with mentors from the industry. The first three editions of the Lab were limited to US residents but international applications are to be accepted from this year. Among many others, past mentors of the script development retreat included producers Caroline Kaplan (Boyhood, Time Out of Mind), Lisa Cortes (Precious), writers Meg LeFauve (Inside Out), Jessica Bendinger (Bring It On, Sex and the City). Having more films made by women writers diversifies not only the screenwriting

International Women's Film Festival Network

field: as multiple studies have pointed out, a female screenwriter’s presence also means a more balanced cast and crew genderwise, and a much higher probability of the film passing the Bechdel test. Website: thewriterslab.ny

Digital Bolex Grant for Women Cinematographers Which is the only category of the Academy Awards that never had a female nominee? That’s right: cinematography. In order to shrink the (huge) gender gap of DoPs, Digital Bolex, a producer of digital cameras with 16 mm feel, offers $10,000 worth of gear and accessories loaned for 21 production days for a narrative short or feature film shot in the US by a female cinematographer. As many independent films hire cinematographers on the basis of the equipment they own, this grant helps those without a camera to be able to compete in the industry. Future grants will be offered on a rolling basis. Website:

Raising Film Female filmmakers are often victims to gender bias but family care and parenthood are some of the less talked about issues that also affect many women and men. The UK initiative

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“Raising Films” researches the impact of parenting and caring for the sector. The initiative campaigns for parental rights and better work practices for filmmakers with families. Their training programme “Making It Possible” offers sessions with life coaches and industry experts who are or were on maternity/paternity leave and are struggling to find their way back to the industry, and finding it difficult to manage their new situation. The “Family Support Fund” provides short-term support for those having financial difficulties maintaining their career alongside family responsibilities.

filmmaking. The organisation has mentored over 260 filmmakers, some of whom went on to make Emmy and Academy Award winning films. Their Accelerator Lab offers grants and a year-long mentorship programme for female nonfiction directors working on their first or second feature. They also welcome international applications. C&E’s “Breakthrough Filmmaker Award” supports mid-career women who face difficulties working in the documentary


Women in Animation Since 1995, WIA is dedicated to creating equal opportunities in animation. Their programme “50/50 by 2025” is dedicated to bringing awareness to the issue of inequality. Besides archiving female animation history, providing mentorship, they also award the “Phyllis Craig Scholarship”, supporting one animation student with a $1000 grant. WIA also created the “Short Film Program” to promote female talent by screening their work to industry professionals. Their newest campaign, the “Roar Art Project” accepts works that deal with personal experiences of gender issues. Website:

Chicken & Egg Pictures Chicken & Egg is a non-profit fund supporting women in nonfiction

industry due to their gender, race, class. or other factors. Recipients include Kristi Jacobson, Julia Reichert, Natalia Almada and Nanfu Wang. The “Impact & Innovation Initiative” helps filmmakers who experiment with new forms of non-fiction media, digital storytelling, online and interactive shorts aiming to create social impact. Through the Diversity Fellows Initiative, they also support women filmmakers of colour. Website:

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stills from A Fantastic Woman

WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT TEDDY text by Zsombor Bobák

2018 marks the 32nd year of the Teddy Awards, the official queer film prize of the Berlinale. The first Teddys went to Pedro Almodóvar and Gus Van Sant (who returns to Berlin this year with his latest feature film) and the award has been given to truly inspirational and challenging works of art ever since. The importance of the Teddy was unquestionable in its first year, in a divided Europe and an era bearing the stifling gloom and the devastating effects of HIV and AIDS. This year, in light of the #metoo and #timesup phenomena, the Teddy gains a particular urgency and proves to be just as unquestionably important as it was in 1987 and throughout the history of the Berlinale. When I delved into my research at university, which brought together queer and film festival studies, the core of my arguments was anchored in the notion and experience of injustice. Injustice in the sense of queer his/herstory being, by force, silenced and erased under a white

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supremacist, patriarchal, heteronormative hegemony. Injustice in the sense of denying the right of visibility and existence for queer communities, and injustice in the sense of persecuting these communities. My interest in film festivals stemmed from a deep belief that these events could (and should) be platforms to speak up against injustice, to reflect and question the world around us and its domineering mechanisms and power structures. They should grant visibility to those from whom it is denied, to let the voice of the silenced be heard – in short, to foster change by exploring and activating the political potential of moving images. I still believe that film festivals, as cultural events that shape our understanding of the cinematic arts, have a great responsibility in acknowledging and embracing the achievements of suppressed communities. The Berlinale does a fair job in this regard, and the Teddy is one of the most prominent manifestations of their dedication to act on the sociopolitical responsibilities of film festivals. As the most well-established, and probably also the most prestigious queer film prize in the world, the Teddy has been pushing both artistic and sociopolitical boundaries over three decades now, providing queer narratives with much greater visibility.

The prize is awarded by an independent jury (jury members are not selected by the Berlinale committee, but come from various queer film festival backgrounds) each year, across different categories from a selection of queer themed films from all sections of the Berlinale. In this vein, the prize is supportive of the festival’s deliberate political focus as it showcases the wide range of queer voices within the different categories. Furthermore, Teddy has witnessed the development in queer cinema (aesthetics and narrative interests, structures), and actively contributed to the construction of a queer audiovisual heritage. Teddy stands for empowerment and change, and is never afraid to look the crude reality in the eye: Derek Jarman’s The Last of England, John Greyson’s Urinal, Rosa von Praunheim’s Silence=Death, Jennie Livingstone’s Paris Is Burning, Cheryl Dunye’s The Watermelon Woman, or Sebastian Lelio’s A Fantastic Woman are all reflective of their own times’, raising pressing queer issues and they can all be understood as statements, or perhaps even as indignant shouts for a more equal and just world. We really need to talk about Teddy this year. Especially this year. The sexual assault cases coming to light throughout the film and entertainment industry shook the globe and finally the voices of the victims are being heard. However, it must be acknowledged that most of those sharing their experiences of sexual assault and violence are cisgender, heterosexual women and men. Queer experiences

are rarely shared which is frustrating taking into account that, according to the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, queer people are about two times more likely to fall victim to different forms of sexual violence than cisgender and heterosexual individuals. The situation of queer people of colour is even more devastating. We must not forget that the multiple barriers that prevent queer people from coming forward with their stories, such as fear of outing and the grave social stigma on queer identities as sexual deviants and abnormal in certain communities and societies, are all rooted in social inequality and ossified sociopolitical attitudes towards minorities and regarding difference in general. There is no doubt: queer victims of sexual assault are out there and we need to hear their stories. The important point here is the act of listening – and this is exactly why Teddy is so vital for the queer community: it tells our stories, it represents us. I want to believe that the Berlinale 2018 will be an event of empowerment. That the selection of films and their political potential will empower others – it will empower queer people to tell their stories, to stay strong, hand in hand with their cis and hetero sisters and brothers saying #metoo and #timesup. We need to talk about Teddy. We need to talk and we need to listen. We must watch these films very attentively. It is the key to a broader change.

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How do you choose the projects? What draws you into the production? My philosophy is that I produce and work on films which I can personally feel attached to. From the beginning of my career, I have been very lucky, because I’m making films which are important to me as a human being, not just as a producer. If I can express my voice on subjects which are important for me, that’s how I choose the directors I want to work with. I develop myself as a human being, and learn something.

interview by Janka Pozsonyi

illustrations by Máté Muszka

Three years ago, a black and white, quiet, powerful drama reached for the top and won an Academy Award for Best Foreign Film. This was Ida, directed by Paweł Pawłowski and produced by the multi-talented and confident Ewa Puszczyn ´ ska. Although back in the day she didn’t have a plan to get into the film business, fate had different plans. She started from the bottom and worked her way up, and now she owns a production company, leads multiple projects at the same time, fights for European cinema and searches for young talents along the way.

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What made you join this industry? It was a coincidence, I had nothing to do with this business, because I studied English literature. I liked films and always watched a lot of them, but I never thought of working in the industry. I was translating subtitles of English films for Polish television and cinema, when a company called Opus film, which I’m still connected to, was looking for someone to translate at an international meeting. Later they called me again and asked if I could attend at a pre-production meeting, then the shooting itself, at the side of an Italian director. I was curious and I said yes, because I was not afraid of new challenges. This is how my adventure with filmmaking started. I became responsible for international relations, and after producing many commercials, I got tired of it and wanted to focus on feature films at Opus film, which at the time had just started to work on its first independent film production. My Name is Justine was our first co-production, in which I was allowed to take part as an executive producer. I was learning and examining along the way.

Did you ever imagine winning an Academy Award? To be honest, winning the award was never really my dream. I have very specific feelings towards the Oscars, because I think that Americans took over a lot from the European market, and for some reason, they think that we worship the award. At the ceremony nobody really cares about foreign language films, we are unknown names and faces. This is my personal fight for European Film Awards, the people should respect European filmmakers, just as much as the Oscars. But of course I’m happy we got it, it was the first Academy Award for Poland as well. What do you think about the neglect of women in filmmaking? This year is all about changing the inequality, not just in the film industry. I’m a member of the EWA – European Women’s Audiovisual network and the Polish Female Filmmakers Association and I also organised a session for Eurimages on gender equality in Warsaw and it was a great success. I believe there is inequality in the industry, there should be more women, because they are not worse directors at all. But also I know that we have to create an environment for women, because nature is nature: men are not giving birth to kids and if a woman wants to have a family and be a

filmmaker too, they have to sacrifice one or the other. They have to give up years of their careers and it’s difficult to get back, because the industry is changing rapidly. Somehow, we have to make the comeback easier for them, so that they can work, even when they have kids. Gender shouldn’t be a factor of awards or funds. It’s a very complex situation, it won’t be solved overnight, it needs years of stubborn work. As a producer, I try to bring as many women on the set as possible: in Pawel’s new film we had a girl in the electrician team. Over the last few years the number of successful female producers has been increasing in many countries. Do you see this trend in Poland? I think I’m the only woman in my generation who does so many coproductions and when I look at the colleagues from a younger generation, there are more women producers than men, especially in their 30s. Women are taking over, and I don’t think it’s about counting money. I think women are more trust-resistant and braver in taking risks.

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beautiful project. I’m reading a lot of scripts and I’m looking for things, I may be co-producing the new film of Paweł Pawłowski, called Limonov.

We are fighters and I think we have better social skills – not just small talk, but in remembering certain details about someone, which makes them feel good and open up more easily. These all make us good producers. Do you meet a lot of film students? Do you follow their work? I try to follow young people’s work from all over the world. I had many opportunities to meet young filmmakers, because I was teaching in Łódz ´ Film School and worked at Torino Filmlab, so I had at least two platforms to get in contact with them. And if I spot someone I find interesting, I try to follow them. I have to be careful not to get involved in too many projects, because I know that I can work only on a certain number of them at the same time. What are you working on now? At the moment I’m working on three projects. I’m finishing a film called War and I also started to develop and produce projects in my own company, which I established in 2006. Now I’m finishing development and went into financing with a relatively young, but still experienced director, Tomasz Wasilewski, who won the Silver Bear for Best Script in 2016, for United States of Love. We are working together now and hopefully we will start the shooting later this year. I’m also working on an arthouse feature animation film for adults, it’s a very interesting and

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Do you notice some kind of pattern in the films of young filmmakers? Are they focussing on a certain topic now, for example women’s rights or nature? It depends on which country it is, in Poland it’s a variety. Even if there’s a pattern, hopefully they create a different approach to the same subject. Each of them is trying to find his or her own way, although it’s very difficult not to repeat. What I’m looking for is not the subject, but the approach – the story is not that important as the storyteller. What are the visuals, the cinematic languages they use to convey their stories, because film is a language, it’s a visual discussion with the public. This is what I focus on when I watch short and graduation films. What was the last film you enjoyed very much? I watch European films because I’m a member of the board in the European Film Academy, so before the EFA, we watch the films before the voting. I particularly liked two films lately: On Body and Soul by Ildikó Enyedi, which I really loved, and Loveless by Andrey Zvyagintsev. These two grabbed my soul. Do you have a motto or advice for first time producers? I think they should prepare for a tough life, a lot of stress, and sometimes to be alone. You have to face and solve the problems. By being a producer, you are responsible for solving the problems. It’s not a beautiful life with 5-star hotels, red carpets and limousins. Don’t be scared, be daring, be prepared to take controlled risks, and try to find fun in that, a way to develop yourself as a human being. If treated this like a 9–5 job, it would not work – it’s life, whether we like it or not.


The essay presents three snapshots revolving around the issues of gender in film. These frames are not enough to make a moving image, they are only juxtapositions. Besides not being comprehensive, it does not deal with wider issues of diversity like race, class, age or sexual orientation. The Age of Guy-Blaché Women were not only on the screen from the earliest years of film but also shaped cinema from behind the scenes. Similar to the beginning of other modern art forms, film had three decades of fluidity and experimentation, which not only meant variability in form but also in gender. The first film by a female director was Alice Guy-Blaché’s The Fairy of the Cabbages in 1896 which was also one of the earliest narrative films. Guy-Blaché went on to direct or supervise nearly 700 silent films (including 22 features) before 1920 and formed her own production company in the USA. In her memoirs she wrote: “I have often been asked why I chose so unfeminine a career.” Another name to note among the many is Lois Weber’s. Besides being one of the highest paid directors of the time, she was also a pioneer of film language (especially split screen storytelling) and she was the first woman to direct a feature film in 1914. Many of her 135 films focused on social issues controversial at the time. Screenwriting was also a field open to women: around half of all silent film scenarios were written by female writers. One well known writer was Frances Marion who wrote

over 300 hundred scripts, won two Oscars, and even wrote a book on her craft. About the tasks and the extent of creative control screenwriters had at the time, she said in 1919: “Stories, working scenarios ready for the director to proceed, tarrying with him through every scene as it is filmed; editing and cutting the complete product and title-writing every bit of it.” For a few years these jobs were not gendertyped but later they were implicitly labelled for men and women. One of the fields deemed feminine was that of the editor. Margaret Booth, evolving from joiner (aka patcher) to negative cutter for D.W. Griffith, and later cutter, was one of the first to be credited with the modern term film editor. From the late 1920s, she became supervising film editor at MGM, overseeing final versions of all the studio’s films until 1968. Genderising jobs already had an excluding effect: for example camera was a masculine area with prejudices against the skills of women. Though there were a few female “crank turners”, most of them could only devote time for this craft while being an actress most of the time. In 1923, women were present in 29 jobs of the industry – not counting the actress. Parallel to the development of the corporate structure of the studio system, the numbers of women thinned out by 1925, because “professionalization is implicitly masculinization”.

The Age of China Girls Before the early ‘90s, glamorous looking women appeared on the same film reels as

The Age of Harvey Weinstein Today, the gender gap in the industry is acknowledged by many. Since October, even a larger momentum of change can be felt. Still, it is worth taking a look at the numbers – to know, to remember.

still from Attenberg

the biggest stars – yet audiences never saw them. Anonymously, they fade into obscurity with decaying film stocks. China Girls or Leader Ladies are photos of women taken by lab technicians – mostly men –, inserted into the beginning of film reel leaders, used as standards for consistent colors and tones. These few frames of quality control contain a color bar besides the girl whose complexion served as a flesh tone reference. With an implicit male point of view, a male gaze, the photos often show women lit and presented to reflect the glamour of stars – in reality, most of them were workers of the film studio. After inserting them into the master print, lab workers sent the copies to cinemas worldwide. Then the projectionists, who also happened to be male usually, used the frames to see where the actual movie begins. Completing a circle of voyeurous camaraderie between men, often they were cut out and ended up in collections or being used as pinup girls. Still, less experienced projectionists have also screened that part of the film and the audiences got to see

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something that was not meant for them. Even though probably perceived only subconsciously, the moviegoers saw flashes of these women – on the margins of film, used for establishing the looks of others, unknown, but with the whole film depending on them. In the words of former projectionist Jean Bourbonnais: “The voiceless workers of a proto sex-industry, entertaining mostly male lab technicians over the course of the working hours, similar to the pin-ups or sexy girl calendars found in most car repair shops or other blue collar male-dominated fields of work, China Girls are there to brighten up a gloomy day.”

Sources Women Film Pioneers Project China Girls, Leading Ladies, Actual Women by Peter Monaghan The 2017 Celluloid Ceiling Report by Martha M. Lauzen Women in Independent Film, 2016–17 by Lauzen Gender Within Film Crews by Stephen Follows Cut Out of the Picture by Follows, Kreager, Gomes Where Are the Women Directors? by the European Women's Audiovisual Network Stories and Films Have [no] Boundaries: Study on the Programme Diversity of the Berlin International Film Festival from 1980 to 2016 by Krainhöfer, Schreiber, Wiedemann Gender & Short Films by Smith, Pieper, Choueiti, Case Film Dialogue by Anderson, Daniels

Out of the top grossing 250 American films of 2017, 11% had women as directors (an increase from the 7% in 2016 but the same as it was in 2000), 11% had women as screenwriters, 25% as producers, 16% as editors. 4% of the films employed camerawomen (same as in 1998), and 3% had music composed by women. Between 1994 and 2013, the top 2,000 American movies employed women in the following numbers: directors (5% of the films), screenwriters (10.9%), producers (9.7%), editors (13.7%), composers (2.3%), cinematographers (1,8%). 78.6% of the films had female casting directors and 77.5% had female costume designers. 57.2% of the people in the makeup departments of the films were women. Independent films shown at major US festivals in 2016–17 were in 29% directed by women (an increase of 7% from 2008–09), in 26% written by women (again, increased by 7%), in 32% produced by (almost the same since 2008), in 22% edited by, in 11% shot by, and in 9% they had music composed by women. An assessment of films made in seven European countries between 2006–2013 shows that in average 21% had a female director and 84% of the funds went into films with a male director. Films made in the UK in the 2005-2014 period had female directors (14%), screenwriters (14,6%), producers (25,7%), editors (14,4%), cinematographers (6,2%), composers (6%), casting directors (66,7%), costume directors (78,8%). More than 80% of the people working in the departments of makeup and costume were female.

Looking at the programme of the Berlinale from 1980 to 2016, out of 9,947 films 2,276 (22,88%) had a female director – there was a noticeable increase between the periods 1980-2001 (19,53%) and 2002–2016 (27,38%). Short films shown at 10 major festivals including Cannes and the Berlinale between 2010–14, had female directors in 32%. Over 4 years, the only increase was in the animation genre. Women seem to be banished not only from most crew positions (except those thought of as “feminine”) but from creating narrative films in general: they have much better chances in directing documentaries. Even when they make narrative movies, they are welcome mostly in the genres of musical, romance, and drama. But for some reason, it seems women are still silent: out of 450 films from the 2010s, more than two thirds had men speaking 60% or more of the dialogue. All in all, the number of women in key roles have been basically the same since 1998. And if we would still think of this as some kind of progress: why do women today have less presence and freedom in film than a 100 years ago? The phenomenon is not exclusive to film. But as people have more access to knowledge, technology and distribution than ever, wouldn’t it be a positive step to have more female voices in cinema? There are many arguments for having a more diverse industry but maybe we should turn the question around and ask ourselves: why wouldn’t we want a more diverse cinema?

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The year has hardly begun, but some changes are already visible. The question is: what will be the real changes brought along by this new zeitgeist? Are salaries going to become equal? Are we going to be introduced to the work of more female creators? Is it generally going to be safer for women to work? Apparently, nothing special has happened. Business has continued as normal, just like the past few years. After all, the Celluloid Ceiling Report has been published year after year, detailing the depressing situation for women in the industry. There have been campaigns for equal pay, one of the latest examples being Jennifer Lawrence’s open letter with wide reverberations. Famous and acclaimed filmmakers have previously been exposed as rapists and abusers. Harvey Weinstein: he was the the one who had to be unmasked in order to make the most important players of Hollywood begin to realise that their safe existence is in danger. When Weinstein, one of the most influential people in the film industry didn’t manage to make his victims keep quiet, the safety net of the patriarchy, believed to be secure and unbreakable, fell apart as a house of cards. More and more actresses, female directors and filmmakers came forward with

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their stories, and the public learnt through their reports what it is like to work in the industry. This is when the actress Alyssa Milano did something really important. She encouraged her followers on Twitter to share their own stories of inequality and abuse, and use the hashtag #metoo. By doing this, Milano made famous the #metoo movement, which was founded by the civil rights activist Tarana Burke back in 2006. The #metoo stories started spreading all over the social media, and the hashtag become a phenomenon. It has been misinterpreted and criticised by many, but its irrevocable achievement is that the thorny topic of sexual harassment has been taken from the distant world of film stars to the context of the average person. It became a real conversation starter which showed the inequality and disadvantage of everyday women in the most simple and everyday situations: it wasn’t the film stars from the high society, but everyone’s friends, neighbours, and work colleagues who posted on Facebook and Twitter about how their doctors, bosses, customers and colleagues have abused their power and physical advantage over them. It is no wonder that these women became TIME's 2017 Person of the Year. The Silence Breakers – this is the collective title of the vast group of people who, bearing all consequences, came out with their stories to the public. The avalanche started rolling, the dirty secret of Hollywood has been revealed. It also turned out that feminism, which might have seemed like a superfluous and outgrown idea to many, is still relevant in all the so-called developed and civilised democracies. When The New York Times published the open letter of

stills from Big Little Lies

the Time’s Up movement on January 1st 2018, people believed that this meant the beginning of a new era. The organisation was founded in order to ensure that every story about sexual harassment and the abuse of power can become known to the public and get media exposure, and that all victims receive proper legal aid. Who would have thought that an outdated format like the Golden Globe awards ceremony would become the platform for the inaugural meeting of this alliance? Answering the call of the organisation, an army of stars turned up on the red carpet dressed in black, in order to signal to the whole world in the simplest possible way that something has changed, that from now on everything will be different, and that all of the stars, without any exceptions, agree in this. To this glamorous event, the actors brought along civil rights activists as partners because they wanted to talk about real issues instead of discussing evening gowns and diamonds. “So I want all the girls watching here, now, to know that a new day is on the horizon! And when that new day finally dawns, it will be because of a lot of magnificent women, many of whom are right here in this room tonight, and some pretty phenomenal men, fighting hard to make

sure that they become the leaders who take us to the time when nobody ever has to say 'Me too' again.” – this is how the recipient of the lifetime achievement award, Oprah Winfrey, closed her speech. After this, a possibly even more important sentence was heard, spoken by one of the cast members of Big Little Lies, a series discussing domestic violence. “So I want to thank everyone who broke their silence this year and spoke up about abuse and harassment. You are so brave. So people out there who are feeling silenced by harassment, discrimination, abuse: time is up. We see you, we hear you, and we will tell your stories,” – said Reese Witherspoon. So, the big task is here: the film world is now filled with the sound of women’s voices. All we need now is the films themselves to reflect this: we need more female perspectives, more women’s stories, more female creators. The current numbers for this new millennium are depressing. According to a recently published study called Inclusion in the director’s chair?, assessing the gender, race, and age of film directors across top fictional movies, the number of female directors is a mere 4 per cent. Over 11 years, only 43 women made top-

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The Year Ahead in Festivals After Berlin comes Vienna, and after Vienna – where short films are celebrated in a truly unique way – there is still time to submit to a wide selection of festivals dedicated to shorts and first features. Find out all about them by turning the page!

grossing films, and statistics of non-white female creators are even worse. Only 4 black female directors made films over this period, three Asian women directed blockbusters, and there is only one single Latin woman on the list of directors.

than 10 women in the top crew. 88 per cent of films didn’t have a female director, and 83 per cent didn’t have a female writer.

And the list of disgraceful statistics goes on. Male directors start working at a younger age, and are active much longer. Among the active directors, there are no women younger than 30 or older than 70. Male directors even have the chance to work a lot more: the most prolific male director, Tyler Perry made 15 films over the examined period of 11 years, whilst the female record for the same period is 4. This means that most female directors (83 per cent) direct merely one film every 11 years.

If these numbers, which seem to have been written in stone for decades, begin to change – that’s when we can finally announce the beginning of a new era. Or it would perhaps be even better if we didn’t have to wait a whole year for a new report listing some positive changes. It would be enough to hear that women receive the same salary for the same job as men – for now, it’s a difference of not only a few per cent, but in some cases, men are paid 100 times more than women. According to the Hollywood Reporter, Michelle Williams received $625,000 from All the Money in the World, while Mark Wahlberg was paid $5 million for the exact same job, 8 times more than Williams. In the enfolding scandal, Wahlberg sent $1.5m to the Time’s Up movement, stating on Twitter ”I 100% support the fight for fair pay”. His response is long overdue. Now is the time for all men take a stand and fight for fair pay and a fair future, one that is equal between men and women in all industries.

The 2017 report of the Celluloid Ceiling examined the activity of the female players of the other fields of cinema: writers, producers, editors and cinematographers. But the numbers are no more convincing here either. In 2017, in the 250 most popular films, the number of female creators was only 18 per cent, and only 1 per cent of films saw more

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illustration by Máté Muszka

stills from Big Little Lies

VIS VIENNA SHORTS 15TH FESTIVAL FOR SHORT FILM, ANIMATION & MUSIC VIDEO | MAY 29TH – JUNE 4TH 2018 ANNIVERSARY WITH A NEED TO DISAGREE VIS Vienna Shorts, formerly known as Vienna Independent Shorts, is celebrating its 15th anniversary this year, and the special edition (from May 29 to June 4, 2018) will call for public debate in a time of societal polarisation. The slogan We Need To Disagree, the follow-up theme to Fear Is Not An Option and Trust Me in the past years, reminds us that 50 years after the struggles for personal liberties and free expression of 1968 societal standards and values have been handed over to populists and social media filter bubbles. “But we need to disagree, to argue: to listen, pause, reconsider, and then speak”, the festival stated in its first announcement in January; “and we need at the same time resist the assault on progressive achievements.” VIS will offer space for debate and link specially curated programmes to socio-political discussions. The festival also partnered up with Glasgow ISFF and L’Alternativa from Barcelona for the so-called “triangle programme” which will – in the context of © VIS / A Brief History of Princess X – Gabriel Abrantes

the "Focus" theme – take a closer look at three European countries in turmoil. NEW COMPETITION In its third edition as an Oscar qualifying event the festival will present between 250 and 300 short films from around the world at four main venues in competitive and non-competitive programmes as well as in a prominent film exhibition at Vienna’s MuseumsQuartier. The four traditional competition sections – Fiction & Documentary (international narrative films), Animation Avantgarde (international animated and experimental films), Screensessions (international & national music videos) and the Austrian Competition – will each feature between 20 and 35 films, selected from 4,000 submissions. Starting 2018, the “V” in VIS also stands for virtual. The new competition segment dedicated to virtual reality is called VR the world and will present “compelling films that explore the possibilities of virtual reality in ways which challenge our most basic perceptions and ideas about visual language, storytelling, participation and voyeurism”, says VR head programmer Diana Mereoiu. “Instead of replicating tropes of traditional cinema, the films should use the potential of virtual reality to add a new layer of understanding of the subject approached, otherwise inaccessible to us.” ACADEMY ARCHIVE & MARTHA COLBURN The Spotlights of this year’s festival will be dedicated to a highly praised animation artist and to the impressive

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work of an maybe sometimes underestimated institution. On the one hand Martha Colburn (US/NL) will be featured with a programme and a masterclass/performance at the METRO Kinokulturhaus, home of the Austrian Film Archive, providing insight into her oeuvre of the last 15 years. Colburn is best known for her animation films which are created using puppetry, collage, and paint on glass techniques and which fuse pop culture and political imagery with an aesthetic that is simultaneously fantastical, painterly, and punk rock. The Film Archive of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences on the other hand is dedicated to the preservation, restoration, documentation and study of motion pictures and is not only taking care of Oscar® acclaimed productions, but is home to one of the most diverse and extensive film collections in the world. The Archive was established in 1991 and holds over 190,000 items, including animated shorts, live-action shorts, and experimental films. Mark

© VIS / Christoph Thorwartl (

© VIS / Everything – David OReilly

Toscano, a jury member of this year’s Berlinale Shorts, has been working with the Archive since 2003 and will present a concise selection of restored works from the past decade. FILM EXHIBITION & LIVE ACTS Under the title “Shaping Democracy” VIS will be hosting an extensive film exhibition at the MuseumsQuartier from March 21st to the end of the festival. On the occasion of the centenary of the founding of the Republic of Austria, the exhibition will feature 24 European filmmakers and will revolve around democratic values and different viewpoints on crucial issues and events in Austrian history, making the audience interact and participate in the show by discussing and selecting the films which are to be shown in a democratic process. An audiovisual live performance, linked to the music film section Screensessions, will provide an energetic fusion of the two strongest parts of a film experience, the image and the sound. In collaboration with the Vienna Festival, the biggest festival for avantgarde theatre and music in Vienna, the festival will bring a daring live performance in a theatre hall filled with fog, in which the audience will witness a true immersive experience. And apart from that there will be Midnight Movies, industry activities, and plenty of other programmes to experience at the anniversary edition of VIS Vienna Shorts – so don’t forget to save the date!

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FESTIVAL PANORAMA text by Zsófi Herczeg

illustration by Máté Muszka

Short film is the first step of filmmaking: it offers opportunities to directors, screenwriters, editors and cinematographers to experiment with different kinds of ideas and techniques without a high degree of risk. In addition, it provides them excellent experience in shooting, financing, producing and distributing a film without the highoctane pressure that a full feature-length feature film can generate. Every director begins with a short, some of them stay with it, while the others’ dream is a full length movie. For them, as in previous years, we collected some festivals that focus on new filmmakers and their first or second feature films.

Festival Camp

Submission deadline


Entry fee


26 Feb 2018

6–12 July 2018


Karlovy Vary International Film Festival

28 Feb 2018 (31 March 2018 for late submissions)

29 June – 7 July 2018

50 (¤65 for late submissions)

East of the West – Competition

Locarno Film Festival

open from Feb 2018

1–11 August 2018

130 CHF

Concorso internazionale, the Concorso Cineasti del presente, the Piazza Grande sections

Zlín Film Festival

early March 2018

25 May – 2 June 2018


International competition of feature films for children, for youth and for European first feature

Emden Norderney Film Festival

16 Mar 2018

6–13 June 2018


Art Film Fest Kosice

31 Mar 2018

15–23 June 2018


Middlebury New Filmmakers Festival

3 April 2018 (regular), 1 May 2018 (late)

23–26 Aug 2018

$60 (regular), $65 (late)

Cyprus International Film Festival

08 April 2018 (for late submissions, 08 May for extended deadline)

13–23 Jun 2018

$85 for late, $90 for extended deadline


around June 2018

28 Sept – 7 Oct 2018


BFI London Film Festival

around end of Jun 2018

in Oct 2018

£45 – Early bird, £60 – Regular, £75 – Late

First Feature Competition – the Sutherland Award

Montreal Film Festival

around Jul 2018

in late Aug 2018

150 CAD$

First Films World Competition

Reykjavik International Film Festival

15 Jul 2018

27 Sept – 7 Oct 2018

¤ 40

New Visions competition

San Sebastian International Film Festival

end of July 2018

21–29 Sept 2018

¤ 70

New Directors

Warsaw Film Festival

end of July 2018

12–21 Oct 2018


Competition 1-2 – for directors’ first and second feature films

Festival Premiers Plans D’Angers

early November 2018

25 Jan – 3 Feb 2019


European First Feature Films, French Feature Films

Special first feature

Golden Aphrodite Award

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WORLD OF YOUNG CINEMA (formerly: World of Shorts) Publisher: Dániel Deák Editor in chief: Zsuzsanna Deák Art director and graphic design: Zoltán Bukovics Daazo graphic design: Zoltán Bukovics Founding designer of the magazine: Cristina Grosan World of Young Cinema authors: Zsófi Herczeg, Veronika Jakab, Laura Jóföldi Contributors: Migdea Chinea, Bence Kranicz, Peter Lichter, Boglárka Nagy, Janka Pozsonyi, Klara Stoyanova Thanks: Laura Brown, Rosalie Callway, Judit Fischer, Dimitra Karya, Clarisse Robillard Cover image: Máté Muszka Illustrations by Máté Muszka: asd You can also find this magazine online at: World of Young Cinema magazine is published by Daazo Film and Media Ltd. Published in Hungary, Feb 2018. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part is forbidden save with the written permission of the publishers. I

ISSN 2064-2105 (Online) – ISSN 2064-2113 (Print) – the European Shortfilm Centre is supported by the MEDIA programme of the EU. This material does not necessarily represent the views and opinions of the EU. This magazine was printed on recycled paper.

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The Freshest Festival in the Coolest City 3–8 April 2018

World of Young Cinema – The Berlinale 2018 Issue  
World of Young Cinema – The Berlinale 2018 Issue