Page 1


This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Comission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Aromanian / Vlachs FĂŁlcarea, Manakia fund, 1906, NMRP Archive

Partners


Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României

The National Museum of Romanian Peasant Cu Tenda: Aromanian stories. Stories, Images and Sounds on the Move [Living Memory of Southeastern Europe] – Bucureşti: Martor, 2019 catalogue concept / graphic design: Lila Passima documentation / editing: Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei, Cosmin Manolache, Daniel Nancu photo: Marius Caraman, Mihaela Dumitru, Andra Chiriac, Alex Solomon translation: Alistair Ian Blyth (eng), Daniel Nancu (arom), Georgiana Vlahbei (eng, arom) ISBN 978-606-8472-24-9 39

2

3


thirst for the road. Today’s globetrotters and the travellers of the past have something in common: ingeniousness and not caring a whit about borders. Almost one hundred years ago, in a Balkan Peninsula without borders, the Aromanians were the greatest travellers. Shepherds with thousands of sheep, carters with caravans, unsurpassed merchants, and people of great accomplishment, they roamed the length and breadth of the Balkans. And even farther afield. For most of them, their whole lives were spent on the road: you might even be born on the road, you learned to walk, you invented games and stories, you sang, you kept the feast days, you learned the steps of the ring dances, you made good companions, you were betrothed, you wed– all on the road! [Georgiana Vlahbei]

4

5


The “Cu Tenda. Aromanian Stories” exhibition, part of the Cu Tenda / Stories, Images and

Expozitsia “Cu Tenda. Aromanian Stories” Cu Tenda / Stories, Images and Sounds on the

Sounds on the Move [Living memory of southeastern Europe] European project, undertakes

Move [Living memory of southeastern Europe] sh-bãgã tu minti s-adarã unã voltã tu cultura

a journey into the imaginary of a culture that underwent changes throughout the nineteenth

armãneascã di ma ninti, cari tu-ahurhita etãljei XIX, lo s-alãxeascã, s-alagã pit alti locuri, cu

century, crossing various territories, each with their own specific aesthetics and identities.

arãdz sh-mushutets ahoryea. Aestã expozitsie easti adratã ca unã turlie di isturie tsi s-veadi

Designed as a visual essay, through eyewitness accounts, self-representations, material and

shi zuyrãpseashti lumea armãneascã ashi cum sh-eara, dit cumãts sh-dit simboluri, cu isturii,

immaterial heritage texts and items, the exhibition symbolically and fragmentarily reconstructs

cuvendzã, texti sh-lucri di patrimoniu material sh-imaterial. Aestã lumi easti parti di lumea a

the imaginary of the Aromanian world as part of the imaginary of Balkan cultures in constant

culturilor balcanitsi tsi eara daima pi cali. Anchisindalui di la cadurli sh-lucãrli tsi zburãscu ti nãsi

movement.

shi-lji bagã thimeljilu alishtei identitati armãneascã, scutem tu miydani un bair di caduri sh-lucri

Setting out from the memory of the witness image and the suggestiveness of the objects that

veclji tsi s-adrarã ca niscãnti iconji ti armãnami – calea, muntili, cãrvanea, oili, fãlcarea, cãlivili,

construct the identity of a community’s heritage, we reveal to the public a series of archetypal

hoara, cumbuloyili, distimelea, hlambura, cãrlibana, mea sh-ligãturli di zãmani cu loclu: ligãtura

images and objects that have become iconic for the Aromanian community: road, mountain,

cu fisea, cu prãvdzãli, cu tehnea, noima a caliljei shi-a fumealjiljei, ama sh-cãftarea a patridhãljei

caravan, sheep, fălcarea, călivele, hoara, mătăniile, distimelea, hlambura, cîrlibana, and a series

cari lji-aproachi cãndu isturia lã easti mbuveti.

of relations existing in the archaic world: with nature, animals, crafts, the sense of journeying and family, and also the search for a welcoming homeland when history becomes adverse.

Picurari, nomadz, tsi alagã fãrã apanghiu, singuri sh-daima pi cali. Lji-cunushtem ca vlahi,

Nomadic pastors, shepherds, described as homeless exiles, solitaries and wanderers, and

cutsovlahi, karavlahi, armãnji i rãmãnji, ma ncoa lã dzãsirã hommo balcanicus. Armãnjilji avurã

known as Vlassi/Vlachs, Cutzovlachs, Tsintsars, Macedo-Vlachs, Balkan Romanians or South-

dipriunã ma multi definitsii: Vlassi/Vlahi, Cutzovlahi, Tsintsari, Macedo-Vlahi, Români Balcanici

Danube Romanians, and more recently labelled Homo balcanicus, the Aromanians have been

shi Români Sud-Dunăreni. Alãgãrli a lor pit Balcan andreapsirã harta culturalã alushtui loc shi

defined in multiple ways over the course of time. Their peregrination around the South-Eastern

u-adrarã cama avutã pit bana a lor tu-atseali locuri tsi u tsãn aestã banã nica yie tu minti. Aesti

European space has given symbolic shape to the cultural map of the Balkans, it has enriched

alãgãri lã deadirã a armãnjilor unã anjiurizmã ahoryea: mobilitati sh-dishcljideari cãtã lumi,

and added to the dynamic of history and to the living memory of the places through which

bashca vrearea a lor ta s-nu chearã limba shi-adetsli a lor. Ma nclo di cãvgãlu ntrã istorits,

they have passed and impressive particularity: mobility and openness combined to the same

xitãxitori sh-oaminji politits, ma nclo di definitsiili a identitatiljei a armãnjilor, a arãzgãljei shi-a

degree with the conservation of their own language and customs.

limbãljei a lor, pistipsim cã ari simasie s-lã dãm a armãnjlor furnjia sã-shi veadã chirolu di ma

Beyond the controversies of history and polemics among historians, researchers and social and

ninti shi sã-l ljea di hãbari chirolu di tora, cu idhyili lucri tsi li-au populli cama mãri. Contextul

political actors to do with defining the identity of the Aromanians, their origins and language,

sotsial sh-cultural di tora dishcljidi calea cãtã unã cãftari ma lishoarã a patrimoniului shi-a

we believe that it is more important to give them the opportunity to revisit their past and

elementilor culturali care adarã identitatea a popullilor njits tsi bãneadzã deadun cu marli lao

to define their present through the same means of expression for asserting their identity as

tu mesi di cari shed.

those employed by majority societies and communities. The current social and cultural context provides an openness favourable to questioning and exploring the material and immaterial

Caduri di arhivã, texti etnografitsi, istoritsi i aftobioyrafitsi – lucri dit lumea armãneascã atsea

heritage of smaller ethnic communities and cultural groups that live together with the majority.

veacljea – shi-adarã sutsatã shi s-anvãrtusheadzã cu caduri, lucri, audio sh-video di azã dit

The archive photographs, ethnographic, historical and autobiographical texts—representations

lumea armãneascã di tora di pit hori sh-di pit cãsãbadz. Peshterea, Velingrad, Rakitova,

of the old Aromanian world—are accompanied and potentiated by images, objects and audio

Dupnitsa, Muluvishti, Versakova, Bituli, Shtip, veclji hori i cãsãbadz armãneshtshã dit Vãryãrie

and video recordings, counterpoints of contemporary rural and urban Aromanian culture.

sh-Makidunie, ama sh-Camina, Beidaud, Eschibaba, Sinoia, Cãlãrashi, Slobozia, Pipera,

Peștera, Velingrad, Rakitovo, Dupnitsa, Muloviște, Versakovo, Bitola, Stip, old Aromanian

Custantsa, Bucureshti, aspun aestã cali urdinatã di armãnji sh-caftã s-aspunã tsi suntu elji.

villages and towns in Bulgarian and Macedonia, are an image of our journey through history and the destiny of the community in its attempt to define itself.

6

Lila Passima

7


JOURney THROUGH THE MEMORY OF IMAGE LIVING MEMORY OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE

8

9


Skopje Shtip

Kruşevo

Balkan-Halbinsel. Übersicht / Balkan peninsula. Overview, Adolf Stielers Handatlas, Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1891

Versakova

Muluvishti

Bituli

Dupnitsa

Velingrad

Rakitova

Peshtera Beidaud

Camina

Sinoia

Eschibaba Cãlãrashi Custantsa Pipera

Bucureshti


13


Numa a mea di featã easti Bajdechi. Mini escu di Vudena, tu Gãrtsie. Vudena eara cãsãbã. Fendi a meu lji-eara numa Andoni - Doni - sh-mana (dada), Tanã. Pãrintsãlji, sh-elji, eara tut di Vudena. Tuts eara di-aclo. A noshtsã avea oi, ma nu li pãshtea elji, bãga altsã s-adarã lucurlu aestu. Vudena bãna sh-grets, vãryari nu-avea. Aveam sculie armãneascã aclo. Anda vdzim di Vudena, mini aveam doi anji, sor-mea avea patru anji. Nji-aduc aminti tuti horli di-aclo, tuti, tuti. Tsãn minti sh-vitsinjilji tsi-aveam. Eara multu mshatã Vudena, Arabagilar. Multu bunã eara. Tutã soia mea armasi tu Gãrtsie, cã ashi sh-vrurã. Tetili eara mãrtati aclo. Mana vini aoa cu nicuchirlu a ljei, cu mini sh-sor-mea, sh-frati-njiu lu-amintã aoa, tu-Armãnie. Fendi, Andoni, vdzi di tu-Armãnie tu-Americã s-amintã aveari. [Nichea al Cucli ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

14

15


A noshtsã eara dit Gãrtsie, di-Aspruvalta, aproapea di Sãrunã. Para-paplu a meu avea loatã aclo unã njilji di stremati. Avea doi fciori, un di elji, paplu a meu, cari eara Dinca. Shi-alantu pap, fratili a papnjiui, Giogiu - cãti tsinti suti di stremati cathi un. Nu eara ca aoa, cu ictãri, eara cu stremati. Di-aclo cara vdzea s-dutsea tu Vãryãrie cã eara vimtu bun aclo. A noshtsã - Paljiu Crushuva, Cato Crushuva shMaslarea, Shtefalena, Vrasta. Eara Alba Amari aclo di iu vdzea sh-veara eara cãroari mari. Cara vdzea verli cãtã tu Vãryãrie, sinurli eara dishcljisi. Vdzea cu caljilji, cu oili, cu tuts. Paplu avea tsintsi njilji di oi, pãrintsãlji a noshtsã unã njilji di cãpri sh-tuts paturlji frats deadun unã sutã di calji. Vdzea tu Vãryãrie cã aclo shi-avea cashari. Aclo adra cãshcãvalji, cashu, ascutea umtu sh-dapoa tomnurli yinea nãpoi Aspruvalta. Ashi bãnarã anji multsã. Ma di cara ncljisirã sinurlu, nu mata s-dusirã. Anda yinea, loa muntsãlji cu nichi. Di daima (totãna), paplu loa cu nichi muntili sh-unãoarã s-featsi cã dusi Vlahbeilu nintea a lui shi-lji dzãsi: „Naceadis, nu yin!” Ashi cã dusi paplu: „A s-ul lom cu nichi, Vlahbeio!” sh-lu-antribã: „Nu l-vindzã?”, „L-vindu!”, „Cãtu-l dai?”, „Optu sats di yroshi sh-unã tisagã di flurii.” Sh-lo paplu muntili, l-lo cu nichi el. Dapoaia nidzea tu Vãryãrie, sh-iara yinea. Toamna pãshtea multu oili aclo sh-eara cãldurã, sh-eara unã iarbã veardi sh-eara sh-niscãnti tufi njits ca dzeaditlu, lumãchi-lumãchi, tuti ca niscãnti frandzã, tsi li mãca oili. Cara ahurhea s-da neaua, dapoaia li tãljea bãrbatslji, mljerli li-adra mãnuclji sh-li-adutsea a oilor, li-arca tu-ahuri ta s-nu intrã neaua. Shi-ashi sh-fu multsã anji, dapoaia s-arcã unã lãngoari pisti pãrintsãlji a mei, sh-murirã ahãtsã oaminji... Muri nicuchira al tati, deadun cu doi fciori, Iancul sh-Costa, di patru anji. Sh-mljearea al lali muri cu doauli feati sh-unu fcior sh-lali Yioryi, fratili al tati sh-multsã sh-murirã... sh-cara dusirã ahãtsa, shi vdzirã shi-alantsã di-aclo... njicu sh-mari, tuts plãndzea. Nu shi-armasirã Aspruvalta. Dusirã Olacã. Aclo, giumita di hoarã eara vãryari, giumitati eara grets. Acãtsarã unã casã aclo, unã casã mari, cu nichi. Aestã s-fãtsea la 1915 anlu. Sh-dapoaia s-andreapsi sh-tati, cã nu-avea tsi s-adarã, maia eara multu moashi, nu putea. Shi-atsel di la cari lo casa cu nichi eara vãryar bolshevic shi-eara tsitãtsean grecu. La 1916 vini vãryarlu sã-lji dzãcã al lali s-adarã grec. Sh-cã nu vru s-adarã grec, nã arsirã casa. Shi-a noshtsã shi-avea tuti lucãrli aclo sh-tuti arsirã, nu puturã s-li-ascoatã nafoarã... Dupã aestã iara armasirã tu Gãrtsie sh-di-aclo dusirã Nichishani. Aestã Nichishani eara aproapea di Olacã. Sh-atumtsea mi feciu io la 1920. Toamna nidzeam tu muntsãlji Pangheu, Castri shi shideam iarna tutã aclo. Castri shidzum doi anji, vindum caparli sh-oili sh-trapsim Rodolivos. Castri adrai doauã clasi (anji di sculie) sh-trei Rodolivos. Tsintsi clasi tu sculia gãrtseascã. Aclo (Rodolivos), armãnjilji acãtsa ca yinghits casi, dzatsi sh-eara a noasti, Naceadanjilji. [Lencea al Iuruc ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie] 16

17


Cãndu vinirã a noshtsã tu-Armãnie, vinirã cu tuti dupã elji, cu tuti ancãrcati, cu oili, cu tut tsi-avea. Tuti tsi li avea aclo

(Unii di Lucru a Loclui di tu-Armãnie tu chirolu a comunismolui), canãoarã nu s-cãrti cu vãrnu. Nai ma bunlu eara, nai

bãgarã tu satslji atselji mãri. Altu-tsiva nu aveai. Shi bãgarã satslji shi pãrtsãli tuti pi pampori. Agiumsim Custantsa shi

ma livendul, omu mplin! Sh-mana (dada) a mea eara fronimã, ama nu eara ca fendi-njiu, eara cama antsãpatã.

d-aclo n-ampãrtsãrã. Niscãnts avea tsintsi sats, altsã nica tsintsi, cathi un cu satslji a lui. Di tuts, noi adusim cama multi

Maia a mea, ljirtata, nji-u aduc ghini aminti. Lji-arisea lucrulu, ama nu multu lucru. Ma putsãn, ashi! Nu putea, cã avea

oi, di-aclo, dit Vãrgãrie.

shi-ashitsi multi ti fãtseari – dimi eara cu nitslji ficiurits, dã ncoa, dã nclo, dimi tsãsea tu arãzboi, yinea di-aclo, fãtsea

A fendi-njiui lji arisea multu cu oili, eara bun picurar. Cathi dumãnicã-l videai tu pãzari. „Iu ti duts, fendi?”, „Alas’, shtiu

mãcari. Tsi, atumtsea avea mashinji ti aspilari, i cã avea lunjinã? Tuti di mãnã s-fãtsea. Tora – tsi? Aspilashi tini? Aspilã

mini iu mi duc!”. Pãzari s-adra Casimcea shi cãndu s-dutsea seara, tãshi alantã dzuua s-turna, cu cupia di oi. Tutã hoara

mashina! Lucra, aspila, cu patru ficiurits cãt lucru s-adari? Doi di elji lji-murirã, nu eara lucru lishor.

n-avea alt ca pap Bacale, fendi-njiu, Dumnidzã s-lu ljiartã! Nu avea ca elu-n hoarã: mushat, fronim, mintimen. N-aveai

[Yioryi al Bacali ǀ Eschibaba (Stejaru), Tulcea, Rumãnie]

lucru cu fendi-njiu. Nu cã hiu mini, ma putets s-antribats tutã hoara. Lucra multu di multu, lucra cu oili, fu shi la C.A.P.

18

19


Aestu album lu-adrai io, cara minduescu cã noi va n-agãrshim iu n-avem dusã. Tu multi locuri n-avem dusã, multu avem cãntatã, tu multsã cãsãbadz: Machedonia neasim, tu Gãrtsie, Albania. Shi ti ’tsea dzãshu, s-li ’rãdãpsescu, di prota cum ’vem ’hurhitã. Aestu l-bãgai ti a mea nipoatã. Am doauã nipoati, am nica un album, idghiul easti. Nica nu easti dipisit. Angrãpseashti ”Istoria a Armãnjilor tu Vãrgãrie” 1998 etuslu, Armãnjilji di-aoa di Velingrad, neasim s-cãntãm Vidin. ’Tumtsea aflãm stranji, cari ca tsi avea, armãneshtsã stranji, ma di cama noauã, nu di ma nintu cum eara un’ chiro. Sh-deapoa, la 2002 etuslu, ’drarã altu ansambãl. Vãrã di atselji oaminji murirã, atseali mljeri tsi cãnta murirã. Protlu an earam multsã (tu paree), tora noi him sh-featili a noasti. Tora, a noasti nipoati, unã dipisi sh-easti studentcã. ’Lantã, divãroarã va s-dipiseascã, sh-deapoa nu shtiu dili va s-yinã eali. Va n-armãnem aushilji mashi. [Cherana Pishotova ǀ Velingrad, Vãrgãrie 2016]

21


22

23


A noshtsã yin dit Gãrtsie, di aproape di Ianina. Noi avem vinitã tu aestã hoarã, Versakovo, la anlu 1924. Protslji cari vinirã tu hoarã earam noi, fumealjea a noastrã. Aestã casã u acumpãrã paplu a meu, eara casa a Vlahanjilor. Paplu a meu eara Halciu al Vlahu. Pãrnoanjea nã eara Vlahu. Elji eara patru frats, la 1908 s-dispãrtsãrã, afendi a paplui a meu, strãpaplu Vasil, el la 1908 s-dusi tu Gãrtsie, n-Sãrunã. Aclo avea elji cãshãria iu sh-pãshyea oili. Tu 1918, cãndu bitisi polimlu balcanic, s-turnarã aclo shi trapsirã tu unã hoarã, Cararma, aproapea di Shtip, shi deapoaia iara s-dispãrtsãrã fratili shi paplu a meu Halciu trapsi Versakovo. Aoa aflã unã casã armãneascã, al Yiorghi al Ghiftu. Atsel easti tora tu-Armãnie. Cãnd era aclotsi, n-Sãrunã, muri sh-un frati al pap, Dina, muri shi muljearea altui frati de-al pap, cari eara nai marli frati shi cãndu s-turnarã Cararma, atsel pap, Steryi, lo altã muljeari, cari avea doi ficiori. Paplu vrea s-acumpãrã aoatsi, s-amintã aveari, ama nu vrea s-acumpãrã singur shi tut-lji dzãtsea a frati-sui: „Aidi, frate, s-nidzem s-acumpãrãm di-adun. Avearea aestã s-ancupãrã di la Turts”. Ama frati-su nu vru. Dzãtsea el, „Cã tse s-cãrteascã nipotslji a mei cu nipotslji a mei di frats?” Ashi cara, tu soni, lji cljimarã cusurinjilji a lor. A cusurinjilor suntu aesti casi di-aoa. Aeshti suntu cusurinjlji a paplui. Paplu Vasil a nost eara nai marli di frats. Shiaestu pap era shi nun – cã la Armãnji eara adetea, cã nai marli di frats lã eara a tutãlor nun. Ma nu yini nunlu, atumtsea s-yinã afendi marili. Pisti tuts aeshti nai marli eara strãpaplu Vasil. A lui lji avea muritã fendi-su shi di-atumtsea sh-avea criscutã el tuts fratslji – eara shapti – patru frats shi trei surãri. Elu-lji criscu tuts. Sh-lji nsurã shi mãrtã tuts. U mãrtarã maia Tsatsa, lu-nsurarã sh-un di frats – Mita, shi-atumtsea strãpaplu Vasil cãndãsi: „Duri, di aoa shi nclo, nã dispãrtsãm!”. Niscãnts di elji trapsirã Pishts, a noshtsã, Sãrunã. Cãndu s-turnarã a noshtsã, paplu Steryi nu vrea s-yinã aoatsi, cã el avea doi hilji xeni, di casã xeanã, iara paplu a meu avea doi ficiori, fendi a meu shi lalã-njiu – Mita shi cu Nasi. Mita n-avea ficiori sh-lo di la frati-su, Nasi. Ama noi earam nunji shi atselji di Pishts nu avea aclo vãrã aveari shi pãn tu soni vinirã sh-acumpãrarã aoatsi. Shi ashitsi agiumsi taifa a noastã Versakovo. Deapoaia, di Versakovo, dutsea la cãlivili dit munti cu oili. Avea shi loc, ama nu lucre loclu elji, avea Vãryarilji tsi simina loclu. Multu ma ncoa ahurhirã a noshtsã s-lucreadzã loclu. Elji nu lucra, abea dupã ’35, ’40 nclo ahurhirã. Pãnã vini Colectivlu shi lã lo. La ’53 s-bitisi Colectivlu. Atumtsea nã deadirã loclu nãpoi shi di-atumtsea fu a nost. Sh-atumtsea ahurhirã tinirilji shi ficiuritslji la sculie: „Ficiurits, nidzets s-anvitsats!” shi la 1991 chiru shi Iugoslavia. [Dima Vlahu ǀ Versakovo, Makidunie]

24


Videts, aestã easti di-alihea! Chirolu shi-adrã lucurlu a lui. Ma nu-ari dyeavasi pi-armãneashti, ma nu-ari sculie

Mini nu mutrescu anvãrliga sh-nu lã caftu cãbatea. Lipseashti sã shtim totna cari him noi. Cã tse mini nu poa’

pi-armãneshti, aestã s-tucheashti, cheari.

s-mi-adarã ni vãryar, ni sãrbu, ni mucan, ni arbines, mini escu armãn sh-nu pot s-alãxescu aestã.

[Hristu al Streyiu al Ciolac ǀ Bituli, Makidunie]

[Hristu al Streyiu al Ciolac ǀ Bituli, Makidunie]

26

27


//


30

31


Iernurli s-bagã neauã mari oara la noi, easti munti. Mashi calea cãtã Bituli armãni goalã. Bituli fudzim Brumar, Andreu, cum easti chirolu. Ma s-hibã chirolu urut, fudzim sh-ma ayonjea. Aoatsi avem gãrdinã, ma nclo dumãts, aproape di-arãu piperchi, avem tut tsi nã lipseashti. Mini mi feci la anlu 1939, aoa, Muluvishti, ma nu tu casa aestã, altã casã. Eara unã di vecljili casi. Mini escu nai ma marli, am unã sor, dupã mini – un frati sh-nica un. Cãndu earam mini njic, hoara eara multu mari, tora armasirã 32-33 di casi di tuti atseali – tora yin multsã di cum lã dzãtsets voi, tsi yin ti weekend aoatsi. Au casi aoatsi ama yin mashi ti weekend. Ashi, bunãoarã, frati-njiu. Di atselji cari bãneadzã tut anlu aoatsi ari vãrã un-doi, trei t-unã casã. Ia, va lji-misur tora: dighios ari doi, cu Olga – trei, cu noi dolji – tsintsi, cu nica doi – shapti. Dupã atsea, treisprã, Gonciu, pasprã, Iana tsisprã, nica patru di-aclo – nausprã. Cama nclo – unsprãyinghits. Cu Dulca, dosprãyinghits. La Zoitsa ari tsintsi – optusprãyinghits pãnã tora. Pa-tsintsi sh-di-alantã parti, treidzãtsãtrei shnica vãrã trei, treidzãtsãshasi. La Aspasi ari doi – treidzãtsãoptu. Sh-nica un – treidzãtsãnauã. La Vanghiu ari patru – patrudzãtsãtrei. La Ghiocu, nica trei, Tanasca ari doi, la Dinci, patru – tsindzãtsãnauã, shaidzãts, vãrã shaptidzãtsãshapti him tuts noi aoa, Armãnjilji. Aeshtsã him noi, aushilji, cari shidem aoa sh-veara, sh-iarna. Tuts talji leamni, cathi casã ari vãrã trei-patru calji, cu caljilji poartã leamnili. Noi him Grãmusteanji curats. Mai ari nica shi-altsã Grãmusteanji, ama atselji suntu amintats, tsi va s-dzãcã, nu suntu oriyinalji. Ama noi him grãmusteanji di-alihea, safi. A meu pap lji-eara numa Costa. Nãs avea shapti frats, di cari un mashi n-avea fumealji sh-dusi singur tu Americã shi deapoea s-turnã. Tuts chirurã, fratslji al fendi. Fendi a meu era amintat la 1908. La ’88 muri, tu obdzãts di-anji. [Cociu al Gramosli ǀ Muluvishti, Makidunie]

32

33


Prota numtã cu pãradz s-featsi la mini n-hoarã, a mea numtã, prota fu. Pãn’ la shaptidzãts anlu nu s-adra ahtari lucru Dealu

Vãrã chiro s-bãga misãljiurli anda murea vãrã sh-li bãga pi masi, cãndu s-turna lumea di la mirmintsã s-mãcã pãni. Tora nedz

(hoara Sarighiol de Deal). Mini mi mãrtai Sarighiol sh-prota numtã cu pãradz a noastã fu. Socur-njiu avea un cusurin cari-lji

la ristorantu sh-nu mata scots misãljiurlji. Aestu lucru nu-i bun, mea, sh-io li-am apretati (mk. naredeni), va s-gãlbineascã,

dzãsi: „Tini, Toma, va s-adari numta cu pãradz! Duri, pãnã tora! S-adrãm sh-noi cu pãradz, cu pishchesuri, tuts adarã cu

cãtu-a s-sheadã apretati? Tora ishirã alti turlii di misãljiuri, sh-cama buni, cama huzuri. Ma tinirlji di-azã s-ayunjisescu. Nu-au

pãradz!” A socãrlor a mei lã eara arshini, ama pãn; tu soni u-adrarã cu pãradz. Dzatsi, tsindzãts, unã sutã di lei... cãt vrea

chiro s-apreteadzã, nu-au chiro s-calcã [cu herlu], nu-shi calcã ni cirshafea di pi crivati.

s-bagã omlu. Sh-tu soni shi scoasirã pãradzlji. Dausprãyinghitsli di Brumar 1970 feci mini numta.

[Mariana al Cucli sh-Maria al Sãmãrã ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

[Maria al Sâmâră ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

34

35


Mea, noi, grãmusteanjilji, nu n-amisticãm cu fãrshirotslji, psãnji ari cari au faptã eastã. Elji, fãrshirotslji, di la Cogealac, s-loa cu elji, nu s-mintea. Nitsi tu zboarã nu nã uidiseam: elji azbura unã turlie, noi altã turlie. Ama noi him atselji bunjilji, taifa a noastã easti di grãmusteanji. Cum s-dzãc mini… nai mai bunjilji di oaminji! Noi n-aveam ghini cu cipanjilji, ama cu fãrshirotslji, cama cu zori. Sh-tu cãntari. Elji au un tsi cãntã sh-tuts alantsã adarã „eeeee” fãrã bitiseari. Tsãnea iholu. Noi nu-avem ashitsi. Noi, cara s-ahurhim vãrã cãntic, mini, bunãoarã, ahurheashti sh-cumnatã-mea sh-frati-njiu sh-tuts deapoa cãntam unã. Aestã easti tsi n-amparti di fãrshirots. [Mariana al Cucli ǀ Maria al Sãmãrã, Custantsa, Rumãnie]

36

37


Am 86 di-anji. Nji dzãc Marusha, Musha al Gherase al Cola shi hiu mãrtatã pi Migit. A noshtsã vinirã dit Gãrtsie, noauã meshi aveam cãndu vinim dit Gãrtsie sh-curdisim Cadrilater, tu Ingiochi. Di-aclo nã dusim pãnã Turtucaia. Di-apoia lucrãm la boiari, atselji cama avutslji. Adunam ayinjea shi nu n-alãsa ni boabã di auuã s-bãgãm n-gurã, ahãt andrihãshts eara. Aestã s-fãtsea Manasia, cãndu nã deportarã. Nã bãga mãna tu cuvadz, s-nu furãm vãrã boabã di auuã. Nu tsãn minti cum lji dzãtsea a hoarãljei iu mi feci mini, tu gãrtsie. Nu scrie nitsi tu pashaporti… nitsi nu shtiu maca ascrie, tsi mini ved s-adghivãsesc? Cãndu agiumsim tu-Armãnie, aveam shapti anji. Prota clasã di sculii u adrai Belica. Ingiochi nu avea sculie shi nidzeam Belica, fãtseam aclo sculia. Hoara avea casi buni, ama ma multi eara cu Turts. Eali, cadãnili, eara anvãliti cu albi batitsi, cum eara ma ninti. A noauã, ta s-nu nã furã Turtsilji, n-adrarã crutsi tu frãmti, ta s-nã cunushtem cã him machidonji. A njia nji-u featsirã crutsea cãndu aveam shapti anji. Aclo, Ingiochi, nji-u featsirã. La tuti featili di-n hoarã li fãtsea crutsi. Aveam bisearicã n-hoarã, ma tsi, mini s-mi duc?! Tsi tsãn minti – aveam casa analtu pi unã mayulã. SH-avea un shoput n-vali, di nã adman featili shi muljerili shi aspilam aclotsi lãna. Muljierili tsi lucru s-avea? Tsiva! Na, lãna: u scãrmina, u turtsea, u tsãsea. Cãndu vinim aoatsi, tu-Armãnie, tsãsui sh-mini. Tsãseam tuti di nã loa harlu! Cum s-nu tsashi? Tora…li arcãm tuti, ma atumtsea noi nã pidhipseam. [Marusha al Migit ǀ Eschibaba (Stejaru), Tulcea, Rumãnie] 38

39


40

41


S-fãtsea sh-unã, a curi lji-dzãc bucuvalã. Ninti sh-ninti, s-ascãrmina pãnea shi s-adra cumãts njits-njits. Liyda u bãgam pi foc s-ardã shi dapoaia arcam pãnjitsa atsea nuntru. S-tsãyãrsea, pãni tsãyãrsitã tu untulemnu. Shi-aproapea s-u-ascuteam, arcam sh-un pulmu di zahari. U-ascuteam sh-u mãcam... Taha paplu a meu, strãpaplu, mãcã unã oarã multã bucuvalã di-aestã, cã multu lu-arisea sh-dusi la un shopat ta s-bea apã shi-ahãtã apã biu. Ca-shti cãt? Di cripã! Sh-di atumtsea n-armasi numa di Bucuvalã. Aestã easti isturia a noasã, di iu nã vini. [Musha al Bucuvalã ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

//

//

42


Numa a mea easti Yioghi al Bacula, hiu di Custantsa, mi feci la 1965. Tutã ficiuramea u avui hoara Sinoia. Cara s-mi-antreabã vãr „D-iu hii?”, va-lji dzãc „Di Sinoia”, cã aclo duchii prota oarã bana. Cãntarea u am di la tati, cari, tu chirolu a lui, cãndu eara tinir, cãnta la corlu di Sinoia. Eara unã pareie tsi nu u videa ghini comunishtsãlji, tsi u dãnãsirã pãn’ tu soni, cã nu eara bunã, dimi eara armãneascã. Sh-tu 13-14 anj, loai prota oarã acordeonea tu mãnã. Nu-anvitsai pri iuva, la vãrã sculie, ta s-cãntu. Mi-anvitsai singur, cum putui. Ti-anvitsari, prota oara s-anveatsã nai ma efcullu cãntic, nu vãrã cama zori. Eara tu liceu (sculia di mesi) cãndu adrãm prota oara pareea Iholu, mini cu a meu cusurin, Iancu al Bacula, cari nica pãnã tora cãntã, cu un lali di-a meu, Iancu al Bacula sh-Mihai al Sanchi, cari tora easti tu Canada sh-el cãnta cu flauti, mashi el era armãn s-batã flautea, sh-cumna-su, Mihai al Caratash, cari era cu tãmpãrãlu. Cãntãm deadun vãrã trei-patru anji pãnã vdzii io tu-ashcheri. Shi-atumtsea s-avea mutatã shi Hrista al Lupci Custantsa sh-vini shel la Iholu. Di-atumtsea, dupã tsi mi turnai acasã, acãtsai s-cãntu mashi la giocuri. Aestã eara ’86-’87. Pãnã tora. Ancljishu treidzãts di anji di anda cãntu. Cathi sãmbãtã, cathi dumãnicã, cãndu ari numtsã. Di primveara pãnã toamna. Ma multu, tomnurli. La numtã, ari atseali cãntitsi tsi li cãntu cathi oara. Dapoaia, cãndu easti ti gioc – tsi tsã yini tu minti, acãchiseshtsã? Nu ai vãrã repertoire isa. Ama ari niscãnti cãntitsi tsi va daima s-li cãntsã, fãrã di-altã. S-li cãntsã cãndu lipseashti, nu ashi. Ma cu noimã. Suntu atseali cãntitsi veclji cari tsãn minti cã s-cãnta ma ninti. Sh-tora s-cãntã, suntu sh-tora mshati. Tsã yin tu minti cãndu cãntsã ti la cor. Cum tsã yini tu minti, l-dzãts. Sh-pãnã tora suntu multu mshati atseali veclji. Noi, cu armonitsli, cãntãm ma multu atseali veclji cãntitsi. Cã nu pots s-cãntsã cu armonica tsi cãntã pareili cu atseali electronitsi – ti noi ari zori s-cãntsã ashitsi – cã tse noi cu acordeonili nu avem multã sculie di muzicã. Noi armãnjlji cãntãmu multu lishor. Muzica a noastã easti lishoarã. [Yioryi al Bacula ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie] 44

45


Barbuta aestã u bãgãm cara dutsem culaclu ti numtã la nveasta. Culaclu l-poartã deadunu cu njellu pi pãltãri. Ashi sh-eara tu chirolu atsel, tora s-dutsi gãljina. Cu barbuta anvãleshtsã culaclu sh-cara agiundzã la cuscãrlji, prota lji-lu dai a socurlui njic shsocurlu njicu l-da nãpoi sh-s-alãxeashti. S-adarã ashi em la yrambolu, em la nveasta acasã. Shi-aestu easti culaclu di-alãxeari. Shi-aesti, tsãsuti, s-bãga la bãrbatslji cari vdzea cu-arãchia sh-cu pãyurlu, ancãlar, ta s-lã greascã a oaminjilor la numtã. Ljibãgai unã chilimi ahtari, di lãnã: unã mudatã, unã bãtãnie. Di pãyur acãtsai unã fundã aroshi sh-barbuta aestã u ligai shi-ashi nidzea s-cãliseascã ti numtã. Cum da azã calezmati ti numtã, ma ninti elji nidzea sh-lã grea cu gura. Beai yinu sh-hii cãlisit pi numtã. Nidzea soia tutã. Aeshtsã eara fãrtatslji. [Mariana al Cucli sh-Maria al Sãmãrã ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

46

47


Yonghizmo armânescu Ndreptu s-dzãc, lumãchili a armãnamiljei suntu ma multi. Va mi dinãsescu aoatsi la lumachea a fãrshirotslor, cã unã turlie di cãntari armãneascã – cãnticlu polifonic – s-avdi nai ma multu la elji. Un ahtari cãntic fu aleptu shi-anyrãpsit di filoloylu Tachi Papahagi, shdapoaia tipusit la 1922, t-unã antoloyie armãneascã andreaptã la Casa Școalelor. Lji-dãtsi Voi giuname shi voi frats. Shi-altsã oaminji cu shteari mutrirã pi aestã turlie di cãntari, ca bunãoarã muzicoloylu Emil Riegler-Dinu i lingvistul Th. Capidan. Nji-am tu minti sh-nu njida arihati cum s-bãgãm pi aradã cu instrumenti tuti aesti arãdãrichi tsi nu sh-suntu isa pi bots, cu agiutorlu a aparatilor electronitsi (de suprapunere). Vrea mi dinãseam la clãrnetã, un di instrumentili multu vruti tsi l-bat dipriunã pareili armãneshtsã di cãntãtori di azã. Tut pãspãtindalui pi-tu Antologia al Tachi Papahagi ti alti instrumenti muzicali hipti pi-tu cãntitsli aleapti di el, nji-aflai unã fluearã, ti cari nu mi ciudusii s-u-aflu la unã soe ahtari avdzãtã di picurari. Putem s-u-adãvgãm sh-flueara la aestã anchisitã a noastã. Cãnticlu shi-adutsi multu di multu cu Miorița a noastâ, a Romãnjilor: „ – O, lai Ianachi, s-nu njerdz la oi, Ts-vidzui yislu cã va s-mori. – O, car’ si mor, car’ si nu mor, S-nji-ascultats un singur zbor, La turushti s-mi ngrupats, Primuveara, cãnd s-vã turnats, S-treacã oili, si-nji li-acatsu.

Si-nji li-acatsu shi si-nji li mulgu, Shi cu mãna mea s-li tundu. Flueara s-nji-u-avdu dirpiunã, Cãndu oili va si-adunã. Tra si-nji hiu shi dupã moarti, Ni di sots, ni di-oi diparti.”

Di-tu cartea Cântece populare macedonene al Vangheli T. Millio, mi dinãsii la protlu cãntic: Vini oara. Di-alanti cãntitsi, nji-si pãru cama zori ta s-ul badz pi-aradã cã easti ampãrtsãt tu trei pãrtsã. Mi-aprucheai di el shi-l cãntai spes la saxofon, pãnã l-loai di hãbari di dip. Nji-mi-agiutarã shi zboarãli di vreari dipãrtoasã, atseali di-tu soni zboarã zorlea mi-adrarã s-ul cãntu pi-ayalea: „Diparti di mini/ Bana mea-i la tini/ Arãsã dunjeae/ Tihea mea nji-fu lae/ Oarã bunã, vrute, oarã bunã!” Ma multu, aflai tu iho un ingredientu oriental, ti cari pot s-azburãscu tehnic, ma altã oarã. Anda tutu-l cãntam, ded s-ved cum bati shi Voi giuname shi voi frats la saxofon. Ași cara apufãsii s-cãntu doauli isturii armãneshtsã la aestu instrumentu, maxus cã pi internet videm cã saxofonlu l-bat multu pareili armãneshtsã di tora. [Călin Torsan ǀ musician, multumult group]

49


Tsi dzãtsea aushilji a noshtsã: Tsi scrié a treia searã ursita, ashi moari. Maca a treia seara dzãsi cã aestu om a s-bãneadzã ahãts anji di dzãli, nu ts-u ia canã! Ahãts anji va s-bãnedz! Macã dzãsi Dumnidzã cã mãni va s-mori, pots s-ti dai tini, sh-njiari s-tsã si bagã-n gurã, tut va s-mori. Dzãtsea aushilji cã unã oarã, aclo tu Sãrbie, unu-armãn lu-acãtsã noaptea. Sh-dusi la unã casã aclotsi: „Lãi om”, dzãsi, „noaptea mi-acãtsã, ma s-am loc s-dormu aoatsi”. „Lãi om” dzãsi, „Loc am, avem njic, a treia searã va s-yinã Ursitili”. (Dzãtsea aushilji cã atumtsea u-asculta Ursita, tsi zbura.) „Nu-ari tsiva” dzãsi. Îl bãgã tu un udã, aclotsi. Omlu, ma s-dusi tu casã xeanã, nu lu-acãtsã somnul. Vini ora dausprã, vinirã treili Miri. Atsea dzãsi ashi, alantã ashi, njica dzãsi „Nu. Ari s-bãneadzã yinghits anji. Dupã yinghits anji, va s-alagã pri-iu a s-alagã shi la fãntãna-tsea di-aclo, tu chirolu ahtari, va s-bea apã shi aclo va s-moarã.” Cãndu avdzã omlu atsel, intrã hiavra tu el. Nu era

La anlu unâ njilji noauã suti obdzãts sh-cama lji-umplui cu palji. Eara birbetslji a mei. Azburãi cu

om arãu, nu lã spusi a pãrintsãlor. Ama mutrea s-veadã lucrulu tsi va s-facã. Agiumsirã atselji yinghits di-ańi. E tora, s-veadã tsi va s-facã.

un, Ivãnel, cari adra ahtari lucru, eara mastur, avea adratã sh-ti Maurer, tsi eara chihãie la sutsata

Cum eara atumtsea chirolu, oaminjilji cu caljilji, cu tãmbãri, alãga

a avinãtorlor. Aestu Ivãnel shi-avea tuti mândiljili tsi lj-lipsea, cã nu putea itsi om s-adarã ahtari

pri-aclo pit muntsã, pit cãmpu, agiumsirã la unã fãntãnã, aclotsi.

lucru. Tora lj-bãgai aoa tu hani. Suntu mshats, ai pi tsi s-mutreshtsã. Cathi vearã lj-ljeau sh-lji-

Sh-cum suntu nitslji fciori, „a, io s-beau ma ninti, io s-beau ma ninti

aspãstrescu acasã, tu cupanji, lj-lau. Suntu ghini mutrits.

apã!”, biu, sh-aclo muri. Shi-atumtsea dusi el sh-lã dzãsi: „Nu vrui

[Iani Carabash ǀ Bucureshti]

s-vã dzãc, seara atsea cãndu durnjii la voi, mini avdzãi Mira, tsi dzãsi Mira: cã va s-bãneadzã yinghits anji shi dupã yinghits anji la aputslu atsel va s-moarã cãndu va s-bea apã”. Aestã easti. Tuti isturiili di la aushi suntu ca pirmithi. Cum lã dzãc tinirilji: isturii. Noi lã dzãtseam pirmithi. [Tanasi al Mushat, Slobozia, Rumãnie]

50

51


//

52

//

//

//

53


cumașŭ/ quilted pinafore, orig. Pătura, Dobrogea, D. N. Coll. mintanŭ ți cumașŭ/ sleeved vest, D. N. Coll. țipuni/ (ro.sarică) long and fleecy rural cloak usually worn by shepherds, orig. Albanian arom., NMRP Coll. Grămosteni female costume from Sârbi (North Macedonia) tofcâ/ dress, D. N. Coll. poalâ di pinușŭ/ plush apron, D. N. Coll. mintanŭ/ sleeve vest, D. N. Coll. chiptarŭ cu cucotŭ/ breastplate with beaded corner, D. N. Coll. culani di mârdzeali ți s-frângu/ belt with „broken” beads, D. N. Coll. toacâ/ metallic clasp used for belt, D. N. Coll. Kitchen on the road trâmbâ di alâge/ felt roller, D. N. Coll. nflucatâ/ fleecy, end of the 19th cent. – beg. of the 20th cent., orig. Greece, NMRP Coll. cânduși/ pinafore, female traditional costume piece, orig. Bulgaria, sec. XX, NMRP Coll. bâcârea/ metallic vessels for storing, transporting, preserving and serving food and drinks while traveling: pails, mugs, plates, trays, pitchers, 20th cent., NMRP Coll., D. N. Coll.

54

55


56

57


58

59


b. a.

g.

h.

i.

j.

c.

d.

e. f.


//

62

//

63


getting ready. Nobody set off without the say-so of the celnik, a kind of tribal chief, who decided where the family groups would spend the summer. Once the decision was taken, in spring, before the feast of St George, the mules were loaded. The entire house was packed up in their burdens: thick woollen blankets for keeping warm on the mountain, rugs for the tent, beds, layer upon layer of clothing. The mules were loaded with sacks stuffed with pillowcases (in which the gold and jewels were secretly stowed), then wallets (in which new-born kids were also kept), bags full of cloth, balls of wool, velvet and lace, even a loom, which, having been dismantled, fit in a chest. Oh, and let’s not forget the round, low table, the wooden and metal vessels for cooking on the move. And that was about it. [Georgiana Vlahbei]

64

65


66

67


68

69


stopping off. Pitching a tent is not a difficult task: two Y-shaped stakes planted in the ground, a certain distance apart (the distance depends on how big your family is: you take care lest anybody be left outside), and another one laid crosswise. The stakes are easy to find: after all, you’re up on the mountain and there are forests all around, and in your girdle you have a knife from your grandfather, who taught you to whittle. Over the top, you throw the căprină, a goat-hair fabric beaten so well that not a drop of rain can seep through it. Finally, you hang a sign over the entrance, whose colour announces which family you’re from. Inside it is warm and soft, lined with thick, shaggy wool that tickles the soles of the feet. Grandmother lights the fucurină (a kind of portable stove), to show that it’s time for fairy tales about the ursa (the Aromanian name for an ogre). Isn’t it a safe, sheltered place, where there’s nothing for you to be afraid of? [Georgiana Vlahbei]

70

71


a.

b.

Contemporary manufacturing workshop Contemporary workshop for manufacturing beaded decorations and accessories and restoration of costume pieces decoration Owner: collector Daniel Nancu

c.

d. 72

73


Tâmbari/ long and fleecy rural cloak with two sides usually worn by shepherds, felt exterior and fleecy interior, NMRP Coll. wedding vessels glasses wrapped in beads, NMRP Coll. bottle wrapped in beads, 1912, NMRP Coll. Collective portrait, Aromanian / Vlachs women, from Farseroti branch, Manakia fund, NMRP Photo Archive Iambulâ/ canopy made of goat hair and wool mixture, Dobrogea, 1945-1950, NMRP Coll.


e.

a.

b.

c.

d. g.

76

f.

h. 77


Grămosteni women’s costume

câmeași/ shirt with laps, orig. Dupnița, Rila, Bulgaria, beg. 20th cent., NMRP Coll. cânduși/ pinafore, Dobrogea, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. mintanŭ/ sleeve vest, Dobrogea, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. câciulâ di șiacŭ cu mâyuri/ aba hat with beaded lace, Dobrogea, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. minghiuș di câciulâ/ cap earring, cap embellishment, D. N. Coll. lâhurâ cu leasâ/ kerchief, D. N. Coll. buckle „teardrops”, on the belt: velvet – contemporary creation, D. N. Coll. hard-coat/ blanket from a mixture of goat and sheep wool, Dobrogea, 1945-1950, NMRP Coll.

78

79


Fashea eara di lãnã. U-ampilteam cu tuti buieili, u-adram tu shasi buiei sh-u-ampilteam tu trei. Eara lungã di doi-trei metri. Lji-u ligam a njiclui di la gushi nghios, lu-anvãrteam sh-tu capu-lji bãgam un parã di-asimi, di-atsel di cãciulã - ta s-hibã sãnãtos. S-bãga sh-un nel di curunã tu fashi. Io aveam un nel di-atsel di curunã adrat Custantsa. Tora ici nu lji-anfashi... Ma eara ghini ma ninti, s-apriduna ghini njiclu sh-durnjea caldu. N cap lã bãgam cãciulitsãli, dulbentsãli. Culupanili li-adram noi, tsãseam culupanili cu urnechi mshati. Anda nfãsheam njiclu, bãgam culupanlu sh-bãgam sh-un di pãndzã, ta s-nu lu-aroadã, c-alanti tuti eara di lãnã. L-bãgam aclo, lj-bãgam mãnjili nghios, pãn’ tu patrudzãtsli l-tsãneam cu ciciurushili teasi ghini, ta s-easã cu cicioarli ndreapti, s-hibã ndreptsã. Lu-anfãsheam ghini shi mshat shdurnjea njiclu caldu. Trei turti shi-ari omlu. Unã tu-amintari, unã tu-ancurunari sh-unã tu moarti. Treia searã dupã amintarea a njiclui, adnai taifa, niscãnti mljeri sh-lã greai pi tsinã. Atumtsea bãgai custumea a njiclui la cap anda durnjea. Tu custumi bãgai paradz, liri, ama cama multu liri, malãmã s-hibã, ta s-hibã avut! Sh-njiclu durnjea cu eali la cap a treia searã. Tu treia searã anyrãpsescu Mirili. Ashi sh-fu shi-ashi featsim di totna. Tuts avem Mirili. Cari nã urseashti? Mira! Baba yinea la njiclu, dupã vãrã sãptãmãnã sh-lu-ascãlda. Cãndu lu-ascãldai ti prota oarã, arcai un parã tu liyeni. Prota arca baba, ta s-hibã cilimeanlu sãnãtos. „Dzatsi sh-dzatsi” Shideam tuts t-un patrat (sãndraciu). Un di noi intra tu mesi - lj-dzãtseam sturlu. Doauã feati nanaparti, doauã di-alantã parti, doauã na stãnga, doauã na-ndreapta... sh-unã di mesi. Dishcljideam mãnjili sh-li-acãtsam atseali doauli di-aclo, aesti doauli di-aoa sh-cara nã plãscãneam, cari-cari s-u acatsã alantã. Cara u sãlãgheai unã, vrea s-ti-acats di-alantã. Alantã di-alantã sh-tut ashi. Shi-atsea di mesi cãfta s-fugã, s-acatsã altã sh-s-u bagã tu loclu a ljei. Nu lipsea s-armãnã aclo, lipsea s-alãxeascã dipriunã. [Musha al Bucuvalã ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

81


Cãntic di sãrmãnitsã Nani, nani, tu cupanji, S-yinã somnul di la ushi, S-acatsã fciorlu/feata di gushi, S-lu/u-arucã tu cupanji. [Musha al Bucuvalã ǀ Custantsa, Rumãnie]

82

83


PHOTO INDEX p. 10-11 Balkan-Halbinsel. Übersicht / Balkan peninsula. Overview, Adolf Stielers Handatlas, Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1891 / villages and towns with aromanian people / communities from romanian, bulgarian and macedonian territories p. 12-13 Photo Installation Romania | 1, 2: background: Pipera District, Ilfov County, Romania, Frășari street–named after the original village of the aromanian community from Albania (Frashëri); house of Granpda (Papu) Pilea, march 2016 | 3: Preasini mince pie, at paplu Pilea (Spiru Nastu)’s home in Pipera, on Shrove Tuesday, march 2016 | 4: the hara-hasca ritual together with paplu Pilea and his grand–daughters and childs, Shrove Tuesday, Pipera, Romania, March 2016 | Photographer: Marius Caraman p. 14-15 Photo Installation | Maia Nichea Cucli with old family photos | Maia Nichea Cucli standing by her daughter, Maria Samara, showing the house objects weaved by her grandmother, Constanța, Romania, December 2015 | Photographer: Lila Passima p. 18-19 Photo Installation Romania | 1, 2: background: Stejaru village, Tulcea County, Romania, june 2017 | 3, 5 : background and cemetery from Camena Village, Tulcea County, Romania, 2017 | 4: at paplu Yioryi al Bacali’s home in Stejaru, june 2017 | 6, 8: sheepfold–at the last sheep breeder from Sinoe (Cristi Tușa), Constanța County, Romania, june 2017 | 7: men standing inside the fold, family photos, M. Kogălniceanu, Constanța County, Romania, collector: Ioana Iancu | 9: old abandoned house in Sinoe, Constanța County, Romania, june 2017 | 10: old house yard, Camena Village, Tulcea County, Romania, 2017 | 11: The monument of the heroes of the World War II and of former political prisoners / Sinoe village center | 12: ”The sons of the village” Feast Day–village gathering of the generations born in Sinoe, Tulcea County, Romania, between 1947-1950, june 2017 | Photographers: Andra Chiriac, Georgiana Vlahbei, Lila Passima p. 20-21 memo book, author: Cherana al Pișot (Pișotova), to her grand-daughter. The notebook-document, handwritten by Cherana and containing photos and clippings from newspapers, illustrates different moments of her life and of the course of the aromanian folk ensemble founded by Cherana and her husband, Velingrad, Bulgaria, july 2016 old-style wedding, bride wearing a veil, photography from Goga–Chirața Goga (Gogova)’s family collection, Velingrad, Bulgaria p. 22-23 Photo Installation VI – Bulgaria | 1: Grămosteni grooms from Peshtera, Museum of Aromanians from Peshtera Archive Photography, Bulgaria, Yioryi al Huleani (Holianov)’s coll., june 2016 | 2: at the aromanian museum from Peshtera, the headquarters of the Aromanian Association, june 2016 | 3: Entrance in Peshtera town, june 2016 | 4, 5: in the aromanian museum of Peshtera, made through the donations of the local aromanian community members, july 2016 | 6: Yioryi al Huleani (Holianov), founding member of the Aromanian Museum of Peshtera, Bulgaria and former president of the Aromanian Association, in the museum, july 2016 | 7: page from the Goga–Chirața Goga (Gogova)’s fam. photo album, Velingrad | 8: details on wedding costume, aromanians from Velingrad, Bulgaria, july 2016 | 9: photography from the Goga–Chirața Goga (Gogova)’s fam. photo album, Velingrad | 12: details on the folk costume collected by Cherana al Pișot, Velingrad, Bulgaria, july 2016 | Photographer: Andra Chiriac p. 24-25 Dima Vlahu and his cârlibana | at Dima Vlahu family’s home, Versakovo, Rep. of North Macedonia p. 26-27 Photo Installation Rep. of North Macedonia | 1: snapshot from Štip | 2-5: at maia Haida a Yiuryițańilorŭ’s home (Gheorghiev), Versakovo | 7: aromanian cemetery from Bitola | 8: the house where Milton Manaki lived in, on the Širok Sokak street, Bitola | 9: ”The Constantin și Elena Saints” church from Bitola | 10: Hristu al Steryiu al Ciolac in front of an old house from aromanian quarter, Bitola | 11: the aromanian quarter from Bitola | Photographers: Horia Despa, Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei p. 28-29 panorama of the Muloviște, village, archive photography, Manakia fund, National Museum of the Romanian Peasant Photo Archive p. 30-31 Photo Installation II–Muloviște, Rep. of North Macedonia | 1: portrait of Draga and Cociu Gramosli | 2-4, 6: the church from Muloviște, Stâ Viniri, UNESCO monument | 5: the road to Muloviște | 7: the house of Gramosli family | 8: chatting to paplu Spiru | 9: alley from Muloviște with pavement from the Ottoman Empire | 10: house from Muloviște, photography from the Passima’s fam. archive | Photographers: Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei, Horia Despa 84

p. 32 -33 sketch of the village, Dumitru Pasima; photography from the Passima’s fam. archive, Salonic, cca. 1942 Children caroling with Steaua (object made of wood or cardboard and diversely decorated used by children when caroling during the Christmas holidays), family photography, donation: Steliana Bajdechi, Constanța p. 34-35 Photo Installation Rep. of North Macedonia | 1: Procession with children, photography from Gramosli’s fam. coll., Muloviște, Rep. of North Macedonia | 2: Liyuceari / Men from Palazu Mare wearing masks on Twelfth Day, photography from the Bileca’s fam. coll., donation: Mariana Bileca, Constanța, Romania | 3: Fârtaț la numtâ cu hlambura cu meari / Brides men with wedding flag with apples, photography from Goga–Chirața Goga (Gogova)’s fam. coll., Velingrad, Bulgaria | 4: Funeral, photography from Gramosli’s fam. coll., Muloviște, Rep. of North Macedonia | 5: Men attending a garden party, Sarica’s fam. coll., collector: Ioana Iancu, Romania | 6: Family photography, in front of the house, Sarica’s fam. coll., collector: Ioana Iancu, Romania | 7: Măi chindisindalui / Old women weaving lace, collector: Steliana Bajdechi, Romania | 8: Maea țal Goane, showing the old family photographs, Constanța, Romania, 2014 | 9: Grooms from Peștera, photography from Foli (Folev)’s fam. coll., Peshtera, Bulgaria | 10: Gimbuși / party in the street, photography from the Gramosli’s fam. coll., Muloviște, Rep. of North Macedonia | 11: Cola Ombaș with his daughter and cousin, autobiographical photos–Ombaș / Passima’s fam. archive, Bucharest, Romania p. 36-37 Archive photographies, Berberi's fam. coll., Kruševo, Rep. of North Macedonia Old style wedding, grămosteni arom. from Bulgaria, framed photo, Pișot–Cherana Pișot (Pishotova)’s fam. coll., Velingrad, Bulgaria p. 38-39 Documentary Photo Installation official documents on aromanian colonization in Romania, statistics Documents, National Archives of Romania, National Historical Central Archives, No. 3039, ”Consiliul de Miniștri” Fund, Folder 116 / 1938 "Nereguli Oficiul Național al Colonizării", App. No. 15, pp. 181-182 postcard, replica after a colonist’s house from Cadrilater ca. 1930, The Village Museum, NMRP Photo Archive documents dating from the deportation period, 1951-1956, Romania autobiographical documents before arriving in the country–Ombaș's fam. archive, Slobozia, Romania autobiographical photos–Ombaș / Passima’s fam. Archive p. 40-41 pârpodz cu hrisafi / stockings decorated with gilded thread, woman’s traditional clothing piece, orig. Grămosteni Arom., Bulgaria, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. ghium / pail p. 42-43 Preparing the traditional pie–pita, Anca Piștalu, Constanţa, Romania Archive photography, Mushi’s fam. coll., Nižepole, Rep. of North Macedonia Preparing the traditional pie–pita, Zoia Ombaș, Bucureşti, Romania p. 44-45 Singing a wedding song, Yiorghi al Bacula, Constanţa. Yioryi al Bacula's notebook with aromanian and romanian songs. p. 46-47 1-2: at the parents-in-law’s house–festively decorated gate and fir tree on the rooftop, the wedding ritual of Fârșerot aromanians from Constanța, Romania, September 2017 | 3: dancing hora (corlu) in front of the godparents’ house (when the groom’s family comes to take the godfathers) at the wedding ritual of Fârșerot aromanians from Constanța, Romania, September 2017 | 4: welcoming the groom’s and godparent’s attendants to the bride’s (nveastâ) house, the wedding ritual of albanian aromanians from Constanța, Romania, September 2017 | 5: Gicu Bacula, wedding accordionist in Constanța, Romania, September 2017 | 6: culaclu ti alâxeari / the wedding ritual sweetbread to be exchanged among in-laws, wedding of Fârșerot aromanians from Constanța, Romania, September 2017 | 7: photographs of bringing the bride to the new house, the wedding ritual of albanian aromanians from Constanța, Romania, Alexandru and Ioana Cușa fam., September 2017 | 8-9: ”The National Day of the Aromanians” Event, annual Aromanian meeting held on May 23, Herăstrău Park, Bucharest, Romania, 2017 Photographers: Marius Caraman, Georgiana Vlahbei, Lila Passima p. 48-49 Text and musical score, Călin Torsan–musician, multumult group. 85


p. 50-51 Stuffed rams of the owner Iani Carabaș, Bucharest, Romania p. 52-53 Cânduși / pinafore type coat-male traditional costume, detail, Beidaud, Tulcea County, Romania, 20th cent., National Museum of the Romanian Peasant Collection Details of Grămosteni women’s costume, Dupniţa, Bulgaria, beg. 20th cent., NMRP Coll. p. 56-57 Grămosteni female costume from Sârbi, Rep. of North Macedonia, tofcâ / dress, Daniel Nancu Collection Grămosteni male costume, D.N. Coll Grămosteni female costume from Sârbi, Rep. of North Macedonia, cânduși / pinafore, D.N. Coll. p. 58-59 Old Aromanian / Vlach woman from Albania, photo family archive, orig. Constanța–photographic print, collector Ioana Iancu Aromanian couple from Albania, photo from the Ghiță family archive, orig. Palazu Mare, Constanța, Romania, photographic print, Avdhela Project Photo Archive, donation: Nicolae Ghiță fustanelâ / kilt, male costume piece, Dobrogea, Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. Archive photography, private collection carti / letter, archive document, author: Nida Veleșanlu, private collection p. 60-61 a. cârlibanâ / the carved end of the shepherd’s hook, orig. Rep. of North Macedonia, NMRP Coll. | b. wooden elements from weaving loom | c. foarficâ / scissors | d.-h. fusi / skewers; fusi cu prisinŭ / skewer with conical inferior end which makes it spin faster, D.N. Coll, Museum of Folk Art Constanța Collection | e. clopati / ram bells, D.N. Coll. | f. pârpodz / stockings, woman’s national clothing piece, Pind, Greece, NMRP Coll. | g. giugiufcu (pirușanâ) / hat decoration for bridegroom, 19th cent., NMRP Coll. | i. paftâ / buckle, Dobrogea, Romania, 19th cent. NMRP Coll. | j. tasŭ di câciulâ / tepelec with coins, women’s hat decoration, Romania, MFAC Coll.

(Interior) nflucatâ cu cutarŭ / mute blanket fleecy, 19th–20th cent., MFAC Coll. | iambulâ / bedspreads, D.N. Coll. | câpitâńi / pillow case, orig. Grămosteni arom., prueańi arom.–Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, D.N. Coll., NMRP Coll. | misali ti părță / blanket used for covering saddles, D.N. Coll. | misali / cover, orig. Peshtera, Bulgaria, D.N. Coll. | stricâtoari / colander, orig. Hagilari (Lăstuni), Tulcea County, Romania, D.N. Coll. | trâmbâ / felt roller, D.N. Coll. | frândzâ ti trastu / bag sheets, D.N. Coll. | fustanelâ / kilt, male traditional costume piece, donation: Hrista Dima fam., orig. Beidaud, Tulcea County, Romania | cânduși / pinafore, female traditional costume piece, D.N. Coll. | (tent sheets) iambuli cu ocl’i / thick coat „with eyes”, iambuli cu blăńi / thick coat with bares, câprini / tent sheets made of goat hair, D.N. Coll. | cicricâ / spinning wheel, D.N. Coll. p. 72-73 Pieces of shepherd’s costume dulmă / sheep-skin with „wings”, male costume piece with attached sleeves, orig. arom. Albania, NMRP Coll. cârlibanâ / the carved end of the shepherd’s hook, orig. Rep. of North Macedonia, NMRP Coll. p. 76-77 a. nelŭ / wedding ring for men, Ceamurlia de Sus, Tulcea County, Romania, beg. 20th cent., NMRP Coll., nelŭ / engagement ring for men, orig. Bulgaria, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. | b. minghiuși / pair of earrings, orig. Rep. of North Macedonia, NMRP Coll. | c-d. șcurtacâ (ilechi) / sweater-vest (ilic) (fem.), orig. Grămosteni arom., Bulgaria, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. | e. minghiuș di câciulâ „lilici” / cap earring, cap decoration (fem.), Ceamurlia de Sus, Tulcea County, Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. | f. cruți / metallic cross pendant, ritual adornment, orig. Ceamurlia de Sus, Tulcea County, Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. | g. hanging metallic decoration (fem.), Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. | h. minghiuș di câciulâ / cap earring, cap decoration, Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. p. 80-81 Old Aromanian / Vlachs women, old photograph, Iosif Berman, Lila Passima Collection

p. 64-65 Famillies in the winter pastures in the plains of Thessaly, 1906, Manakia Fund, NMRP Archive

p. 82-83 Installation–Childhood Works of children of Aromanian origin (aged 5 to 14) resulted from the creative workshops held from 2016 to 2017 in Bucharest, Constanța and Camena (Tulcea County, Romania) within the CU TENDA project: personal reconstructions of symbolic landmarks from the grandparents universe clay figurines: casâ / house, cutarlu a oilorŭ / sheepfold, picurarlu / shepherd, oi / sheeps, nflucatâ / fleecy pencil drawings: The Shepherd, Embroidery element on traditional apron memory of coming to Romania, written by the grandson after the grandfather’s story ”standing by the grandparents” photographs from private collections, Dobrogea, Romania; Ombaș’s fam. archive, Slobozia câpitâńiŭ / pillowcase (backside), ca. 1960, Romania, D.N. Coll.

p. 66-67 cânduși / pinafore, NMRP Coll. țipuni / sarafan, orig. Aromanian Farserot, NMRP Coll.

The Exhibit Project Team

p. 62-63 pârpodz cu hrisafi / stockings (detail) decorated with gilded thread, woman’s traditional clothing piece, orig. Grămosteni Arom., Bulgaria, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. Old Aromanian / Vlachs women, archive photography, private collection

p. 68-69 tâlâganŭ cu zârculâ / the shepherd’s cloak, with hood, made of water-repellent hard wool, D.N. Coll. țâruhi cu fundâ / peasant’s sandals with tassels, leather, NMRP Coll. cânduși / pinafore type coat–male traditional costume, orig. Beidaud, Tulcea County, Romania, 20th cent., NMRP Coll. shoes with bows, NMRP Coll. p. 70-71 Tent Installation I - TENDA (Entrance - left side) bâcâri / copper dishes: tingiréadz / pans; tâvadz / trays; țirŭ / colander; ghiumi / pails; bârgăci bârgâciți / boilers and pans; cinie / plate, Romania, MFAC Coll., D.N. Coll. | hârari / sacks, orig. Rep. of North Macedonia, Romania, 20th cent., D.N. Coll. | boțâ / bota bag, D.N. Coll. | yilâ / hayfork, donation: Marușa Daut, Rachitovo, Bulgaria | maiŭ / mallet, D.N. Coll. | tisadz / pouches, orig. Stejaru, Tulcea County, Romania, D.N. Coll. (Entrance–right side) misali di pândzâ / table cloth, D.N. Coll. | simnitoari / wooden stamper, orig. Aminciu (Metsovo), Greece, D.N. Coll. | pârumbu / wooden stamper, craftsman Iancu Vangheli, orig. Panduru, Romania, 1952, D.N. Coll. | sinie / low table, MFAC Coll. | fusi / skewers; fusi cu prisinŭ / skewer with conical inferior end which makes it spin faster, D.N. Coll., MFAC Collection | suvalnițâ / shuttle, D.N. Coll. | hârarŭ / sack, D.N. Coll. | tisagâ / pouch, D.N. Coll. | clopati / bells, D.N. Coll. | furcâ cu fusi / hayfork with skewers, D.N. Coll. | frândzâ ti scamnu cu chinadz / chair slipcover with knitted wool lace Women weaving, photography collected by Steliana Bajdechi

Curator / coordinator: Lila Passima Assistant coordinator: Georgiana Vlahbei Assistant curator: Cosmin Manolache Catalogue concept / Graphics: Lila Passima Texts / Interviews: Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei Field and archive documentation / research: Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei, Cosmin Manolache, Daniel Nancu Audio–Video documentation / recordings: Andra Chiriac, Sașa Liviu Stoianovici, Horia Despa, Alex Solomon Photo Documentation / Photographers: Marius Caraman, Mihaela Dumitru, Andra Chiriac, Alex Solomon, Horia Despa, Lila Passima, Georgiana Vlahbei, Gabriel Achim Translations: Alistair Ian Blyth (eng.), Daniel Nancu (arom.), Georgiana Vlahbei (eng., arom.), Serafina Pastore (it.) Editing: Georgiana Vlahbei, Daniel Nancu, Lila Passima, Cosmin Manolache Layout / Photo Processing: Claudia Pascu Communication: Valentina Bâcu, Iuliana Bălan Conservation: NMRP Conservation–Restauration Department Collections: NMRP Heritage and Scientific Evidence Department Archive Photos: NMRP Photo Archive: The Manakia Fund, private collections, family archives Concerts of the exibition: multumult Group (Călin Torsan, Vasile Gherghel, Marius Achim) Audio–Video Installation: Andra Chiriac, Sașa Liviu Stoianovici Exhibition Production: NMRP Technical Department, Square Media Printed: Master Print Super Offset

87


What does the world look like viewed from the tendă? It’s noisy, crowded, motley, constantly bustling, it has winding paths, but also steep ascents up into the mountains and the raw, pure air. It’s a story about conviviality among communities with different languages, faiths, customs, each of which talks about their own identities. The traditions and norms of each are the armature of the present and an opportunity to present themselves as unique, picturesque and defining for the territories in which they cohabit. Oriental smells and flavours in tandem with the tastes of traditional Aromanian (Vlach), Bulgarian and Macedonian breads. The stories of the Aromanians speak, almost identically, as a confession of a past world, whose beauties, as well as whose wounds and yearnings, are felt even today. Their villages, their mountains, their sheep, their desired churches and undesired wars, which altered their destinies, friendly nature, God the protector, and adoptive homelands are often to be found in their confessions. The love of community, family and country that it devotedly represents everywhere in the Balkans makes them conservative and hard to change. In their eyes glitters the feeling of pride in belonging to an archaic culture that they regard as radiant, rooted in the south-eastern Romance world and in trades and occupations learned with skill and tenacity. The simplicity of the materials employed, as well as a materiality that lends weight and content. And when you least expect it, the rhythms, accessories and decorative style of the costumes become elements of a refined, composite aesthetic, ranging from the peasant ornamentation specific to the Balkans to the oriental refinement from which they have borrowed so much. Each costume has its own story. The layers of the bride’s costume are as many worlds as the worlds of the trade caravans. Whether they speak of flocks of sheep and lost fortunes, of abandoned houses and shops, of the traumas of ancestors, some of them slain, exiled from their towns and villages, colonised or departing to make their fortune in the distant Americas, whether they speak of abandoned trades and the new life in which they have had to start all over again, more often than not in different worlds, the stories of the Aromanians that we have encountered give shape to an attitude of strength in endurance, of determination, of protective care for the family, of adaptation, of reconciliation with fate, and of finding a means to cohabit and represent themselves wherever history has thrust them. Only now are we able to begin the story. Lumea Cu Tenda, as well as everything it has collected and carried with it on its caravan as it roamed the Balkans of today, coalesces like the reflection in a mirror, bringing together our material and symbolic journey through memory and the poetics of the image. The musicians of multumult accompanied our caravan, with their acoustic improvisations and specially conceived video projections on each leg of the Balkan journey. Director Andra Chiriac and museum curator, artist and musician Sașa Liviu Stoianovici lent visual and acoustic shape to our symbolic journey with a documentary film and video installation. The actors, witness and messengers of the journey—the objects of the Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the collection of Daniel Nancu—living instruments, good to touch, smell, draw, study, photograph, without which our journey would not have been possible. Cu Tenda. Aromanians Stories. is part of the “CU TENDA”—STORIES, IMAGES AND SOUNDS ON THE MOVE [Living memory of South-Eastern Europe], a project co-funded via the CREATIVE EUROPE programme’s CULTURE sub-programme. Lila Passima

Profile for cutenda

Cu Tenda. Aromanian Stories  

thirst for the road. Today’s globetrotters and the travellers of the past have something in common: ingeniousness and not caring a whit abo...

Cu Tenda. Aromanian Stories  

thirst for the road. Today’s globetrotters and the travellers of the past have something in common: ingeniousness and not caring a whit abo...

Profile for cutenda
Advertisement