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the cannes 2018 issue

YOUNG CINEMA a magazine for emerging filmmakers published by – the European Shortfilm Centre


Dreams, Adrenaline, and Euphoria – young cinema at Cannes Mapping your Mind – a celebration of creativity


“Producing Chose Me” – EFP Producers on the Move speak


Distribution Dilemmas – theatre, TV or mobile screen?


Festival Panorama – your handy guide to the best festivals

Contributors – without whom this magazine wouldn’t exist, page 3 The Tenth Woman in Charge – the early work of Jury President Cate Blanchett, page 8 Levels and Parallel Competitions in Cannes – the sections explained, page 10 What Cannes Regulars Advise – your survival guide to the festival, page 12 Cinéfondation Facts and Figures 2018 – the programme in numbers, page 16 Losing Ourselves in the Washing Machine – an interview with Valentina Maurel, the winner of the Cinéfondation prize in 2017, page 34 The Essential Cannes Dictionary – the sections, programmes and sidebars of the festival, page 46 Let’s See Some Animation in Cannes – all about the Animation Day on May 16th!, page 48 Film Experience(s) – alternative models of distribution, page 52 Cannes vs. Netflix – a war on the future of cinema?, page 54 TV Series = the End of Cinema? – when film went online and how this changed the consumer model, page 56 How Would You Like Your Films to Be Seen? – directors about their distribution preferences, page 58

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Zsombor Bobák

Janka Pozsonyi

illustration by Réka Bucsi

Réka Bucsi

Réka is animation director. Her graduation film, Symphony No. 42 was shortlisted for the Oscar for Best Animated Short. Her subsequent films, LOVE and Solar Walk both premiered in the competition of the Berlinale. You can find her illustrations all over this issue of World of Young Cinema.

Eternal vagabond made of stardust and semen with serious symptoms of cinephilia. You can read his article in this issue analysing the recent Cannes–Netflix conflict.

Janka is a journalist and a photographer. She doesn’t mind spending half of her life in front of a screen, she loves doing inside work at film festivals and catching special moments on film sets with her camera. For this issue, she has interviewed Valentina Maurel and written about the lesser-known work of Cate Blanchett.

The first film that made you say “wow”? Stars Wars episodes IV, V, and VI.

Derek Jarman’s The Garden.

Probably Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, and it still wows.

Film of your choice for a first date? Alejandro Jodorowsky: Holy Mountain.

Call Me By Your Name.

My last first date was Rams, the Icelandic movie. Black humour, drama, and sheep breeding seemed like a good choice.

Film of your choice for a quiet night in on your own? Věra Chytilová: Daisies.

Call Me By Your Name.

Lost in Translation or anything from Paul Thomas Anderson.

What comes to mind when you hear the word "Cannes"? I have never been.




Endless queues and coffee, and hearing the boos and cheers of over 2000 people in one screening room.

North or South? Nowadays it’s the East.

Your secret crush? The young(er) Phil Tippett.

Tryton from Agnieszka Smoczyńska's The Lure.

Baumbach. He really cares about three dimensional female characters, and has a great sense for balancing drama and comedy.

Haneke. Because he shows sides of human nature that otherwise I would rather choose to be blind to.

It also changes every season, but now it’s Donald Glover. Everything he does is pure gold.

Baumbach or Haneke? Baumbach. The master of emotional, defected, real humans.

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15th International Festival for Short Film, Animation and Music Video 29 May – 4 June 2018

film still with kind permission of Boris Labbé


LETTER FROM THE EDITOR Dear Friends, After so many years of peace and quiet, as on the political stage we are also experiencing a lot of conflicts and controversies in the film world these days. The #MeToo and Time’s Up movements have shaken up the industry: women dressed in black appeared at award ceremonies, actors refused to accept prizes, powerful producers and highly esteemed directors have been exposed as sexual predators, and consequently, some films have been re-cut and pulled back from distribution because of the scandals behind their creators. In response, the Cannes Film Festival has launched a sexual harassment hotline in partnership with France’s Ministry for Gender Equality to protect both its visitors and participants. But taking the issue of gender equality seriously and fighting against the abuse of power are not the only hot topics right now. Last year at Cannes, there were some raised eyebrows about the two Netflix films selected for the competition programme, but the waves settled and the audience decided to focus on the artistic qualities of the line-up instead of their distribution channel. We all know what has happened this year: with Cannes changing its policy (competition films must have a theatrical release in France), cinephiles on the Croisette will miss out on a lot, including Orson Welles’ final film, The Other Side of the Wind, the reconstruction of which was financed by Netflix. For this reason, the focus of the Cannes 2018 issue of World of Young Cinema is film distribution, screening and streaming platforms, and the changing habits of motion picture consumption. As always, we have dedicated half of this magazine to the “festival of festivals”. You can find out more about the creative force behind the Cinéfondation short films by checking out their directors’ drawings in the Mapping your Mind section – a collection of exciting drawings created by the filmmakers for our readers. We offer you a Cannes Dictionary to help you familiarise yourself with the countless sections, programmes and selections the festival offers. You can meet last year’s Cinéfondation winner Valentina Maurel, and find out about the specific programmes and events for up-and-coming filmmakers and producers at Cannes. Don’t forget how lucky you are to be at the epicentre of today's film world – take it all in, and join us on our journey to celebrate diversity and creativity! Zsuzsanna Deák

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illustration by Réka Bucsi

Dreams, Adrenaline,

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AND EUPHORIA “A dreamy feeling. I can’t remember any taste of food because I almost couldn’t eat while I was there. A happy feeling of an empty stomach and adrenaline.” This is how last year’s Cinéfondation winner Valentina Maurel talks about her Cannes experience – and we couldn’t agree more. Being at Cannes is an euphoria to all cinephiles. Take a plunge into it all, and find out more about young cinema on the Croisette.

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photo still image from Julian Rosefeldt’s Manifesto

The Tenth Woman in Charge

CATE BLANCHETT TAKES OVER AS THE HEAD OF JURY Ruling the screen as the young Queen of England, the mumbling Bob Dylan, a ruthless witch or a blue-eyed nervous wreck, the Australian-born, two-time Academy winner Cate Blanchett is one of the most unique and talented actresses of our time. After many challenging roles, this year she accepted a whole new assignment: she will be the head of jury at the 71st edition of the Cannes Film Festival. 8 WOYC by

text by Janka Pozsonyi


fter all that’s been happening in the last year, the thriving conversation on the importance and the role of women all over the world, especially in the film industry, the timing is just right for a strong character like Cate Blanchett to take a seat as the captain at one of the most anticipated film festivals in the world. What is quite thought-provoking is that she will be only the 10th woman in the last 70 years of the festival to supervise the jury of the official competition: she will follow the lead of Olivia de Havilland (in 1965), Sophia Loren (in 1966), Michéle Morgan (in 1971), Ingrid Bergman (in 1973), Jeanne Moreau (in 1975 and 1995), Isabelle Adjani (in 1997), Liv Ullmann (in 2001), Isabelle Huppert (in 2009) and Jane Campion (in 2014). Before the glamour and fame and all that comes with it, Cate Blanchett started her career as does everyone else, with the smallest of roles, the “blonde cheerleader” in the Egyptian movie titled Kaboria, made in 1990. A minor role, that seemed to push her towards acting, because after spending a few years in the United States, Cate returned home to Sydney, where she enrolled in drama school and graduated with a National Degree of Dramatic Art. In the first couple of years, she focused mostly on theatre and got a supporting role in a television series called Heartland, but her first feature debut arrived in 1997 in the movie Paradise Road, at the side of Frances McDormand, Glenn Close and Jennifer Ehle. From then on, she split her time between the stage and the screen and she’s been rotating ever since. Between the cheerleader and the golden roles, she appeared in several short films, or in episodes of different compilations – and sketch movies throughout the way. Her first credit in a short film is called Bangers, in 1999: in the 10 minute short film (directed by her now-husband, Andrew Upton), she portrays a successful woman, who prepares a dinner for her

grouchy mother. While she’s cooking the sausages, she tells her (and the cat, Mr. Funnybones) about a promotion she received at work that day, but soon we realise she is right in the middle of a nervous breakdown. The film was later added to the compilation film Stories of Lost Souls in 2005. She played and even doubled herself in Jim Jarmusch’s film, Coffee and Cigarettes in the segment called Cousins. In the black and white, poetic world of Jarmusch, the famous cousin sits down to have coffee and some forbidden cigarettes with her estranged relative. Eleven minutes of pure self-criticism and bittersweet humour. In 2012 she lent her voice to an animated character in the short film called A Cautionary Tale, and one year later, she starred in a compilation film The Turning which is based on the novels of Tim Winton. In the short segment called Reunion she and her husband (played by Richard Roxburgh) are hosting a Christmas dinner for one guest only, his mother. The two women get quite drunk very quickly and end up in a pool, drenched not only with water, but with mutual suspicion towards each other. As the years went by, the blonde cheerleader became a multi-award winning actress, a style icon and an artistic figure, who stars in compelling art projects like Del Kathryn Barton’s Red – where she symbolically eats her mate after sex, just like a red spider – or the music video by Massive Attack called The Spoils, where her lovely face slowly turns into a digital copy, a disfigured version of herself. Whether it is an art project, a Disney fantasy, a 50’s queer love story or following the gestures of Hollywood icon Katherine Hepburn, Cate Blanchett’s roles are always the ones to remember, and without a doubt, her being the head of jury is yet another great way to express herself.

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LEVELS AND PARALLEL COMPETITIONS IN CANNES "My film’s being screened at Cannes!" is a phrase often heard from proud filmmakers from April on every year. This statement is however relative in many respects, as a Cannes premiere can mean several different things. Our article helps you navigate among of the sections and parallel programmes of the festival. text by Csákvári Géza

Arguably the most important competition festival for motion pictures will take place for the 71st time this year. If we accept the presumption that the programmer, or in other words, artistic director of the Cannes Film Festival is a defining figure of film history – because a long life cycle is guaranteed for each and every film selected for the line-up – it is easy to understand why all filmmakers want to have the world premiere of their new opus on the iconic Croisette Promenade. For the same reason, the international film press likes to guess and lay bets about the selection in the weeks leading up to the announcement of the final line-up. Over the last two decades, the film market organized alongside the festival has become extremely large and important – according to many, this industrial event has outgrown itself and made an unwelcome mark on the pure and genuine celebration of film. It is rumoured that certain sales agents lobby their “products” into the competition programme, some even sell

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their films to distributors – often years before the premiere, sometimes even before shooting has begun – claiming that it is certain to get a place in the Cannes competition. The programming of the last few years hasn’t contradicted this theory: a large segment of the competition line-up was made up of the good or less good work of important and established auteurs. Young and emerging filmmakers and non-regulars had a limited opportunity to get a place. It wasn’t impossible, of course: two examples are Cristian Mungiu (with his subsequent Palme d’Or winner 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days in 2007) and Laszlo Nemes with his debut feature Son of Saul, part of the competition programme and winner of the Grand Jury Prize in 2015. The latter was developed in the framework of the festival’s “head-hunter programme”, the Cinéfondation Résidence, established in 1998, which is surely a great kick-start for a Cannes career. This year however has seen a drastic change. Thierry Frémaux, the artistic director of the festival has surprised everybody by announcing the current lineup of the 21 competition films. A majority of directors featured on the list are definitely not Cannes regulars, and the message seems to be that the obligatory rounds are over, at least for now. Many films expected with certainty to the competition have dropped out: auteurs like Xavier Dolan, Paolo Sorrentino, and the above-mentioned Laszlo Nemes to name a few. All have made new films this year and the whole world expected to see them in May – but they were in for a disappointment. The official excuse is usually that the film has not been finished in time for Cannes – Mike Leigh once tellingly thanked the Cannes festival for refusing Vera Dake in his Venice Golden Lion acceptance speech for the same film in 2004. The second level after the official competition at Cannes in the Un Certain

After twenty years, in 1998 the Un Certain Regard section became part of the Official Selection, and established its own competition, and the Un Certain Regard Prize was awarded for the first time. The prize went to Tueur à gages by Darezhan Omirbayev. The cash prize of €30,000 accompanying the award went, and still goes to the French distributor of the winning film, to aid its distribution. Occasionally, creators are given an option to choose between a less favourable slot in the Competition and a prime time screening in the Un Certain Regard. No easy choice, and many turn it down, because it can be a prestige issue to be in the Competition and nowhere else – but for example Kornél Mundruczó, who had been a Competition director before, accepted this deal in 2014, and his film White God went on to win the Un Certain Regard Prize that year – in this case, it turned out to be the right decision. Simultaneously with the Cannes Film Festival, taking advantage of the attention of the whole world, a further two events are organised on the Croisette. One of them is the Directors’ Fortnight – or La Quinzaine des Réalisateurs –, which was founded by the alliance of French film directors, the Société des Réalisateurs de Films (SRF) in 1969, independently from the Cannes Film Festival. The original objective was to offer an alternative to young, New Wave directors where the selection

is not influenced by any political or professional lobby. Today, the Quinzaine is considered an equal of the Competition with films often stronger than those in that programme. If the trend changes in the Competition, as seems to be the case now, and the obligatory regulars won’t get an automatic place regardless of their film’s quality any more, the organizers of Quinzaine will be forced to keep up and renew this section. The Critics’ Week or Semaine Internationale de la Critique is similar to the Quinzaine, but this series of events is organised by the association of French film critics (Syndicat français de la critique de cinéma). This was the first parallel programme in Cannes with its first edition in 1962. The Critics’ Week has been faithful to its original concept: discovering new talent. This section shows seven first and second feature films every year. Over the years, a short film selection comprising seven films was added to the programme. The Critics’ Week Grand Prix is awarded by the press – journalists are invited to vote after each screening. Many filmmakers think that from a strategic point of view it is better to be screened in the programme of the Quinzaine or the Semaine than in the main competition of other A category film festivals like Berlin, Locarno or Karlovy Vary. After all, nothing can compete with the prestige of the most anticipated and most glamorous film festival in the world.

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photo by FDC

Regard selection. This section was created by Gilles Jacob, the then new intendant of the festival in 1978, by merging all previous out-of-competition sections (Les Yeux fertiles, L’Air du Temps, Le Passé Composé). Initially, this section didn’t have a competition, but the debut features selected for the programme competed for the Caméra d’Or, the best first feature award of the whole festival.


Find below a handy collection of tips to make your festival as smooth and easy as possible.


tudy and research the programme before the festival begins. Make sure you plan your schedule, including screenings, meetings and parties so that you have time for everything. It’s harder than you think – everyone is spoilt for choice here!

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arty and network together with cinéphiles from all around the world. Go to the International Village to find out all about the film production of amazing and exotic places – and to try delicious treats like Japanese tea or Jordanian sweets!


amiliarise yourself with the map of the Croisette. Memorise the venues and the best ways to get from screening room to screening room. Knowing the best shortcuts and the exact location of each entry point is essential.


set of elegant clothes with you, or near you, is essential – festival goers are regularly forced to turn down tickets for important red carpet premieres only because they are not wearing the right outfit! Comfortable shoes are equally important – you will walk several miles a day.


on’t forget the sun lotion and your raincoat! Both the sun and the rain (occasionally tornado-like wind and thunderstorms) can strike you in Cannes in May. You come out of the screening room and you either burn in the blazing sun, or get soaked while trying to get to your next film.


rganise meetings on the beach. Sitting in the sand with the breathtaking Riviera view in the background – what better way to begin a partnership? It will be a pleasant memory to refer back to later. You can even make a tradition out of it!


mbrace Cannes! Right now, you’re so lucky to be here, in the centre of the film universe – immerse yourself in the world of cinema completely!

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Short Film Submission Know-How You’re a short film director and you’d like to take your film to Cannes. What to do? Register your film to the Short Film Corner in order to make it directly visible to buyers and festival programmers from all over the world.

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The Cinéfondation lends its support to the new generations of filmmakers. Part of this remarkable programme is the Selection, which showcases short films from film schools in the official Cannes Selection. Below are a few fun facts and exciting numbers for you to marvel at. 2,426 films were submitted from 512 film schools in 115 countries. 17 films have made it to the selection: 14 live-action and 3 animated films. • Dimitra Karya, director of the Cinéfondation selection, has selected the films of the programme with the help of just one assistant. • The selection process never really stops. Dimitra Karya even watches a few films during the summer. Then in November the online submissions start coming in, in gradually increasing numbers. But the majority of them arrive just before the deadline, February 15th, which means that hundreds of films must be seen within a month or so. • This year’s longest film is Dong wu xiong meng (The Storms in Our Blood) by Shen Di, with 31 minutes. The shortest film is an animation

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titled Inny (The Other) by Marta Magnuska, a mere 5 minutes. • According to the rules, films presented to the Cinéfondation selection must not exceed 60’ of running-time. The Cinéfondation Selection often showcases 40’ and 45’ shorts. Even a 60’ film was showed once, in 2010: The Painting Sellers by Juho Kuosmanen, which won the 1st Prize! A few years later, in 2016, Juho won the Prize Un Certain Regard with his feature film The Happiest Day in the Life of Olli Mäki. • Perfect equality: 11 of the 22 directors selected for this year’s programme are women. • Two schools make their first appearance at the Cinéfondation this year: ESMA (École Supérieure des Métiers Artistiques), an animation school from France, and the Shanghai Theatre Academy from China. • Cinéfondation launches careers: Etienne Kallos (alumnus in 2006 with his short Doorman) has been selected for the 2018 Festival de Cannes in the Un Certain Regard section with his feature debut The Harvesters.

Dimitra Karya

“What do we expect from young people, unknown filmmakers and early films? Let them shake us up, let them make us look at what we are unable to see, let them enjoy the freedom, the sharpness, the • In 2017–2018, seventeen recklessness and the daring that we Cinéfondation alumni have sometimes no longer possess. The shown their feature films at Cinéfondation has been working important festivals, including for 20 years to make these voices heard and I’m extremely proud Kornél Mundruczó (Festival this year to be able to de Cannes Competition 2017), accompany them!” Malgorzata Szumowska (Berlinale

Competition 2018, winner of the Silver Bear Grand Jury Prize), Atsuko Hirayanagi (Semaine de la Critique 2017), and Léa Mysius (Semaine de la Critique 2017). • Bertrand Bonello will chair the Cinéfondation and Short Films Jury. The French filmmaker will succeed Romanian director Cristian Mungiu. The members of the Jury are Valeska Grisebach, German director, writer & producer, Khalil Joreige, Lebanese filmmaker & artist, Alanté Kavaité, FrenchLithuanian director & screenwriter, and Ariane Labed, French actress.

(Bertrand Bonello)

• The 5 members of the Jury will be awarding prizes for three of the 17 student films. The Cinéfondation Prizes will be announced by the Jury on Thursday, May, 17th during an Awards Ceremony in the Buñuel Theatre, which will be followed by a screening of the winning films. • The same Jury will also name the Short Film Palme d’Or winner from among the 8 films selected in Competition. It will be awarded at the Closing Ceremony of the 71st Festival de Cannes on Sunday, May 19th in the Grand Theatre Lumière.

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illustration by RĂŠka Bucsi

mapping your mind

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To illustrate better the relationship between directors and their work, the filmmakers whose short films have been selected for the Cinéfondation programme were asked to draw spontaneously something about their film, using a pencil and a piece of paper – or any other medium they could think of. Anything would do – a symbol, a landscape, fresh and raw, straight from their imagination.

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An adopted woman on the cusp of childbirth reinserts herself back into the life of her biological mother, unsettling the entire family unit.

Andrew Zox USA

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The village was small, and now it's even smaller; only four houses still standing and a street. There is no one around. Nobody to say “Hi” to, no one to whine about the heat to. The earthquake didn't even spare the sound of breathing. The story of two souls trying to mend a wound in a torn town.

Pier Lorenzo Pisano Italy

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At the end of summer, Rosa (50) arrives at her husband’s resort – a small hotel in the vast dry steppe, to check on staff and collect the accounts. An unexpected encounter interrupts the routine of her stay and awakens her long gone passion for swimming.

Zhannat Alshanova United Kingdom, Kazakhstan

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Sara, a 22-year-old girl is babysitter to 5-year-old Matin. One day Matin tells a story that makes Sara plan to steal something from the house.

Arian Vazirdaftari Iran

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While waiting for the arrival of the mysterious newcomer, people keep on guessing who he is. The blurry vision of the stranger takes shape the way his presence feels almost real. The initial excitement of the crowd turns into anxiety.

Marta Magnuska Poland

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Irene and Juan escape a get together with friends to talk about the state of their relationship. No matter how hard they try, nothing will be the same.

Constanza Gatti Argentina

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Hidden in a house far from the city, Alonso (11) accompanies his dear sister, Daniela (17). She expects to become the seventh wife of El León, a prophet who, according to legend, electrocutes you when you touch him.

Diego Céspedes Chile

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People start dying after the arrival of a mysterious stranger in a small Australian town.

Eryk Lenartowicz Australia

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drawing by Éloise Girard

drawing by Jonas Ritter

A mermaid is going to try to seduce two sailors but not everything is going to happen as expected...

Louise Aubertin, Éloise Girard, Marine Meneyrol, Jonas Ritter, Loucas Rongeart, Amandine Thomoux France

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Hector is a lonely man who assists suicides in Mexico City. Monica is a young woman who longs for death. Their encounter will unleash unsuspected consequences for both of them.

Ariel Gutiérrez Mexico

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A gay love story set in a one bedroom apartment in Tel Aviv. They meet, they have sex, they fall in love. Will it last until the morning comes? Drawing by: Chen Chefetz (actor)

Ori Aharon Israel

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“Some days you wake up and you don’t know how or why but everything feels different.” Katrine leads an ordinary life, with a regular job and a happy relationship with her boyfriend, Patrick, until one day she awakes to find the world around her has changed: it is as it has always been, but somehow it’s strange!

Lucia Bulgheroni United Kingdom

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Sixteen year old Charlotte ambles through a summer day when she's followed home by Tommy, an older guy. Tommy helps her escape her loneliness, but after betraying her trust, Charlotte must decide what matters to her most.

Jamie Dack USA

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On the day of her one-year anniversary with S‚ tefan, Ana offers him an unexpected gift – she agrees to be surrogate mother for the baby S‚ tefan, can't have with his wife.

Georgiana Moldoveanu Romania

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Losing Ourselves in the Washing Machine

– an interview with Valentina Maurel, the winner of the Cinéfondation prize in 2017 interview by Janka Pozsonyi

A young girl and an older man from her past reconnect for a few days, but as time goes by, nothing seems certain in their eerie time together. It seems that in the world of Valentina Maurel, director of Paul Is Here – the winner of the main prize of the Cinéfondation last year – the feelings of anxiety, loneliness and love are just as complex and dream-like as we experience them in real life. Meet the director who won the chance to show her first feature in Cannes! Cristian Mungiu – winner of several Cannes Palme d’Ors – as the head of jury found your short film the best in the Cinéfondation selection last year. Has his or any other jury member’s (like Barry Jenkins, the director of Moonlight) advice stayed with you? I would say it's Cristian Mungiu's advice that really stayed with me. He told me that he thought it was good that my film, while being a student film, was a simple film with a small story and not too many characters. He said young filmmakers tend to be over ambitious or want to show what they can do when you should think of the film’s own interest. It made me understand that simplicity is actually a challenging and difficult choice. Besides winning the award, what is the best memory that comes to mind about

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your days in Cannes? A feeling, a smell or a taste even? I keep saying it was a dreamy feeling. I can’t remember any taste of food because I almost couldn’t eat while I was there. I remember the happy feeling of an empty stomach and running on adrenaline. Maybe it was because of not eating that made the whole experience so dreamy! That's my best memory, to be living on adrenaline and excitement, more than food or even air. Did you make Paul Is Here as your graduation short film? The interaction and the tension between your characters are quite unique, not made in a traditional way. How did your teachers react to this? Yes, it was my graduation short film. Some of my teachers didn't like that tension and even advised me to take out some of the scenes. I'm glad I didn't take those scenes out now, but I did have doubts during editing. I thought maybe my film was too strange. Now I think that's what makes it more interesting. What makes this father-daughter relationship special to you? The fact that it is so unconventional that it could seem like anything but a father/ daughter relationship from afar but still it is one. It makes me question relationships that are taken for granted when the reality

drawing by Valentina Maurel – from the Cannes 2017 edition of World of Young Cinema’s Mapping Your Mind

still image from Paul Is Here

is way more exuberating and complex than that.

basic idea behind the images for you and your cinematographer?

We can only guess about their shared history, the basis of their broken relationship. What do you think happened between them in the past? And what will happen to Jeanne, after her ghost has passed?

We weren't too theoretical about it. We just wanted to translate visually the moments in which the characters were close or distant one from another, emotionally, I mean. And when they would feel small and lost in the frame, like someone small and lost enough to fit in a washing machine.

I prefer not to think about that. I really like to keep everything within the frame of my script. Even the actors didn't get any more information about their characters. It's up to the viewer’s imagination and desire to do the rest. Since their encounter is so short and sensitive, I wondered if Paul is truly a ghost, someone special from the past, that still finds its way back to her mind. In this sense, we all have a Paul with us at certain times. How do you feel as a filmmaker, getting different interpretations on your movies? I love it! I think it's interesting that people talk about a ghost, I hadn't thought of it like that. But after all he is kind of a ghost and that's almost the story of the film. He isn't really there, but his presence does make a difference in Jeanne's life. I like it when people find their own words to approach the film. The use of camera in your film is almost like a third character observing the father and daughter very closely, it even peeks into the dreams of Jeanne. What was the

How did the Cinéfondation prize affect your filmmaking ever since? What are your plans after graduation? The Cinéfondation opened many possibilities for me. It allowed me to meet producers and finance my future projects. Right now, I’m working on a short film that I will shoot in Costa Rica, my country of origin. And I am working on a feature script. Winning the prize also meant that you can show your first feature film at the festival in the future. Have you started working on your first feature yet? Can you tell us about it? If yes, what are the differences between making short and feature films? Well I can't really talk about it yet. All I can say is that it is more difficult to write a feature, which sounds obvious, but now I truly realise how it is a really long process. On the other hand I enjoy that a lot because it allows you to take the time to explore many different subjects and possibilities with a single project.

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“Producing Chose Me” World of Young Cinema is proud to introduce 2018’s Producers on the Move. We asked young producers about their beginnings, experiences, and anecdotes. They also told us about their dreams for European cooperation and the magical and life-defining powers of E.T.

illustration by Réka Bucsi

text by Zsuzsanna Deák

20 of the most promising, up-andcoming European producers have been selected to take part in EFP's high-profile networking platform at the Cannes Film Festival. During the five-day event between May 10–14, the exclusive group will take part in a tailor-made programme in order to foster international co-productions, intensify the exchange of experiences and help create new professional networks. EFP's longstanding programme is financially backed by the Creative Europe – MEDIA Programme of the European Union and the participating EFP member organisations. Two producers of this year's high profile group of Producers on the Move will present their films in the festival: Woman at War by Benedict Erlingsson and co-produced by Iceland's Birgitta Björnsdóttir will screen in the Critics'

Week, while the artistic documentary Samouni Road by Stefano Savona from Italy, co-produced by Marco Alessi together with French partners, will celebrate its premiere in the Directors' Fortnight. In addition, former Producers on the Move will be competing with their films for the Palme d'Or: Girls of the Sun by Eva Husson was produced by Didar Domehri and co-produced by Vladimer Katcharava and Joseph Roushop. Cold War by Pawel Pawlikowski was executive produced by Piotr Dzieciol, and Happy as Lazzaro by Alice Rohrwacher, featuring former European Shooting Star Alba Rohrwacher, was produced by Tiziana Soudani. Last but not least The Wild Pear Tree by Nuri Bilge Ceylan was co-produced by Labina Mitevska and Fabian Gasmia.

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photo by Géraldine Aresteanu

DENMARK Per Damgaard Hansen is a producer and Managing Director of Copenhagen-based production Company Masterplan Pictures. His very first project as producer was a short film based on a never before realized screenplay by Michelangelo Antonioni. The film was shot on 16mm in the Amazon Jungle.


Godard’s 1960 classic À bout de souffle was my first “wow” experience. Even though it was from 1960 it felt very contemporary, playful and experimenting to me. I really admire Godard for constantly challenging traditional filmmaking throughout his entire career.

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I believe in the big screen and the focused experience we get in cinemas and how the cinema experiences can be both physical, emotional and intellectual. I do take part in the creative/artistic aspects of the film’s creation. I consider myself a filmmaker and I love working closely with the main crew on all artistic aspects of the film. I find it very inspiring and stimulating to work with people from other countries because it gives different perspectives on the creative parts as well as on the process. Co-production makes everything more fun and I think each project benefits greatly from it.

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SWEDEN David Herdies is a producer and the founder of Momento Film. Herdies started as a percussionist then moved to still photography and studies in History of Religion before finding himself enchanted by the world of cinema at the age 30.


I watched Fellini’s 8½ 20 years ago, actually long before I started working with films. I was impressed how you could work with light, time, and multilayered narrative arches – I was blown away of what you could do with film.


I direct as well, but less and less. When I made my second feature documentary, The Guerilla Son, we didn’t find a producer and I ended up producing it myself. During the process I realized that I really liked producing and had a way to make financiers, team and other partners to feel confidence in me and my projects.

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I like juggling many things at the same time, so producing also comes natural to me as I am part of a lot of different processes at the same time. I think this suits my temperament. I am very involved in all my projects from an early stage – whether it’s a script for a feature film or research shootings for a documentary. In many ways this is my favourite part of the process, to really find and crystallize the core of the film and its aesthetic vision.

LITHUANIA Lukas Trimonis likes turning ideas into films and hitting makiwara.


Good Will Hunting was a life-changing experience for me. I was 17 back then and I didn’t think about filmmaking at all, I was preparing to become a military jet pilot, but Good Will Hunting changed that course and after another 17 years I am a film producer


I decided to become a producer because of Mads Egmont, my production teacher at European Film College. I went there looking forwards to become a director, but Mads mesmerised me with the world of production by deconstructing all the creative, legal, financial aspects behind it and my brain loved the game of those areas!

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The most challenging problem to me as a producer was finding more money than planned. My most adventurous location scouting experience was at a pig farm with real pigs and real smell – if you haven’t been in one, you can’t imagine what I am talking about. Co-productions are great if creative vision of producers and director are alike. I am a strong believer that if stories are well told they can be “decoded” anywhere if the “decoder” is a human. Working transnationally helps to make stories more universal.

ICELAND Birgitta Björnsdóttir began her career in the film business in 2010 after finishing an MA in Filmmaking from the London Film School. She started her company Vintage Pictures in 2011 and has to date produced 3 features and co-produced another 4 international features.

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The first film I really remember seeing was E.T. I was very young, and just remember loving it and really forgetting myself in the world it created. I really like being part of a project from beginning till the end, and so producing really appealed to me. If I am the producer of a film, I only want to be involved if I have creative input. Once I was location scouting on top of a glacier in the largest glacier of Iceland, Vatnajökull, in the middle of October. It was amazing. I’ve done several international coproductions. You learn that even though filmmaking is basically the same anywhere, everyone does things differently – so you have to adjust. I expect to meet like-minded people and grow lasting partnerships and hopefully friendships in Cannes.

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FINLAND Miia Haavisto is a producer from Finland and one of few people in her generation who adore cross-country skiing.

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It is good to be able to laugh lots in this ever-surprising job. Whatever that is of high quality, fresh, happens with good people, has an audience and makes sense financially, is for me. Where do I see myself in ten years’ time? My company has then become a major player in the Scandinavian market and a relevant partner on a global level. As a producer I will mostly work with people I know from before, but cannot resist seeking out a new talent every now and then.


An international co-production is always a great learning opportunity. It allows one to get to know so many talented people and new ways of approaching the many problems to be solved. The filmmakers are a tribe of their own, no matter where they come from.


I look forward to meeting new people in Cannes and to have a peek at what kind of projects the fellow participants have up their sleeve.

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SWITZERLAND Katrin Renz has been working as a producer for tellfilm since 2007 and produced Lisa Brühlmann's Swiss Film Award winner Blue My Mind which had its world premiere in San Sebastian's New Directors sidebar in 2017.

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The films by Derek Jarman showed me that anything is possible if you really want it and if you have something to tell. My greatest challenge has been producing a low-budget film in Switzerland and Japan with a 70-yearold and a 9-year-old main actor. But we managed, and we had the most wonderful crew in Japan, working with Twenty First City as service producers.

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In my dreams, in ten years’ time I will be a successful producer producing fantastic co-productions, celebrating world-premieres at A-Festivals and not having to fight for money any longer. I started as a script consultant and I love to develop the scripts together with the author/director. Though, during shooting and post-production it is the director’s film and I (often) give input and advise, but the director can always convince me regarding his/her decision.



Marco Alessi is a European-Sicilian producer, ex screenplayer for box office hits, now devoted to daring and engaged arthouse films.

Rok Sečen is a producer from Slovenia. Owning two horses and growing tobacco he should make an arthouse western someday.

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When I first saw Murnau's Tabu, I asked to myself, “what is this?” Documentary or fiction? Where's the line? Once I had to deal with a collapsed road and an isolated and tired crew waiting on the other side of it. Once I was location scouting in Canneto di Caronia, a place in Sicily where a few years ago things were burning in front of you without any justifiable reason. All the films I've produced with my company are co-productions. It's demanding but at the same time you feel the strength of being European, and the power to work together looking beyond.


I chose writing before producing chose me. Short or feature? It is not the length that matters. My hardest challenges has been not to insult people that are insulting you. My most adventurous location scouting memory? Chasing a steam train with a van, sweating in a mine 300m below the surface, jumping ten meter waterfalls while canyoning, … International co-productions turned out being enriching experiences for me, the team, and the project, yet if it can be done solo you can save some nerves and stress.

illustration by Réka Bucsi

My good luck charm is the siren. Or, to be more precise, the dugong, the animal that inspired the myth of sirens or mermaids. By pure coincidence the name of my company.

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photo by Alina Bader

GERMANY Fabian Massah is a producer from Berlin, whose (co-)productions won many awards and were released internationally.


Goodfellas has had a sustaining impact on me since I first saw the film. I was 15 back then, and even over the years, with my perspective changing naturally, and watching the film so many times, I always discover new layers, new details.


It‘s the combination of so many things during the filmmaking process that I love – from the idea to developing stories, bringing people together who bring a vision to life, financing, organizing, marketing, running a company. And the privilege to work with a whole range of great professionals.

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Taking part in the creative aspects is at the core of my work as a producer. This is where everything starts and what remains important to me throughout the entire process. I am looking forward to meeting fellow producers and discuss projects, but also about issues that have an impact on our industry, be it by politics or tech, and how this will have effects the ways we will produce in the future. It‘s gonna be quite exciting.

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SLOVAKIA Peter Badač graduated from FAMU in Prague and now works as an independent producer for BFILM based in Bratislava and Prague. Besides producing, he is a professional scuba diver and parachutist.


I have always liked the paperwork. I am a very meticulous and organized person and this doesn’t come along with being actor or director, because they are usually very emotional. But that’s good. I think the best teams are made of passionate and emotional authors and a rational and organized producer.


I really believe that a film can reach the audience not only as a film, but also through other platforms like video games, interactive website or board games, so now I am working more on transmedia projects starting with our animation documentary Once there was a sea…


I think creative work is one of the biggest tasks and challenges for a producer and it’s important to prove that producers are not only dealing with financing and paperwork, but they can also be creative members of the team.


In our last film we had some scenes in a psychiatry ward, and we realised that the best location to shoot this would be an actual psychiatry ward. We shot our scenes there and it looks so scary! Many people ask where we shot those scenes, and nobody believes us when we tell them the truth.

CZECH REPUBLIC Radovan Síbrt wanted to be anything but producer.


In communist Czechoslovakia, my mother took me, my brother and my sister to see E.T. It was the first Hollywood production I had the chance to see. My mother had to queue up for hours in order to get the tickets. But she could only get tickets for the original version in English and we could not read the subtitles, we were too young. So she would whisper to us from time to time what was going on. But we did not care. We watched and cried. It is hard to forget.


I studied documentary film directing and looked for a producer who would be a partner, who would be able to stay close to me, to discuss the film with me, encourage me, and give feedback. And I could not find anybody. So I basically gave up directing and now I try to do what I was looking for.

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I need to be very close to the creative process. I have to fall in love with the topic; I have to believe in it. And we have to become partners with the director. Once we went to meet the leader of the Slovak Recruits, a paramilitary group in Slovakia, with a very nationalistic, very authoritarian ideology and this guy would take us to a café in a former synagogue. He would admire the architecture and at the same time talk about Slovak nation, the need to protect it all from the immigrants. That was a moment I think about a lot.


I hope to meet somebody who tells me something surprising in Cannes.

FRANCE Nicolas Anthomé is still not able to define what a producer is after working as a producer for more than 10 years…

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L'enfance nue by Maurice Pialat is the most moving film ever for me. Being obsessed by the same project for years sounds like a vanity to me, I prefer helping genuine artists. My greatest challenge as a producer has been financing and producing a film in Japanese directed by a French, located in Cambodia as the story takes place in the Philippines. In ten years’ time I see myself retired in Provence – or still thinking about it.


Aija Berzina is the founder of the Riga International Film Festival. Her first film with the company Tasse Film founded by herself – Renars Vimba’s feature Mellow Mud – premiered at the Berlinale Generation 14plus programme, where it won the Crystal Bear for best film.

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I began working with documentary films. I've done shorts. But feature films – narrative cinema is the bug that has bitten me hardest. In ten years’ time, I will still be telling stories, still getting great stories out there to their potential audiences, still learning to do it better. I guess my favourite stages of production is when we're developing the project and the process of editing. To me those are crucial moments when the most important decisions have to be made and it is important to stay close to the director and the team to achieve the best possible result.


All the projects we do we do as co-productions on an international scale. Not just because it's the way of Europe in general – also because I believe an international collaboration is potentially a more creative one.

Oliver Sertic is a documentary producer and festival programmer from Zagreb, currently living in Berlin. He has produced around 30 feature and short documentaries and experimental films. For 18 years he worked as a journalist.

SPAIN Luisa Romeo is a Spanish producer based in Galicia. Her aim is to produce quality auteur movies with commercial potential and worldwide relevance.

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Most probably my first “wow” was E.T. when I was a kid, for the miracles it brought to me on the big screen. In high school I was acting in a local theatre and wanted to enrol for the Acting University, but I ended up studying Political Science. Production brought additional creative joy and a lot of Excel sheets to my life. Not many people understand what you really do to make films happen and it is exhausting to explain it again and again. Challenges are constant and always something different pops up that you need to solve, sometimes it’s a deadline, sometimes issues with some part of the crew, sometimes the lack of money and sometimes the computer decides to crash with all materials one day before the premiere…


For me it is very important to be present in the creative process from the beginning, especially when I work with debutants. I think this is also part, and for me the most interesting part, of a producer’s job.


Co-production is not always easy and smooth but in the end it pays off after film is done. I have definitely learned a lot of tolerance, and how to breathe properly.

The first film made me say “wow” was Dead Poets Society. At that time I was a teenager and the movie made me understand how cinema can change the way you see things. We had a shooting plan of two months in Argentina when the main character of the film decided, after four days of filming, that she had finished her work, and shooting was over… we were in shock! I have learnt from international coproductions that you need to choose your partners carefully because it is going to be a long relationship – it is like a marriage! Cannes is a great opportunity for networking and also visibility for me as a producer and for my project titled Three.

illustration by Réka Bucsi

photo by Anca Paunescu




Esko Rips is a producer from Estonia. The first feature film produced by him, the family adventure film Secret Society of Souptown, rapidly ascended to become Estonia’s most watched family film of all time and subsequently was sold to eight countries and to Netflix USA.

Åshild Ariane Ramborg is a passionate producer who lives to bring strong stories to the big screen – stories that entertain, communicate and/or resonate with a broad audience across borders. Before she fully focused on film, she worked as a choreographer for a short period of time.



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I grew up during the Soviet Union rule, behind the iron curtain where on TV we had 2 state run channels and a VHS player arrived to our family from Finland when I turned 11, so naturally all the first Western films I saw made me go “wow!”. It was then when I saw all the classics like Mad Max, Blade Runner, Emmanuelle, The Troops on Vacation, E.T., Rocky, Star Wars, but also Cassavetes and of course Charlie Chaplin. It was all just very different of what we were used to see. I try to not get too involved in the creative process as I usually trust my creative team in their decisions and artistic vision. Co-production has to come organically, the story should address you in a personal perspective and in the bigger picture as well. I guess it’s a bit like a short term marriage so naturally there should be a spark from the beginning. Never grow up – it's a trap!

I was 15 when Baz Luhrmann’s Romeo + Juliet was released. It blew my mind, being such a visual, energetic feast – and made me buy The complete works of Shakespeare for the first (and last!) time. I had such a girl crush on Claire Danes (aka Angela in the brilliant show My So-Called Life)! The great thing about being a producer is that you don’t need to know a lot about one thing. But you learn a lot about almost everything along the way. I have learned that it’s easy to get lost in translation! However, the joy of coproducing when it really works across borders, is unbeatable. I truly hope and expect to establish some long-lasting work relationships. I hope that the Producers on the Move programme will generate universal, cinematic and unforgettable stories that communicate with a broad audience. Whenever I need to clear my mind or gain some superpowers for a short while, I ride my portable scooter – preferably in the office hallway. Life is so much easier with a portable scooter... WOYC by 45

We would like to provide you with a short guide to help you find your way around the maze of Cannes’ sections and parallel programmes, which festival veterans often refer to as by their French name.

The Essential Cannes Dictionary “In order to achieve this level of longevity, the Festival de Cannes has remained faithful to its founding purpose: to draw attention to and raise the profile of films, with the aim of contributing towards the development of cinema, boosting the film industry worldwide and celebrating cinema at an international level.” Thierry Frémaux, festival director


‘o cial selection’ a collection that serves to highlight the diversity of cinematic creation through its different sections COMPÉTITION ‘competition’ films that are representative of “arthouse cinema with a wide audience appeal”

UN CERTAIN REGARD ‘a certain regard’ focuses on works that have an original aim and aesthetic, and are guaranteed to make a discreet but strong impact on screens around the world.

HORS COMPÉTITION ‘out of competition’ films that are not competing for prizes but still deserve a screening and a reaction from the audience and the press

CANNES CLASSICS masterpieces from the history of cinema in restored copies, tributes to filmmakers or foreign cinema and documentaries on filmmaking.

CINÉFONDATION short films from film schools all over the world offering a testimony to the diversity and dynamism of young international filmmakers.

SÉANCES SPÉCIALES SÉANCES DE MINUIT ‘special screenings’ – ‘midnight screenings’ special opportunities to view more personal works




‘film market’ a gathering place to promote the dual cultural and economic nature of cinema, where film professionals get together to exchange information, hold negotiations and uncover new opportunities. 46 WOYC by

‘international village’ an exhibition and networking venue that enables countries to showcase and raise the profiles of their cinematography, cultural identity and film institutions

‘directors’ fortnight’ its aim is to bring new talents to the fore and surprise the audiences with new and unknown facets of young talents, and to show what’s most exciting in world cinema and what rises to the top among the new trends.

CANNES COURT MÉTRAGE ‘Cannes short film’

an entitiy that brings together two sections – the Short Film Corner and the Short Film Competition – in a complementary dynamic in an attempt to offer an all-encompassing panorama of short film production worldwide, as well as to stimulate the creativity of short film artists. SHORT FILM CORNER an area where filmmakers can come together to exchange ideas and promote films with a programme including industry meets, workshops and conferences

COMPÉTITION ‘competition’ a selection of short films represented at the Competition, at the end of which the Short Films Jury awards a Palme d’Or (‘Golden Palm’)

CINÉFONDATION SÉLECTION ‘selection’ part of the official selection with a programme of short and medium-length films (see Sélection Officielle)

ATELIER ‘atelier’ an initiative that selects about fifteen projects for feature-length films from every corner of the world and welcomes their directors to meet a team of film professionals, giving them a chance to gain access to international financing and speed up the production process

SEMAINE DE LA CRITIQUE ‘critics’ week’ a showcase of first and second feature films by directors from all over the world; the aim of this programme is to explore and reveal new creations by discovering new talents both in feature films and in short films

RÉSIDENCE ‘residence’ a programme that every year invites twelve young directors working on their first or second fictional feature film project and provides them with a place of residence in Paris, a personalised programme accompanying the writing of their scripts and forums with industry professionals (see page 28 for further information)

L’ACID a sidebar that takes its name from the initials of its sponsor, the Association de cinéma indépendent pour sa diffusion or ’Association for the Distribution of Independent Cinema’, an association of film directors which, since 1992, that has been promoting the cinema distribution of independent films and encouraging debates between authors and audiences.

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Yellow Submarine


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Do you miss animation films at the Cannes Film Festival? Go to the Animation Day on the 16th of May! text by Zsófi Herczeg

Even though the Cannes Film Festival accepts submissions that are not only live-action films, they select very few animated works into the programme. Most animations can be found in the short film competitions, though it would be an exaggeration to use the word “most” for so few films.

Another Day of Life

This year, eight films got selected for the short film competition programme of which only one is an animated work: III, by the Polish filmmaker Marta Pajek, is the story of a man and a woman who seduce and expose themselves to each other. There is a selection of films from film schools all over the world in the Cinéfondation programme: 17 are competing for the Short Film Palme d’Or, of which three are animated shorts: Sailor’s Delight by students at the École Supérieure des Métiers Artistiques in France, The Other (Inny) by Marta Magnuska from the National Film School in Poland, and Inanimate by Luca Bulgheroni from the National Film and Television School in the United Kingdom. Furthermore, an animated feature was selected for the Special Screenings programme: Another Day of Life by Raúl de la Fuente and Damian Nenow, a hybrid of live-action scenes and animated documentary that tells the story of Ryszard Kapuściński, a journalist who covered independence movements throughout Africa in the 1970s. Due to the under-representation of animated films at Cannes, one of the most prestigious festivals in the world, Animaze – Montreal International Animation Film Festival and created Animation Day in Cannes (ADIC) in 2015 to fill a void in the animation community and provide a place for networking, promotion and fun for animation films, animators and anyone who loves animation. 2018 will be the fourth edition of the event, which will

take place on the 16th of May during the Cannes Film Festival and Market. ADIC includes a competition programme called Animaze Daze in Cannes as well as a series of events dedicated to promoting animation: besides the screenings of shorts and feature films, animation buffs can watch web and television series, multimedia and VR projects and can also learn about projects in development. ADIC is clearly not just a screening place, but a meeting and promotional platform for recent films and future projects. In the last two years, it has become larger, offering a comprehensive line-up of 189 submitted shorts, features and scripts and a selection of 29 shorts and features to professionals in the animation industry. Last year films like My Life as a Zucchini by Claude Barras, Seoul Station by Yeon Sang-ho, the Academy Award-winning Piper by Alan Barillaro, and Wednesday with Goddard by Nicolas Ménard were screened at ADIC, and the Animation that Matters Award went to three films: Junod by Shinichiro Kimura, Release from Heaven by Ali Noori Oskouei, and Iqbal by Michel Fuzellier and Babak Payami. In 2018, we already know that the Beatles’ iconic and psychedelic animated movie Yellow Submarine will receive the Animation that Matters Award for the 50th anniversary of the film’s original release, an award that will be accepted by one of the film’s own animators, Gerald Potterton (Heavy Metal).

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illustration by RĂŠka Bucsi

Distribution Dilemmas

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Never has the issue of film distribution been as current as over the last few months, since Cannes changed the festival’s rule requiring all competing titles to be available for French theatrical distribution. The Cannes–Netflix disagreements have been the talk of the town, and filmmakers and producers all over the world now face the big decision: streaming or theatre? On the following pages, we try to give you some insight about this exciting and controversial topic.

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Film Experience(s) The current debate about film distribution, on the surface, is about how we should encounter films. Though it takes some good faith or naivety to assume that this discussion is really about art, we might as well play along, ride the waves and use this new channel to deepen the dialogue. text by Adam Harangozó

Having just a few strong voices can easily seem like they represent all the possible versions of the debate. It is tempting to oversimplify the Netflix vs. Cannes situation as having two poles, which can also be replaced with terms like cinema vs. VoD, traditional vs. modern, sacred vs. profane, etc. The whole narrative of taking sides is misleading however, as it implies that there is an “ideal” way for watching films. It is worth reminding ourselves there is a middle ground: the very diverse ways of how people actually distribute and access films. The following list is an eclectic and hectic glimpse into the various alternative modes of distribution which try to expand cinema audiences. Some of the projects approach film distribution by taking into account the different sociocultural and economic aspects of their target audience, others are inspired by the underlying ideas of internet, such as open access and decentralisation.

KineDok Coordinated by the Institute of Documentary Film, KineDok defines itself as a Central European community with the aim of providing alternative distribution of creative documentaries which might face difficulties in reaching a wider audience. By bringing cinema to non-traditional locations such as pubs, cafés, art galleries, film clubs, schools or even churches, they bridge the physical gap between the films and the audience while making the screenings more accessible in terms of ticket prices. 52 WOYC by

The project also intends to transform watching documentaries into a community experience by not only showing the film but also giving a chance for the audience to meet with the filmmakers, engage in dialogue, and reclaim the documentary genre in interactive ways.

Solar Cinema Watching films on the big screen is an experience – which not all of us can afford to have. THE PROJECT SET OUT TO DEMOCRATISE ACCESS TO CINEMA BY MOBILISING IT WITH SOLAR POWER AND TAKING IT TO PLACES FAR FROM TRADITIONAL VENUES. A high quality screening and sound system is transported and charged by vans equipped with solar panels. At night, they unfold into cinemas, transforming remote and unusual public places into open-air theatres. These self-sustainable movie theatres present free screenings of films, mostly shorts revolving around social and environmental issues. Starting out from the Netherlands, the network of solar cinemas reaches across the globe with initiatives in Australia, Brasil, Croatia, Indonesia, South Africa among others.

Magyarhangya National initiatives can also offer inspiring alternative outlets for film distribution in a changing or restricted market. One such venture is the Hungarian company Magyarhangya which tries to find community-based answers to the effects of online overload in a country with a shrinking cinema audience and a tiny independent film market. One of their early experiments was an event-based distribution of a Hungarian concert film: instead of showing it for a sustained period in half empty cinema halls, they organised a limited number of screenings taking place at different cities at the same time. Quickly sold out,

the events had the band checking-in live after the film. Continuing along the lines of event-based distribution, their followup initiatives included a pass-system for a set of international festival favourites. The six films, included in the pass, were again screened only once with complementary workshops and parties. They also co-organised the international Scope50 project where fifty film buffs were selected by each of the participating countries to act as juries for an online film festival. The teams watched ten independent films and picked one for actual distribution in their country. They were also involved in designing the release and marketing campaign of the film. The project was later expanded into Scope100 which just finished its fourth run.

Crowdfunding Even if the history of cinema and the internet are not the same, they have become increasingly intertwined. AFTER BEING AROUND FOR A DECADE NOW, CROWDFUNDING PLATFORMS HAVE PROVED TO BE A GREAT TOOL FOR CIRCUMVENTING THE TRADITIONAL FILMMAKING PROCESS. Already established names use the platforms to fund production budgets, think Anomalisa or Loving Vincent. Many crowdfunded films fared well at bigger festivals and received Oscar nods. Besides decentralising financing, it is also a tool for distribution: Ryan M. Kennedy’s The Projectionist was actually shot and edited before the campaign, and crowdfunding was only used to cover the costs of cinema release. Above a certain amount of contribution, most campaigns provide the “perk” of watching the actual film. This way the audience basically reserves their “seats” before the film is even finished. Complementing traditional distribution, this usually means a limited screening, an online streaming event or a digital copy. A more radical philosophy of “cutting out the middlemen” of distribution was proposed by the creators of Tex Montana Will Survive! The

goal of their crowdfunding for the already finished film was to be able to release it directly to the audience worldwide for free, under Creative Commons license.

Torrent Piracy was here before the internet and it’s here to stay, so why not join in? With 170 million active users, torrent is a powerful network more and more filmmakers discover as a platform. BitTorrent Bundles by the developer of the original protocol offers artists a way to turn torrents of their films into mini markets and a direct communication channel with their audience. Parts of the bundle are free to access but artists can decide what they ask from users for the full package: additional payments, contact data, link sharing, etc. It is a way to make revenue but also to get your name and film out there. THANKS TO THE DECENTRALISED PEERTO-PEER METHOD (PEOPLE USING EACH OTHERS’ BANDWITH), THERE ARE NO TECHNOLOGICAL COSTS THAT NEED TO BE COVERED, SO ARTISTS CAN ACTUALLY RECEIVE 90% SHARE OF THE REVENUES. This method also waives any size and quality limits. As sharing is caring, let’s not forget the social and cultural impact of joining this open space – aesthetically and morally significant The Act of Killing was able reach a wide audience, with more than 3,4 millions of downloads, probably many of which by users who otherwise could not afford it or access it legally. Another example is the sequel to The Man From Earth which, while also available on different official platforms, was uploaded to ThePirateBay by the filmmakers themselves after the first part was boosted to cult popularity by piracy. Perhaps setting a precedent, the film is downloadable in multiple file qualities, and the copies start with a message from the director asking for donations from the viewers who liked the film. In 3 months, they received $45,000, 15% of the production costs only from torrent users.

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photo by Louis Fauquembergue / FDC

VS A WAR ON THE FUTURE OF CINEMA? Cannes, arguably the world’s most prestigious film festival, and Netflix, probably the most popular streaming platform around the globe, started a dispute which quickly escalated into a war. While last year the Croisette has seen some booing about the Netflix logo displayed on festival territories and Pedro Almodóvar, Jury President of the Main Competition, made some statements criticizing the relationship of cinema and Netflix, this year the home entertainment corporation will not be present at all in Cannes. text by Zsombor Bobák

Netflix pulled its entire line-up and decided not to show any of its productions during the festival after Cannes has announced a change of rules, including a requirement for all main competition entries to hit cinemas. This new rule is a not so implicit move from the festival to pressure Netflix into a change of attitude about theatrical releases: last year Netflix was present in the Main Competition with two films, Okja and The Meyerowitz Stories, both of which have not been shown in French cinemas due to the country’s extreme protectionist laws, according to which films can only appear 54 WOYC by

on video on demand platforms three years after their theatrical release. This incident, and the many critical voices about Netflix’s exhibition methods that seem to devalue the importance of theatrical release resulted in the new festival rule which then caused Netflix to omit this year’s festival entirely. But what is this war truly about? Ted Sarandos, chief content officer of Netflix, proposed the following in an interview with Variety: “The festival has chosen to celebrate distribution rather than the art of cinema […] We are choosing to be about the future of cinema. If Cannes is choosing to be stuck in the history of cinema, that’s fine”. Regarding the ongoing battle, Thierry Fremaux, artistic director of the festival, stated that they are open to find a solution that would suit both parties, but also made remarks about the history of cinema and the history of the internet being two different things. In light of such comments it might seem that the dispute is primarily about the future of cinema and the cinematic arts. In this constellation, Cannes would represent the past and tradition, whereas Netflix would stand for the future and innovation. As romantic as it sounds, in actuality it seems to be about the position (and profit) of distributors. It is more the uproar of French distributors that led the festival to tighten its rules on a mandatory theatrical release for main competition films as this would safeguard their powerful positions in a fierce competition of theatre and internet releases.

VS. On the long run, Cannes and Netflix should find a compromise, as they both seem to lose more than to win with this duel. Grand contemporary auteurs, such as Paul Greengrass or Alfonso Cuarón are not able to show their works in the most prestigious film festival of all, which puts these filmmakers in a difficult position, but also threatens with Cannes losing great talent and masterpieces to other, less strict festivals such as Berlin, Venice, or Toronto. The transformation of both the festival landscape and modes of cinematic exhibition becomes possible through this dispute, but it is very uncertain what such transformation would bring and what would that mean for the cinematic arts in general. Overall, Netflix’s method of sending their pictures to limited cinemas at the same time as the films become available on their online platform, or in many cases, dismissing theatres entirely, could seem unnecessary and disrespectful towards the history of cinema. Especially, when other major streaming platforms, such as Amazon, have no issues with sending their films first to theatres and then making them available online (Amazon sends Paweł Pawlikowski’s Cold War to this year’s Main Competition in Cannes). Moreover, quality productions of Netflix are deserving to be shown on the big screen as this is the interest of the film as a piece of art. Concurrently, Cannes’s new rule in the face of the extreme French protection laws also sound somewhat ridiculous. The history of cinema and the

internet might not be the same, but they very much influence each other, and by now, they are very much intertwined. Also, on a more practical level, theatres can mainly provide for a smaller, mostly urban circle, whereas Netflix – through the internet – is able to reach out to a wider audience. In today’s “do you wanna Netflix and chill?” atmosphere such strict rules might be counterproductive. Ultimately, as long as Netflix productions are “traditional” cinematic productions, it seems problematic for these films to miss the movie theatre, a space specifically designed for the exhibition of cinematic works. At the same time, Cannes and the French distributors should catch up with the fast-paced internet generation and acknowledge that distribution is a multifaceted encounter and new models could have their own legitimacy. Coexistence and cooperation might lead to better places than immature wars about “the future of cinema”.

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TV Series = the End of Cinema? It has been more than 120 years since the first film started rolling in the Lumière brothers’ machine. Surely, they would never have imagined that one day there would be a vast festival with several thousands of visitors, and the largest screening room in the world named after them. text by Dániel Deák

illustration by Réka Bucsi

Lumiere Brothers: The Arrival of a Train

However, the story of moving images goes back even before 1895. The laterna magica, the kinetoscope, the chronograph, and several other experiments all wanted to present motion pictures to an audience. Then cinema seemed to be the ultimate place to screen stories and nobody could even imagine a different way of consuming moving images – some said it would mean the end of theatre as well. When television appeared, many people forecasted the end of the cinematic era.

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This did not happen, so we would be foolhardy to believe that digitalisation or the internet might kill it either. The different ways of watching films are getting more and more complex, and it will be interesting to see what the future holds and what new options will be available to us to watch motion pictures. The world wide web and cinema were not the best friends around the dawn of the internet. This new platform represented a total freedom, with all of its pros and cons. All of a sudden many films were available, and even classic works could be watched more easily. If you had the right sources and you were willing to investigate how to search and download, you could find everything: it was a brand new phenomenon. Since the birth of cinema, accessing film (finding the right screenings, getting tickets, going to the video library, catching a film on TV) had always been fairly difficult. Suddenly, the entire back catalogue of movies became readily available. That was the positive side. The rights were not clarified however and there was no business model behind it to help filmmakers generate a revenue stream. Also, from a technical – or user experience – point of view, watching films online was not at all convenient. One had to download files and then play them with certain software – this method still exists, but will fade away soon, just like the sound of rewinding a VHS tape. Low bandwidth and limited internet connection did not help the habit of watching films online

– WHEN FILM WENT ONLINE AND HOW THIS CHANGED THE CONSUMER MODEL either. This meant that it was mainly geeks and IT professionals who had the chance to see films online in the early days and The majority still accessed film through the traditional formats of cinema, TV and DVD. It was an important milestone when YouTube and other streaming platforms were launched. Technologically it was a huge step forward not to have to download the videos, but to watch them instantly. This opened the door for a whole new business model: ‘free-to-view’, with ad- sponsored videos. It was said that the best things on the internet were for free – and it was especially true for films. And this caused problems: YouTube made huge losses for years until they were lucky to have Google eventually step-in and finance them. Then the big distributors started to launch their own platforms for feature film and TV series content (Hulu, Joost), but they continued to struggle with how to monetize this investment. Even though the financing part was not resolved, from the film historian’s point of view streaming platforms created new habits for the audience. Nobody wants to wait any more for a film to be released: anything anytime – that’s the new motto. Which of course is very convenient, but also raises new questions regarding the way films are watched. Since the platforms are forced to feed the audience with novelties, an immense amount of content is generated and the pace of production and consumption becomes ever more rapid. This may pose a real threat to the feature film format and the cinemas

screening them, because a TV series can work much better to serve this new habit.

Understanding of this habit led us to the business model which seems to currently work best: getting subscribers who pay a monthly fee for the service. This means that people don’t pay for individual artworks (like at the cinema), they pay for a service (just like TV broadcasting). Unlike on television however, the show is not live, so all the content has to be made (scripted, directed, recorded) beforehand. This works best with TV series: a season of a successful series provides more than 12 hours of content, which can be much more effectively written, produced, marketed and then binged on than 12 hours of featurelength or short films. Films – especially indie and arthouse – do not fit easily into this new consumption model. As I said earlier this change will not kill cinema and feature films. It will always be an exceptional form of entertainment and self-expression. The internet is just a new challenge which needs to be tackled. In the meantime we can enjoy new TV series too, and think about how to create a new model that will bring arthouse films to the internet too. Sometimes the distribution of films and changes in cinema can be as exciting and challenging as the films themselves.

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How Would You Like Your Films to Be Seen?

To broaden the discussion and move it a bit away from the decision makers, we asked directors whose work will be present at this year’s festival about how they imagine their films in the future of cinema. Our question to the people who actually create the content of the current debate was simple: how would you like your films to be seen? text by Adam Harangozó

Ori Aharon Dolfin Megumi (Rubber Dolphin) – Cinéfondation


I like to take small stories and make them big, so no doubt it should be screened big. It's not just the size, it's the set up – I don't want the viewer to be able to fast forward, stop in the middle or be active in any way, just to watch closely and listen carefully – for that, the old fashioned cinema experience is where I want to show my future films. But honestly, I just want my films to reach as many viewers possible, and secretly wish I could be present in the room with each of them, to see how they react.


Zhannat Alshanova

End of Season – Cinéfondation


Our life has become irretrievably individualistic and virtual. But I hope my films will be primarily experienced in the sacred darkness of the cinema, surrounded by other people.

illustration by Réka Bucsi


Nicolas Boone

Las cruces – Quinzaine des Réalisateurs


I imagine showing a film in a cinema where people are lying on a comfortable bed, the films are screened on the ceiling, and the audience can fall asleep.


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Michael Borodin Ya normalniy (Normal) – Semaine de la Critique


I would like my work to reach the audience as soon as possible. It’s not so important for me how the viewer will watch the movie: at home on the couch, on the train, on a mobile device or on the back of the seat in a plane. It's another matter when I sit in the movie theatre as an author and observe the reaction of the audience, but this is rather selfish. However I understand that there are some sacred rituals like going to the movies, where you and a few strangers are watching a film, and this is also very cool. But this ritual is not an excuse to deprive streaming resources of the opportunity to participate in festivals.


Lucia Bulgheroni Inanimate – Cinéfondation


I see cinema as a one way media. As a viewer, you can safely watch someone else's stories without answering back. I think it could be very interesting to find a way to make the audience more actively engaged. I love that kind of situation when suddenly your certainty breaks apart. That's the moment in which you can find your bare essence for a second and you have to re-make-up your own mind and do something. It's a change opportunity moment. And I think that's how I'd like my films to be – able to cause inner movement and give people the opportunity to experience that moment. I think that's how we can change our view of the world, questioning ourselves, rediscovering our will power and keeping our mind flexible to jump from our usual point of view to someone else's. That's how, I believe, we can be more empathetic as well, and welcoming toward what we don't know. I like a lot the idea of the “live cinema”, it's a bit like mixing cinema and theatre, and the viewer can become active during the film – involving a performance, provoking a dynamic experience in which the audience move from a passive role to an active one, putting himself in the game and becoming a part of the whole magic unrepeatable show.


Jamie Dack

Palm Trees and Power Lines – Cinéfondation


Personally, I prefer my films to be viewed in a theatre with an audience. However, I appreciate that we are living in a time where content is unusually accessible on many different devices. At the same time, I fear that important details from the film will be lost if it is being viewed on something as tiny as a cell phone screen.


Patrick Bresnan and Ivete Lucas Skip Day – Quinzaine des Réalisateurs



I learned to make observational films spending hours in the fine arts library at The University of Texas in Austin watching films that cost $180 to buy a DVD copy of. As much as I loved these films, I want our work to be free and accessible anywhere in the world. We see our films more as art projects and so we try to fund them through grants or distribution partners who will make them accessible without charge. We will always prioritize theatre screens at festivals before online distribution. We recently experimented by putting one of our films on YouTube. More people watched it in a week than in 2 years on Vimeo but it was like a slap in the face to read the offensive comments. I really feel like we are adapting our approach with each film and for some films the venue will be an art space and others we want anyone with a phone to be able to get a wireless signal and play it. Overall the future of film needs to be fluid, people need to be able to type our names into a box and have all of our films instantly. We are going to die and this is what we have to leave for future generations.




I dream of a day when good films are not treated as precious objects that ordinary people will not understand. I want everyone to have access to the films I make, especially young people in the most rural areas of the world. If they see my film on their phones, so be it, as long as they can see the films and be inspired.


Logan George and Celine Held Caroline – Court Métrage


We'll always choose a movie theatre – it's still the best environment for losing yourself in a story.


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Amanda Kramer Ladybird – Marché du Film Frontiéres

" Nandita Das Manto – Un Certain Regard


On a big screen with perfect projection and sound would of course be ideal. I would want all the little nuances that we work endlessly on, to reach the viewer. But I am no purist. Being an actor/director of independent films, I know my work and that of many others can be accessed only on viewing devices. Though the social experience of watching a film together is lost.


Constanza Gatti

Cinco minutos afuera (Five Minutes Outside) – Cinéfondation


I would like my films to be seen by as many people as possible. In an ideal world that would be in a movie theatre, with great projection, sound, and comfortable seats that would allow everyone to be submerged in the story that is being told. I’m a strong believer that cinema and art can change people’s lives, lift moods, embellish time. That’s why I believe everyone should keep on watching movies as much as they can... I think the most beautiful thing that can happen to a movie is to be seen by a thousand eyes.


Jacqueline Lentzou Ektoras Malo: I Teleftea Mera Tis Chronias (Hector Malot: The Last Day of the Year) – Semaine de la Critique


Regardless of the medium, the place or the context, I want my films to be seen with love and intimacy, thus with easy access any time of the day, like a hug from a close friend.


I'm a Luddite and in many ways an artistic traditionalist. I want my films to be seen in a theatre. But maybe rather than an obvious showing in a multiplex (which would be unlikely considering the work I do), a more thrilling route would be event-based screenings with live music, conversations, interactive aspects. Sadly but realistically, people need reasons to leave their homes/private spaces in order to engage with art. The theatre experience is a way of being held hostage, a complete warp of perspective. Never in life are we in complete darkness, with loud sound, and giant visuals – this already starts us off with a certain surreality. Then our disbelief can shift to belief more easily, immediately. Complete release, total trance. The theatre requires active viewership, putting the onus on the audience to stay attentive, aware, alive.


Thomas Robert Lee The Ballad of Audrey Earnshaw – Marché du Film Frontiéres


With my film Empyrean, we opted to distribute the film online via iTunes and Amazon Prime as it felt like the most streamlined approach for us. I don't think there is a simple answer for the question of theatrical VS streaming anymore. Personally, I'll always prioritize seeing a film that I'm excited about on the big screen as opposed to waiting for iTunes or Netflix. However, it's undeniable that Netflix is affording filmmakers with a lot of opportunity and freedom in regards to producing content that the studios simply aren't making anymore. Even Scorsese is in the Netflix family now with his upcoming The Irishman.


Mikko Myllylahti Tiikeri (The Tiger) – Semaine de la Critique


I believe in cinema, and in the language of cinema which is constantly developing. Cinema is not just storytelling, it is fine art, images and sound that can heal – or destroy – your soul. It is poetry, something that is beyond the banality of stories.


Juanita Onzaga Our Song To War – Quinzaine des Réalisateurs


I guess that in the future I would love my films to be more immersive, an experience that reaches all the senses, that extends to outside of the screen to get inside the skin of the viewer. For this reasons I think that exploring the idea of extended cinema is what will still take the viewers to the temple that is the cinema room, to overwhelm them with something that will be impossible for a TV to do.

Arian Vazirdaftari Mesle Bache Adam (Like a Good Kid) – Cinéfondation


The ideal viewing experience for me is creating a feeling. I make films to create a moment of connection with the audience. Not sympathy exactly but more of an empathy between the audience and the characters and how they feel. I guess it doesn’t matter if movies are realistic or not but the most important thing is being true and believable. Every perfect film tries to connect you with different layers of truth. Maybe you can’t find it but the honest struggle toward the truth is what matters most.

Andrew Zox


I Am My Own Mother – Cinéfondation

" "

Rubin Stein Tin y Tina (Tin & Tina) – Marché du Film Frontiéres


As a creator, to me it’s really important to analyze the aimed viewing platforms first – theatre, VOD, live cinema, VR, internet – in order to build the best viewing experience for the audience. What is in my hand is to keep that compromise with the format and with the story. In this way, it’s highly recommended that the audience keeps to this same compromise to enjoy the experience as it was designed.


The world has changed – streaming services are offering content for niche markets and eclectic tastes. We’re seeing diverse stories created and distributed that never would have been previously accessible. As a filmmaker, ideally, I still hope my work is experienced in the theatre. The magnitude of the image and sound within a theatre is incomparable. I want to be absorbed, subsumed, into a film that I’m watching, and unless you have a state-ofthe-art home entertainment system, that’s hard to achieve. The theatre experience is also more than just amplified sound and image. Having an intimate viewing experience with strangers is community and empathy building. People still crave gathering together within a single dark space, a vacuum, to watch cinema. That communal aspect of the cinematic experience is vital, and needs to be protected. When it comes down to it, I just want people to see my films, via whatever means necessary (ideally not on a smartphone, unless that’s the only option!).


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FESTIVAL PANORAMA text by ZsĂłfi Herczeg

illustration by RĂŠka Bucsi

As usual, we have collected some prestigious film festivals to help young filmmakers. A festival can be the best place to network and to get involved with the new waves of the industry. Submit your project and go to whatever programme you can in order to widen your skills and your knowledge as well as to highlight your films!

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Festival Camp

Submission deadline


Entry fee

Academy Awards, EFA, BAFTA qualifying

Uppsala International Short Film Festival

May 31

October 22–28


Academy Awards, EFA, BAFTA

Encounters Short Film Festival

June 1

September 25–30


Academy Awards, EFA, BAFTA

Toronto International Film Festival

June 1

September 6–16


Festival del film Locarno

May 14 (Regular), June 1 (Late)

August 1–11

50-160 CHF

Academy Awards, BAFTA

Flickers' Rhode Island International Film Festival (RIIFF)

May 15 (Reduced price), June 1 (Regular), June 15 (Late)

August 7–12


Academy Awards, BAFTA

Interfilm International Short Film Festival Berlin

June 24

November 19–25

no fee

Cork Film Festival

May 4 (Regular), June 24 (Late)

November 9–18


Edinburgh Short Film Festival

May 25 (Regular), June 25 (Late)

October 27 – November 11


Busan International Film Festival

June 29 for shorts, July 30 for features

October 4–13

no fee

St. Louis International Film Festival

June 30 (Regular), July 31 (Late)

November 2–12


Academy Awards

Warsaw Film Festival

July 15 (Regular), July 31 (Late)

October 12–21


Academy Awards

International Festival of Documentary and Short Film of Bilbao

July 15

November 9–16

no fee

Academy Awards, BAFTA, Goya

International Short Film Festival Winterthur

July 15

November 6–11

no fee

Academy Awards, BAFTA

Sitges International Fantastic Film Festival

July 31

October 5–14


Academy Awards

Flanders International Film Festival Ghent

August 1

October 9–19



International Short Film Festival Leuven

August 1 (Regular), August 15 (Late)

December 1–8


Academy Awards

Academy Awards, EFA, BAFTA

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WORLD OF YOUNG CINEMA (formerly: World of Shorts) Publisher: Dániel Deák Editor in chief: Zsuzsanna Deák Art director and graphic design: Zoltán Bukovics Founding designer of the magazine: Cristina Grosan World of Young Cinema authors: Zsófi Herczeg, Adam Harangozó Contributors: Zsombor Bobák, Géza Csákvári, Janka Pozsonyi Thanks: Doris Bandhold, Laura Brown, Rosalie Callway, Maia Christie, Veronika Jakab, Dimitra Karya, Clarisse Robillard Cover image: Réka Bucsi Photographs: Ori Aharon, Géraldine Aresteanu, Alina Bader, Chen Chefetz, Anca Paunescu Illustrations by: Réka Bucsi // You can also find this magazine online at: World of Young Cinema magazine is published by Daazo Film and Media Ltd. Published in Hungary, May 2018. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part is forbidden save with the written permission of the publishers. I

ISSN 2064-2105 (Online) – ISSN 2064-2113 (Print) This magazine was printed on recycled paper.

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