Page 1

Key features: • A range of new practice exercises builds students’ accounting skills and confidence with the subject • Walkthroughs illustrate key accounting principles with absolute clarity • Key terms highlight and explain important concepts, helping students produce clear and accurate answers • Test yourself questions reinforce learning and aid self-assessment • Revision checklists provide a quick summary of the key points covered in a chapter to consolidate learning Other components in this series: Workbook: Revision Guide: Teacher’s Resource: Coursebook Elevate enhanced edition:

978-1-316-50505-2 978-1-108-43699-1 978-1-108-44057-8 978-1-108-43901-5

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Coucom

9781316502778 Coucom: Cambridge IGCSEand O Level Accounting Coursebook Cover C M Y K

With more practice questions than the previous edition and content matched to the Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting syllabuses, this coursebook increases understanding of accounting best practice. Clear step-by-step explanations and instructions help students learn how to record, report, present and interpret financial information while gaining an appreciation of the ways accounting is used in modern business contexts. The coursebook is ideal for those new to accounting. Also available in the series – workbook, revision guide, teacher’s resource and Cambridge Elevate enhanced edition. Answers to the coursebook and workbook questions are in the teacher’s resource.

Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook

Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook Second edition Catherine Coucom

Catherine Coucom

Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level

Accounting Coursebook Second edition


: 

Contents Introduction iv Where to find each section of the syllabus v How to use this book vi Acknowledgements

iix

Section 1 1 1

Introduction to accounting

2

Double entry book-keeping – Part A

10

3

The trial balance

29

4

Double entry book-keeping – Part B

38

5

Petty cash books

52

Section 1: Practice questions

2

61

Section 2 66 6

Business documents

67

7

Books of prime entry

78

Section 2: Practice questions

89

Section 3 93 8

Financial statements – Part A

94

9

Financial statements – Part B

110

10 Accounting rules

120

11 Other payables and other receivables

132

12 Accounting for depreciation and disposal of non-current assets

153

13 Irrecoverable debts and provisions for doubtful debts

171

Section 3: Practice questions

185

Section 4 193 14 Bank reconciliation statements

194

15 Journal entries and correction of errors

206

16 Control accounts

228

17 Incomplete records

241

18 Accounts of clubs and societies

261

19 Partnerships

277

20 Manufacturing accounts

290

21 Limited companies

302

22 Analysis and interpretation

312

Section 4: Practice questions

331

Glossary 345 Index 349

iii


94

Chapter 8 Financial statements – Part A Learning objectives In this chapter you will learn to: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

explain the advantages and disadvantages of operating as a sole trader 5.1 explain the importance of preparing income statements 5.1 explain the difference between a trading business and a service business 5.1 prepare income statements for trading businesses and for service businesses 5.1 make adjustments for goods taken by the owner for own use 5.1 balance ledger accounts as required and make transfers to financial statements. 2.1

8


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A Chapter 8 Financial statements – Part A

8.1 Introduction All the previous chapters have covered the book-keeping records maintained by a sole trader. Similar records will be maintained by other types of businesses. When a person is operating a business alone as a sole trader, he/she is entitled to all the profits the business makes, but will be responsible for any losses the business makes. Business decisions may be made quickly, as consultation is not necessary, but there is noone with whom to share the decision-making or the workload. The capital of the business will be restricted to what the trader is able to invest, whereas other forms of business have access to capital invested by other owners of the business. When a person starts a business his/her aim is to make a profit. The profit (or loss) is calculated in the financial statements which are usually prepared at the end of each financial year. Financial statements basically consist of two parts: 1 An income statement which consists of two sections: •  a trading section in which the gross profit of the business is calculated •  a profit and loss section in which the profit for the year of the business is calculated. The trading section and the profit and loss section of the income statement are part of the double entry system.

LINK

You will learn about partnerships and limited companies in Chapters 19 and 21.

KEY TERM

An income statement is a statement prepared for a trading period to show the gross profit and profit for the year.

2 A statement of financial position shows the assets and liabilities of the business at a certain date. The statement of financial position is not part of the double entry system.

LINK

Financial statements are usually prepared from a trial balance. Every item in a trial balance appears once in a set of financial statements. As each item is used, it is useful to place a tick (✓) against the item. This ensures that no items are overlooked.

You will learn more about statements of financial position in Chapter 9.

It is common to find notes accompanying a trial balance about various adjustments which are to be made (these are explained in the following chapters). Any notes to a trial balance are used twice in a set of financial statements. To ensure that this is done, it is useful to place a tick (✓) against the notes each time they are used.

TIP Every item in a trial balance is used once within a set of financial statements; any notes to a trial balance are used twice within a set of financial statements.

TIP Tick off the items from a trial balance and the notes to a trial balance as you use them so that nothing is omitted.

95


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Walkthrough 8.1 The following trial balance was extracted from the books of Samir at 31 May 20–8. This trial balance will be used in Walkthrough 8.2 to Walkthrough 8.7.

Samir Trial balance at 31 May 20–8 Dr $ TIP The term ‘revenue’ is used instead of ‘sales’ in a trial balance and in an income statement.

Revenue Sales returns Purchases

Cr $ 95 700

1 000 65 000

Purchases returns

500

Carriage inwards

1 500

Inventory 1 Jun 20–8

7 100

Discount received Discount allowed Wages General expenses

96

400 900 11 200 2 800

Property tax

600

Loan interest

500

Premises

80 000

Fixtures and equipment

13 900

Trade receivables

7 500

Trade payables

7 800

Bank

3 300

Cash

100

Long-term loan

10 000

Capital

90 000

Drawings

209 000

204 400

204 400

204 400

• The inventory at 31 May 20–8 was valued at $7 600. • During the year ended 31 May 20–8, Samir took goods costing $300 for his own use. No entries have been made in the accounting records.


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

8.2 Trading section of the income statement The trading section is concerned with buying and selling, and its purpose is to calculate the profit earned on the goods sold. This is known as the gross profit. The formula for calculating gross profit is: Gross profit = Selling price of goods – Cost of sales The selling price represents the total sales less any sales returns.

KEY TERM

The gross profit is the difference between the selling price and the cost of those goods.

The cost of sales represents the total cost of the goods actually sold. This is not necessarily the cost of goods purchased during the year: some goods may have been in stock at the start of the year, and some of the goods purchased during the year may remain unsold at the end of the year. The formula for calculating cost of sales is: Cost of sales = Opening inventory + Purchases – Closing inventory The purchases figure represents the total cost of purchases less any purchases returns. If carriage inwards has been paid on goods purchased this must be added to the purchases as it increases the cost of the goods. If the owner of the business has withdrawn goods for personal use the cost of these is credited to the purchases account, so reducing the cost of goods available for sale. If goods taken by the owner have not already been recorded they must be deducted from the purchases. The formula for calculating the net purchases figure is: Net purchases = Purchases – Purchases returns + Carriage inwards – Goods for own use The calculation of gross profit is shown in the trading section of the income statement. This must have a heading which includes the period of time covered by the statement. It is also usual to include the name under which the business trades. TEST YOURSELF 8.1

1 State what is calculated in: a a trading account section of an income statement b a profit and loss account section of an income statement. 2 State the formula for calculating gross profit. 3 State the formula for calculating cost of sales.

There are two ways in which a trading section of an income statement can be prepared – horizontal and vertical. The horizontal format is similar to a traditional ledger account. Using this method, the revenue is shown on the credit side and the cost of sales on the debit side. The difference (or balance) between the two sides equals the gross profit.

97


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Walkthrough 8.2 Using the trial balance and accompanying notes shown in Walkthrough 8.1, prepare the trading section of the income statement of Samir for the year ended 31 May 20–8. Use the horizontal format.

Samir Income statement (trading section) for the year ended 31 May 20–8 $ Opening inventory

$

$

7 100 Revenue

Purchases

65 000

Less Purchases returns

94 500

Less Sales returns

$

95 700 91 000 94 700

64 500 Less Goods for own use

94 300 64 200

Carriage inwards

91 500 65 700 72 800

Less Closing inventory

97 600

Cost of sales

65 200

Gross profit c/d

29 500

94 700

94 700

94 700

98

• As these items are entered in the trading section of the income statement, they should be ticked-off in the trial balance and accompanying notes. • The gross profit is carried down to the profit and loss section (see Section 8.3). • The first money column on each side has been used for adding and subtracting items and the final column had been used for the section total. A trading section of an income statement can also be prepared using the vertical format. This is the format used by most businesses. A statement prepared using this method contains the same information as a horizontal account, but looks like an arithmetic calculation.

Walkthrough 8.3 Using the trial balance and accompanying notes shown in Walkthrough 8.1, prepare the trading section of the income statement of Samir for the year ended 31 May 20–8. Use the vertical format.


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

Samir Income statement (Trading Section) for the year ended 31 May 20–8 $ Revenue Less Sales returns Less Cost of sales Opening inventory Purchases Less Purchases returns Less Goods for own use Carriage inwards

$

$

95 700 61 000

94 700

7 100 65 000 61 500 64 500 61 300 64 200 61 500

Less Closing inventory Gross profit

65 700 72 800 67 600

65 200 29 500

• The first two money columns have been used for adding and subtracting items and the final column for the final section total. For example, the first column has been used to adjust the purchases for returns, carriage and goods for own use and the final cost of purchases has been entered in the second column.

99

You can now answer Questions 1 and 2 at the end of this chapter.

8.3 Profit and loss section of the income statement The profit and loss section of an income statement is concerned with profits and losses, gains and expenses. Its purpose is to calculate the final profit after all running expenses and other items of income. This is known as the profit for the year. The formula for calculating profit for the year is: Profit for the year = Gross profit + Other income – Expenses The profit and loss section of an income statement must have a heading which includes the period of time covered by the statement. It is also usual to include the name under which the business trades. As with a trading section of an income statement, a profit and loss section can be prepared using either the horizontal or the vertical method. Using the horizontal format, the gross profit and any other income are shown on the credit side and the expenses are shown on the debit side. The difference (or balance) between the two sides equals the profit for the year (if the credit side is the largest) or the loss for the year (if the debit side is the largest).

Walkthrough 8.4 Using the trial balance and accompanying notes shown in Walkthrough 8.1, prepare the profit and loss section of the income statement of Samir for the year ended 31 May 20–8. Use the horizontal format.

KEY TERM

The profit for the year is the final profit after any other income has been added to the gross profit and the running expenses have been deducted.


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Samir Income statement (profit and loss section) for the year ended 31 May 20–8 $ Discount allowed Wages

$ 900 Gross profit

$

$

b/d

29 500

11 200 Discount received

General expenses

2 800

Property tax

600

Loan interest

500

Profit for the year

400

13 900

29 900

29 900

29 900

• As these items are entered in the profit and loss section of the income statement they should be ticked-off in the trial balance and accompanying notes. • The gross profit is brought down from the trading section where it was calculated. A profit and loss section of an income statement can also be prepared using the vertical format. This format is used by most businesses. A statement prepared using this method contains the same information but looks like an arithmetic calculation.

Walkthrough 8.5 100

Using the trial balance and accompanying notes shown in Walkthrough 8.1, prepare the profit and loss section of the income statement of Samir for the year ended 31 May 20–8. Use the vertical format.

Samir Income statement (profit and loss section) for the year ended 31 May 20–8 $

$

$

Gross profit

29 500

Add Discount received

13 400 29 900

Less Discount allowed Wages

General expenses

Property tax

900 11 200 2 800 13 600

Profit from operations Less Loan interest Profit for the year

15 500 14 400

13 500

13 900 13 900

• Using the vertical presentation it is easy to show the profit earned from the normal trading or operating activities and then final profit for the year after the deduction of any finance costs.


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

TEST YOURSELF 8.2

1 Suggest six business expenses (excluding those shown in the walkthroughs). 2 State the formula for calculating profit for the year.

The two sections of the income statement are usually presented in the form of one combined statement, which is normally presented in vertical format. The profit and loss section follows on immediately after the trading section, with the words ‘gross profit’ being written only once. The heading of the income statement includes the period of time covered by the statement and the name under which the business trades. As most businesses prepare their income statements using the vertical format this method will be followed in the remainder of this book.

Walkthrough 8.6 Using either the trial balance and accompanying notes shown in Walkthrough 8.1 or the separate sections of the income statement prepared in Walkthroughs 8.3 and 8.5, prepare the income statement of Samir for the year ended 31 May 20–8.

Samir Income statement for the year ended 31 May 20–8 $ Revenue Less Sales returns Less Cost of sales Opening inventory Purchases Less Purchases returns Less Goods for own use Carriage inwards

$ 95 700 61 000

$ 94 700

101

7 100 65 000 61 500 64 500 61 300 64 200 61 500

Less Closing inventory Gross profit Add Discount received Less Discount allowed Wages General expenses Property tax Profit from operations Less Loan interest Profit for the year

You can now answer Questions 3 and 4 at the end of this chapter.

65 700 72 800 67 600

900 11 200 2 800 61 600 61 500

65 200 29 500 61 400 29 900

15 500 14 400 13 900 13 900

LINK

You will learn more about income statements in Chapters 11, 12 and 13.


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

8.4  Transferring ledger account totals to the income statement Anything appearing in the income statement must have a double entry in another account. Anything credited to the income statement must be debited in the appropriate ledger account. Anything debited to the income statement must be credited in the appropriate ledger account. When something is deducted from a debit item in the income statement this is equal to a credit entry, so a debit entry is required in the ledger. In the same way, when something is deducted from a credit item in the income statement this is equal to a debit entry, so a credit entry is required in the ledger.

Walkthrough 8.7 Using the income statement prepared for Samir in Walkthrough 8.6, prepare the following ledger accounts to show how each is closed by transfer to the income statement: a purchases account

b purchases returns account

c discount received account

d wages account

a

Samir Nominal ledger Purchases account Date

102

Details

Folio

$

20–8

Details

Folio

65 000

65 000

65 000

$

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8

May 31 Income statement

65 500 May 31 Total to date

65 500

65 500

65 500

Discount received account

Date

$

65 000 May 31 Income statement

20–8

c

Folio

Purchases returns account

Date

Details

20–8

May 31 Total to date

b

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 May 31 Income statement

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 65 400 May 31 Total to date

65 400

65 400

65 400


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

d

Wages account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8

May 31 Total to date

11 200 May 31 Income statement

11 200

11 200

11 200

• The entries shown as ‘totals to date’ represent the total of the individual entries made in the account for the year ended 31 May 20–8. • All the other items in the income statement (excluding inventory, gross profit and profit for the year) have similar transfers from the appropriate ledger accounts. • The gross profit technically has a double entry within the income statement as it is transferred from the trading account section to the profit and loss account section (refer to Walkthroughs 8.2 and 8.4). • The entries for inventory and profit for the year are explained next. There are two entries for inventory in the income statement – the inventory at the start of the year and the inventory at the end of the year. The inventory account will have a debit balance representing the inventory at the start of the year – this is credited to the inventory account and transferred to the debit of the income statement. The inventory at the end of the year is shown as a deduction from the debit entries in the income statement (which is equal to a credit entry), so this must be debited in the inventory account.

Walkthrough 8.8 Using the income statement prepared for Samir in Walkthrough 8.6, prepare the inventory account in Samir’s ledger on 31 May 20–8.

Samir Nominal ledger Inventory account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–7 Jun 1

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 Balance

b/d

7 100 May 31 Income statement

7 100

7 100

7 100

20–8 May 31 Income statement

7 600

• The entry of $7 600 on the debit side, representing the inventory at the end of the financial year on 31 May 20–8, becomes the opening inventory for the year beginning 1 June 20–8. A profit for the year represents the return on the owner’s investment. This will appear as a debit entry in the income statement and should be transferred to the credit of the capital account as it increases the amount the business owes the owner. A loss for the year will

103

TIP The income statement consists of the trading account and the profit and loss account which are part of the double entry system.


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

appear as a credit entry in the income statement and should be transferred to the debit of the capital account as it reduces the amount the business owes the owner. As explained in Chapter 2, the total of the drawings account is transferred to the capital account at the end of the year.

Walkthrough 8.9 On 1 June 20–7 the credit balance on Samir’s capital account was $90 000. During the year ended 31 May 20–8 he had withdrawn $9 000 in cash and $300 in goods.His profit for the year ended 31 May 20–8 was $13 900. Prepare the capital account and the drawings account in Samir’s ledger on 31 May 20–8.

Samir Nominal ledger Capital account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 Balance

104

Details

Folio

$

Balance

b/d

90 000

20–7

May 31 Drawings

TIP If a business makes a profit it is credited to the capital account as it increases the owner’s capital. If a business makes a loss it is debited to the capital account as it reduces the owner’s capital.

Date

9 300 Jun 1 c/d

94 600 20–8 103 900 May 31 Profit

113 900

103 900

103 900 20–8 Jun 1

Balance

b/d

94 600

Details

Folio

$

Drawings account Date

Details

Folio

$

Date

20–8

20–8

May 31 Total to date

May 31 Capital

9 300

Cash

9 000

Purchases

9 300

9 300

9 300

9 300

TEST YOURSELF 8.3

1 Explain why it is necessary to make two transfers from the income statement to the inventory account at the end of the financial year. 2 Explain why a loss for the year is debited to the owner’s capital account.

You can now answer Question 5 at the end of this chapter.


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

8.5 Income statement of a service business A service business is one which does not buy and sell goods, such as an accountant, an insurance company, a travel agent, a hairdresser and so on. At the end of the financial year, these businesses still need to prepare financial statements. However, the trading account section of the income statement is not prepared as no goods are bought and sold. Only the profit and loss section of the income statement and a statement of financial position are prepared. In the income statement all the items of revenue receivable such as fees from clients, commission and other income are credited and expenses are debited. The statement of financial position is exactly the same as the statement of financial position of a trading business.

KEY TERMS

A service business is one which provides a service. A trading business is one which buys and sells goods.

Walkthrough 8.10 Anita is a business consultant. She provided the following information at the end of her financial year on 30 September 20–5. $ Property tax

6 400

General expenses

8 950

Insurance

2 670

Printing and stationery

4 560

Loan interest

1 500

Wages

105

43 500

Rent receivable

7 300

Commissions received

92 150

a Prepare the income statement for Anita for the year ended 30 September 20–5. Use the horizontal format.

Anita Income statement for the year ended 30 September 20–5 $

$

Property tax

6 400 Commissions received

General expenses

8 950 Rent receivable

Insurance

2 670

Printing and stationery

4 560

Loan interest

1 500

$

$ 92 150 7 300

Wages

43 500

Profit for the year

31 870

31 870

99 450

99 450


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

TIP The income statement of a service business does not have a trading account section.

b Prepare the income statement for Anita for the year ended 30 September 20–5. Use the vertical format.

Anita Income statement for the year ended 30 September 20–5 $

$

$

Commissions received

92 150

Add Rent receivable

67 300 99 450

Less Property tax

6 400

General expenses

8 950

Insurance

2 670

Printing and stationery

4 560

Wages

43 500

Profit from operations

33 370

Less Loan interest

61 500

Profit for the year

31 870

You can now answer Question 6 at the end of this chapter. 106

Revision checklist ■

66 080

The difference between the selling price and the cost price is known as the gross profit. This is calculated in the trading account section of the income statement. The difference between the gross profit, plus other income, less expenses is known as the profit for the year. This is calculated in the profit and loss account section of the income statement. All the items appearing in the income statement are transferred from the ledger accounts to complete the double entry. A profit for the year is transferred to the credit of the capital account and a loss for the year is transferred to the debit of the capital account. A business which provides a service only prepares the profit and loss account section of the income statement.


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

Exam-style questions 1 How is the cost of sales calculated? A opening inventory + purchases – carriage inwards – purchases returns – closing inventory B opening inventory + purchases – carriage inwards + purchases returns – closing inventory C opening inventory + purchases + carriage inwards – purchases returns – closing inventory D opening inventory + purchases + carriage inwards + purchases returns + closing inventory 2 At the end of his first year of trading, Rashid provided the following information.

$

Revenue

72 500

Purchases

49 700

Closing inventory

4 800

Carriage inwards

1 150

Carriage outwards

2 950

What was Rashid’s gross profit? A $22 800

B $24 650

C $26 450

D $27 600

3 Mai, a fashion retailer, did not record goods costing $500 taken for personal use.

What was the effect of this error? Gross profit Overstated A

D

Understated

B C

Profit for the year Overstated

Understated

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

107


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

4 Leo is a wholesaler. He has little knowledge of accounting. He prepared the following income statement which contains some errors.

Leo Income statement for the year ended 30 April 20–1 $ Revenue

82 300

Add Discount received

$ 110 44 910

Opening inventory

87 320 Less Purchases

49 520

41 190

Returns from customers

50 710

Less Closing inventory

45 080

45 630

Profit on goods

41 690

Add Discount allowed

44 220 41 910

Less Rent payable

Less Rent receivable

8 100 46 000 2 100

108

Wages

12 100

Carriage inwards

100

Sundry expenses

44 960

Final profit

15 260 26 650

Prepare a corrected income statement for Leo for the year ended 30 April 20–1.

5 Oliver has been in business as a retailer for one year. He is unsure about some of the terms used in business. a Explain the difference between the following terms and how they are recorded in an income statement:

i

ii carriage inwards and carriage outwards

iii discount allowed and discount received

iv purchases returns and sales returns

gross profit and profit for the year


Chapter 8: Financial statements – Part A

Oliver provided the following totals for the year ended 31 December 20–5:

$

Rates

3 140

Office expenses

1 170

Commissions received

5 830

Sales returns

1 480

b Enter these totals in the appropriate accounts. Close the accounts by making transfers to the income statement. 6 Candy provided the following information at the end of her financial year on 30 September 20–3:

$

Capital at 1 October 20–2

198 000

Fees received from clients

82 300

Staff wages

49 600

Rent and rates

7 420

Insurance

3 830

Commissions received

4 810

Light and heat

2 180

Office expenses

1 730

Drawings

18 750

a State whether Candy’s business is a trading business or a service business. Give a reason for your answer. b Prepare Candy’s income statement for the year ended 30 September 20–3. c Prepare Candy’s capital account on 30 September 20–3. Balance the account and bring down the balance on 1 October 20–3.

109


228

Chapter 16 Control accounts Learning objectives In this chapter you will learn to: â– â– 

â–

understand the purposes of purchases ledger and sales ledger control accounts 3.4 identify the books of prime entry as sources of information for the control account entries 3.4 prepare purchases ledger and sales ledger control accounts to include credit purchases and sales, receipts and payments, cash discounts, returns, irrecoverable debts, dishonoured cheques, interest on overdue accounts, contra entries, refunds, opening and closing balances (debit and credit within each account). 3.4

16


Chapter 16: Control accounts Chapter 16 Control accounts

16.1 Introduction Control accounts are also known as total accounts. If the trial balance fails to balance and the error cannot be readily located, it is necessary to check all the accounting records. This can take a considerable amount of time. The checking process can be speeded up if a control account for the sales ledger (which contains the accounts of the debtors) and a control account for the purchases ledger (which contains the accounts of the creditors) have been prepared. These accounts act as a check on the individual accounts within these ledgers. Like the trial balance, however, these accounts can only check the arithmetical accuracy: errors such as omission and commission will not be revealed by a control account.

16.2 Advantages of control accounts Where a full set of accounting records is maintained, it is usual to prepare a sales ledger control account and a purchases ledger control account. The advantages of preparing these accounts are as follows: 1 They can assist in locating errors when the trial balance fails to balance. 2 They are proof of the arithmetical accuracy of the ledgers they control. 3 The balances on these accounts are regarded as being equal to the total of the trade receivables and the total of the trade payables, so this information is available immediately. 4 Draft financial statements can be prepared quickly because of the balances provided by the control accounts. 5 They help to reduce fraud as the control accounts are prepared by someone who has not been involved in making the entries in those particular ledgers. 6 They provide a summary of the transactions affecting the trade receivables and trade payables for each financial period. TEST YOURSELF 16.1

1 Name the account which summarises all the sales ledger accounts. 2 Name the account which summarises all the purchases ledger accounts. 3 State three reasons for preparing control accounts.

16.3 Sales ledger control account This is also referred to as a total trade receivables account. This account resembles the account of a credit customer, but instead of containing transactions concerned with just one person or business it contains transactions relating to all the debtors. A typical sales ledger control account is shown here.

LINK

You learned about the division of the ledger in Chapter 4. LINK

You learned about the errors not revealed by a trial balance in Chapter 3. KEY TERMS

A sales ledger control account is an account summarising all the accounts of the trade receivables and a purchases ledger control account is an account summarising all the accounts of the trade payables. 229


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Nominal ledger Sales ledger control account Date

Details

Folio

Balance

b/d

$

Date

Details

$

c/d

110 000

Sales returns

Sales

Cash

Bank

Bank

(dishonoured cheque)

Discount allowed

Bank/Cash (refunds)

Irrecoverable debts 110 000

Interest charged

Folio

Balance

110 000 Balance

110 000

b/d

As this account acts as a check on the individual credit customers’ accounts, it should be prepared independently and information in the individual accounts of the credit customers must not be used. (An error in the sales ledger would not be revealed if the control account is prepared from the accounts in that ledger.) The information to prepare a sales ledger control account is obtained from the books of prime entry. The sources of information are summarised as follows: 230

Item

Source of information

Sales

Sales journal

Sales returns

Sales returns journal

Receipts from credit customers

Cash book

Discounts allowed to credit customers

Cash book

Dishonoured cheques

Cash book

Refunds to credit customers

Cash book

Irrecoverable debts written off

Journal

Interest charged on overdue accounts

Journal

The sales ledger control account is drawn up at the end of the financial period (often monthly) and balanced. The total of the balances on all the individual credit customers’ accounts should agree with the balance on the control account. If they differ, it indicates that there is an error in one of the customers’ accounts or an error in the control account, so further checks are required.

TIP A sales ledger account is a summary of the accounts of credit customers (trade receivables) so will not include items which do not appear in the account of a credit customer, such as cash sales and provision for doubtful debts.


Chapter 16: Control accounts

Walkthrough 16.1 Shweta maintains a full set of accounting records and prepares control accounts at the end of each month. She provided the following information:

$

20–8 March 1 Sales ledger control account balance

1 200 debit

March 31 Totals for the month:

Sales journal

4 890

Sales returns journal

Cheques and bank transfers received from credit customers

Discount allowed to credit customers

Cash received from credit customers

Cash refunds to credit customers

19

Cheque received (included in the above figure) later dishonoured

80

Irrecoverable debts written off

94

250 3 892 8 120

Prepare Shweta’s sales ledger control account for the month of March 20–8.

Shweta Nominal ledger

231

Sales ledger control account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 Mar 1

Details

Folio

$

20–8 Balance

b/d

31 Sales Bank (dishonoured

1 200

Mar 31 Sales returns

250

4 890

Cash

120

80

Bank

3 892

cheque)

Discount allowed

Cash (refunds)

1 819

Irrecoverable debts

6 189

Balance

6 189 20–8 Apr 1

Date

Balance

b/d

1 825

8 94 c/d

1 825 6 189


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

16.4 Purchases ledger control account This is also known as a total trade payables account. This account resembles the account of a credit supplier, but instead of containing transactions concerned with just one person or business it contains transactions relating to all the creditors. A typical purchases ledger control account is shown here. Nominal ledger Purchases ledger control account Date

Details

Details

Folio

Purchases returns

Balance

b/d

Cash

Purchases

Bank

Interest charged

Discount received

Bank/Cash (refunds)

Balance

Folio

c/d

$

Date

110 000

110 000

110 000

110 000 Balance

232

TIP The accounts in the sales and purchases ledgers are not used to provide information for preparing a control account otherwise errors in the ledgers would not be revealed.

$

b/d

This account serves a similar purpose to the sales ledger control account. It acts as a check on the individual credit suppliers’ accounts and must be prepared independently and not from information in the individual accounts of the credit suppliers. The information to prepare a purchases ledger control account is obtained from the books of prime entry. The sources of information are summarised as follows: Item

Source of information

Purchases

Purchases journal

Purchases returns

Purchases returns journal

Payments to credit suppliers

Cash book

Discounts received from credit suppliers

Cash book

Refunds from credit suppliers

Cash book

Interest charged on overdue accounts

Journal

Like the sales ledger control account, the purchases ledger control account is drawn up at the end of the financial period (often monthly) and balanced. The total of the balances on all the individual credit suppliers’ accounts should agree with the balance on the control account. If they differ it indicates that there is an error in one of the suppliers’ accounts or the control account, so further checks are required.

TIP A purchases ledger account is a summary of the accounts of credit suppliers (trade payables) so will not include items which do not appear in the account of a credit supplier such as cash purchases.


Chapter 16: Control accounts

Walkthrough 16.2 Shweta maintains a full set of accounting records and prepares control accounts at the end of each month. She provided the following information: $ 20–8 March 1

Purchases ledger control account balance

1 880 credit

March 31 Totals for the month: Purchases journal

4 230

Purchases returns journal

180

Cheques and bank transfers paid to credit suppliers

3 900

Discount received from credit suppliers

104

Cheque refunds from credit suppliers

100

Interest charged on overdue account

12

Prepare Shweta’s purchases ledger control account for the month of March 20–8.

Shweta Nominal ledger Purchases ledger control account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8

Date

Details

Folio

$

233

20–8

Mar 31 Purchases returns

180

Bank

3 900

Discount received Balance

Mar 1

1 880

31 Purchases

104 c/d

Balance

4 230

Bank (refunds)

2 038

100

Interest charged

2 012

6 222

6 222 20–8 Apr 1

Balance

b/d

2 038

You can now answer Questions 1 and 2 at the end of this chapter. TEST YOURSELF 16.2

1 Explain why the information used for preparing control accounts must be obtained from books of prime entry. 2 State the source of information for each of the following: a purchases returns b discount allowed c irrecoverable debts.

LINK

You will learn about the use of total accounts for calculating missing information in Chapter 17.


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

16.5  Balances on both sides of a control account Occasionally a credit customer’s account may show a credit balance. This may occur due to: • an overpayment by the customer • the customer returning goods after paying the account • the customer paying in advance for the goods • cash discount not being deducted before payment was made. In the sales ledger control account it is usual to keep any credit balance separate from the debit balance. The control account will, therefore, have two balances – the usual debit balance representing money owing by credit customers, and the more unusual credit balance representing money owing to credit customers. Any credit balance is entered on the debit side of the control account and carried down as a credit balance. The account can then be balanced in the usual way.

Walkthrough 16.3 Shweta maintains a full set of accounting records and prepares control accounts at the end of each month. She provided the following information: $ 20–8 April 1 234

Sales ledger control account balance

1 825 debit

April 30 Totals for the month:

Sales journal

Sales returns journal

Cheques and bank transfers received from credit customers

Discount allowed to credit customers

12

Interest charged on overdue account

10

Sales ledger credit balances

May 1

4 910 210 4 788

115

Prepare Shweta’s sales ledger control account for the month of April 20–8.

Shweta Nominal ledger Sales ledger control account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 Apl 1

Date

Details

Folio

20–8 Balance

b/d

30 Sales Balance

1 825

Apl 30

4 910

Interest charged

210

Bank

10 c/d

Sales returns

4 788

Discount allowed

1 115

Balance

12 c/d

6 860 20–8 May 1

$

1 850 6 860

20–8 Balance

b/d

1 850

May 1

Balance

b/d

115


Chapter 16: Control accounts

In a similar way, a credit supplier’s account can show a debit balance. This may occur due to: • an overpayment to the supplier • returning goods to the supplier after paying the account • paying the supplier in advance for the goods • cash discount not being deducted before payment was made. As in the sales ledger control account, the debit balance and the credit balance are shown separately in the purchases ledger control account. The purchases ledger control account will, therefore, have two balances – the usual credit balance representing money owing to credit suppliers, and the more unusual debit balance representing money owing by credit suppliers. Any debit balance is entered on the credit side of the control account and carried down as a debit balance. The account can then be balanced in the usual way. TEST YOURSELF 16.3

1 Explain how it is possible for a customer’s account to have a credit balance.

You can now answer Questions 3 and 4 at the end of this chapter. KEY TERM

16.6 Contra entries in control accounts Contra entries are also known as inter-ledger transfers or set-offs. It may happen that a business sells goods to another business and also buys different goods from that business. This means that there will be two ledger accounts for that business – one in the sales ledger and the other in the purchases ledger. Rather than each business sending the other a cheque to cover the amount due, they may agree to set one account off against the other. Any remaining amount will be settled by one business issuing a cheque.

Walkthrough 16.4 Shweta provided the following information: 20–8 May 15

Sold goods, $190, on credit to Mansingh Road Stores

22

Bought goods, $320, on credit from Mansingh Road Stores

30

The balances of the two accounts for Mansingh Road Stores were set-off and Shweta sent a cheque for the remaining balance.

Record these transactions in the account for Mansingh Road Stores in the sales ledger and the account for Mansingh Road Stores in the purchases ledger.

Shweta Sales ledger Mansingh Road Stores account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 May 15 Sales

Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8 190 190

May 30 Purchases ledger

190 190

Contra entries may be referred to as interledger transfers or set-offs and are when a transfer is made from an account in the sales ledger to an account of the same business/person in the purchases ledger.

235


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Purchases ledger Mansingh Road Stores account Date

Details

Folio

$

20–8

Details

Folio

$

20–8

May 30 Sales ledger TIP A contra entry, sometimes known as an inter-ledger transfer or set-off, is recorded in both the sales ledger control account and the purchases ledger control account.

Date

Bank

190

May 22 Purchases

320

130

130

320

320

• A journal entry would be made for the transfer of $190 on 30 May as it is a non-regular transaction. • As the transfer of $190 on 30 May affected both the accounts in sales ledger and purchases ledger, it would affect both the sales ledger control account and the purchases ledger control account. See Walkthrough 16.5.

Walkthrough 16.5 Shweta provided the following information for the month of May 20-8. $ 20–8 May 1 236

Sales ledger control account debit balance

1 850

Sales ledger control account credit balance

115

Purchases ledger control account credit balance

2 118

31 Totals for the month: Sales journal

5 360

Purchases journal

5 110

Sales returns journal

134

Purchases returns journal

216

Cheques and bank transfers received from credit customers

4 965

Cheques and bank transfers paid to credit suppliers

4 508

Discount received from credit suppliers

92

Irrecoverable debt written off

35

Interest charged by credit supplier on overdue account

14

Contra entry June 1

190

Sales ledger control account debit balance

?

Purchases ledger control account credit balance

?

Purchases ledger control account debit balance

135

Prepare Shweta’s sales ledger control account and purchases ledger control account for the month of May 20–8. Balance the accounts and bring down the balances on 1 June 20–8.


Chapter 16: Control accounts

Shweta Nominal ledger Sales ledger control account Date

Details

Folio

20–8 May 1

Balance

b/d

31 Sales

$

Date

20–8 1 850 May 1

Details

Folio

$

Balance

b/d

1 115

5 360 31 Sales returns

7 210

1 134

Bank

4 965

Irrecoverable debt

1 835

Contra entry

1 190

Balance

c/d

7 210

20–8 June 1 Balance

b/d

1 771 7 210

1 771

Shweta Nominal ledger Purchases ledger control account Date 20–8 May 1

Details

Folio

$

Date

Details

Folio

$

Balance

b/d

2 118

Purchases returns

20–8 1 216 May 1

Bank

4 508 31 Purchases

5 110

Discount received

1 192

Interest charged

1 114

Contra entry

1 190

Balance

Balance 20–8 June 1 Balance

c/d

b/d

c/d

1 135

2 371

1 771

7 377

7 377

20–8 1 135 June 1 Balance

b/d

2 371

TEST YOURSELF 16.4

1 In connection with control accounts, explain the meaning of a contra entry.

You can now answer Questions 5 and 6 at the end of this chapter.

Revision checklist ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

The main purpose of control accounts is to assist in locating errors in the sales ledger and the purchases ledger. A sales ledger control account resembles the account of a credit customer but contains transactions affecting all credit customers. A purchases ledger control account resembles the account of a credit supplier but contains transactions affecting all credit suppliers. The information to prepare control accounts is obtained from the books of prime entry. It is possible to have a balance on each side of a control account. If a business is both a customer and a supplier, a contra entry may be made to transfer a balance from the sales ledger account to the purchases ledger account.

237


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

Exam-style questions 1 What is the purpose of preparing a sales ledger control account? A to calculate the total credit sales for the period B to calculate the total sales for the period C to check the arithmetical accuracy of the sales account D to check the arithmetical accuracy of the sales ledger accounts 2 What may appear on the debit side of a purchases ledger control account? A credit purchases B discount allowed C payments to credit suppliers D returns by credit customers 3 Shilpa’s sales ledger control account had an opening credit balance. What does this mean? A total amount owing by credit customers B goods returned by credit customers C interest charged on credit customers’ accounts D overpayment made by credit customers

238

4 Hamir is a trader who maintains full set of accounting records. He divides his ledger into three sections – nominal (general), sales and purchases. a State one advantage of dividing the ledger into these sections. b State two advantages of maintaining a purchases ledger control account.

Hamir provided the following information for the month of May 20–1:

May 1

$

Debit balances in purchases ledger

105

Credit balances in purchases ledger

4 897

May 31 Totals for the month:

Credit purchases

5 424

Purchases returns

657

Payments to suppliers

Discount received

88

Interest charged by credit supplier

20

Debit balances in purchases ledger

76

June 1

4 312

c Prepare the purchases ledger control account for the month of May 20–1. Balance the account and bring down the balances on 1 June 20–1. d Name the book of prime entry Hamir would use to provide information about:

i interest charged by credit supplier

ii purchases returns

iii discount received.


Chapter 16: Control accounts

5 a Complete the following table to state where the items would appear in a purchases ledger control account. For each item name the book of prime entry from which the information would be obtained. Entry in purchases ledger control account Debit i

payments to credit suppliers

ii

cheques paid to credit suppliers later dishonoured

iii

credit purchases

iv

contra entry to sales ledger account

v

discount received

vi

interest charged by supplier on overdue account

vii

returns to credit suppliers

Source of information

Credit

b Explain why the information required to prepare a purchases ledger control account is not obtained from the purchases ledger. c Explain the contra entry to the sales ledger and why it was needed.

239

6 Eva is a trader who maintains a full set of accounting records and prepares control accounts at the end of each month. She provided the following information: 20–5

February 1

Debit balance in the sales ledger control account

$ 2 470

Credit balance in the sales ledger

110

Provision for doubtful debts

100

Totals for the month:

February 28

Credit sales

3 480

Cash sales

1 950

Returns by credit customers

Cheques received from credit customers

Cheque received from credit customer (included in the cheques received above) later dishonoured

104

Discount allowed

144

Discount received

176

Irrecoverable debts written off

200

Contra entry

240

March 1

Debit balance in the sales ledger control account

?

Credit balance in the sales ledger control account

95

118 3 403


Cambridge IGCSE and O Level Accounting

a Select the relevant figures and prepare the sales ledger control account for the month of May 20–1. Balance the account and bring down the balances on 1 June 20–1. b For each entry (excluding the balances) in the sales ledger control account prepared in a name the book of prime entry which would be used as a source of information. c Select two items listed that should not appear in a sales ledger control account and explain why they do not appear. d Suggest two reasons for the credit balance on the sales ledger control account on 1 March 20–1.

240

Preview Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook (second edition)  

Preview Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook (second edition)

Preview Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook (second edition)  

Preview Cambridge IGCSE® and O Level Accounting Coursebook (second edition)