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©Municipality of Thessaloniki, 2013 Available also in electronic form at: www.thessaloniki.gr and www.thessaloniki.travel Reproduction without permission is prohibited THESSALONIKI UNION OF TOURIST GUIDES

With the kind cooperation of 9TH EPHORATE OF BYZANTINE ANTIQUITIES 16TH EPHORATE OF PREHISTORIC AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITIES EPHORATE OF CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN MONUMENTS OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA HELLENIC REPUBLIC MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS, CULTURE AND SPORTS GENERAL SECRETARIAT OF CULTURE

Source of entries and texts Design Designers United Office Address Tourism Dept City Hall 1, Vas.Georgiou A str. GR-54640 Thessaloniki, Greece T +30 2313 318206 tourism@thessaloniki.gr 1st Edition – March 2013 Created by: Municipality of Thessaloniki Directorate of Culture-Tourism

Cultural Monument Document

Thessaloniki A walk through a much-loved city. Due to the importance of the Thermaikos Gulf and its residential advantages, numerous settlements developed around it, starting in the Neolithic Era and the Bronze Age, as evidenced by those excavated in the area of the Thessaloniki International Fair, Stavroupolis, Thermi and Ano Toumba. Archaeologists have also unearthed sites from the Iron Age and the later eras (9th-4th century BC) in Karabournaki, Thermi, Polichni and Sindos. According to sources, these settlements comprised the 26 towns that united to form the city. Thessaloniki was founded as an urban centre by Cassander, a general of Philip II, in 316 BC. This action was part of the residential policy of Alexander the Great’s successors, aiming at the creation of powerful cities at key locations to ensure communication between the state of Macedon and the rest of the world. An organised port in Thessaloniki was necessary due to the rapid increase in commerce and communication with distant lands. The administrative organisation of the city during the Hellenistic era followed the model employed in other Greek cities. It retained a type of administrative autonomy after its conquest by the Romans, who contributed to its rapid growth. The construction of Via Egnatia (146-120 BC), connecting Dyrrachium to Evros, helped elevate Thessaloniki to a major commercial, cultural and military centre. During his tenure as Caesar, Tetrarch

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus (250-311 AD) established his seat in Thessaloniki, constructing a magnificent palace, a hippodrome and a triumphal arch (Camara) and turning the city into capital of the Balkans. The stay of Constantine the Great in Thessaloniki in 322-323 coincides with the implementation of large-scale works in the city, such as the port at its southwestern end. The 4th century was one of great changes for the city, characterised by the pre-eminence of Christianity, at least three centuries after the visit of Paul the Apostle to the city, and marked at its end, in 390, by the massacre of thousands of Thessalonians at the city hippodrome on the orders of Emperor Theodosius I. By the end of the 5th century, the Roman city had been transformed into a centre of Christianity. The historical character of Thessaloniki is undoubtedly linked to its Byzantine life. The walls and extant inscriptions record the tumultuous history of the city. The walled city and its monuments could reasonably be described as an open Byzantine museum. From the 7th to the 10th centuries, notwithstanding all the problems that the Byzantine Empire would face with the West, the Arabs, the Slavs, the Bulgarians and the Byzantine Iconoclasm, Thessaloniki continued to develop in all ways, often playing a leading role, thus demonstrating its great importance and position within

Thessaloniki Monuments’ Map the structure of the state. It was the Balkan gateway for the ideological, cultural and religious influence of the Byzantine Empire. The Christianisation of the Slavs by the Byzantines was an important fact that marked not only that era but the subsequent centuries as well. The brothers Cyril and Methodius, who were born in Thessaloniki, carried out their missionary work among the Slavs. The Bulgarians were the first to accept Christianity in 864, followed by the Serbs in 867-874.The sacking of the city by the Saracens in 904 and the famine of 927 were landmark events of the 10th century that unquestionably influenced the thinking and art of the era. During the Crusades on the western borders of the empire, Thessaloniki once again played a leading role as a centre of military operations. Its Metropolitans, chief among them being Eustathius, were historical figures who dominated the intellectual life of the city and expressed positions on the major theological and political problems of the era. The sacking of the city by the Normans in 1185 and its occupation by the Latins for two decades after 1204 briefly suspended but did not stop its cultural growth. Artistic and literary production flourished during the Komnenian period and reached its peak during the Palaeologan era. The turn towards classical Greek education, with the study of ancient texts, highlighted aspects of humanism and led to the Palaeologan Renaissance of literature and art of that period. However, important theological and social controversies had taken place meanwhile, such as the Hesychast strife and the Zealot movement that threw the city into turmoil. The Byzantine metropolis contains a large number of extant devotional monuments.

Each neighbourhood retains its Byzantine or post-Byzantine monument, elements of other times, when the city was the Symvasilevousa (co-reigning city) of a first powerful and then declining Byzantine Empire, or later the centre of an Ottomanoccupied Balkan peninsula. The city was fortunate enough to preserve mainly the monuments of its glorious religious past. Thessaloniki’s structures and organisation, its buildings, dwellings, markets, the everyday public and private life of its residents all bear witness to its secular side, a fact that is further confirmed by the evidence from the various excavations taking place in the city. Under Ottoman rule (1430-1912), almost all Christian churches, parish or Catholic monasteries were converted into mosques. The city acquired an Eastern character. Mosques were built throughout its neighbourhoods, new building complexes, religious schools, Bezesteni (an indoor market) and bathhouses became the hubs of the city’s new reality. The water supply system already in operation with underground and aboveground cisterns was enhanced and expanded. Fountains decorated with ornate sculptures were constructed along the maze-like streets, the Bairia of the Upper/Old City (Ano Poli), to serve the residents and quench the thirst of passers-by. The city walls were strengthened either through reconstruction or through new additions, such as the Vardaris fort. The Christian residents of the city, who primarily lived on the plains, built their churches according to the type that was most frequent in the post-Byzantine era: the three-aisled basilica with a low, gabled roof and a portico. After the resettlement of primarily Jewish refugees from Spain in 1500,

The 20th century held a number of changes for Thessaloniki. The decline of the Ottoman Empire and the national turmoil in the Balkans led in 1904 to the beginning of the Macedonian Struggle, in which Thessaloniki, with the Greek Consulate as a launching pad, played a major role. In 1908, the Young Turk movement exploded in the city, creating hope for religious equality that would soon be dashed.

In the 17th century, the city was organised into administrative districts, with the Jews living in the central and western section of the city, the Christians living in the east and in the centre and the Muslims living in the Upper City. The ‘Frangomachalas’ district would later be created near the port to accommodate the European population of the city.

that period. Industry began taking its first steps and Thessaloniki was a developing city of great promise.

Thessaloniki acquired a multi-cultural, multi-religious character, which it would retain until its liberation.

In the 19th century, an era of Reform for the Ottoman Empire, the city flourished. Light industry and commerce grew, while large commercial firms from Greece and abroad gave the city a cosmopolitan atmosphere. Contact with European ideas impacted citizens of all communities and religions. During the final quarter of the century, numerous schools and hospitals were built by all the communities and important buildings were constructed. The decision to demolish the sea wall and part of the south-eastern wall changed the image of the city. Its medieval character was lost, but it became able to ‘breathe in’ the sea and acquired a complete new seafront. Modern-day Ethnikis Amynis Street was constructed at the expense of the Sultan and the fountain was placed there, marking the point of origin of the new Avenue of the Countryside (or of the Towers) towards the east of the city, where the villas of the well-to-do were being erected. For the first time, the urban planning of a district was not based on religion, but on class. Muslims, Jews and Christians competed with each other in the construction of mansions. Numerous architectural styles mingled, giving birth to the eclecticism that characterises almost all buildings from

In 1912, Thessaloniki was liberated and annexed to the Greek state. Within a few decades, major historical events took place in the city. By the mid-20th century, the city had changed radically in image, size and population. During World War I, Thessaloniki served as the military operations centre of the Macedonian Front, housing the renowned Armée d’Orient (Army of the Orient), allies of the Entente. English and French military camps sprouted throughout the outskirts of the city. In 1916, Venizelos, having fallen out with the King, decided to form a temporary Triumvirate government in Thessaloniki, with the contribution of Danglis and Kountouriotis. A year later, in 1917, a devastating fire reduced the entire centre of the city to ashes. Thessaloniki was never again the same: 73,000 people were left homeless, entire fortunes, homes and stores were destroyed and the priceless heritage of the 19th century vanished. The political situation in the Balkans remained as volatile as ever, leading refugees from the surrounding regions and Greeks from the Orient to Thessaloniki. This migration

reached its culmination in 1922, with the Treaty of Lausanne and the decision for an exchange of populations leading to an influx of thousands of refugees from Asia Minor. At the same time, the city lost its Muslim population. Although the damage from the fire had not been restored, refugees settled in churches, in gutted buildings, at unused corners of the city walls, at military camps abandoned by the Allies. However, above all, new settlements, new neighbourhoods and new suburbs were formed. Thessaloniki once consisted of 26 ancient towns; the new Thessaloniki now extended across the centuries and throughout new settlements. The former Co-reigning City became the Refugee Capital.

In 1963, Grigoris Lambrakis was murdered in Thessaloniki. This assassination was immortalised by Vassilis Vassilikos in his novel ‘Z’ and became known throughout the world thanks to the film of the same name by Costas Gavras. The generally volatile political situation in the country led to the military coup of 1967, which ushered in seven years of dictatorship. In 1978, the city suffered a powerful earthquake, leaving in its wake ruins and casualties. During the 1990s, with the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc, numerous economic immigrants arrived in the city. In 1997, Thessaloniki was the European Capital of Culture. In 2012, the city celebrated the 100-year anniversary of its liberation and won the title of European Youth Capital for 2014.

In 1926, the University of Thessaloniki was founded and the first Thessaloniki International Fair was held. The city recovered and began writing new pages in its history. The ‘May of 1936’ was shocking for Thessaloniki, as strikes and demonstrations were bathed in blood. The German occupation began in 1941, adding dark pages to the local history. In 1943, thousands of Thessaloniki Jews were transported by train to Nazi concentration camps and the community of the city was all but annihilated. The subsequent Civil War also had an impact on the city. After World War II, Thessaloniki became a pole of attraction once more. It experienced a wave of urbanism and the need to house new arrivals. Pre-war buildings that had been preserved were demolished and the image of the city changed once more: apartment buildings became the norm.


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Walls Church of Aghioi Apostoloi Church of Aghia Ekaterini Church of Profitis Elias Church of Hosios David (Latomos Monastery) Vlatadon Monastery Heptapyrgion Acropolis Walls –Lapardas Tower – Anna Paleologina Gate – Trigonion Tower or Alysseos Tower Church of Aghios Nikolaos Orphanos Church of Taxiarches Byzantine baths Church of Aghios Dimitrios – Crypt Church of Panayia Chalkeon Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of Aghia Sophia Church of Metamorphosis tou Sotiros Church of Aghios Panteleimon Rampart – White Tower Rotunda

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1 Galerius’ Palace complex 2 Hippodrome 3 Section of the ancient road at the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art 4 Galerius’ Triumphal Arch (Camara) 5 Monumental fountain from the Roman Era 6 Roman Forum 7 Roman temple at Antigonidon 8 Square Public administrative buildings at Kyprion Agoniston Square 9 Rotunda

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Walls Church of Aghioi Apostoloi Church of Aghia Ekaterini Church of Profitis Elias Church of Hosios David (Latomos Monastery) Vlatadon Monastery Heptapyrgion Acropolis Walls–Lapardas Tower–Anna Paleologina Gate– Trigonion Tower or Alysseos Tower Church of Aghios Nikolaos Orphanos Church of Taxiarches Byzantine baths Church of Aghios Dimitrios– Crypt Church of Panayia Chalkeon Church of the Acheiropoietos Church of Aghia Sophia Church of Metamorphosis tou Sotiros Church of Aghios Panteleimon Rampart–White Tower Rotunda

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Yahudi Hamam Bezesteni Hamza Bey Mosque Bey Hamam–Loutra Paradissos Yeni Hamam–Aegle Alaca Imaret Tourbes Musa Baba Pasha Hamam Yeni Camii (Old Archaeological Museum) Dioiketerion Customs House Old Central Pump House Ottoman Bank Faculty of Philosophy, AUTh (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) Aghios Dimitrios Hospital Kipoi tou Passa Sintrivani 3rd Army Corps–Strategeion House of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) Ano Poli (Upper/Old City) Library Çinari Scholi Tyflon (School for the Blind) Villa Mehmet Kapanci Villa Ahmet Kapanci Villa Mordoch


Index

Jewish Monuments

Post-Byzantine Churches

Modern Monuments

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Monastirioton Synagogue Yad Lezikaron Synagogue Holocaust Monument Jewish Museum Stoa Saoul Agora Modiano Villa Modiano Casa Bianca Villa Allatini Allatini Mills

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Nea Panayia Aghios Antonios Hypapante Panagouda or Panayia Gorgoepekoos Aghios Charalambos Aghios Athanassios Aghios Georgios Laodigitria or Panayia Lagoudiani Aghios Minas

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Ladadika Eleftherias Square Aristotelous Square Hotel Vienni Nedelkos Building Old Oekokyriki Scholi The ‘Red House’ Former Greek Consulate 25 Theophilou Street 13 Theophilou Street 17 Herodotou Street 47 Mousson Street Archaeological Museum Museum of Byzantine Culture Papafeion Orphanage Former Russian Hospital Villa Michaelidi Salem Mansion Former Melissa Orphanage Chateau Mon Bonheur Villa Chatzilazarou Villa Morpurgo Moni Lazariston Armenian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary Holy Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary Orthodox Cemetery Armenian Cemetery, Protestant Cemetery Zeitelnik Allied Cemetery New Jewish Cemetery Indian Cemetery of Harmangioi


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Monumental fountain from the Roman Era Junctionof Egnatias Street & Mitropolitou Gennadiou Street. Constructed beside a central road artery of Roman Thessaloniki (decumanus maximus). 6 C4

Roman Monuments >

Roman Forum Junction of Olympou Street & Filippou Street. An administrative centre of the Roman era that, in its excavated form, began being organised in the mid-2nd century AD. The entire complex was organised around a rectangular cobbled square. On its three sides, there were two-storey arcades, with a double colonnade of the Corinthian order, directly connected on its perimeter to public and private spaces.

Map on pages 18-19

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Palace complex of the Roman Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximianus Navarinou Square Its construction began in the late 3rd–early 4th century AD. It is one of the most important monuments of Late Antiquity, the only one of its kind preserved in Greece. Monumental structures that served as an imperial residence have been excavated.

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Roman temple. Antigonidon Square. The temple, made of architectural elements from an older archaic temple, was dedicated to the worship of Augustus. Significant findings in this area include the torso of a male statue wearing a cuirass and an enormous statue of Zeus Aegiochus (Aegis-bearing), dating back to the 2nd century AD, of exquisite artistry.

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Hippodrome Ippodromiou Square. There is no visitable section of the Roman Hippodrome, but we can picture the size of the ancient construction by viewing the length and shape of modernday Ippodromiou Street.

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Public administrative bulidings at Kyprion Agoniston Square Olympou Street, Venizelou Street and Aghiou Dimitriou Street. Olympou Street, Venizelou Street and Aghiou Dimitriou Street. Remnants of monumental, mostly public building were excavated at this site. The findings date back to the 3rd century BC and possibly constituted the administrative centre of the city dating back to the Hellenistic and Roman era. The ruins of the buildings that are preserved and are visible to this day testify to the timelessness of this district of the city, which preserved its urban character throughout the Byzantine and PostByzantine era.

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Section of the ancient road at the Macedonian Museum of Contemporary Art Within the International Fair. A section of a Roman-era cobbled road is preserved in the basement of the Museum. The road originated at the Cassandrean gate of the city, in the Syntrivani area, and headed southeast. 4 C5

Galerius’ Triumphal Arch Camara. (305 AD). Constructed to commemorate the victory of Galerius over the Persians. Its intricate relief scenes depict battles and victories in that war, expressing the omnipotence and unity of the Tetrarchy leaders.

9 C5 See page 7

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The monuments of this section, excluding the Church of Taxiarches (10) have been declared as UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Monuments.

MONUMENTS’ MAP

Church of Profitis Elias Junction of Olympiados & Amfilochias Street. Church of Profitis Elias Junction of Olympiados & Amfilochias Street. The Church, dedicated to Christ, was the catholicon of the Byzantine Akapniou Monastery. It is unique in terms of architectural type and is known for its portrayal of the Infanticide, representative of the final period of Paleologan painting.

Early Christian and Byzantine Monuments

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Map on pages 20-21

Church of Hosios David Latomos Monastery) Junction of Bouboulinas Street & D. Poliorkitou Street–Ano Poli. The catholicon of the monastery of Christou Sotira tou Latomou (Christ the Saviour, the Quarryman) or ton Latomon (or Quarrymen), a name due to the existence of stone quarries, is renowned for its mosaic of the vision of Prophet Ezekiel in its alcove, one of the most important mosaics of the Early Christian era.

1 Β4

Walls. Remains of the Hellenistic and, subsequently, Roman fortification of the city that were incorporated into its new fortifiedcircuit wall in the late 4th century. The surrounding wall, trapezoidal in shape, was strengthened with alternating triangular cantilevers and square towers, as well as a rampart. During the Byzantine era, repairs and additions took place, but the final present-day form of the walls is the result of Ottoman interventions.

6 D4

Vlatadon Monastery 64 Eptapyrgiou Street. (1351-1371).A Patriarchal and stauropegic monastery, the only Byzantine monastery still operating in the city. It was founded the monk Dorotheus Vlatis, a pupil of Gregory Palamas and subsequently Metropolitan Bishop of Thessaloniki. The monastery was initially dedicated to Christ the Almighty and today honours the Transfiguration of the Saviour.

2 Β4

Church of Aghioi Apostoloi Junction of Olympou & Paparrigopoulou Street. (1310-1314). The church, built by the Patriarch Nephon and his pupil, Abbot Pavlos, was the catholicon of a monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Its interior contains excellent mosaic decoration, characteristic of the final period of Palaeologan art.

7 D4

Heptapyrgion NE end of the Acropolis. A complex of various construction phases from the early Christian–early Byzantine period up to the years of Ottoman rule. When converted into a prison in the 19th century, buildings and auxiliary areas were added. The building currently houses the offices of the Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities of Thessaloniki.

3 C4

Church of Aghia Ekaterini Junction of Tsamadou & Oedipoda Street, Ano Poli. (late 13th–early 14th century). Once served as catholicon to a Byzantine monastery. Its elegant dimensions and the structure of its facades, with recessed niches and arches, brick half-columns and ceramoplastic decoration, make this monument an excellent example of Paleologan architecture.

8 D4

Acropolis Walls–Lapardas Tower–Anna Paleologina Gate–Trigonion Tower or Alysseos Tower. The so-called intermediate wall separat5


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ed the Acropolis from Ano Poli (the Upper City). Following the wall towards the northeast, the Gate of Anna Paleologina (1355-1356) opens up, which once led to the area outside the walls. The intermediate wall ends towards the NE at Alysseos Tower or Trigonion Tower. This is a circular tower constructed in the 15th century, incorporating an older square tower that formed part of the Byzantine fortifications.

of the 5th, 7th and 9th century are preserved at the two pillars of the chancel and at the western wall of the central aisle. Beneath the transept of the Church is the Crypt, which, in the Late Byzantine Era, was the centre of the Saint’s miraculous myrrh production. It currently houses an exhibition primarily consisting of Early Christian and Byzantine sculptures. 13 C4

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Church of Panayia Chalkeon Junction of 2 Chalkeon Street & Egnatias Street. (1028). This church was built in and named after the coppersmiths district by Christophoros Protospatharios, Katepano (Governor) of Lagouvardia, his wife Maria and his children Nikiphoros, Anna and Katakali, as a sepulchral chapel.

Church of Aghios Nikolaos Orphanos 20 Herodotou Street. The catholicon of a Byzantine monastery. The ruins of its entrance have also been preserved. The exquisite mural decoration of the Church constitutes one of most complete painting complexes preserved in Thessaloniki and is representative of Paleologan art.

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10 D4

Church of the Acheiropoietos 56 Aghias Sofias Street. (5th century). Built as a three-aisled wooden-roofed basilica with a narthex and gallery over the ruins of a Roman bath complex. Its interior is distinct for its architectural sculptures on the colonnades separating the three aisles. Excellent mosaics are also preserved on the intrados of the colonnade arches, the galleries and the trivelon (arcade) in the narthex.

Church of Taxiarches 40 Theotokopoulou Street. A catholicon, most likely of a Byzantine monastery, dedicated to the Archangels and Taxiarchs, Michael and Gabriel. A two-storey building with an underground sepulchral crypt.Fragments of its mural décor have been preserved (2nd half of the 14th century). 11 C4

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Byzantine baths unction of Theotokopoulou Street & Krispou Street (Kule Kafe). (13th century). The only public Byzantine baths currently preserved in Thessaloniki. A small building of rectangular design, it retains all the areas necessary for a bath: an antechamber, a tepid area, a warm area and a reservoir.

Church of Aghia Sophia Aghias Sophias Square. late 7th-early 8th century). This church is dedicated to Christ, the true Word and Wisdom of God and was built at the location of a large 5th century Early Christian Basilica. A typical example of a domed transitional cross-in-square church with a peristoon, in imitation of the Aghia Sophia in Istanbul. The mosaic decor in its interior testifies to the high intellectual and artistic level of the city throughout the centuries.

12 C4

Church of Aghios Dimitrios–Crypt 97 Aghiou Dimitriou Street. Built on the ruins of a Roman bath complex.Demetrius, an officer in the Roman Army, was imprisoned and martyred there in 303. The original small bethel was succeeded by a Basilica church. It was destroyed almost completely in the fire of 1917 and rebuilt between 1918 and 1948. The church, dedicated to the patron saint of Thessaloniki, is one of worship and is renowned for its mosaics that survived the great fire of 1917. Eleven anathematic mosaics

16 C5

Church of Metamorphosis tou Sotiros Junction of Egnatias Street & Paleon Patron Germanou Street 1340 onwards).Possibly built as a sepulchral chapel to a Byzantine monastery. Its mural decor is part of the Paleologan tradition.

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MONUMENTS’ MAP

17 C5

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Church of Aghios Panteleimon Junction of Arrianou Street & Iassonidou Street. (1295-1314). This church was the catholicon of the Theotokou Perivleptou Monastery and is also known as Mr Isaac’s Monastery, by its founder, the Metropolitan Bishop, Jacob.

Yahudi Hamam Junction of Komninon Street & Vassileos Irakliou Street (Louloudadika district). (late 15th–early 16th century). This building, located in the Jewish district, was known by various names: Pazar Hamam (Bazaar Bath) or Pazari Kebir Hamam (Great Bazaar Bath) or Halil Aga Hamam, after its founder. It was constructed as a double bath, with two separate sections, one for men and one for women.

18 C5

Eastern Walls–Rampart–White Tower Through Filikis Etairias Street, where visible sections of the rampart and triangular cantilevers of the main wall are preserved, we reach the White Tower, at the meeting point between the marine and eastern land wall. The tower, in its presentday form, was built in the 15th century as a part of the modernisation of fortifications, replacing an older Byzantine tower. It currently houses the City Museum.

2 C4

Bezesteni Junction of Venizelou Street & Solomou Street. (15th century). A point of reference for the commercial life of the city under Ottoman rule.Possibly built during the rule of Sultan Mehmet II (1455-1459). The external surrounding stores were added in the early 20th century. 3 C4

19 C5

Hamza Bey Mosque Junction of Egnatias Street & Venizelou Street. (1467-1468). Known as Alcazar, after the cinema that operated in the colonnaded courtyard of the monument, it was built by the daughter of military commander Hamza Bey, initially as a small district mosque. It was expanded with the addition of two rectangular domed areas and an asymmetrical perimetric enclosed arcade.

Rotunda Aghiou Georgiou Square Originally built as a pericentric building along the sacred road connecting the triumphal arch of Galerius with the palace complex, the building, possible of a worshipping and secular-administrative character, served the needs of the palace complex or was a monument dedicated to the glory of Constantine. In the 5th century, it was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Aghioi Asomatoi or the Archangels. Its excellent mosaic decor covers the arches of the conches and the intrados of the windows and dome in three zones.

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Bey Hamam–Loutra Paradissos Junction of Egnatias Street & Aristotelous Street. (1444). Built by Sultan Murad II. It was the first bath to be built after the occupation of the city by the Ottomans and was the largest double bath in Greece, with independent sections for men and women. 5 C4

Yeni Hamam (Aegle) Junction of Kassandrou Street & Aghiou Nikolaou Street. (late 16th century).A small Ottoman bathhouse. It was built by Hüsrev Kedhuda, manager of glebe properties in Thessaloniki. It belongs to the double bath type, with separate sections for men and women, and a three-section plan. It suffered significant damage due to its use as a cinema.

Ottoman Monuments >

Map on pages 22-23,25-26 7


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11 Β4

Alaca Imaret 91-93 Kassandrou Street. (1484). Built by Ishak Pasha, Grand Vizier under the rule of Mehmed II and administrator under the rule of Bayezid II. Based on its architectural type, it belongs to the category of early Ottoman mosques with a reverse-T plan with a central area, lateral compartments on the western side and a pillared arcade.

Customs House, Port Passenger Terminal Piers A & B of the Port. (1910-1912). Built by architect Alex Valory, the contractor being Eli Modiano. It is the first building in the city constructed with a reinforced concrete frame. The warehouses on Pier A, which currently house the Photography Museum and the Cinema Museum, also date back to the same period.

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12 See A4 (Large Map)

Tourbes Musa Baba Terpsitheas Square–Ano Poli. (mid-16th century). It is the only intact Ottoman Mausoleum preserved in Thessaloniki and the only surviving construction of a building complex that housed the religious and social activities of the order of Bektashi Dervishes. It has an octagonal plan and is domed.

Old Central Pump House 47 26th OktovriouStreet. (1890-1894). The complex was erected 1,500 metres from the western walls of the historic centre of the city. The management and exploitation of Thessaloniki’s water supply was then undertaken by the Ottoman Water Company, which had been founded by Belgian capitalists in 1888 with its headquarters in Istanbul. The project was constructed by Belgian engineers. The old Central Pump House building has been restored and converted into the Water Supply Museum.

8 Β4

Pasha Hamam Junction of Kalvou Street, Piniou Street & Karatza Street. (1520-1530). Built by the governor of Thessaloniki, Cezeri Kasim Pasha, initially as a single and later converted into a double bathhouse, with sections for men and women.

13 Β4

Ottoman Bank Junction of 7 Frangon Street & Leontos Sofou Street (~1903). Built as an Ottoman Bank in the Frangomachalas district, which was full of inns and commercial arcades. It was built on the foundation of Jake Abbott’s mansion, which was destroyed after a bombing attack by Bulgarians in 1903. Sultan Abdul Mejid had been a guest at the Abbott mansion in 1858. The sculptures in the courtyard had been transported there from Abbott’s country house. The architects Barouh and Amar undertook the reconstruction of the Ottoman Bank. They adopted a Neo-Baroque style with French influences. The building operated as an IKA (Social Insurance Institute) branch and today houses the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki.

9 D7

Yeni Camii (Old Archaeological Museum) 30 Archaeologikou Mouseiou Street. (1902). Built according to designs by Italian architect Vitaliano Poselli, in the then-European district of Pyrgoi, as a mosque for the Donmeh community (Jews who had converted to Islam). A characteristic example of 20th century eclectic architecture. In 1924, it housed the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. It currently hosts cultural events. 10 C4

Dioiketerion Junction of Aghiou Dimitriou Street & F. Dragoumi Street.((1891). Built near the ruins of a Byzantine palace by architect Vitaliano Poselli, this was the Konak (administration building) of the Ottoman period and seat of the Wali. An additional storey has been added to the original building, along with the pediment of the facade. It currently houses the Ministry of Macedonia & Thrace.

14 D5

Old Faculty of Philosophy, AUTh (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) University Campus, Ethnikis Amynis Street. (1887). Built as the Ottoman School of Public Administration (Idadiye Mektebi). Designed by architect Vitaliano Po8


MONUMENTS’ MAP

selli. In 1927, the newly formed University of Thessaloniki was housed here. The building is known as the Old Faculty of Philosophy of Aristotle University, part of which remains housed there to this day.

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House of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 75 Apostolou Pavlou Street (within the premises of the Turkish Consulate). (1870). Erected by Muderri Hadji Mehmed Vakf. The founder of the Republic of Turkey is alleged to have been born here in 1881 and to have lived here until 1888. After the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the building became the property of the Greek State. It then became the property of the Municipality of Thessaloniki, which donated it to Mustafa Kemal. Since 1953, it has been operating as a museum and attracts many Turkish visitors to the city.

15 D4

Aghios Dimitrios Hospital 2 Elenis Zografou Street. (1902-1903). Built as a Hospital for Destitute Foreigners (Gureba Hastanesi) and then converted into a Municipal Hospital (Hamidiye Belediyesi). It included the Rabies Clinic building (modern-day Ano Poli nursery) and the Gardens of the Pasha. It currently belongs to the Municipality and operates as Aghios Dimitrios Hospital.

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16 D4

Ano Poli (Upper/Old City) Library 7 Krispou Street–Romfei Square (Kule Kafe). (1897-1905). Erected as the residence for an Ottoman military man.An example of a Balkan residence with a broad facade and curved windows on the central axes. It currently belongs to the Municipality and houses the Municipal and Children’s Library of Ano Poli.

Kipoi tou Passa Entrance from El. Zografou Street and OCHI Avenue. (1904). A green space that served as garden to the Hospital located to the south. The origin of its name is unknown. The constructs found there are an example of the fantastic architecture movement, the only similar construct found in the city being a drinking fountain in Modiano mansion.

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17 C5

Çinari Junction of Kleious Street & Alex. Papadopoulou Street.Τsinari is the Turkish word for plane tree. This district is home to the drinking fountain of Murad II and the Çinari café (typical of the cafés of the Ottoman period), as well as buildings of Balkan architecture dating back to the early 20th century. The area retains the character of an old neighbourhood of a bygone era.

Sintrivani Junction of Ethnikis Amynis Street & Egnatias Street, Syntrivaniou Square. (1889). The fountain was a gift by Sultan Abdul Hamid to the people of Thessaloniki. On the day of its inauguration, cherry sorbet flowed from the fountain. It remained in the same position until 1936. The present-day fountain is a faithful reconstruction of the original and was placed in the same spot in 1977.

22 D7

18 See D6 (Large Map)

Scholi Tyflon 32 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1879). Built by Hazif Bey according to designs by architect Xenophon Peonidis. It housed the Constantinides trade school, the Aghios Stylianos Crèche, etc. During the German Occupation, it was requisitioned by the Germans. Since 1961, it has housed the School for the Blind.

3rd Army Corps–Strategeion 1 Leoforos Stratou (Stratou Avenue). (1900-1901). In 1830, this was the first building to house an Ottoman barracks in the region. This building was erected in 1900-01, designed by Vitaliano Poselli and funded by the residents of the city. In 1916, it was used as the government house by the temporary Venizelos government. It currently houses the headquarters of the 3rd Army Corps. 9


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23 D7

Villa Mehmet Kapanci 105 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. A three-storey villa designed by Pierro Arrigoni. An example of a country house with Viennese, Art Nouveau influences andNeo-Gothic and Neo-Arab elements. The first owners of the plot are alleged to have been Yusuf and Ahmet Kapanci. During the German Occupation, it housed the Gestapo, while NATO services operated in the building from 1954 to 1973. It served as the headquarters of the Thessaloniki Cultural Capital of Europe 1997 Organisation and currently houses the Organisation of Planning and Environmental Protection of Thessaloniki.

Jewish Monuments >

Map on pages 24-25, 26

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24 C8

Monastirioton Synagogue 35 Syggrou Street. (1927). The Monastioriton Synagogue (Synagogue of the Monastiriotes) was founded with a donation by Ida Aroesti in memory of her husband, Isaac. Families from Monastiri (presentday Bitola) who had settled in Thessaloniki after the Balkan Wars and World War I also contributed to the erection of the building. When the Jewish population of the city were transported to the Nazi concentration camps, the Synagogue was used by the Red Cross and thus escaped destruction. It remains in operation today, serving the religious needs of the Jewish Community.

Villa Ahmet Kapanci 108 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1898). Built as the country house of Ahmet Kapanci. A characteristic building in the eclectic style, it consists of a main building and a tower. It hosted the triumvirate of Venizelos, Kountouriotis and Danglis. It currently houses the National Bank of Greece Cultural Foundation (MIET) and operates a bookstore and exhibition area. 25 D8

Villa Mordoch 162 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1905).Built for Turkish divisional commander Seifoulah Pasha by architect Xenophon Peonidis. An example of eclectic architecture, with the co-existence of several styles: Neoclassical, Renaissance, Baroque and Art Nouveau. The building stands out for its corner tower-like layout with a dome. In 1930, it became the property of Mordoch. It operates as an IKA multi-clinic from 1952 to 1972. It is currently the property of the Municipality and houses the Directorate of Culture-Tourism and the 5th Municipal District.

2 Β4

Yad Lezikaron Synagogue 24 Vassileos Irakliou Street. (1984). The Yad Lezikaron Synagogue is dedicated to the memory of the victims of the Holocaust. It was built on the site of ‘Bourla’, a small bethel also known as Caal de la Plaza (Market Synagogue) that had been operating since 1921 to serve the religious needs of the numerous Jews who worked in the nearby marketplace. 3 Β5

Holocaust Monument Eleftherias Square. (1997). Sculpture by the Glint brothers. Its installation at Eleftherias Square in 2006 is linked to the fact that this was the place where the Nazis gathered Jewish men in July 1942, subjecting them to humiliation and torture. 10


MONUMENTS’ MAP

is. The French influence is obvious, with dominant Art Nouveau elements. The building stands out for its trapezoid scaled roof. In 1913, the building was purchased by the Municipality and was offered to King Constantine as a palace. It was then used the residence of the governors of Macedonia, which is why it is known in the city as the Palaion Kyverneion (Old Government House). It later housed the Military Medical School. Since 1970, it has housed the Folklife and Ethnological Museum of Macedonia-Thrace, which is open to the public with occasional and permanent exhibitions.

4 Β4

Jewish Museum Junction of Venizelou Street & Aghiou Mina Street. (1906). The building was erected to function as a commercial gallery and the Bank of Athens was housed on its first floor. It is one of the few buildings in the city centre that survived the fire of 1917. It currently houses the Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki and is open to the public. 5 Β4

Stoa Saoul Junction of Ermou Street, Venizelou Street & 15 Vassileos Irakleiou Street. A commercial arcade complex built by Saul Modiano, a renowned Jewish banker, connecting Vassileos Irakliou Street with Ermou Street and Venizelou Street and Ionos Dragoumi Street. The arcade housed the offices of architect Eli Modiano and the Modiano Mortgage Bank. It was constructed between 1867 and 1871, while a section of the arcade was destroyed in the fire of 1917. It was reconstructed in 1929, modifying the arcade to a Γ-shape. It serves as a historical document to the flourishing of the Modiano family, which began with Saul, a poor employee who became one of the richest men in the Ottoman Empire.

8 D9

Casa Bianca Junction of 214 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue & Th. Sofouli Street. (1912). In 1911, Dino Fernandez-Diaz, a Jew of Spanish origin, purchased the plot for his Swiss wife, Blanche. The Fernandez family was a key player in the business life of that era. The mansion was erected according to designs by Pierro Arrigoni. It came to be known as Casa Bianca from the name of his wife. Despite its eclectic temperament, it is mostly an Art Nouveau building and is one of the best known mansions of the city, both for its architecture and for a romantic story: the romance between the daughter of the family, Alina, and Second Lieutenant Alibertis, at a time when the difference between social classes and religious belief was a deterrent. It currently belongs to the Municipality and houses the Municipal Art Gallery.

6 C5

Agora Modiano Junction of 24 Ermou Street, Vassileos Irakleiou Street & Komnenon Street. (1922). The largest indoor market of Thessaloniki was built by architect Eli Modiano, a member of the renowned family that dominated the business life of the city. It is organised into arcades surrounded by lofts, in accordance with European standards of the time. At present, it remains the central marketplace of the city, with stalls selling meat, fish, spices and other wares, as well as tavernas and bars. Its condition urgently requires preservation work.

9 C9

Villa Allatini 198 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. Villa Allatini, designed by Italian architect Vitaliano Poselli, was built before 1888 as the country house of Charles Allatini, near the family mills. Along with the Modiano family, the Allatini family were among the most powerful business families in the city. This villa was the largest and most luxurious in the Exoches area. The building is located in the centre of a particularly large courtyard and stands out for its red brick construction. From 1909 to 1912, Sultan Abdul Hamid was exiled after the Young Turk Revolution and stayed at the villa. In 1926, it housed the newly founded University of Thessaloniki

7 C7

Villa Modiano 84 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1906). (1906). The building was constructed for Yako Modiano according to designs by Eli Modiano. It is one of the first buildings of the famous civil engineer after returning from Par11


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for just a year and was also used as a Military Hospital. From 1979, it has housed the services of the Ministry of the Interior, the Prefecture of Thessaloniki and, at present, the Region of Central Macedonia.

2 C5

Nea Panayia Junction of Dimitriou Gounari Street & Mitropoleos Street. Dedicated to the Dormition of the Virgin Mary, the church had previously been known as Megali (Great) or Trani (Powerful). It was built on the site of the catholicon of a 12th century monastery dedicated to the Virgin Mary. The church was burned in a fire in 1690 and was reconstructed in 1727 as a three-aisled Basilica with a gynaeconite (women’s gallery), an open stoa to the west and a portico to the south. Its wall decorations are of great interest, as they revive Palaeologan models and thus comprise the only complete 17th century wall painting in Thessaloniki.

10 Γ9

Allatini Mills Junction of Antheon Street & Th. Sofouli Street. (mid-19th century).The Allatini Mills Industrial Area. The industrial activity of the Allatini family began with Moses Allatini, who operated a roller mill and pottery, and continued with his sons, who founded the Fratelli Allatini company. The present-day central building of the Mills was constructed in 1898 according to plans by Vitaliano Poselli after the previous building burnt down. The building complex includes the administration building (old residence), warehouses, refrigeration areas and the roller mill building, surrounded by the boiler room, the machine shop and the chimney of Belgian construction. The complex, which is historical for the city and the beginning of industry, remains unutilised and awaits its reinclusion in the active web of the city.

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Aghios Antonios Junction of Filikis Etairias Street & Margariti Street. This was a private chapel of the Metropolitan Church of Thessaloniki and was used an asylum for the mentally ill. According to its layout, it is a small, twoaisled building with its eastern side abutting on the interior of a triangular tower of the Byzantine wall. It dates back to the 18th century, with the open porticos to the south and west added at a later date. 4 C5

Hypapante Junction of Egnatias Street & Agapinou Street. (1531). According to written sources, the church, which was a monastery dependency of a Mr Joel, was given by Patriarch Joasaph to the Monastery of Aghia Anastasia. After numerous tribulations, it came under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Church and served as a parish church after 1865. It is a three-aisled Basilica with a gynaeconite.

Post-Byzantine Churches >

Map on pages 20-21

5 C5 1 B4

Panagouda or Panayia Gorgoepekoos Junction of Egnatias Street & Paleon Patron Germanou Street. (1818). Dedication to the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, the present-day church is a stone-built three-aisled Basilica with an irregular plan and a gynaeconite, built on the site of a previous church that was destroyed by a fire in 1817.

Aghios Minas Junction of Ionos Dragoumi Street & Vassileos Irakleiou Street. In its present-day form, it is a characteristic example of a 19th century church-building. The church had existed from the 9th century, according to sources of the time, while its conch belongs to a previous Early Christian church. 12


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6 C5

Aghios Charalambos Junction of Exadaktylou Street & Egnatias Street. (1905). This is a glebe of Simonopetra Monastery of Mt Athos. It was built on the site of a previous, smaller church. 7 C5

Aghios Athanassios Junction of Egnatias Street & Sokratous Street. (1818). Despite later interventions, it retains its original form as a three-aisled basilica with a gynaeconite in the form of an internal gallery that is supported on pillars and surrounds the church in a Π shape. It has not been verified whether it was built on the site of an earlier church of the same name found in 14th century sources.

Modern monuments >

Map on pages 27-31

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Ladadika Area around Morrichovou Square. (mid-19th century). This area was the Byzantine port of Thessaloniki. During the period of Ottoman rule, it was embanked and, under the name Istira, was the city’s centre of wholesale trade. The Ladadika quarter was named from the wholesale trade of oil and was spared from the devastating fire of 1917, retaining the character and memories of the late-19th century market. Different types of buildings and styles compose an image of the city’s architecture and street planning out of the past. Today, the area remains vibrant, as it is home to numerous offices, restaurants and cafés.

8 C5

Aghios Georgios Rotunda Square.Located west of the monument named after it, it served as a chapel of the Metropolitan Church of Thessaloniki until 1758. Its present-day form–a three-aisled basilica with an added continuing space on the southern side–is the result of a renovation that took place in 1815. 9 C4

Laodigitria or Panayia Lagoudiani Junction of Ioulianou Street & Athinas Street. According to sources, the church was founded in the 14th century by a man named Lagoudiatis or Lagoudatis. In the 15th century, it was the catholicon of a nunnery that was a dependency of Vlatadon Monastery. Its present-day form as a threeaisled basilica with a gynaeconite is the result of a renovation that took place in 1802.

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Eleftherias Square (1870). This was the area where the waterfront used to be and the Byzantine sea wall rose to the north. It was opened up when the wall was demolished and present-day Venizelou Street was constructed to link the Konak (Government House) with the waterfront. It was the first entrance of visitors to the city arriving by sea and was home to hotels, restaurants and nightclubs. It was originally named Apovathras (Wharf) Square and subsequently Olympus Square, as it offered a view of the legendary mountain. It was renamed Eleftherias (Liberty) Square during the rise of the Young Turks, who marched to the square shouting messages of liberty and egalitarianism. After the fire of 1917, its role diminished, as Aristotelous Square was planned. It also served as the 13


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site of the first drama in the tragic history of the Jews of the city (see Holocaust Museum). In the 1950s, it was converted into a parking space and bus terminal.

Municipality of Thessaloniki that aims at promoting Mount Athos. 6 C5

Old Oekokyriki School 132 Egnatias Street. Purchased after 1890 by the Greek Community and served as a school since 1893. It is directly linked to the development of the education of the city’s Greek Community. It has housed a Boys’ School, a Girl’s School and the Domestic Sciences School. It currently houses the 13th Gymnasium (Lower Secondary School).

3 Β5

Aristotelous Square The creation of the square was planned after the great fire of 1917 that destroyed the centre of Thessaloniki. A historic and vital part of the city, it served as the central axis of the redesign of the city by Ernest Hébrard. The architecture of building facades is inspired by European or colonial models, as well as Neo-Byzantine tendencies in the individual decor of buildings. It is a rare example of implementation of scheduled architecture. The buildings were constructed from 1930 to 1960. Thanks to its orientation, the square enjoys an enchanting view of Mt Olympus. The square is home to numerous points of reference of the city, including Electra Palace Hotel and Olympion Cinema, headquarters of the International Film Festival.

7 C5

The ‘Red House’ 31 Aghias Sofias Street. (1926). An interbellum building designed for Ioannis Longos by Panayiotis Stais. Its facade is dominated by curves and uses traditional materials (brick, wood). The overhangs of the central sections, with a tower-like character, are of interest, while the curved corner bay window is impressive. Legend had it that it was a ‘haunted’ house, and it has remained empty for years.

4 Β4

8 C5

Hotel Vienni 2-4 Egnatias Street. (1925). The hotel was erected in an area that, after 1880, was home to numerous hotels. The owner was Kostas Manolas and the plans were designed by architect Georgios Kambanellos. It was constructed on the site of the Church of St Kyriaki that belonged to the Greek Community. Its facade shows the influence of eclectic trends incorporated in the general principles of organisation of a neoclassical building.

Former Greek Consulate 6 Aghias Sofias Street. (1890-93). Andreas Syngros covered the expense of the erection of the building, designed by Ernest Ziller. The area was the centre of the Greek Community from 1590 until the fire of 1890. The building is among the rare examples of pure Neo-classical style in the city. It housed the Greek Consulate, which contributed greatly to the Macedonian Struggle. Since 1981, it has housed the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle.

5 C5

Nedelkos Building 109 Egnatias Street. (1909). Erected according to plans by architect Xenophon Peonidis, the building served as residence to Ioannis Nedelkos and later came to be known as ‘Nedelkos Clinic’. After the earthquake of 1978, it was designated for demolition, but renovation and reconstruction works began within the framework of the works for the Cultural Capital of Europe 1997. Since 2004, it has housed the activities of the Agioritiki Estia (Mount Athos Centre), a non-profit company of the

ANO POLI (UPPER/OLD CITY) This is the northern-most and highest section of the old hub of the city and has preserved elements of its historical past. Its first residents were Christian families in the 4th and 5th century and by the 16th century it had become a primarily Turkish quarter, except for the neighbourhoods around Byzantine monasteries and 14


MONUMENTS’ MAP

churches. Due to its inaccessible terrain, it was always a residential area. After 1922 and the population exchange, the abandoned homes became primarily the residences of refugees from Asia Minor. The dominant characteristic of the residences of traditional Balkan architecture was the şahniş, i.e. a bay window on the upper storey. The area has largely preserved its unique residential character to this day, with low houses, narrow, maze-like streets, steep inclines and openings with a view of Thermaikos Gulf.

Vlatadon Monastery. The conversion of the Church of Taxiarches into a mosque drew the Muslim population to the region, while its adjacency to Vlatadon Monastery, which remained a functioning Christian monastery, rendered the area one of the most densely populated and mixed neighbourhoods in the Upper City. The two-storey building with a courtyard and a wooden extension (type of bay window) of noteworthy design was donated in 1980 to the Ministry of Culture. Today, it co-houses the Ephorate of Contemporary and Modern Monuments of Central Macedonia.

9 C4

13 D6

Building at 25 Theophilou Street (Kule Kafe). A remarkable building that was possibly built to house an Ottoman school in the late 19th century, it bears elements of neoclassical architecture. The building belongs to the Municipality of Thessaloniki and, until recently, housed the department of the Deputy Mayor for Culture.

Archaeological Museum 6 Manoli Andronikou Street. (1962). After its temporary housing at Yeni Camii, the museum acquired a permanent home at the building designed by Patroklos Karantinos. An important representative of modernism, he was inspired by the introversion of the Greek home. The museum houses occasional and permanent exhibitions on the region of Macedonia from the prehistoric era to late antiquity.

10 C4

Mansion at 13 Theophilou Street (Kule Kafe). (late 19th century).A mansion that stands out for the pedimental corners above the bay windows and the decorated wooden elements dominated by curves. The building belongs to the Hellenic Public Real Estate Service and houses the Publishers’ Association of Northern Greece and the Society for the Preservation of Historical Archives.

14 D6

Museum of Byzantine Culture 2 Stratou Avenue. (1989-1993).Housed in a modern building, designed by architect Kyriakos Krokos. The building, severe and minimalistic in design, combines elements of modernism and traditional Greek architecture. It won the Council of Europe Museum Prize in 2005.

11 D4

Building at 17 Herodotou Street (late 19th century). Herodotou Street, passing in front of the Church of Aghios Nikolaos Orphanos, is one of the few Byzantine streets of the city. It was home to Christian families as the church was never converted into a mosque. The building was purchased by the Ministry of Culture in 1979 and has since housed the Ephorate of Contemporary and Modern Monuments of Central Macedonia.

15 D6

Papafeion Orphanage 33 Papafi Street. (18941903). Ioannis Papafis was born in Thessaloniki in 1792 and although he lived abroad, he never forgot his birthplace. His endowment covered the expense for the erection of the building, designed by Xenophon Peonidi and surrounded by pine trees. It was Papafis’ wish that a Boys’ Orphanage named ‘Meliteus’ be founded and maintained. Its E-shaped plan symbolised Eleftheri Ellada (a Liberated Greece). Apart from accommodation, the orphanage also provided orphans with technical training (tailoring, carpentry, shoemaking, furniture-making, electrical work,

12 D4

Building at 47 Mousson Street Mousson Street and Akropoleos Street were the main roads of the Taxiarches neighbourhood that bordered 15


THESSALONIKI

ironmongery, machining). It currently operates as the Boys’ Care Centre of Thessaloniki.

the destruction of Smyrna, Melissa Orphanage was relocated here. The building was requisitioned during the German Occupation and operated as an orphanage once more from the liberation until 1977. It currently houses the Centre for Byzantine Research of Aristotle University).

16 D7

Former Russian Hospital 35 Papanastassiou Street. (1907). Build to serve the needs of the Russian Community, it operated until the Russian Revolution, at which time the Russian Community was dissolved. It then became a maternity clinic and currently houses the Historical Archives of Macedonia.

20 C8

Chateau Mon Bonheur 110 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1890).Built by Dimitris Ioannis Tsakirdekis according to designs by Frederic Charnot. It consisted of two buildings: a mansion and a café. The building stands out for its Venetian-style battlements and external red brick facades. The building is in need of restoration.

17 D7

Villa Michaelidi 24 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1890). In 1886, this plot, extending to the sea, was purchased by G. Ch. Themelis. The residence became the property of Levy Saul Modiano and subsequently of the brothers Mario and Joseph Naar, before being purchased by the Michaelidis family in 1926. It is a remarkable building, typical of the eclectic style that prevailed in Thessaloniki from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

21 C8

Villa Chatzilazarou 131 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1890).Built by Euphrosyne Chatzilazarou, wife of Pericles Chatzilazarou, according to designs by architect Xenophon Peonidis. 1912, after the liberation of the city, it accommodated the heir to the throne, Constantine. The house was also the place where his father, King George, lay in state after he was murdered in 1913. It currently belongs to the Siagas family.

18 D7

Salem Mansion 20 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1878).Built by a French Jew named Jeborga. In 1894, it was sold to Jewish lawyer Emmanuel Salem, a distinguished attorney of Thessaloniki with an international career. In 1898, the mansion was the birthplace of his son, Raphaël Salem, an outstanding mathematician who excelled at American Universities and gave his name to the ‘Salem Numbers’ and a prize for mathematicians. In 1924, the building was purchased by the Italian State, to which it continues to belong, and served as the Italian Consulate until 1978. The building remains unused and in need of restoration.

22 D9

Villa Morpurgo 16 Chaeronias Street. The villa was erected before 1906 according to designs by architect Vitaliano Poselli. The owner was an Italian Jewish woman named Fanny Ouziel, wife of Moise Morpurgo, director of the Allatini flour mill. It is adjacent to the Ouziel residence and Villa Allatini. The building has obvious elements of Art Nouveau in its window frames and ironwork. It was once home to PIKPA and its soup kitchen. In 1952, Nikolaos Zardinidis purchased the villa from the heir of the original owner. Since 1997, it has housed the Conservatory of Northern Greece and the Villarte Centre of Culture and Art.

19 D7

Former Melissa Orphanage 36 Vassilissis Olgas Avenue. (1897).Built for Osman Ali Bey. In 1913, King Ferdinand of Bulgaria was a guest here and in 1914, it was converted into the Bulgarian Consulate. In 1915, upon the arrival of the Armée d’Orient (Army of the Orient) in Thessaloniki, it was occupied by the French and housed the French Army Headquarters. After

23 Β2

Moni Lazariston 21 Kolokotroni Street. (1861). The monastery was built by monks of the order of St Vincent de Paul. It originally served as an orphanage and, subsequently, as the catholic seminary of the Great Convent of St Lazarus. 16


MONUMENTS’ MAP

Stavroupolis District

It later serves as a hospital and refugee reception and accommodation centre after 1922. It ceased to operate after the earthquake of 1978. The building was restored by the Thessaloniki Cultural Capital of Europe 1997 Organisation. It currently serves as the State Museum of Contemporary Art, which houses the renowned Kostakis Collection, consisting of works of the Russian Avant-garde.

28 Β2

Zeitelnik Allied Cemetery Langada Street (approximately 1.5km from Vardaris Square). The largest military necropolis in the country, this is the burial site of approximately 20,000 soldiers of the Entente allies of World War I (Frenchmen, Serbs, Italians, British, Russians, as well as Bulgarian prisoners). The noteworthy characteristic of the cemeteries is their uniform design.

24 C5

Armenian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary 4 Dialetti Street. (1903). The church was erected after extensive actions by the Armenian Community to acquire a place of worship. It was designed by architect Vitaliano Poselli and remains in operation. It is located adjacent to the Armenian Cultural Centre and the offices of the Community.λιτιστικό Κέντρο και τα γραφεία της Κοινότητας.

29 Β1

New Jewish Cemetery Dimitriou & Karaoli Street. Ceded to the Jewish Community in 1938. The old cemetery, which was destroyed by the Germans during the Occupation, was located at the site of the present-day University Campus. The few graves that escaped destruction at the old cemetery were relocated to the new one and a monument was erected for the tens of thousands of Thessaloniki Jews who lost their lives during the Holocaust.

25 Β4

Holy Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary 19 Frangon Street. (1899).Built on the site of an older church. The region was the Frangomachalas (Quarter of the Francs), where the European population of the city was active. The Cathedral remains in operation, serving the needs of the city’s Catholic residents.

Dendropotamos District 30 Β4

Indian Cemetery of Harmankioi Monastiriou Street (near the entrance to Ziakas Military Camp). The Cemetery belongs to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission and is the resting place of the buried and cremated remains of approximately 500 Indians of the English colonial forces who lost their lives during World War I.

CEMETERIES Evangelistria District 26 D5

Orthodox Cemetery 159 Aghiou Dimitriou Street. (1875).Ceded to the Brotherhood of Friends of the Poor as a burial site for the Orthodox Christian community. 27 D4

Armenian Cemetery, Protestant Cemetery Elenis Zografou Street-Evangelistria. Constructed in the late 19th century. 17


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Walls Church of Aghioi Apostoloi Church of Aghia Ekaterini Church of Profitis Elias Church of Hosios David (Latomos Monastery) Vlatadon Monastery Heptapyrgion Acropolis Walls–Lapardas Tower– Anna Paleologina Gate–Trigonion Tower or Alysseos Tower

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Am h.

Ger

Al

.

Sv

Di

mi

Et ou man

ou

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io

u

14

ol

Eg

17 Al

.

Sv

na

ti

a

ARISTOTELEIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS (UNIVERSITY AREA)

ti

r. St

let

h.

Da gk

li

Am

in Dia

ia

ki

at

is

n Eg

im

Despere

Ts

ou

Aggelaki

is

ol

Et

ela P. M

ou

CHOROS DIETHNOUS EKTHESIS THESSALONIKIS (HELEXPO TIF)

3is

ou

vri

tem

Sep

Nik. Germanou

s

ki

Ni Av

D6

ou 23

vri

tem

Sep

E6


pi

av

di

an

THESSALONIKI

B4 Lagkada

hi

tr

io

Oli

u

mpi

he it om

im

po

n ni go

ro

ss

Di

tr

ni Ve

Ol

im

s

Fi

no

li

u

ou

ko

ni z

ag im

Eg

na

to

ki

ol

ki

s

Av

e.

P.

Ts

im

Mi

Pr

Ni

s

e.

JEWISH MONUMENTS Villa Modiano Casa Bianca Villa Allatini Allatini Mills

C6

ou

ki

op

en

Av

is

tr

ox

ki

24

as

So fi as

s

Ni

7 8 9 10

fi

eo

Ag hi as

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a

te

is

ti

So

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3

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u

6

Ar

Mi

u

as

Ts

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io

hi

.

Av

Er

2

le

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El

ak

Ag

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lo

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ef

th

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ia

s

4

Va

Pl

s

El

.

Ve

5

n

ki

B5

B6

po

pp

el

ou

Io

Fr

LADADIKA

Ni

Monastirioton Synagogue Yad Lezikaron Synagogue Holocaust Monument Jewish Museum Stoa Saoul Agora Modiano

u

ag

ou

THESSALONIKI PORT

1 2 3 4 5 6

an

io

.

mi ou

it

Vi

Le

ou

Ka ou

mi

Si or

la

on

ni

ra

to

ch

ou

Dr

fo

la

dr

hi

gg u

Va

s

te

u

a

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u

li

An

ti

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s

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i

Dodekaniso

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ti

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ss

ous

Kli

ado

1

do

Okt

Po

u

ll ta is Kr

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Ka

ou ot pi um Do

Ol

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ou ovri

i

Sachin

lo u

u

u

ze

io

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ur

El

os

mi

zoli

Ta

Di

Ir in is

ou nt

al

s

ir

s

ro

Ifestionos

r. St

ou

st

Ev

to

ch

Sa

Papa

pf

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ou

Pr

Sa

Mo

ou

C4

Ag

do

Me te or o

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Ko

ro

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la

s

P.

G


ti

ou

a

Ep

ki

CHOROS DIETHNOUS EKTHESIS THESSALONIKIS (HELEXPO TIF)

EOT

MONUMENTS’ MAP

Ep

ko

us

on

Akr

opo

Kr

is

re

ch

ar

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i

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is

Ka

ts

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Ex

iou Archeologikou Mous

D7

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s

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n

Et

h.

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Al

.

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ou os Di

nt

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mi

tr

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Sep

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is in

let

Dia

r.

St

ti

Da gk

li

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Sep

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D6

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Mark. Mpotsari

Mark. Mpotsari

sio

ia

at

Ave.

23

sta

ulou

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ana

Et

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CHOROS DIETHNOUS EKTHESIS THESSALONIKIS (HELEXPO TIF)

EOT Nik. Germanou

23 Villa Mordoch

n Eg

ki

Kapanci

28is Oktovriou

Delfon

is

ou

Aggelaki

im

Sv

Vasiliss is Olga Despere s Ave.

Meg. Al exandrou

Ts

Villa Mehmet Kapanci

22 Villa Ahmet ol

7

9

Al.

.

ti a ARISTOTELEIO PANEPISTIMIO ingk THESSALONIKIS (UNIVERSITY AREA) Al. Flem

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Al

ous

nth

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K OTTOMAN MONUMENTS

ldi

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li

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D5

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lo to os

u zo La

Ap

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i

st

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Fi

amanli Ave. Kon/nou Kar

na

u

pa

Meg. Al exandr

po

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La

mp

Ave.

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as

s Amalia

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fi

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KASTRA (CASTLE) Nik. Germanou

ou

vri

tem

Sep 3is

Al.

u

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E6


Karamanli

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ulou

Ave.

exandrou Ave.

23

Andr

Delfon

lissis Olgas Av e.

Meg. Al

THESSALONIKI

Mark. Mpotsari

Mark. Mpotsari

seos

Analip

a vet Gam

ipseos

Anal

D8

C8 24

8 Casa Bianca 9 Villa Allatini 10 Allatini Mills

dika Petrou Sin

Olg as

Pap

.

reo

Ave

and

u

tio

ar s M

25i

u

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thou

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8

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rk

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Michai

s

ga e.

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sc

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n

io

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n

ta

pe

Ka ni Go

26

li

Ta

si

Va

e

ki

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om

on

Ik

reou Geor. Papand

to

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i

ul

fo

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ri

ga

ul

Vo

Me

Plouto

i kl

Delfon

Alex

25

10

Th

a vet Gam

Delfon

s ssi ili Vas

r.

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23 Villa Mehmet Kapanci 24 Villa Ahmet Kapanci 25 Villa Mordoch


ke Dimitriou

rou Oreokast MONUMENTS’ MAP

u A ve.

B1

Ka

ra

ol

i

ke

Di

mi

Den

dro

pot

amo

29

io

u

si

u go

Go

u

ro

g. Me

B2 Iat

tr

ou dr an ex Al

ou Ave.

pon

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lo

ko

tr

on

i

Akr

rou

23

and

Cemetery

lex . A

Ko

Meg

Cemetery 29 New Jewish

Lagkad a

loki

23 Moni Lazariston 28 Zeitelnik Allied

n

po

ki

lo

pe

Am

ito

n Davaki

Akriton

is

28 vr

to

Ok

28

po

le

os

a

AMPELOKIPOI

Lagkad

ou

e.

pp

Av

li

u

io

Fi

B3 Ven

ize

lou

Lagkada

Leof. Kallitheas

Aghion Panton

27 on

El.


pi

av

di

an

tr

io

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u

mpi

im

he it Pr

om

Ol

po

itriou Karaoli ke Dim

ni

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ni

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ki

ol

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3

Ni

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e.

MODERN MONUMENTS

im

Mi

Pr

Ni

s

e.

C6

ou

ki

op

en

Av

is

tr

ox

ki

23 Moni Lazariston 24 Armenian Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary 25 Holy Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary 26 Orthodox Cemetery 27 Armenian Cemetery, Protestant Cemetery 28 Zeitelnik Allied Cemetery 29 New Jewish Cemetery 30 Indian Cemetery of Harmankioi

P.

Ts

8

28

as

7

Ag hi as

op

a

So

is

tr

ti

as

im

2

C5

hi

Ts

na

Ar

e.

Eg

u

te

Av

u

io

Ag

El .

le

fi

mo

ak

to

th ef

Er

Ir

us

s er

ia

s

s.

Pl

ki

Va

Mi

B6

u

Ve

n

ko

LADADIKA

Ni

Ladadika (Oil Market) Eleftherias Square Aristotelous Square Hotel Vienni Nedelkou Building Old Oekokyriki Scholi The ‘Red House’ Former Greek Consulate 25 Theophilou Street 13 Theophilou Street 17 Herodotou Street 47 Mousson Street

po

pp

el

ou

li

ni z

ag

1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

u

Ol

no Io

Fr

THESSALONIKI PORT

B5

io

.

mi ou

ou

la

25

an

Ve

Si it

Vi

Le

ou

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or

Di

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fo

la

ss

mi

gg u

Va

s on

ni

Ka ou

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a

to

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ou

lo u

go ti

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dr

hi

ti

na

s

Ag

An

Eg

u

li

an

do

4 Dodekaniso

Po

ss

ous

Kli

ado

n

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u

ll ta is Kr

26is

ou ovri

Ka

El

u

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Sachin

ou ot pi um Do

Ta

Di

mi

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ur

u

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s

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29

ou

r. St

ou

st

hi

Ir in is

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28

s

ro

to

ch

Sa

Papa

pf

Mo ou

>

Sa

30

C4

Ag

Lagkada

B4

ou

23

Ev

lo

>> >

THESSALONIKI

do

Me te or o

Kl

Ko

ro

ol

mi

eo

la

s

P.

G


Ep

ou

MONUMENTS’ MAP

D4 Ep

ta

Dim

. P ol

ior

u

Kr

9

is

ad

os

ro

ou

poul

le

os

12

son

Mou

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as

fi

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to os

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af

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po

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hi Ag

Di

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Ep

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pi

ta

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api

Ak

u

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fi

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leo

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Ag

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on

Kla

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u

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fi

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rg

ko

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pi

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Sev ill is

KASTRA (CASTLE)

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D5

Fi

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pp

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Ah

in

is

gi

Am h.

Ger

Al

.

Sv

ol

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na

Al

.

Sv

ti

a

tr

io

u

ARISTOTELEIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS (UNIVERSITY AREA)

ti

let

r. St

Dia

h.

Da gk

li

Am

in

24

ia

ki

at

is

n Eg

im

Despere

Ts

ou

Aggelaki

is

ol

Et

ela P. M

ou

Di

mi

Et ou man

ou

CHOROS DIETHNOUS EKTHESIS THESSALONIKIS (HELEXPO TIF)

3is

ou

vri

tem

Sep

Nik. Germanou

s

ki

Ni Av

D6

ou 29

vri

tem

Sep

E6


24

ti

ki

na

is

a CHOROS DIETHNOUS EKTHESIS THESSALONIKIS (HELEXPO TIF)

ou

vri

tem

Sep 3is

THESSALONIKI

Nik. Germanou Ni s

ki

D6

ou

vri

tem

E6

u to ra St

e.

Av

Sep 3is

13

e. Av

14

u

glo

tzo

tan

Kai hou

c

ima

Lis

Gr

fi pa Pa

ig

or

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u

La

mp

ato Str

ra

ki

ve. u A

zonon

ts

.

Al

E7

os

nt

fo

no

Xe

fi

on

Delf

17

pa

16 s

Iliado

Pa

u

io

as

st

na

D7

amanli Ave. Kon/nou Kar

pa

Pa

ou Ave.

ou Ave.

Meg. Al exandr

iou Archeologikou Mous

19

Ka

s Amalia

gi os Geor Vasile

15

Paraskevopoulou

18

im

id

i

Ev

Kolokotroni s

hou

ant

sio u

ulou

Ave.

eopo

sta

amanli Kon/nou Kar

Andr

Delfon

Meg. Al exandrou Ave.

is Olga s Ave.

Vasiliss

28is Oktovriou

ana

Pap

ingk Al. Flem

Al.

ldi

iva

Gar

Kle

Mark. Mpotsari

Mark. Mpotsari

30

seos

Analip

u

vro

G

Sta


amanli Kon/nou Kar

MONUMENTS’ MAP

eopo

ulou

19 20 21 22

Mark. Mpotsari

Mark. Mpotsari

Archaeological Museum Museum of Byzantine Culture Papafeion Orphanage Former Russian Hospital Villa Michaelidi Salem Mansion / Former Italian Consulate Former Melissa Orphanage Chateau Mon Bonheur Villa Chatzilazarou Villa Morpurgo Ave.

Alexandr ou Ave.

Andr

13 14 15 16 17 18

Delfon

Meg.

Vasiliss is Olga s Ave.

28is Oktovriou

seos

Analip

u sio sta ana Pap Al.

i

ingk Al. Flem

Al.

a vet Gam

seos Analip

D8

u

vro

Sta

E

dika Petrou Sin

20

as

Pap

u

tio

ar s M

25i

.

reo

Ave

and

. amanli Ave Kon/nou Kar

r.

lg s O

Geo

ssi

ili

Vas

Delfon

a vet Gam

21

u

Meg. andr

Delfon

Alex

Geo

Vo

thou

r.

ve. ou A

a

fir

or u P

pro

Lam

and

Pap

Skia

on

reo

lf

u

De

D9

ri

ga

ul

Vo

E

Me

rk

ou

ri

ou

s Cheronia

ou et

th go

Lo

22 nos

is

ss

li

si s Av e.

h

sc

Mo

31

u

lo l Psel

Michai

ga

on

si

i on

Ol

em

Th

i

k Ta

di

mi

no

o Ik

reou Geor. Papand

ok

t is

So

i

ul

fo

li

Va

Plouto


Cultural Monument Document 1st Edition – March 2013 Authored by: Municipality of Thessaloniki Directorate of Culture-Tourism Office Address Office Address Tourism Dept City Hall 1, Vas.Georgiou A str. GR-54640 Thessaloniki, Greece T +30 2313 318206 tourism@thessaloniki.gr

The document is also available in digital form at www.thessaloniki.gr and www.thessaloniki.travel © Municipality of Thessaloniki, 2013

Design Designers United

With the kind cooperation of HELLENIC REPUBLIC MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS, CULTURE AND SPORTS GENERAL SECRETARIAT OF CULTURE 9TH EPHORATE OF BYZANTINE ANTIQUITIES

HELLENIC REPUBLIC MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS, CULTURE AND SPORTS GENERAL SECRETARIAT OF CULTURE GENERAL DIRECTORATE OF ANTIQUITIES AND CULTURAL HERITAGE 16TH EPHORATE OF PREHISTORIC AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITIES

HELLENIC REPUBLIC MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS, CULTURE AND SPORTS GENERAL SECRETARIAT OF CULTURE EPHORATE OF CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN MONUMENTS OF CENTRAL MACEDONIA THESSALONIKI UNION OF TOURIST GUIDES


Thessaloniki Monuments' Map