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CAMBRIDGE PRIMARY

English

Teacher’s Resource

2

Gill Budgell and Kate Ruttle


University Printing House, Cambridge CB BS, United Kingdom Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org © Cambridge University Press  This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published  Printed in Poland by Opolgraf A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ---- Paperback with CD-ROM Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but the publishers do not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. Learning objectives from the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework are reproduced by permission of Cambridge International Examinations.

notice to teachers The photocopy masters in this publication may be photocopied or distributed electronically free of charge for classroom use within the school or institution that purchased the publication. Worksheets and copies of them remain in the copyright of Cambridge University Press, and such copies may not be distributed or used in any way outside the purchasing institution.


Contents Introduction

4

Stage 2 curriculum correlation

8

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

11

Unit 2 How to write instructions

30

Unit 3 Rhymes about places and people we know

48

Unit 4 Tales from around the world

59

Unit 5 What is my house made of?

79

Unit 6 Poems by famous poets

96

Unit 7 Stories by famous writers

108

Unit 8 Things under the sea

125

Unit 9 All kinds of creatures

141

Photocopy masters (PCMs)

150

Vocabulary check sheets

189

Spelling lists

196

Review and reference activity answers

199

Contents 3


The Cambridge Primary English series The Cambridge Primary English series is a six-level, First Language English course, covering and following the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework from Cambridge International Examinations. The Cambridge Primary English course is intended to lead into the Cambridge Secondary 1 curriculum by giving learners the skills and knowledge to confidently access the secondary curriculum. The full series consists of a suite of Learner’s Books, Teacher’s Resources (Book and CD-ROM) and write-in Activity Books for each of the six levels. Although the series is designed to be used as a suite, the Learner’s Book provides independent and coherent coverage of the curriculum framework. The Activity Book is not core, but recommended as consolidation, extension or for homework.

Learner’s Books The Stage 2 Learner’s Book is the second of six in the Cambridge Primary English series. Each Learner’s Book contains nine units; two long units and one shorter unit per 10-week term. Each long unit contains 12 teaching sessions and has been designed to be delivered over four weeks, with three lessons per week. The shorter units are intended to be delivered over two weeks with six teaching sessions in each. The final session in each unit is a review of the learning covered. The units per term may be taught in any order with progression being built in per term rather than unit-byunit to add flexibility to the programme and to allow for more cross-curricular matching.

Main units In Stage 2, each unit contains a range of text types and genres included as whole texts or extracts around a unifying theme. The texts have been carefully selected to include an appropriate balance of fiction, non-fiction, poetry and plays, as well as to reflect the interests and diverse cultural backgrounds of the learners. Each lesson contains a selection of activities aimed at enabling the learners to acquire specific knowledge or skills across a wide range of text opportunities. Lessons incorporate both whole-class teaching led by the teacher and small group, pair or individual work so that children can practise and apply their learning. Comprehension activities are pivotal to each unit and may be oral, aural and/or involve reading and writing. Scaffolding and modelling learning for the learners plays an important part in the teaching and learning sequence of each unit and leads the learner towards increasing independence. Frequently children are invited to ‘innovate’ on a text to support and develop their confidence to create. There is the opportunity to begin to develop self-assessment at the end of each unit using a simple ‘smiley-face’ scale. The course aims for an approach that encourages children to actively explore, investigate, understand, use and develop their knowledge of English and in 4

Cambridge Primary English Stage 2 Teacher’s Resource

particular their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills through the use of regular, guided group and paired work, independent group work and individual work. Discussion with a talk partner or in a small group forms an important part of the course, helping learners become more articulate and confident in expressing their opinions; it is also an important part of the embedding process and discovering that others do not always take the same approach or share opinions. Each unit provides an opportunity for progression through speaking and listening which includes specific vocabulary development, reading as a reader, reading as a writer, talk for writing and writing so that children can experience the journey to becoming literate, with the emphasis shifting from learning to read towards reading to learn. The texts and extracts selected for the course serve as language stimuli and springboards for teaching and learning grammar and punctuation, phonics, spelling and the development of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. However, texts should always be supplemented with a broad range of other texts and especially local literature and non-fiction texts local to your region to add depth and context to the range of skills learners encounter through the Learner’s Book. Online texts and multimodal texts (film, animation, eBook, audio book, etc) should also be actively included to ensure that learners are exposed to a rich and engaging diet of words and pictures to support their language learning.

Features Most units contains specific language input in the form of Language Focus boxes to support teacher-led instruction emanating from text-based examples. They are reminders for the learners too. The language input is progressive and covers the curriculum framework over the year. The Tip box provides handy tips and reminders to guide the children and to ask questions that challenge their thinking and interest. The Duck mascot provides reminders and gives examples for learners to follow. Icons indicate when an activity involves discussion, writing, reading or active work. While the icons are indicators of the mode of work envisaged, it is always at the teacher’s discretion whether to approach the activity from a different perspective especially when implementing a differentiation strategy in the classroom. have a discussion do some reading do some writing role play, read out loud or do an oral activity At the end of the Learner’s Book, you will find a ‘Review and reference’ section; a series of reference resources for use by the learners. These include a range of reference and learning tools such as words lists and activities to help recall and review the learning in the stage. These


resources can be used throughout the programme and can be referenced by the teacher or the learners where appropriate.

The answer to activities, where appropriate, are provided per unit following the notes on Learner’s Book activities within the Teacher’s Resource.

Spelling and vocabulary

Teacher’s Resources

The ‘Review and reference’ section (see above) includes spelling patterns and common sight words covered in the units, together with practice activities. These are to be used at the teacher’s discretion. Some spelling activities may also appear in the units and the Teacher’s Resource notes will also indicate spelling opportunities. Ideally, at least one formal spelling session per week should be planned using either the spelling spreads or the spelling lists in the Teacher’s Resources that are provided for reinforcement of common spelling patterns and letter strings. Vocabulary development is closely linked to spelling but a spelling programme does not on its own guarantee vocabulary development. Each unit therefore introduces a set of words which will be used during the unit and would therefore be useful for the pupils to learn. These are provided as photocopiable Vocabulary check sheets at the back of this Teacher’s Resource.

Activity Books The Activity Book accompanying each Learner’s Book includes supplementary and extension material mirroring and based on the content of each session within the Learner’s Book so as to support: • the independent learning part of the teaching • the practice and apply parts of some sessions • some personalisation activities • reinforcement of concepts introduced in the Learner’s Book • space for quiet focused work. The Activity Book content is not tied page-by-page to the Learner’s Book content, rather it follows the Learner’s Book unit-by-unit, so that each unit follows the same unifying theme. At times, the Activity Book includes smaller extracts of texts included in the Learner’s Book if they are focused on in such a way that merits repeating the extract in the Activity Book. The Activity Book aims to cater for learners with a wide range of learning styles, which means they include a wide range of activities from somewhat mechanical (drill can still be an important learning tool for reinforcement and modelling) to more open and creative, allowing for personalisation and differentiation. The Activity Book is designed to be flexible and should be used however suits the teacher and the class the best. In some cases it may be appropriate to use the Activity Book as class homework tasks or to allow certain learners to reinforce concepts at their own pace. Similarly a number of the activities can be used to extend learners, allowing them more freedom of expression and creative space and to provide extension where the different pace of learners needs to be catered for.

The teachers’ guidance notes in the Teacher’s Resource follow the pattern of the Learner’s Book, providing support for the teacher across each of the nine units. The notes cover material for three lessons per week (30–45 minutes per lesson) based on the Learner’s Book content and include answers where appropriate. The unit-by-unit notes list what the teacher will need at the beginning of each session together with the primary learning intentions and outcomes for the session. Thereafter, it provides background and suggestions for how to approach the activities in the Learner’s Book and, when necessary, includes supplemental information and structuring. Each session assumes a mix of whole-class teaching followed by group work (guided or independent) as well as a healthy mix of pair and/or individual work, following the review, teach, practise, apply cycle. The Teacher’s Resources provide opportunities and suggest strategies for differentiated learning throughout as well as opportunities for informal assessment. A summary of the curriculum framework coverage is provided in the grid on page 8. It shows comprehensive coverage of all element of the Cambridge Primary English curriculum framework: phonics, spelling and vocabulary, grammar and punctuation, reading, writing and speaking and listening through specific activities. Opportunities for informal assessment are suggested throughout in the Teacher’s Resources. Additional activities for each unit are provided in the form of photocopy masters (PCM). A list of these is provided on page 150. The PCMs provide opportunities for consolidation, extension or differentiation for certain of the activities in the Learner’s Book. The optimum time to use the PCMs is clearly flagged in the Teacher’s Resource unit by unit. The CD-ROM in the back of this Teacher’s Resource includes PDFs of the Teacher’s Book content for printing and reference.

Teaching phonics, spelling and vocabulary Spelling and vocabulary is an integrated part of an English programme. A teacher who is disciplined about focusing on spelling at the right moment and in the right context is well on the way to having better spellers with an increased vocabulary. The unit by unit notes include suggestions for when and how to approach specific spelling and word knowledge activities, providing the opportunity to work with the words and rules in context. The activities aim to

Introduction

5


reinforce a particular spelling rule or pattern and address some of the basic reasons why children struggle to spell: • the language itself being confusing – quay sounding like key; present being a noun or a verb • pronunciation – sounding the words incorrectly • confusing words that look similar – weak visual perception • ignorance of root words or how to break down syllables and parts of words. By actively focusing the learners’ attention on activities and useful rules in the context of the lesson, this course aims to improve the average spelling age in your classroom. A spelling programme should take into account the following: • Acquiring a new word is a process: the word is recognised, spelling is learnt, meaning and use are understood, the word is used in context. • A learner’s ability to spell grows through practice and analysis. Working with words and working out how and why letters are placed together, helps learners understand, internalise and apply the rules to other words and in other contexts. • A learner’s ability to spell requires them to recognise the sounds that make up a word and translate them into the written form. Spelling progresses when there is an understanding of the association between the sounds and the symbols. By Stage 2, ‘sight’ words (words acquired by sight and not by rules e.g. the Dolch Sight list) should have been acquired, although frequent reminders and displays are still valuable.

Spelling lists The spelling lists at the end of this Teacher’s Resource are a supplement to the Review and reference at the back of the Learner’s Book.

Teaching spelling in the classroom Many approaches to how spelling should be taught in the classroom have been developed and continue to be developed. It is difficult to be too rigid about this; much depends on teacher commitment and the emphasis on spelling in the school as a whole. It is also dependent on the level of the class and how many children are operating with English as their first language or as the primary language spoken in the home. Ideally, spelling should be addressed on a daily basis and in the context of the lesson. Embedded throughout the notes are Spelling links; these are intended to suggest opportunities at which the indicated spelling areas can be looked at in greater detail. A time should be set aside regularly for specific spelling activities, e.g. to focus on a word, analyse it, group it with other words with the same spelling pattern and then add it to a spelling dictionary or index book. None of this need take up a lot of time but it does require a teacher to be constantly on the look-out for opportunities to look at spelling. If possible, a formal spelling lesson should take place once a week where rules are taught and learners are

6

Cambridge Primary English Stage 2 Teacher’s Resource

given a chance to practise the rule and use it. The formal lesson should focus on a specific sound or rule the teacher feels is relevant to the class and the context.

A suggested spelling session format • SAY the word and SEE the word. Introduce words both orally and visually so the children see each word and hear the sound simultaneously to develop auditory perception. Use flash cards, words appearing on a screen or written on the board. • PLAY with the word. They write it in the air or on their desk with a finger, mime it to a partner, write it on a slate or paper and hold it up, do visual memory activities with a partner: look at a word, close eyes and spell it. These activities provide immediate feedback and develop visual memory. Clap the sounds to demonstrate how the word is broken into syllables. Let the children find their own associations to help them remember words e.g. ear in hear or ache in headache. • ANALYSE the word. Spelling rules can be helpful here to explain how words are built up, why letters move, how sounds change from one word to another and how patterns fit into words. • USE the word – make up a sentence. Activities are provided in the Learner’s Book but you can add to these by playing spelling games. Younger children enjoy spelling ‘snap’ or ‘bingo’; older children might enjoy a spelling challenge/ladder or a competition that involves winners. • LEARN the word. They commit the word to memory while writing it out in a word book or personal spelling notebook. Tests or assessments need not be repetitive weekly activities but learners do need incentive to internalise the spelling of words and to see they are making progress.

Practical ideas for the classroom Words and spellings need to be highlighted and enriched at every opportunity in the classroom. • Encourage personal word books or cards: include words covered in spelling sessions and ones they look up in the dictionary. At the back, suggest learners develop a bank of words they would like to use (especially powerful, descriptive or unusual words). Word meanings can also be included. Some children may benefit by using colours or underlining/ highlighting to identify tricky bits or root words. • Have a classroom display of aspirational words or themed words around a topic (any learning area). • Have plenty of large spelling resources – dictionaries, thesauruses, etc. • Set up spelling buddies as a first line of check if a dictionary or thesaurus does not help. • Play word games such as word dominoes or phonic pairs on a set of cards as a memory game. • Highlight and discuss word origins and have a merit system for anyone with interesting words or word information to share.


• Display lists of words with similar sounds or letter patterns (either at the start, middle or end) – write the words large in the handwriting taught at the school joined up if appropriate to stimulate visual and kinaesthetic knowledge. • Have an interactive word list of interesting words, or words that match a spelling rule or word pattern being focused on. Add to it whenever anyone comes across a relevant word. • Consider an alphabet of vowel sounds and consonant sounds as a display or frieze around the walls. • If handwriting lessons are timetabled, add word patterns and sounds into those sessions. • Research free web resources to create your own crosswords and word searches linked to vocabulary in themes and spelling rules you are working on. Spelling may be a challenge but it does not have to be dull. Spelling can be fun if you make it that way!

Teaching grammar and punctuation Grammar and punctuation teaching and learning is integrated into the programme being clearly flagged as opportunities arise from texts and activities. Informal assessment opportunities are also cited within the Teacher’s Resource. • Create an interactive word list of interesting words, or words that match a phonic rule being focused on. Add to it whenever anyone comes across a relevant word. • Together build classroom displays that are interactive, useful and organic – not just pretty! Create banks of aspirational words or themed words around a topic (any learning area). • Systematically include common words that don’t always follow the most obvious phonic rules. These are sometimes referred to as high-frequency and tricky words. • If handwriting lessons are timetabled, add letter, sound and word practice into those sessions. • Research free web resources to create your own games and activities linked to vocabulary in themes and phonic rules you are working on. Finally, a note on handwriting practice. This series encourages best practice in handwriting but does not teach it explicitly. We recommend using the Cambridge Penpals for Handwriting series alongside Cambridge Primary English for teaching handwriting. We hope you enjoy teaching the course and that it will help your learners to feel confident about responding to and using English in a variety of ways. Gill Budgell and Kate Ruttle

Introduction

7


Stage 2 Curriculum correlation Cambridge Primary English 0844 curriculum framework, for use from 2011. Phonics, spelling and vocabulary Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

2PSV1

Learn the different common spellings of long vowel phonemes.

2PSV2

Learn the different ways in which vowels can be pronounced (e.g. how, low, apple, acorn).

2PSV3

Apply knowledge of phonemes and spelling patterns in writing independently.

2PSV4

Secure the spelling of high-frequency words and common irregular words.

2PSV5

Identify syllables and split familiar compound words into parts.

2PSV6

Spell words with common prefixes and suffixes (e.g. un, dis, ful, ly).

2PSV7

Build and use collections of interesting and significant words.

2PSV8

Discuss the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in reading.

2PSV9

Choose interesting words and phrases (e.g. in describing people and places).

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Grammar and punctuation Reading 2GPr1

Begin to read with fluency and expression, taking some notice of punctuation, including speech marks.

2GPr2

Read and respond to question words (e.g. what, where, when, who, why).

Writing 2GPw1

Use mainly simple and compound sentences, with and, but used to connect ideas. Because may begin to be used in a complex sentence.

2GPw2

Write in clear sentences using capital letters, full stops and question marks.

2GPw3

Begin to vary sentence openings, e.g. with simple adverbs.

2GPw4

Use past and present tense accurately – but maybe not always consistently.

2GPw5

Use a variety of simple organisational devices (e.g. headings, captions) in non-fiction.

2GPw6

Begin to re-read own writing for sense and accuracy.

✓ ✓

✓ ✓

Reading Fiction and poetry

8

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

2Rf1

Extend the range of common words recognised on sight.

2Rf2

Use phonics as the prime method of tackling unfamiliar words.

2Rf3

Read aloud with increased accuracy, fluency and expression.

2Rf4

Identify and describe story settings and characters, recognising that they may be from different times and places.

2Rf5

Predict story endings.

2Rf6

Make simple inferences from the words on the page (e.g. about feelings).

Cambridge Primary English Stage 2 Teacher’s Resource

✓ ✓


2Rf7

Talk about what happens at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a story

2Rf8

Comment on some vocabulary choices (e.g. adjectives).

2Rf9

Begin to develop likes and dislikes in reading.

2Rf10

Read poems and comment on words and sounds, rhyme and rhythm.

Non-fiction 2RNF1

Read and follow simple instructions (e.g. in a recipe).

2RNF2

Locate words by initial letter in simple dictionaries, glossaries and indexes.

2RNF3

Find answers to questions by reading a section of text.

2RNF4

1

2

3

4

✓ ✓

5

6

✓ ✓

7

8

9

✓ ✓

Find factual information from different formats (e.g. charts, labelled diagrams).

2RNF5

Identify general features of known text types.

2RNF6

Show some awareness that texts have different purposes.

2RNF7

Explore a variety of non-fiction texts on screen.

✓ ✓

Writing Fiction

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Unit 7

2WF1

Develop stories with a setting, characters and a sequence of events.

2WF2

Structure a story with a beginning, middle and end.

2WF3

Link ideas in sections, grouped by content.

2WF4

Find alternatives to and/then in developing a narrative and connecting ideas.

2WF5

Write with a variety of sentence types.

2WF6

Use the structure of familiar poems and stories in developing own writing.

2WF7

Begin to use dialogue in stories.

2WF8

Use the language of time (e.g. suddenly, after that).

2WF9

Choose some interesting words and phrases (e.g. in describing people and places).

Non-fiction

1

✓ ✓

3

4

✓ 5

2WNF1

Write simple evaluations of books read.

22WNF

Write instructions and recount events and experiences.

2WNF3

Use features of chosen text type.

2WNF4

Use simple non-fiction texts as a model for writing.

2WNF5

Make simple notes from a section of non-fiction text e.g. listing key words.

Presentation

Unit 9

✓ ✓

2

Unit 8

6

✓ 7

8

9 ✓

Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

Unit 5

✓ Unit 6

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

2WP1

Form letters correctly and consistently.

2WP2

Practise handwriting patterns and the joining of letters.

Unit 7

Unit 8

Unit 9

Speaking and listening Unit 1

Unit 2

Unit 3

Unit 4

2S&L1

Recount experiences and explore possibilities.

2S&L2

Explain plans and ideas, extending them in the light of discussion.

Unit 5

Unit 6

✓ ✓

Introduction

9


2S&L3

Articulate clearly so that others can hear.

2S&L4

Vary talk and expression to gain and hold the listener’s attention.

2S&L5

Show awareness of the listener by including relevant details.

2S&L6

Attempt to express ideas precisely, using a growing vocabulary.

2S&L7

Listen carefully and respond appropriately, asking questions of others.

2S&L8

Demonstrate ‘attentive listening’ and engage with another speaker.

2S&L9

Extend experiences and ideas through role play.

2S&L10

Begin to be aware of ways in which speakers vary talk, for example the use of more formal vocabulary and tone of voice.

2S&L11

Show awareness that speakers vary talk in different situations and try out different ways of speaking.

10

Cambridge Primary English Stage 2 Teacher’s Resource


1

Stories about things we know

Unit overview This is a four-week unit focusing on stories about things we know and do. During the unit learners will talk about, read and write about stories in familiar settings. Initially, the focus will be on an extract from a story within an established series written by Dick King-Smith and it is hoped that teachers and learners may share other stories from this series and this author. Learners continue to explore other authors, including Rosemary Wells and Kes Gray, to explore character, setting, the impact of vocabulary and ways in which authors show time passing. Learners are encouraged to give opinions about stories, to retell and to innovate on texts to create their own versions. Where extracts are quite long it is suggested that teachers read to and with learners.

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit, learners will be able to: • read and follow stories in familiar settings with increasing fluency, expression and understanding • identify and describe story settings and characters recognising that they may be from different times and places • predict story endings • make simple inferences • comment on vocabulary choices and what impact they make within stories • begin to develop stories with a setting, characters and a sequence of events • begin to use dialogue in retelling and writing stories • extend experiences and ideas through role play.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • continue to develop their familiarity with the reading, spelling and pronunciation of long vowel phonemes • listen carefully and respond appropriately • use past and present tenses with increasing accuracy • develop their vocabulary and choose interesting words and phrases to describe people and places • practise their handwriting • speak with increased fluency and confidence and demonstrate ‘attentive listening’.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • spell phonically regular monosyllabic words with short vowels • recognise the common spellings for the long vowel phonemes in bait, beet, bite, boat, boot • read and spell about 120 high-frequency words • read simple texts using a variety of strategies including decoding phonically regular words with a short vowel phoneme, recognising more high-frequency words and using picture cues to help to work out unfamiliar words • form all letters correctly and use some joining to support spelling • write short texts independently, although using phonic spellings for more complex words.

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

11


Session 1: All About Sophie Learner’s Book pages: 6–8 Activity Book page: 4

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: storybooks by Dick King-Smith and/ or pictures from the Sophie’s Adventures collection of stories; examples of words featuring sound /f/ but spelled in different ways.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to identify the characteristics of a character • to write a character fact file • to listen to and understand a text read aloud • to give oral and written responses to questions about a text. Learning outcomes Learners can: • talk about characters’ fact files • write character fact files using interesting words and phrases • demonstrate good listening to a story • give answers to demonstrate good understanding of a text.

A

Discuss Sophie

• Talk about characters from stories the learners know and enjoy. • Ask them if they can remember the names of their favourite storybook characters. • Can they describe what the characters are like? Encourage interesting and accurate vocabulary: funny, scary, kind, loud, shy, etc. • Talk about what facts we might know about a character such as Red Riding Hood. Ask learners to chat with a partner and then to share what we know about her: she lives near a wood, has a grandma who lives in the wood, is brave and kind, is curious and possibly a bit naughty (for wandering off the path), etc. • Tell them that in this unit we are going to explore stories about things we know and do. These stories often feature characters like us. This first session introduces us to a character called Sophie. • You may wish to draw learners’ attention to the spelling of this name. Remind them that sometimes two letters make one sound e.g. ph for /f/. Can they think of other words that feature this combination of letters? (e.g. elephant, Christopher) Do they know other ways to spell this sound, for example f, ff, gh (as in laugh)? • You may also wish to introduce the author of the Sophie stories, Dick King-Smith, and to tell or show the learners that he has written many stories for children and lots about Sophie. If you have gathered

12

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

other examples of Dick King-Smith books then share them now with the learners. Note that another Dick King-Smith text is used in unit 7 (The Hodgeheg). • Use the pictures and the fact file in the Learner’s Book to introduce Sophie as a character. Note that this shares some of her physical qualities as well as her personality. • Do learners know anyone like Sophie? She’s a funny but feisty little girl who sometimes says funny things because she is young and misunderstands. If learners have younger siblings, encourage them to share their experiences of things they do or say that make them laugh. • Share ideas about the fact file and what other information might be helpful to include, for example dislikes, favourite hobbies. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

A fact file

• Ask learners to write the headings of the fact file in their notebooks. • Get them to complete it with words and phrases about themselves or a friend. • Encourage learners to use interesting words and phrases in their fact file. When they have finished, tell them to re-read it to check they are happy with the words they have chosen. • Differentiation: Less confident writers may need word/picture cards of vocabulary to help them to choose and use interesting words. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

C

A Bad Back

• Tell learners that you are going to read a small part of a story about Sophie to them. • Tell them you will read it again but this time they must listen out for answers to four questions. • Read the questions through with them so they are prepared. • You can decide whether to ask the learners to record their thoughts and ideas in their notebooks or on small write-on/wipe-off type whiteboards if available. • Remind learners that they do not need to write in sentences when they are just jotting down ideas. They may even draw ideas to help them remember their answers. • Talk about good listening. Discuss the suggestions in the Tip box. • Read the text on page 7 of the Learner’s Book and read it again if learners need another attempt at listening. • Differentiation: you may decide to pair certain learners to work together to make notes on their answers.


Answers:

Learning objectives

Possible answers: Sophie is walking round the garden. The glasses have a white frame/make Sophie look like a panda/ make things look a different colour, like cabbages are blue not green, etc. Dad/Sophie’s father is lying flat on the floor in the dining-room. Sophie and her father/dad decide to play I Spy.

Learning intentions • to read part of a story with a familiar setting • to give written responses to questions about a text • to play I Spy demonstrating good phonic knowledge • to identify characters and settings in a story • to explore less common vocabulary and phrases.

• Then take each question in turn and ask the learners for their responses. • Encourage good listening to the responses. Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note which learners can confidently listen to the read-aloud text and share their answers. • Writing: note which learners can innovate on the fact file writing, adding in their own categories. We have learned to: • talk about characters’ fact files. Ask: tell me three things you might include in a fact file about your friend. • write character fact files using interesting words and phrases. Ask: read me some of the things you included in your fact file. • demonstrate good listening to a story. Ask: what can you do to show me that you are listening well to my story? • give answers to demonstrate good understanding of a text. Ask any of the questions provided in the Learner’s Book or ask additional questions. Activity Book

A Learners write two fact files about people they know, asking them the information and filling in the chart. They should be encouraged to ask full questions and to be sensitive about some of the questions depending on who they are asking.

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 2: Reading and understanding A Bad Back Learner’s Book pages: 9–10 Activity Book page: 5

You will need: notebooks and pencils, a collection of storybooks set in familiar settings. Nice to have: more story books by Dick King-Smith and more featuring Sophie. Spelling link: different spellings of long vowel phonemes.

Learning outcomes Learners can: • work alone or with a partner to read the text • write answers that demonstrate understanding of the text • identify and say accurate sounds for words • say who the characters are and where the story takes place • talk about and understand story-based vocabulary and phrases.

A

Read A Bad Back

• Tell learners that in this session they are going to now read the part of the story A Bad Back they listened to in the previous session. • Pair work: give learners time to work through the text together; first one learner reads a section, then the other. • Walk round and listen in to their attempts at independent reading. What strategies are learners using for unknown or longer words? Are they reading with expression? Are they supporting each other and listening? How are they coping with the amount of text? • You may ask them to jot down or mark in pencil or with a sticker any words they get stuck on. Take the opportunity to draw the class together to rehearse different strategies that might be useful including phonics, syllables, etc. • Check whether learners are stuck with the decoding of the word or its meaning, or both. • Differentiation: sit and work with a group of readers or ask a classroom helper to do this if you know learners will find this task too difficult. Alternatively, ask them to focus on just a few sections of text. invite confident and able readers to read aloud sections of the text to the class when you draw the children back together.

B

Check the story

• Ask learners to read the comprehension questions and to rehearse their answer before writing it. • Differentiation: some learners may be able to continue working in their pairs to talk about the questions and to write the answers. For learners who are struggling with the task, provide the answers in strips so that they can sort and sequence before writing them.

Session 2 Reading and understanding A Bad Back

13


• Check letter formation and pencil grip as you walk around the class. • In question 3, learners are asked about Sophie’s questions. Take the opportunity to talk about the formation and use of the question mark. • Differentiation: some learners will notice the use of speech marks in the conversation section of the text. Notice which learners do this and encourage them to include speech marks in their answers where appropriate. • Check that learners are looking back at the text to seek their answers. A few may just remember the answer. Answers: 1 The sunglasses were Sophie’s mother’s. 2 In the dining room it was dark and shadowy. 3 Sophie asked her father: Are you all right? and What’s the matter? Or, if using speech marks: Sophie asked her father, “Are you all right?” and “What’s the matter?”. 4 She suggests they play I Spy because it’s fun/she thinks her father is bored/it will take his mind off the back pain.

• Play a game of I Spy/I Hear with the learners using words from the story such as: sunglasses, chairs, table, window, floor, door. • Play the game with increasing sophistication if learners are able to. You could give several clues for one item: I spy with my little eye something beginning with the sound /s/. I spy with my little eye something beginning with the letter c. I hear with my little ear something that has the /ee/ sound in it. Answer: ceiling

Spelling link Use this as an opportunity to enjoy word exploration and word play and pick up and play the game in short bursts when opportunities arise throughout the week. There are more activities on different spellings of long vowel phonemes in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book.

Characters and settings

• Talk to the learners about the word character and check their understanding of it. • Remind them of the work at the beginning of this unit on the character fact files. • Work with learners using the prompts in the Learner’s Book to generate words about Sophie and her father. • Make a class mind map of words about Sophie and words about her father.

14

Answers: Possible answers: About Sophie: she is young, funny, kind. About Father: tired, fed up, is trapped by Sophie because he can’t get up, trying to be patient. Settings: starts in the garden, ends in the dining room.

D

What do you think?

• Tell the children that you are going to explore some of the more difficult words and phrases in the text. • Pair work: ask learners to work with a talk partner to discuss the meanings of the phrases in the Learner’s Book. Give them time to explore and discuss each one before stopping and drawing the class together to share their thoughts. Ask learners why they think something, especially if it is not correct. • Remind learners about speaking out clearly and looking at the people they are talking to when sharing their ideas. • Differentiation: encourage more confident learners to tell their thought processes so that you can appreciate how and why they came to a certain conclusion. Support less articulate learners in expressing their ideas and in using ambitious vocabulary. Answers:

• Pair work: provide words for pairs to work with in this way where possible, such as photograph, whale, character, scissors, queen, thumb.

C

• Then repeat with the settings. Ask learners how they know what the settings are and to find evidence from the text that tells them. Can they find the words garden and dining room? • Is the setting always so clear? Can learners think of a story where it isn’t so clear? If you have a collection of books then pass them round so that learners can find actual examples to comment upon. You may wish this to be a short group activity so that learners can investigate and then feed back on their observations.

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

Possible answers: • But whatever in the world … An expression which people say when they are surprised. For example, “But whatever in the world is that elephant doing in our garden?!” • the hard wood-block floor … This is a floor made from wood so it would be hard and uncomfortable to lie on. You could say, ‘The hard wood-block floor hurt when the boy fell onto it.’ • I’m not surprised … Sophie says this in a funny way to be a bit cheeky. If someone comes in from the rain with no shoes and socks you could say, ‘I’m not surprised your feet are cold and wet.’ • and stared thoughtfully at the ceiling … If you stare thoughtfully you might look like you are staring but with purpose, maybe your eyes are a bit scrunched up or your mouth is a bit turned up while you think. You could say, “I didn’t know the answer to the question so I stared thoughtfully at the ceiling!”

• Did learners notice any other phrases like this in the story that they weren’t sure about? • Take any further examples and unpick them together. • Discuss the fact that these are unusual or oldfashioned expressions which might tell us that the stories were written a long time ago (1988).


• Why not? run a challenge within the class and award a special sticker (or something similar) to anyone who manages to use any of these phrases correctly during the day.

Session 3: Retelling and acting A Bad Back

Assessment opportunities • Reading: note which learners cope with this amount of text. Do they have reading stamina yet? We have learned to: • work alone or with a partner to read the text. Ask: let me hear you read a little of the story. Read it for me with expression. • write answers that demonstrate understanding of the text. Ask any of the comprehension questions from the Learner’s Book page 9, session 2. • identify and say accurate sounds for words. Ask: what sound does ceiling begin with? • say who the characters are and where the story takes place. Ask: who are the characters in this story (any you choose) and where do you think it is set? • talk about and understand story-based vocabulary and phrases. Ask: what special words or phrases did you enjoy from this story?

You will need: notebooks and pencils; space for role play. Nice to have: PCM 1; A Bad Back by Dick-King Smith.

Activity Book

A Learners scan the text, looking for the words in the chart that each feature different ways of spelling long vowel phonemes: ai, ee, igh, oa, ue. Sophie was walking round the garden, wearing a pair of her mother’s very old sunglasses. They were very dark glasses with a white frame. They made Sophie look like a panda. They made pink flowers look red and yellow flowers look golden and cabbages look blue. Sophie walked along the path that ran along the front of the house and peered in through the dining-room window. Inside, everything looked very dark. But whatever in the world was that long shadowy thing lying on the floor? In the dining room Sophie’s father lay flat on the hard wood-block floor, his arms by his sides, and stared gloomily at the ceiling. Sophie peeped round the door. “Daddy?” she said. “Yes.” “Are you all right?” “No.” “What’s the matter?” “My back hurts.” “I’m not surprised,” said Sophie. “Lying on that hard old floor. If you wanted to have a rest, why didn’t you go to bed?” Sophie’s father sighed.

Learner’s Book pages: 10–11 Activity Book page: 6

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to retell a story • to act out a story using dialogue • to begin to take notice of punctuation including speech marks as a guide to reading expression • to talk about and predict story outcomes. Learning outcomes Learners can: • retell a story with increasing confidence • act out a story with increasing confidence and expression • identify and make use of some punctuation marks to support their performance • talk about and make good predictions based on character and setting.

Retell the story

A

• Ask learners to look at the pictures outlining the key events in A Bad Back. • Together, discuss what is happening and work out a sentence for each picture. • For each picture, ask learners whether anyone is saying anything. Use this to prompt a conversation about speech. • Introduce the idea of speech marks and ask learners to find them in the story text in Session 2 on page 8 of the Learner’s Book. Ensure that learners understand that speech marks indicate when someone is starting to talk and then when they stop talking. • Read the story and ask learners to jump up each time they see or hear speech marks. • Differentiation: provide struggling readers and writers with speech marks on cards so that they can physically add the marks in the right place to the sentence or phrase. • Rehearse the sentences you decided on for each main event and try to do this in different ways, for example: as Sophie: I am in the garden wearing my mum’s sunglasses … as a narrator: Sophie is in the garden and she is wearing … • Pair work: give learners time to talk through the story together in each way so that the sequence is really clear in their minds and they are experimenting with both first and third persons. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 3 Retelling and acting A Bad Back

15


B

Act out the story

• Tell learners that together you are going to practise saying the characters’ words (Sophie and Father) in this story scene so that it can be acted out. • Begin by splitting the class into two groups. One group will take the role of Sophie and the other group the role of Father. • Together, read through the conversation. • Why not? make this a real performance and have all the Fathers lying on the floor and all the Sophies surrounding them. Have them chant the conversation with great expression. They may like to swap parts at some point! • Ask learners to work in pairs to repeat the exercise. They will need space to do this well. • If you are using the PCMs you may find it useful to use PCM 1 Conversation cards here for those learners who need to have the words in front of them to start with. • Give time for practice and work with the groups to encourage appropriate expression. Question marks mean it’s a question and the speakers’ intonation should show this. Father responds in very few words to indicate his pain and frustration with Sophie (who is only trying to help). Can learners say these words in a way that reflects this? How will they say Sophie’s ‘Oh!’ with exclamation mark? (Surprised.) How will they say Sophie’s string of sentences about the game right at the end? (Excitedly.) And how does Father’s response sound? (Resigned.) • Invite learners to perform their dialogue and award comments and rewards for really good use of expression. • Encourage constructive peer group comment too. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

• If learners have enjoyed this extract, encourage them to find out more about Dick King-Smith’s Sophie stories using the library or online searches. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Punctuation and spelling: note learners who have not fully grasped the concept of capital letters, full stop/ question mark or exclamation mark. Note who is not daunted by speech marks. We have learned to: • retell a story with increasing confidence. Ask: tell me the story about Sophie and her father. • act out a story with increasing confidence and expression. Observe involvement and participation. • identify and make use of some punctuation marks to support their performance. Show speech marks and ask: what do these marks mean? • talk about and make good predictions based on character and setting. Ask: how did you think this story would end? Why? Activity Book

A Learners look at the pictures to retell the story. They are invited to make up a new ending for the story, drawing pictures in the empty boxes and writing a sentence for each.

B Learners write answers to three questions asking their opinion and ideas about the characters and setting for their own version of the story. Answers:

C

A funny ending

• Stress to learners that this is just a small part of the whole story. • Can they guess how the story ends? Use the word predict and tell or remind them of its meaning. • Take learners’ ideas which might include: Father tries to escape but his back is too painful so he has to stay; the doctor comes to make him better; Sophie and her father fall asleep with exhaustion from all the games. • If they think Sophie wants to play more games, which games do they think she suggests? • Now ask learners to look at the text in the Learner’s Book which outlines what happens. If you have the full story then read the rest of the story to the class. (It’s particularly funny when Sophie and her father are playing I Spy and Sophie gets in a muddle with the world ceiling.) • Discuss who got it right and whether other predictions were as good or not. Were they better perhaps?

16

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

A Possible answers: 1 Sophie is playing in the garden and wearing her mother’s sunglasses. She likes them because they make things look funny colours, etc. 2 She peers into the house to see if anyone is around/to see what it looks like through the sunglasses. 3 It all looks very dark and she can see something on the floor. 4 How strange/funny! It’s her father lying flat on the hard floor. 5 Sophie asks him why he is lying on the hard floor and he explains that he has a bad back. 6 Sophie lies next to her father so that he does not get lonely or bored and then she suggests they play I Spy. 7–8 Learners’ own answers. B Learners’ own answers.


Session 4: All about mums Learner’s Book pages: 12–13 Activity Book pages: 7

You will need: notebooks and pencils.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to join in with the reading of a poem, recognising its characters and setting • to recount own experiences • to identify and discuss punctuation • to write a list poem. Learning outcomes Learners can: • join in with the reading of the poem and identify the main speaker • talk about things their key family members say with reference to instructional language • identify punctuation and show increasing understanding of its purpose • innovate on a poem to write their own.

A

The Things Mums Say

• Before you read the text for or with the learners, be sensitive to any learners in the class who don’t have a mum at home. Throughout this unit is it possible to talk about family members in general. • Tell the learners that this session begins with a poem about a different kind of familiar setting: it’s called The Things Mums Say but it could be called The Things Dads Say or The Things Aunties Say! • Read the poem to the class and perform it well in role; be bossy and nagging! • Talk with the learners about whether someone in their house says things like this. • Invite them to share their experiences and keep it light and comical rather than too serious. • Talk about the instructional language in this poem, for example Wake up!, Mind your …, Don’t… Ask learners what instructions they get at home, for example Make your bed, empty the bin, help me please. • Discuss the poem together: do learners think mums/carers need to say things like this? do they find it hard to get out of bed? is their bedroom messy? what table rules do they have at home (e.g. no elbows on the table)? • Ask the learners to read the poem with you as a class, then ask them to read it through in pairs. • Differentiation: reading together as a class should support less confident readers but you may consider pairing less able readers with more confident readers for this part of the session. Answers:

Check the poem

B

• Read through the questions together first and then ask learners to work through the questions and write the answers. • Differentiation: you may wish to work with a group of less confident readers and writers. Make sure they tackle each question methodically and don’t feel overwhelmed by all four. You could select certain questions for certain learners to complete or you could allocate the four questions across the group so that learners can share their ideas and answers. challenge able readers to explain what they notice about the spellings of the rhyming words and to add a rhyming word to each pair. • After a while, invite all learners to share their findings and answers to the questions. Answers: 1 Rhyming words: bed/head, late/state, please/keys, food/rude, please/trees, said/bed. 2 Full stops – 8; question marks – 2; exclamation marks – 8 3 Possible answers: It means you have to be careful with money because it doesn’t grow, you have to work for it. It’s a funny way of saying ‘be careful with money’. 4 I won’t tell you again is repeated which is funny because the mum does tell them again!

• Remind learners about how you read the poem. Did they think you sounded like a ‘mum’? Or just someone nagging? • If you have recording equipment easily available then invite learners in small groups or even individually to record their readings of the poem. Play these back and invite self-evaluation as well as peer evaluation, for example I really liked it when Zara asked the questions well. I didn’t think Anil sounded quite loud enough but I liked it when he said ‘elbows OFF the table’ very strongly. • Draw learners’ attention to the Tip box, which is a reminder about how punctuation helps us to know how to read. Remind them that a question mark flags a question so we usually take our voice up a little at the end of the sentence. Model this for the learners. The exclamation mark can mean you want to say something with strength so model this for them too. The Tip box also refers to using rhyme to make the poem flow.

C

The things you might say

• Talk about things the learners might say to someone in their family, for example a younger or older sibling, a grandparent. • Talk about how we change what we say and the way we say it – often to fit with the person we are talking to. ‘Mum’ wouldn’t say those things to a grandmother because it would sound rude. Take the learners’ list ideas and record some on the board. • Ask learners to write their own ‘list poem’, using at least four things they say.

Learners’ own answers.

Session 4 All about mums 17


• Differentiation: you may consider writing less confident writers’ lists with them; you could scribe for them and then cut up the words so that they rebuild each of their sentences before writing (some of) them out in their notebooks or for display. • Why not? set up a display of learners’ list poems and title it The Things People Say. You could get the learners to write just one of their ideas in a speech bubble and stick it up on the display. It can be a ‘working wall’ which you add to over the course of the week. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Reading: note learners who are beginning to use punctuation to good effect. We have learned to: • join in with the reading of the poem and identify the main speaker. Observe and ask: how many characters are there in this poem? • talk about things key family members say. Ask: what sort of things does your [mum/dad/aunt/uncle] say? What instructions do they give you? • identify punctuation and show increasing understanding of its purpose. Ask: show me a … What does it tell you? • innovate on a poem to write our own. Ask: what did you include in your list poem? Activity Book

A Learners write the missing words in the poem using the words provided. They are all high-frequency words. They then read the poem again to check its meaning. Answers: Wake up! Get up! Out of bed! Mind your feet! Mind your head! Don’t run around. Don’t be late. Look at your room! What a state! Put all your stuff away now, please. Why can I never find my keys? Close your mouth and eat your food. Look at that! Don’t stare, it’s rude. Elbows OFF the table, please. Money doesn’t grow on trees. I won’t tell you again... Did you hear what I said? I won’t tell you again. It’s time for bed

18

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

Session 5: Getting you to do something Learner’s Book pages: 14–15 Activity Book pages: 8–9

You will need: notebooks and pencils; large pieces of paper and felt tips. Nice to have: PCM 2; some peas! Eat Your Peas by Kes Gray. Spelling link: words that feature sounds /igh/, /ee/ and /ai/.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to read a story set in a familiar setting • to identify language patterns • to predict a story outcome • to write a complex sentence using correct punctuation. Learning outcomes Learners can: • read the text in pairs or independently • identify the repetition of Daisy’s response • make feasible predictions • write their sentence correctly using a template.

A

Eat Your Peas

• Ask learners to recall the poem from the last session, The Things Mums Say. Can they remember it well enough to recite it? • Tell them that this text is also about a mum. This mum is trying to persuade her daughter to eat peas and the daughter does not want to. • If you have some peas then invite the learners to taste them – they’re really not that bad! • Tell them they will hear two characters, Mum and Daisy the daughter, and that the story is set at home. Ask them to listen and then tell you what they notice about the story. • Together, look in the Learner’s Book to read the text. Model for the learners how to read the story and make much of Daisy’s repetitive response. • After reading, talk about story. Take learners’ ideas and comments and record them on the board if useful. Make sure learners have recognised the repetition. Make sure they understand the significance of Mum sighed one of her usual sighs … which tells us that this scenario (Daisy not eating her peas) has happened many times before. Make sure they appreciate the escalation of promises: - have some pudding ten puddings - stay up for an extra half hour stay up really late - skip your bath no washing for two months a new bike!


• Do the learners think that Daisy’s mum is serious or just joking? Would their mums or family members make such promises? Tell them these are called bribes. Mum is bribing Daisy with these ideas. • Read the text aloud again and invite learners to play the part of Daisy. • Pair work: ask the learners to read the story aloud, taking it in turns to take the part of Daisy and Mum. Answers:

B Learners draw things they don’t like to eat on the plate. Answers: A • • • B

Learners’ own answers.

B

What next?

• Group work: hand out large pieces of paper, pens, felt tips, etc. to each group. • Ask learners to discuss and note down what they think Daisy’s mum will offer next. What do the learners predict? Remind them that the ‘bribes’ need to be bigger and better each time. Encourage imaginative and far-fetched responses. • Circulate as the groups are working and listen/join in with their discussions. • After a while, bring the groups together as a class and ask each to share their record of ideas. Remind them of good presentation skills as in previous lessons: stand up tall, speak loudly and clearly, look at the audience, ask others to help to hold up the poster and let others take a turn too. • Finally, ask learners to record one whole sentence in their notebooks using the ideas from the group record and the sentence structure in the Learner’s Book. • Differentiation: If you are using the PCMs, you may wish to use PCM 2 Fill the gaps here to offer more support to certain groups. It gives words and pictures as suggestions for things Mum might use to bribe Daisy. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and listening: note learners who are able to listen in the group as well as offer relevant ideas. We have learned to: • read the text in pairs or independently. Observe and listen. Check strategies in use. • identify the repetition of Daisy’s response. Ask: what does Daisy always say? • make feasible predictions. Ask: what do you think will happen next? At the end? • write sentences correctly using a template. Ask: show me your sentence ideas. Activity Book

A Learners sort words into sets according to whether they feature sounds /ai/, /ee/ or /igh/.

ai: again, say, Daisy, plate, stay ee: even, green, peas igh: like, sigh, buy, bike Learners’ own answers

Spelling link There are more activities on different spellings of long vowel phonemes in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book.

Session 6: Checking Eat Your Peas Learner’s Book pages: 16–17 Activity Book page: 9

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: word cards; punctuation cards; bibs to wear the words for sentence sequencing.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to answer questions to demonstrate understanding of story • to take notice of punctuation including speech marks • to vary sentence openers • to join compound sentences using and and or. Learning outcomes Learners can: • read and answer comprehension questions about the story • identify and use punctuation marks • use a new structure: If you … I will … • identify and use and/or to join sentences from the story.

A

Check the story

• Ask learners to re-read the story Eat Your Peas or read it together if a reminder would be helpful for them. • Ask learners to say each answer to the comprehension questions, and then write it in their notebooks. • Differentiation: you may ask some groups to work independently on reading and answering the questions about the story while you work with less confident readers and writers. Answers: 1 Daisy and her mum. At home/in the dining room/breakfast room/at the table. 2 She says the same things because she really doesn’t like peas/she is being naughty/she wants to know how far her mum will go. 3 and

Session 6 Checking Eat Your Peas

19


B

Add the punctuation

• Ensure that learners are confident in identifying the punctuation marks: speech marks, a comma and a full stop. Draw their attention to the Language focus box which explains the purpose of speech marks. • Get active. If you have word and punctuation cards then try ‘making’ the sentence with children holding the cards and sorting themselves into the right order. Less confident learners may find this supportive. Select a different learner to hold (or wear if you have word-card bibs) each word in the sentence and for each punctuation mark. You will need 10 children in total. Treat don’t as a whole word and don’t confuse matters by talking about the apostrophe at this point. Ask learners to get into the right order to show a correct sentence. Repeat with different learners. Together and then in pairs or even individually ask learners to say Daisy’s words in the way she says them. Have some fun here with drama! • Ask the learners to record their answers. Answer: “I don’t like peas,” said Daisy.

C

Play the Daisy Game

• Ask if learners have played a game called, I went to market and I bought …? If so they will know how to play the Daisy Game. • Tell learners that they have to try to get round the whole class with each person adding something to the promise list. Show them the examples in the Learner’s Book. • Model the sentence and begin the ‘chain reaction’ round the class. Set a challenge to see how many promises you can get to! • You may decide to draw/write promises on the board as a prompt to help learners remember them. • Encourage learners to share their own ideas. • At the end, refocus the learners on the sentence structure If you … I will … in written form. Show them how to read it either using your examples on the board or those in the Learner’s Book.

D

Linking ideas and joining sentences

• Remind learners of the importance of joining sentences in their writing. • Give them an example to show this: You never have to eat horrid things again. You never have to do silly things again. You never have to do homework again. You never have to learn spellings again. • Model how you can run these sentences together using the word or: You never have to eat horrid things again, or do silly things, or do homework or learn spellings! • Remind learners that we can use other words too. Can they remember any other words we can use to join sentences? They may offer ideas from Stage 1 such as next, then, so, after that, because. 20

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

• Refocus the learners on the Learner’s Book and ask them to read and write the sentences using and or the word or. Answers: 1 If you eat your peas, I’ll buy you every supermarket, sweet shop, toy shop and bike shop in the world. 2 You never have to go to bed again, or go to school, or wash, or brush your hair or clean your shoes, or clean your teeth, or tidy your bedroom, or get dressed. 3 I’ll buy you the earth, the moon, the stars, the sun and a new fluffy pencil case!

Assessment opportunities • Speaking and writing: note learners who can confidently join in the game remembering well and offering their own imaginative ideas. We have learned to: • read and answer comprehension questions. Ask any of the questions in the Learner’s Book page 16, A, or other questions about the text. • identify and use punctuation marks. Show a punctuation mark and ask: what is this called? What job does it do in a sentence? What does it tell you? • use a new structure: If you … I will… Ask: what does Daisy’s mum keep saying? Prompt if necessary with ‘If you eat your …’ • identify and use and/or to join sentences from the story. Show two sentences and ask which word they can use to join them (e.g. This is Daisy. This is Daisy’s mum.) Activity Book

A Learners finish the sentences with their own ideas for a suitable bribe! Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 7: Exploring and writing Learner’s Book pages: 18–19 Activity Book page: 10

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: picture cards; story props for role play; Eat Your Peas by Kes Gray.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to retell a story using a growing vocabulary and with use of tone • to articulate clearly and show awareness of listeners • to extend experiences and ideas through role play • to use the structure of a familiar story to develop own writing.


Learning outcomes Learners can: • retell the story with confidence using picture cues • retell the story using a clear audible voice and paying attention to their audience • participate in role play • write their own version of Eat Your Peas.

A

Retelling a story

• Tell the learners that you have so far only read part of the story, Eat Your Peas. • What can they predict for the rest of story from clues in the text? They may predict that mum continues to offer Daisy more bribes. • What do learners predict might happen at the end of the story? They may predict that Daisy eats her peas. • Turn learners’ attention to the Learner’s Book, which offers story starters and picture clues for sentence endings to tell the rest of the story. • Model how to read these and clarify any less obvious vocabulary such as: the swimming pool x 17 which means 17 swimming pools the clothes which mean Daisy never has to get dressed again the map which means mum will buy a country the factory which is a chocolate factory (x 92). • Ask the learners why mum ends up saying a fluffy pencil case. Can they see that this is Mum’s way of making it all a joke? The pencil case is probably the only thing Daisy might actually end up with! Do the learners think it is funny? After all those promises, Mum ends up saying something very simple; tell them this is called an anti-climax. More able learners may just remember this. • Show them how to say and … and … a fluffy pencil case to make it funny. • Pair work: ask learners to read the sentences to each other. • Ask certain learners to perform their retelling. Remind them how important it is to stand up tall, look at your audience, to use a big, clear voice, etc. Remind listeners to demonstrate good listening skills too: look at the speaker, don’t fidget, show appreciation, etc. • Differentiation: pair less confident readers with more confident partners. Ask the partner to read the text first so that the less confident reader has a model to copy. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

• Count the results and discuss the winning prediction. • Why not? make and display a bar chart with the results from the vote. • If you have the storybook or access to the full text you may now wish to tell the learners that Daisy does not eat her peas. She challenges her mum to eat Brussels. Make sure the learners are familiar with this large, green bullet of a vegetable often called a Brussel sprout. Mum does not like Brussels – but they both decide they like pudding!

C

I don’t like …

• Discuss and model the planning process for using the Eat Your Peas structure for writing the learners’ own stories. • Draw their attention to the planning tips in the Learner’s Book and work through these together to co-write a story on the board. • Then ask learners to plan their own story. • Differentiation: allow able readers and writers to work independently with the structure in the Learner’s Book but support less able learners by working with them, allowing them to reuse the shared writing on the board as well as providing them with words and sentences to sequence. • Give time to both plan and write or type a final version. • Encourage imaginative display of the final story, for example write it or stick it on a plate or on something that is featured in their story. • Why not? make a class book of these stories to put in your class library or to share with other classes. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities Speaking and listening: note those who speak aloud well with clarity and confidence and those who need further practice with this skill. Writing: check handwriting and pencil grip while children are writing their stories. We have learned to: • retell the story with confidence using picture cues. Ask: how did the pictures help you to retell the story? • retell the story using a clear audible voice and paying attention to their audience. Ask: how well do you think you presented your story when you spoke it aloud for the class? • participate in role play. Observe. Ask: did you enjoy acting out the story? Why/not? • write our own story like Eat Your Peas. Ask: tell me about your story idea.

Does Daisy eat her peas?

• You will already have touched on predictions above but now invite learners to vote on what they think happens at the end of the story. • Take a class vote. Ask: does Daisy eat her peas? Yes, no or don’t know? Session 7 Exploring and writing

21


Activity Book

A Learners finish the chart by drawing or writing gifts of ever bigger value in each box. Accept learners’ imaginative responses.

B Learners write a list of three things they do not like to do. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

• Pair work: draw learners’ attention to the numbers and number words in the Learner’s Book. Give them time to match the numerals to the words by pointing with their finger. • Differentiation: you may prefer learners who are struggling with this activity to use a class poster of number words and numbers if you have one. Alternatively, hand out a visual support for them, rather like a matching game in cards. • Give learners plenty of time to work out the matching words and numerals before drawing them back together to record the answers as a class on the board. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 8: Bunny Money Learner’s Book pages: 20–22 Activity Book page: 11

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: coins or notes to the value of 15 in local currency or pretend money; class poster of number words and numbers; number cards; Bunny Money by Rosemary Wells. Spelling link: using phonics to tackle unfamiliar words encountered in reading; reading a range of common words on sight.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to count from 1–15 and from 15–1 recognising both numerals and words • to read a substantial text participating in shared, paired and individual readings. Learning outcomes Learners can: • count from 1–15 and 15–1 and can recognise and write numerals and number words correctly • read sections of the text demonstrating accuracy, fluency and expression.

A

Counting

• Tell the learners that the next story in this unit involves a brother and sister going out to spend money to the value of 15. • Invite learners to count to 15 and repeat all together. • Invite them to count further; how far can they go? Fix the upper limit to fit with your own school policy on mathematics teaching for this age range. • If you have some local currency or pretend money then count it together. • Explain that each time you buy something you have to ‘take away’ some of the money and this is why we have to be able to count backwards. • Invite learners to count down from 15 to 1. You may decide to invite individuals to perform for the class if you have some confident, articulate mathematicians. 22

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

B

Bunny Money

• Tell learners that this is a story about two characters, Max and Ruby, who go shopping with the value of 15 ‘bunny money’ notes to spend on a birthday present for their Grandma. • It’s a slightly different version from the published book so if you have the print version be aware of this. You may also decide to search for an online retelling to share with the class as an introduction to the whole story. • Together read the introduction to the story in the Learner’s Book. • Discuss the notion of 11 notes to the value of 15 to ensure that everyone understands. Demonstrate with sample money/notes if possible. • Have learners physically representing the values; one learner for each of the ten notes worth one and five learners holding the note worth five. • Read the story aloud to the class straight through. Then ask for their immediate thoughts and comments. • Repeat the reading, box by box, stopping after each one to check understanding and to explain any unknown vocabulary such as: box 1: wallet, a music box with skating ballerinas box 2: Candi (as in the name and as in candy as a US term for sweets), oozing box 3: launderette, dryer box 4: peanut butter sandwich, cupcakes, milkshake box 5: one hundred/100 box 6: bluebird, on sale, gift wrap box 7: half price.

Spelling link There are more activities on reading a range of common words on sight in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book.


• Pair work: ask the learners to reread the text. Stress that when it’s their turn to listen they should be listening out for: accuracy – is the word read aloud the same as the written word? fluency – is the reader reading with a good flow or is it a bit jerky? expression – is the reader taking notice of punctuation marks so it is clear when there is a question or when one of the characters is speaking? • Differentiation: you may suggest that able readers work independently to re-read the text after they have worked in pairs. You may decide to work with a group of less confident readers to do the re-read as a group read. • Ask confident learners if they think the music box and the teeth were good gifts for Grandma. Talk about whether Max and Ruby are just buying what they would like for themselves. What makes a ‘good’ gift? What can learners infer from the text? Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking: note learners who can easily count to and from 15 and make the link with this introduction to the story text. • Reading: note those who are able to cope with this more substantial amount of text and are developing their reading stamina. • Reading: note those who are noticing punctuation, including speech marks, to inform their reading. We have learned to: • count from 1–15 and 15–1 and recognise and write numerals and number words correctly. Ask: count to 15 for me. Count from 15 back to 1. What is this number? [show a numeral] What does this say? [show a number word] • read a story or parts of a story with accuracy, fluency and expression. Ask the learner to read a section or a sentence from the story text. Ensure that it is a section that requires expression. Activity Book

A Learners read and understand the sentence about ‘gift wrap’ being free. They demonstrate their understanding of the term by selecting items to ‘wrap’ the box of earrings.

B Learners reflect on and write what gift they would buy someone in their family.

Session 9: Checking and understanding Bunny Money Learner’s Book pages: 22–23 Activity Book page: 12

You will need: notebooks and pencils; large pieces of paper and pens. Nice to have: PCM 3.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to read and respond to question words • to answer questions to summarise key story events and to demonstrate understanding • to engage in role play to extend experiences and ideas. Learning outcomes Learners can: • read question words and answer appropriately in speech and in writing • answer questions demonstrating clear understanding • experiment with pretend money to ensure and extend their understanding of the story.

Check the story

A

• Ask learners to remind themselves of the Bunny Money story. You may ask them to re-read it either independently or back in their pairs/groups. • Write the question words How?, What? and Why? on the board. Ask learners to read them. • Can learners suggest other question words? They may suggest: where? Which? When? Who?, etc. Check their understanding and spelling of these words. Draw their attention to the ‘two letters but one sound’ nature of wh. • Ask them to read the comprehension questions in the Learner’s Book and write the answers in their notebooks. Answers: 1 They had 11 bunny notes to spend but it added up to 15 in total/in value. 2 Ruby wanted to buy a music box with skating ballerinas on it. 3 Max wanted to buy the teeth because he thought Grandma would like them. 4 Possible answers: Grandma wasn’t angry because she liked her gifts/she was kind/she loved Max and Ruby/she thought it was kind of them to buy her gifts.

B

How much?

• Talk with the learners about the phrase How much? • Check their understanding and ask them if they know how much specific items cost. For example, ask How much is:

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Session 9 Checking and understanding Bunny Money 23


milk? a burger/pizza? a stamp? a mobile phone? • Then return to the idea of the pretend ‘bunny money’ for discussion. • Look at the pictures in the Learner’s Book. Ask learners to remember how much each item cost. • Record these together on the board in bunny money values. Answers: a b c d e f

C

bus – one note cherry-syrup teeth – two notes washing powder, machine and dryer – three notes lunch – four notes bluebird earrings – four notes teeth (no cherry syrup) – one note

Bunny money sums

• Show learners how Max and Ruby’s spending of the bunny money can be recorded as sums. • Draw their attention to the examples in the Learner’s Book. • Group work: hand out large pieces of paper and pens for each group to record the spending of the bunny money in sums. • They may choose to illustrate their Bunny Money posters with pictures of the items too. • Differentiation: either organise mixed-ability groups to support less confident learners or work with any groups who you think may struggle.

Assessment opportunities • Comprehension: note learners who can ‘play’ with the idea of buying and selling with confidence. We have learned to: • read question words and answer appropriately in speech and in writing. Ask: what does this say? [show question words] Ask: why do Max and Ruby go shopping? • answer questions demonstrating clear understanding. Ask: what does Ruby want to buy? What does Max want to buy? • experiment with pretend money to ensure and extend understanding of the story. Say: I have this much money. Can I buy a pencil from you? How much does it cost? Activity Book

A Learners view the items shown in the shop window and choose how to spend their own money to the value of 15 notes. They record what they choose, how much they spent and who the gifts are for. (They may decide not to spend all the money.) Answers: Possible answers: music box + a robot music box + a doll + a bangle 5 boxes of chocolates a robot + a doll + a posh pen 15 bangles!

Answers: 15–1 = 14 14–2 = 12 12–3 = 9 9–4 = 5 5–4 = 1 1–1 = 0

D

Spend it!

• Role play the shopping using a classroom table as the shop counter. • Ask learners to make pretend money for customers. If you are using the PCMs, PCM 3 Pretend money gives a template for the notes. • Discuss what to sell in the shop. Will learners make things from play-dough, packaging or will they use classroom objects? • Together, make a price list so customers know how much each item is. • Have a till (cash register) so the shop-keeper can ring up or scan in the correct price. • Now role play the story allowing learners to take it in turns to be Max and Ruby, spending the 11 notes. • You will also need learners to play Rosalinda and Candi.

24

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

Session 10: Characters and settings Learner’s Book pages: 24–25 Activity Book page: 13

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: small sticky notes.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to identify and describe story settings and characters • to choose interesting words and phrases to describe people and places • to make simple inferences from the words on the page. Learning outcomes Learners can: • identify and describe characters and settings • use interesting vocabulary in their descriptions • give opinions about characters from clues in the text.


A

Characters: Max and Ruby

• Re-read the story to remind learners about Max and Ruby. • Then ask learners what they know about Max and Ruby. • Pair work: give them a few minutes to chat to a partner about this and then share ideas. Record them on the board. • Can learners describe Max and Ruby? They can do this from pictures or from their own idea of how the characters might look. In the picture book, Max and Ruby are rabbits not humans (hence Bunny Money), Max is younger than Ruby and cute, etc. • Read the sentences in the Learner’s Book together and take learners’ ideas about what more they add to the picture of each character. Answers: Possible answers: Max: 1 He’s greedy and not thinking of Ruby or Grandma. 2 He’s thinking that Grandma will like something that he likes because really he wants the sweets. 3 He doesn’t control himself – he eats the present that he buys for Grandma. He’s tricking himself into thinking that he needs to test out the teeth. Ruby: 1 She likes nice things/she is kind to be thinking about Grandma. 2 She’s like a mum to Max. She is a bit bossy. 3 She is quite calm really. She isn’t too cross with Max but she is worried about getting home and about how Grandma will be with them. She is quite grown up.

B

Other characters

• Ask learners what they think they know about Rosalinda and Grandma. • They are not main characters but we can still learn a lot about them if we read carefully and think about what they say and do. • Pair work: give learners a few minutes to chat to a talk partner and then take their ideas. Record them on the board. • Then re-read the story of Bunny Money. As you do so, ask learners to listen out for more clues about what Rosalinda and Grandma are like as characters. • You may decide to split the class in two so that one half are listening out for Rosalinda clues and one half for Grandma clues. • Read the story quite slowly and allow time for pairs to jot down their thoughts. Draw their attention to the Tip box. Remind them that they don’t have to write in their best handwriting or write in sentences to make notes. They may draw or write odd words to help them to remember. • Differentiation: allow less confident readers to use little sticky notes to flag places in the text where they think they hear a clue. Pair them with more confident readers. • After a while, talk about what the learners have heard. • Share their thoughts about the characters.

Answers: Possible answers: Rosalinda: she is helpful as she suggests another, cheaper gift idea; she is kind as gift wrap is free; she is thoughtful as earrings are a good choice for Grandma; she is understanding as she gives Max the last note – she sees he may not want to give earrings/wants to include him. Grandma: Ruby thinks she likes beautiful things; Max thinks she is fun; she likes sweets; she is kind, not angry and comes to pick them up; she is funny because she wears the gifts straight away.

C

Settings

• Remind learners that a setting is a place where the story is happening. • Ask them to think about how many settings there are in the story Bunny Money. Give them one minute – time them! • Then take learners’ ideas and record them for sharing on the board. • Draw their attention to the pictures in the Learner’s Book and check whether they managed to remember all the settings. • Ask them to rehearse sentences for each setting. • Then ask them to write a sentence in their notebooks for each setting. • Remind them to use capital letters, full stops or exclamation marks. • Differentiation: you may need to provide sentence strips or word banks for less confident writers. Answers: Possible answers: 1 bus: Max and Ruby go to town on a bus. 2 shop window: They look at the gifts in Rosalinda’s Gift Shop and Ruby shows Max the music box. 3 Candi’s Corner shop: Max goes into Candi’s to buy lemonade but he buys cherry syrup teeth. 4 launderette: Ruby takes Max to the launderette to wash him/ to clean his clothes/because he has cherry syrup on him. 5 café: They eat lunch in the café. 6 Rosalinda’s gift shop: They go back to Rosalinda’s to buy the music box. 7 Candi’s Corner shop: Max goes back to Candi’s Corner shop to buy more teeth for Grandma. 8 Grandma’s car: They go home with Grandma in the car. Grandma looks funny in her earrings and with the pretend teeth.

Assessment opportunities • Listening: note learners who show good listening skills when listening for clues about other characters. We have learned to: • identify and describe characters and settings. Ask: who is this? Describe that character. • use interesting vocabulary in their descriptions. Ask: describe Candi’s Corner for me. • give opinions about characters from clues in the text. Ask: show me what you read that told you more about Max.

Session 10 Characters and settings

25


Activity Book

A Learners draw each of the five characters in the Bunny Money story.

B Learners circle all the words or phrases that indicate a new setting. Answers: A Characters: Max, Ruby, Rosalinda, Candi and Grandma. B Settings: the bus indicates a street scene, Rosalinda’s Gift Shop, Candi’s Corner, the launderette, lunchtime indicates a café.

Session 11: Story sequence Learner’s Book pages: 26–27 Activity Book page: 14

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: PCM 4.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to talk about the beginning, middle and end of stories • to begin to recognise and write with a variety of sentence types • to use the language of time • to use punctuation correctly in sentences. Learning outcomes Learners can: • talk about the beginning, middle and end of a story • recognise and use different sentence starters • recognise and use words and phrases about time • use capital letters and full stops and/or exclamation marks.

A

Beginning, middle and end

• Look at the story Bunny Money again on page 21 of the Learner’s Book. • By now learners should be really confident about the story. Invite them to recall the sequence of the story. • What happens at the beginning of the story? (Max and Ruby get on a bus to go shopping. They spend one note.) • What happens at the end? (Max and Ruby call Grandma because they have no more money left. She likes her gifts.) • How many things happen in the middle? • Pair work: give learners time to think about the significant things that happen.

26

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

• Ensure that they understand the importance of character and setting; each event is usually connected to a character or to a place. • Important things in this story are about where, when and who spends their money. • Learners may cite: five key events where they spend money in the middle of the story including: Candi’s, the launderette, the café, Rosalinda’s and then Candi’s again. • Ask them to focus on the matching activity in the Learner’s Book and draw their attention to the sentence starters. What sort of language is used here? How do we know which comes first? (At the beginning … ) How do we know what comes last? (At the end … ) Establish that these are words that help us to sort out time – what happens in what order. Can learners also see that the sentences begin differently to make the writing more interesting? • Pair work: ask learners to work out how to join the sentence starters with the endings. • Differentiation: some learners will benefit from having the chart as a cut-out sheet. If you are using the PCMs, then use PCM 4 Story sequence here. Alternatively you could allow them to use small sticky notes to join the sections. Answers (for Activities A and B): 1 At the beginning they spend one note on the bus. 2 Then Max spends two notes in Candi’s Corner on a set of pretend teeth oozing with cherry syrup. 3 Next Ruby has to spend three notes in the launderette. 4 After that they spend four notes on lunch. 5 After lunch they go back to Rosalinda’s Gift shop. 6 They don’t have 100 notes so they spend four notes on earrings. 7 Then Max spends the last note back in Candi’s Corner on a set of pretend teeth (no oozing cherry syrup). 8 At the end Grandma picks them up because they have no more money left!

B

Write them out

• Ask learners to record the story in their notebooks in the correct sequence. • Alternatively, you could ask them to create their own idea for presentation e.g. a zigzag book (folded A3 paper to make a horizontal folded book or a story board using folded A4 or A3 paper). In this case you may wish to make a class display of beautiful writing. • Draw learners’ attention to the Tip box in the Learner’s Book before they start. Tell them that you expect to see beautiful writing. • This is an opportunity to write eight sentences to reinforce the importance of sequence, the use of words that tell us about sequence and the use of different sentence starters. • It is also an opportunity to check writing skills including punctuation, letter formation and pencil grip.


• Check spellings of words. What strategies are the learners using to spell trickier words? If they are copying from the Learner’s Book are they doing so with care and accuracy? Assessment opportunities • Writing: note learners who are still struggling with fluency in writing. Note pencil grips and letter formation. Note which learners are using joins with confidence. We have learned to: • talk about the beginning, middle and end of a story. Ask: tell me something important about the beginning/ middle/end of the Bunny Money story. • recognise and use different sentence starters. Ask: show me two different sentence starters in the story [looking back at the story text in the Learner’s Book]. • recognise and use words and phrases about time. Ask: what does ‘after lunch’ tell us? Or ‘at the end’? • use capital letters and full stops and/or exclamation marks. Observe in writing. Activity Book

A Learners make up new endings for two story sequences. Answers: A Possible answers: 1 Ruby looked in her wallet and had a lovely surprise! She found an extra 100 note so she was able to buy the music box for Grandma! Ruby looked in her wallet and felt sad. There was not enough money and she would not be able to buy the music box for Grandma. Rosalinda felt sad for Ruby. I will let you have the music box as you are such a kind girl for thinking about your Grandma. 2 Max finished off [any list of food and drink]. He shared with Ruby/He offered some to Ruby/ He didn’t think about how much money his food had cost.

Session 12: Changing the story Learner’s Book page: 27 Activity Book page: 15

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: PCM 5.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to use the structure of a familiar story to develop their own writing • to use a planning sheet effectively • to choose characters and settings • to use some interesting words and phrases.

Learning outcomes Learners can: • mirror a story structure in their own writing • complete and use a planning sheet • choose characters and settings in their own writing • use interesting words and phrases in their own writing.

A

Your own story

• Tell learners that they are going to write their own story like Bunny Money. • They can choose their characters, settings and what happens. • They may choose sentence starters from the list in the Learner’s Book. • Read the questions in the Learner’s Book to model their planning. • First ask learners to answer each question in their notebooks or on a planning sheet such as PCM 5 Story planning sheet, if you are using the PCMs. • Then allow them time to write/type their sentences in the right order. • Once they have a draft, ask learners to read their work with you and/or a partner and check: sentence starters words that tell us about time interesting words. • Challenge learners to find ways that they might now be able to make their writing more interesting. • Ask able readers to read and comment (kindly) on others’ work and encourage them to make suggestions. • Differentiation: work with learners who may find this difficult. Support them with word banks and, if necessary, sentence strips. Encourage able writers to elaborate their story and to use challenging words and sentence openers. • Why not? celebrate the learners’ writing and ask for readings and examples of good writing from everyone in a ‘story sharing afternoon’. Agree categories to be inclusive: a really terrific word, a very funny character, an interesting setting, a good story sequence, etc. Everyone should achieve an award of some kind. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Writing: note learners who are able to bring their own ideas and creativity to the writing and those who use the structure and existing ideas as a prop. We have learned to: • mirror a story structure in our own writing. Ask: tell me about what happens in your story. • complete and use a planning sheet. Ask: tell me about your story plan.

Session 12 Changing the story

27


• choose characters and settings in our own writing. Ask: what characters did you choose? What settings did you choose? • use interesting words and phrases in our own writing. Ask: can you give me an example of a word you were pleased about using in your writing? What are the best words you used in your story? Why? Activity Book

A Learners write three questions for a friend or family member to answer.

B Learners design their own version of bunny money. Answers: A Possible answers: How much are the ... ? Please can I have ... ? Have you got any ...? What flavour are ... ? B Learner’s own answers.

• Together, discuss the questions in the Learner’s Book. • Encourage all contributions and if dislikes are voiced, respect these but demand high levels of vocabulary and explanation. Answers: Possible answers: 3 stories with characters that are like us or who do things we do and know; stories set in places we know or are familiar to us; sequenced stories with a beginning, middle and end; the middle often has several things happening; characters and places are described with interesting words and sentences; most of these stories in this unit were funny. 4 a similar idea; about a family but written as a poem; was also funny.

• Ask learners to self-assess their learning and understanding of these types of story using the smiley-face scale.

B

Common words

• Ask learners to fill the gaps with the correct common word. Answers:

Unit review Learner’s Book pages: 28–29

1 2 3 4

“It’s one hundred notes,” said Rosalinda. “If you eat your peas, you can have some pudding,” said Mum. “Would you like to play a game?” Sophie asked. “It’s a book about a school just like yours,” said the teacher.

Activity Book pages: 16–17

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Spelling link: common words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to think about own learning from the unit • to recognise what is the same about stories with familiar settings • to develop likes and dislikes • to know common words • to write sentences with correct punctuation including an awareness of speech marks. Learning outcomes Learners can: • self-assess their learning from the unit • recognise stories with a familiar setting • express opinions about likes and dislikes • identify and spell common words • write sentences correctly.

A

Remember and review

• Ask learners to identify all of the stories they have read and written about during their work on this unit. They can identify texts in the Learner’s Book (see pages 6–27), in the Activity Book (see pages 4–15) and in any other books and texts on screen you may have provided.

28

Unit 1 Stories about things we know

Spelling link There are more activities on spelling common words in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book.

C

Capital letters and speech marks

• Do learners remember the basic rules of writing a sentence? • Do they always remember to do these things? • Ask them to test themselves by writing out the sentence from the story with the correct punctuation. • Can they explain each correction they have made and use correct terminology? Answers: “Oh no, Max!” said Ruby. “You’ve spent our last note. How are we going to pay for the bus home?”

Assessment opportunities • Self-assessment, speaking and listening: note learners who are able to begin to make an informed selfassessment with examples. We have learned to: • think about our own learning from the unit. Ask: what did you find hardest? Why? What did you enjoy most? Why? • identify key features of stories with a familiar setting. Ask: what can you tell me about the stories in this unit? • express opinions about likes and dislikes. Ask: what did you like most in this unit? What didn’t you enjoy? Why?


• identify and spell some common words: Ask learners to read and write a range of common words. • write sentences correctly. Ask: do you write sentences correctly? What do you sometimes forget? Do you know what we write when someone is speaking? Activity Book

A Learners think of favourite and/or interesting words from the unit and record them in a honeycomb grid.

B Learners think of any words from the unit that they have found tricky and record them in a honeycomb grid. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Unit review 29


2

How to write instructions

Unit overview This is a four-week unit focusing on instructions. During the unit learners will talk about, read and write instructions. Initially, the focus will be on revisiting what learners may recall about instructions (symbols, signs, labels from Stage 1 Unit 2) before providing opportunities for reading, analysing, innovating and writing their own instructions. Examples include running text, numbered and bulleted texts, posters and a flow chart, looking at features of the text type in each. Learners will then read about an experiment and be introduced to the concept of notes (part sentences to full sentences).

Aims and objectives By the end of this unit, learners will be able to: • read and follow simple instructions • find information in text and images in instructional texts • read, speak and write instructions, recognising features of model texts • understand the concept of simple notes in relation to full sentences • use different organisational features when writing instructions • write simple sentences joined by and • speak and listen more confidently in group activities.

Skills development During the course of this unit, learners will: • continue to develop their familiarity with the spelling and pronunciation of long vowel phonemes • identify, read and spell words with more than two syllables • respond to question words when reading and use them in writing • develop their vocabulary to include interesting and precise topic-related words • practise their handwriting • speak with increased fluency and confidence and demonstrate ‘attentive listening’.

Prior learning This unit assumes that learners can already: • spell phonically regular monosyllabic words with short vowels • recognise the common spellings for the long vowel phonemes in bait, beet, bite, boat, boot • read and spell about 120 high-frequency words • read simple texts using a variety of strategies including decoding phonically regular words with a short vowel phoneme, recognising more high-frequency words, using picture cues to help to work out unfamiliar words • form all letters correctly and use some joining to support spelling • write short texts independently, although using phonic spellings for more complex words.

30

Unit 2 How to write instructions


Session 1: What do you know about instructions? Learner’s Book pages: 30–31 Activity Book page: 18

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: Learner’s Book 1; examples of different types of real instructional texts to share (e.g. from a toy, from a poster). Spelling link: high-frequency words: which, what, when, how.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to recall knowledge of instructions • to identify the main features of an instructional text • to work well in pairs/small groups • to give oral instructions. Learning outcomes Learners can: • identify and differentiate between instructions in pictures, words, colours and sounds • talk about the features of an instructional text • speak and listen to others to work together • give simple, clear oral and visual instructions.

A

All kinds of instructions

• Talk about instructions with the learners. • Ask them if they can remember learning about instructions before and help them to remember by showing them Learner’s Book 1 or give them reminders about signs, labels and texts they have studied (How to make colours, How to make Choc-Chip muffins). • Use signs and labels in the classroom to reintroduce the idea of different kinds of instructional text. Ask: what does that sign/label tell us to do? How do we know? Who can see any other instructions in our classroom? • Use the pictures in the Learner’s Book to talk more about different kinds of instructional text. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Answers: 1 How to mix paints to make colours; wher to put your books; how to wash your hands; how to run a bath; how to lift something heavy; when to get up; how to make cakes 2 Words: How to make colour; Put your books here; How to wash your hands; How to run a bath; How to make chocolate chip muffins Pictures: How to wash your hands; lift something heavy poster Sound: the alarm clock Numbers: the recipe Chart/diagram: How to run a bath; lift something heavy poster 3 We need instructions to tell us what to do. 4 We give instructions when we want someone to do something.

Spelling link Draw learners’ attention to the question words what, which and when and to the question marks at the end of each sentence. Ask them to point to each question word in each question to reinforce the reading and spelling of these words. There are more activities on reading and spelling high-frequency words in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book.

C

What do they mean?

• Talk first with the learners about the pictures in the Learner’s Book which give instructions using a range of instructions such as pictures, words and signs. • Ask learners to record each instruction and to write a sentence in their notebooks to say what it is telling us to do. • Remind learners that they should write a complete sentence using a capital letter and a full stop or exclamation mark at the end. Remind them why we use an exclamation mark. • Differentiation: you may wish to model the first response for them to give support for less confident writers who will benefit from a sentence structure to follow. Answers: 1 2 3 4 5 6

You should cross the road now. You must not drop rubbish/litter. You can go to a party at a special place and time. It is the end of class. You should go that way (left) if you want to go to class. You should choose a book.

How do we give instructions?

• Pair work: ask learners to use the pictures in the Learner’s Book to answer the questions. • Before they start, draw learners’ attention to the Tip box and the tips for working well with a partner. Give them opportunities to discuss each of the tips and agree why it is important. Can they add any further tips to the list? • Give them time to discuss each question, then bring the class together to share their ideas.

D

Give an instruction!

• Show learners how you can give an instruction using words, such as Stand up! Then, using a hand signal, indicate that they should sit down but use no words. • Invite learners to contribute ideas, which may include be quiet, speak up, this way, over there, look up, look down, turn right, turn left, come with me, etc. • Pair work: let learners practise giving instructions to each other. • Differentiation: learners who find this difficult may benefit from having picture cards or word cards to help them with ideas. Alternatively you may decide to pair learners to support each other in this game. Session 1 What do you know about instructions?

31


Answers:

Answers:

Learners’ own answers.

Possible answers: A 1 It tells us where to put our books. 2 It tells us to get up. 3 It tells us how to wash our hands. 4 It tells us how to lift something heavy. B Answers may include any of the ideas from the Learner’s Book Tip box (page 30) plus any individual ideas learners can add.

E

My instruction

• To complete this session, invite the learners to draw their own instruction in pictures. • Encourage them to think about their own idea. • Differentiation: encourage fast finishers and confident learners to write answers to the questions, which invite reflection and self-assessment. They could also talk through the questions with slower and less confident learners so that they are orally rehearsing what they will write. You may allow learners who are struggling with the task to record the sign and answer all questions orally.

Spelling link Again, draw learners’ attention to the question words when, what and how plus the use of the question mark. There are more activities on reading and spelling high-frequency words in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Speaking/listening: note which learners can confidently share their ideas about instructions and participate in the instructions game. • Speaking/listening: note which learners are remembering the tips for effectively working with a partner. We have learned to: • identify and differentiate between instructions in pictures, words, colours and sounds. Ask: is this a picture-only instruction? • talk about the features of an instructional text. Ask: what sort of features make an instructional text special? • speak and listen to others to work together. Ask: how will I know if you are listening to me? • give simple, clear oral and visual instructions. Ask: give me an instruction. Activity Book

A Learners write what each instruction is about. They should write full sentences with capital letters, full stops or exclamation marks.

B Learners write three Top tips for helping someone to work well with a partner.

32

Unit 2 How to write instructions

Session 2: How to be a scientist Learner’s Book pages: 32–33 Activity Book page: 19

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: long strips of paper and scissors; pictures or films of scientists; online search tools and dictionaries. Spelling link: syllables.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to understand specialist topic vocabulary • to read a text in question and answer format • to identify syllables to split words into parts. Learning outcomes Learners can: • use specialist topic vocabulary correctly to join in class discussions • read effectively in pairs • say or clap how many syllables in words.

A

Read about scientists

• Tell learners that in this session we are going to read about scientific experiments that are written like instructions. • Ask learners what they already know about science. Do they know the term scientist? • Clap the word to hear its syllables: sci/en/tist. Write the word on the board and ask learners what they notice about the beginning/s/of the word scientist. Establish that this word begins with ‘two letters, one sound’ – sc to represent the sound/s/. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘silent letter c’. Invite learners to share other words that might begin with sc, for example science, scent, scene and scissors. • Read the text aloud to the class. • Re-read the questions, giving the learners time to read the responses. • Swap: ask the learners to read the questions and you then read the answers. • Split the class in half and ask one group to read the questions and the others to read the answers. • Pair work: finally, give them time to practise the two parts in pairs. Ask for volunteer performers to read the whole text aloud to the class.


• Orally check learners’ understanding of the text, especially as they have read it so many times in different ways. Why do they think experiments have to be written as instructions? Answers: So that other people know what to do and in what order.

B

Long, tricky words

• Write the words science, scientist, experiment and instructions on the board.

Spelling link Talk about how these are long and quite tricky words. How would learners try to read these words? Encourage a range of responses including phonics and breaking the words into sound bites or syllables. There are more activities on syllables on page 188 in the Review and reference section of the Learner’s Book. • Show learners how you can clap syllables to make it easier to hear them. Model this and/or show the examples in the Learner’s Book. • Ask learners to find the number of syllables or claps in the words scientist and experiment, then the other words in the Learner’s Book. Answers: 1 Three in scientist 2 Four in experiment 3 a one, b two, c three,

d four,

e two,

Answers: Questions 3 and 4: learners’ own answers.

• Ask pairs to go on to discuss what instructions they might need to give someone who wanted to do an experiment like this. • Differentiation: support less articulate learners in expressing their ideas and in using technical vocabulary. Assessment opportunities • Spelling: note which learners find it hard to hear or clap the number of syllables in words. We have learned to: • use specialist topic vocabulary correctly to join in class discussion. Ask: tell me what you have learned about scientists./What is a scientist? • read effectively in pairs. Ask: read this with me. I will ask a question and you can answer it. • say or clap syllables in words. Ask: tell me how many syllables there are in the word anniversary, etc.

f three

• Pair work: if you have time, encourage learners to work in groups or pairs to write some ‘long, tricky words’ on strips of paper and then cut them up into syllables. Swap these with other pairs to check each other’s syllabification skills. • Differentiation: you will need to allocate words to some pairs while others will be able to find their own words in reading books or think of them together. To stretch more able learners, set a challenge to see if they can work out how many syllables there are in a name such as Tyrannosaurus Rex. • Why not? begin a word ladder that allows for display of words with increasing numbers of syllables. Learners can add to it over time and will see it as a challenge to keep increasing the number of rungs on the ladder. It will serve as a useful word bank too.

C

• Pair work: ask learners to work with a partner to discuss which experiment they think they would like to do based on the pictures. Ask them to think about what the experiments are dealing with: water, plants and wind. Ask them to make predictions about what the experiment might be trying to show. • Differentiation: encourage more confident learners to hypothesise about the experiment and what the scientists’ equipment needs might be.

What are they finding out about?

• Talk to the learners about science and scientists. • What would the learners like to find out about? What experiments would they like to do? • Use the photos in the Learner’s Book to encourage learners to think about experiments. • Read and answer the questions 1 and 2 together.

Activity Book

A Learners scan the text, looking for the words science, scientist(s) and experiment and then circle them. They count the number of times each words appears in the text.

B Learners read the words in each row and cross out the word that doesn’t have the long vowel/ai/. Answers: A science – 1 scientist(s) – 4 experiment(s) – 4 What do scientists do?

Scientists learn about the world around us by doing experiments. What is an experiment? An experiment is when you try to do something to find out what happens. You usually need to follow instructions. Can I be a scientist? Yes! You can learn about science. You can follow instructions to do some experiments just like a scientist! B Cross out put, look, sort, read.

Answers: Picture 1: They are working with water. They are in a classroom. Picture 2: They are working with plants. They are in the classroom. Picture 3: They are working with wind. They are outside.

Session 2 How to be a scientist

33


Session 3: Tips and rules Learner’s Book pages: 34–36 Activity Book page: 20

You will need: notebooks and pencils; a selection of simple instructional texts in different formats. Nice to have: A1 or A2 sheets of paper, pens, felt tips, paints.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to identify tips and rules as instructions • to read and understand an instructional poster • to begin to identify features of instructions • to write in sentences with capital letters and full stops or question marks. Learning outcomes Learners can: • identify tips and rules as instructions • read and answer questions about the poster • identify some features of an instructional text • use capital letters and full stops/question marks to begin and end sentences in their writing.

A

Tips and rules poster

• Ask learners to look at the poster outlining the tips and rules about how to be scientist. Read the text with them. • Ask them how many rules or tips there are. (Eight.) • Do they think the tips should be numbered? Take their ideas but discuss that numbers would suggest a correct sequence and that may not be necessary here. Do they think it is important to read all the tips? Why/not? • Let learners read the text themselves. • Differentiation: ask less confident readers to work with a more confident reader.

C

Quick spelling and punctuation check

• Ask learners to answer the quick quiz questions, which test their spelling and punctuation. • Differentiation: provide struggling readers and writers with punctuation marks on cards so that they can physically add the marks in the right place to the sentence or phrase. Answers: 1 Read the experiment so you understand it. 2 It has three syllables: e/quip/ment. 3 a Be safe! b Do you need special goggles to keep your eyes safe? c Wash your hands when you have finished.

D

Features of instructions

• Look back at the How to be a scientist poster. Ask learners what they have noticed so far about instructions. Record their ideas and begin a list. • Check the class ideas against those listed in the Language focus box. • If the text is being displayed on an interactive whiteboard, ask selected learners to show you and the rest of the class where each feature is. If not, give learners time to work in pairs to find each of the features listed. As you circulate, check that learners are identifying them correctly. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

D

Try it!

• If time allows, give learners materials to create their own instructional posters about How to be a … (teacher/king/queen/vet/dragon, etc.). • Alternatively, learners could use ICT to create their poster. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Answer the questions

B

• Ask learners to answer the comprehension questions to ensure that they are understanding what they read. Answers: 1 Equipment means the things you need for the experiment. 2 You should never put your hands in your mouth or eat anything you find/play with heat or cleaning fluids. 3 You need a notebook so you can draw or write what happens. 4 You should always check with grown-ups before you begin/ tidy up afterwards.

• Pair work: ask learners to discuss and write ideas for their own rule or tip to add to the list. Answers: Possible answers: Make sure you can read the instructions and you understand them. Work as a science team.

34

Unit 2 How to write instructions

Assessment opportunities • Punctuation and spelling: note learners who have not fully grasped the concept of capital letters, full stops/ question marks or exclamation marks and syllables. We have learned to: • identify tips and rules as instructions. Ask: why is a tip or a rule an instruction? • read and answer questions about the instructional poster. Ask any of the comprehension questions or a different question to gauge understanding. • identify some features of an instructional text. Ask: tell me three things you know about the features of an instructional text. • use capital letters and full stops/question marks to begin and end sentences in their writing. Observe.


Activity Book

A

A

• Before you read the text for or with the learners, ask them what they know about bubbles! Listen to their ideas and experiences before asking if anyone knows how to make bubbles. They may have experience of bubbles in a bath or blowing bubbles into the air or into a drink. • It would be really helpful to experiment with blowing bubbles before reading the How to blow bubbles text, especially if some learners do not have first-hand experience. You can demonstrate how hard it is to create lasting bubbles when using just water, but how easy it is when you add a little bubble bath (or similar). If you have several straws, then several learners can try to blow bubbles. If you cannot do this in class, try to show pictures and/or search for websites so learners can see the process for themselves. • Encourage lots of discussion. • Together, draw up a list of what you needed for this experiment: a bowl, some water, bubble bath or washing-up liquid and some straws. Do learners remember that this is called equipment? • Ask learners to look at the list of equipment and the instructions for this text in the Learner’s Book. • Read the text aloud to the class. What do they notice about the layout? (It’s a flow chart; it uses shapes and symbols and numbers.) • Why do learners think the flow charts are useful/not useful? Do they think it makes the instructions clear or just more fun? Why are there two charts? • You may wish to read the Did you know? box together at this point or you may want learners to first discuss their own explanations for why it is easier to blow bubbles with the bubble bath/washing-up liquid in the water.

Learners read the instructions and underline each imperative verb that tells them what to do.

B Learners write three questions about the How to be a scientist text and then ask friends or family to answer them. Answers: A Basic rules and instructions: • Read the experiment so you understand it. • Be sure! Check with a grown-up if you do not understand any special science words. • Check you have all the equipment (things you need) and get it ready. Do you need to put on something to keep your clothes clean? • Be safe! Check with a grown-up before you begin and ask for help with any tricky bits. Do you need special goggles to keep your eyes safe? • Wash your hands when you’ve finished. Never put your hands in your mouth or eat anything you find. • Never play with heat or cleaning chemicals. • Keep a notebook handy so you can draw or write up what happens. You can begin to make up your own experiments too. • Always tidy up afterwards. B Learners’ own answers.

Session 4: How to blow bubbles Learner’s Book pages: 36–38 Activity Book pages: 21

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: PCM 6; a selection of instructional simple charts and flow charts for learners to read and evaluate; a transparent bowl; water; some bubble bath/washingup liquid; a straw (or several straws); some liquid paint; large sheets of paper; felt tips and paints; something circular to draw round.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to know some of the features of an instruction flow chart • to follow information in chart form • to improve listening skills • to write an instructional flow chart. Learning outcomes Learners can: • identify key features of an instructional flow chart text • understand how to read a flow chart • show good listening skills • innovate on the flow chart to create their own.

How to blow bubbles

Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Following instructions from a chart

• Pair work: ask learners to discuss the flow charts and answer the questions. • Draw their attention to the Tip box about good listening too. • After a while, invite learners to share their findings and answers to the questions with the class. Answers: 1 A bowl, some water, some bubble bath/washing-up liquid and a straw. 2 You blow into the straw to make air go into the water to make bubbles. 3 Yes, you can make bubbles without bubble bath but they will not stay for long. You make much better bubbles with bubble bath. 4 First you have to half fill a bowl with water.

• Pair work: then ask learners to look at the Language focus box, which draws their attention to more features of this type of instructional text.

Session 4 How to blow bubbles

35


• Learners should agree which features are present in the flow chart for this experiment. • If you have other examples available, ask pairs to work on identifying features in different instructional charts and texts. • Differentiation: encourage more confident learners to add more features to the list e.g. photographs. • Why not? if time allows, invite pairs to comment on each other’s listening skills and encourage positive feedback, for example I really liked it when Aran nodded when I was speaking. I thought it was kind when Zara smiled when I was talking, etc. You might consider recording some of these signs of good listening as a feature in your class. Learners could write ideas in speech bubbles for a display and this can be added to at any time throughout the term to encourage good practice.

Bubble painting flow chart

C

• If you are working with the practical materials, demonstrate how you can add paint to the water and bubble bath to create amazing bubble paintings. If you have time, this makes an exciting art lesson and a class display that will inspire more meaningful writing. • Together, read through the instructions for this addition to the bubble experiment. • Group work: ask learners to create their own flow chart poster for this experiment, based on the one for making bubbles. • Remind learners of the importance of using capital letters and full stops and writing their letters clearly – this is a poster and will need to be clear for others to read and understand. • Differentiation: if you are using the PCMs, PCM 6 Making an instructional flow chart provides a model text and writing frame which can be used by all learners. However, it will be particularly useful for your less confident writers, especially if you wish them to record the flow chart instructions independently after the group work. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

Assessment opportunities • Grammar: note learners who need to use a writing frame and those who are confident enough to compose text independently. We have learned to: • recognise more key features of an instructional flow chart text. Ask: how is a flow chart instruction different from the poster instruction text? • understand how to read a flow chart. Ask: tell me what is important about reading a flow chart instruction. • show good listening. Ask: how do you know if someone is listening to you? • innovate on the flow chart to create our own. Ask: what did you have to add when you were writing the new flow chart about the bubble paintings?

36

Unit 2 How to write instructions

Activity Book

A Learners add seven full stops to the text and change the letter following each full stop to a capital.

B Learners write answers to three questions about the text. Answers: A How to blow bubbles is an instructional text. It tells you about how you can blow bubbles. Each sentence adds new information to what you knew before so you have to read the text in order. The text is in a chart and uses instruction verbs . It has numbers and arrows to help you to understand the writing. It makes the instructions clear but more fun too. You should read the text so you know how to blow bubbles. B 1 All features should be ticked. 2 The writer said the numbers and arrows make the instructions clear, but fun too.

Session 5: Spotting extra information Learner’s Book pages: 38–39 Activity Book page: 22

You will need: notebooks and pencils. Nice to have: a bowl; a jug of water; cooking oil; washing-up liquid; a spoon. Spelling link: reading and spelling words with the long vowel/igh/phoneme; wh question words.

Learning objectives Learning intentions • to read an instruction text which features extra information/explanations • to identify adverbs at the beginning of sentences which indicate sequence • to answer questions about an instructional text in talk and writing. Learning outcomes Learners can: • read the instruction text in pairs or independently • find words such as firstly, lastly and know that they indicate sequence • demonstrate understanding of their reading in talk and in writing.

A

Instructions and extra information

• Ask learners to recall the texts you have worked on in this unit so far: How to be a scientist How to blow bubbles How to make bubble paintings.


• Tell them that this text sets out a new experiment. It tells you how to mix oil and water. • Ask learners to read the instructions for the experiment either independently or in pairs. • Differentiation: allow less confident readers to work with a stronger reader or allow some learners to work independently, while others work with you or a teaching assistant in a group. • Have learners noticed the extra information? What does it tell us? Answer: what we should see and what we should know. The extra information helps us to make more sense of the experiment. • Have learners noticed the words in bold? These are headings. Have they noticed the words in red? These are words that tell us what to do in the right order. These are both important features of instructional texts so make sure learners read and take note of them. • If you have the necessary equipment, set up groups to follow the instructions and carry out the experiment. If you can’t do this then model it for/with learners. In this way they can see if the extra information is correct and helpful. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

B

Talk about instructions

• After reading and/or carrying out the experiment, check learners’ understanding. If they have carried out the experiment their understanding will be more secure. • Group/Pair work: read the questions with learners and then give them time to discuss their answers. • Ask them to make a note of any tricky words so that these can be discussed together. • Differentiation: ask your quicker workers to look these words up in a dictionary or online. • Draw the class together to discuss their answers. Encourage good listening and speaking. 1 The instructions told us how to mix oil and water. 2 It told us what we should see and know. 3 Tricky words may include liquid, pour, equipment, washing, stretchy, break up. 4 The words in blue are headings; the red words tell us about the sequence or what to do in what order.

• If learners have tried the experiment, ask them to discuss what they enjoyed, found out, etc. Can they make the instructions any clearer for another reader?

Answer the questions

• Ask learners to read the comprehension questions and answer them in writing in their notebook. Answers: 1 2 3 4

What, which, when and how are all featured in this session. Ask learners to write a question each about the experiment to ask a friend. Encourage use of the wh question words. There are more activities on reading common words in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book. Assessment opportunities • Reading: note which learners are able to read the written instructions independently. We have learned to: • read the instruction text in pairs or independently. Observe and listen. Check strategies in use. • find words such as firstly and lastly and know they indicate sequence. Ask: what is this word? Find me another word like this. What does it tell us? • demonstrate understanding of reading in talk and in writing. Ask: what did you learn in this experiment? Observe and mark written answer. Activity Book

A Learners add the missing adverbs to the beginning of each instruction.

B Learners read the words that feature the/igh/phoneme and cross out the word in each line that does not.

Spelling link There are more activities on reading and spelling long vowel phonemes in the Review and reference section, which begins on page 188 of the Learner’s Book. Answers:

Answers:

C

Spelling link

No, you add the oil after the water. You add the washing-up liquid after the cooking oil. You just add a few drops of washing-up liquid. Lastly, you stir the water so that the washing-up liquid can break up the oil.

A First make sure you have all your equipment. Secondly pour some water into a bowl. Then/next add some cooking oil. Then/next add some washing-up liquid. Finally stir the water. B Cross out say, look, take, shake.

Session 6: Sequence words Learner’s Book pages: 40–41 Activity Book page: 23

You will need: notebooks and pencils; word cards of adverbials of sequence (next, then, firstly, etc.). Nice to have: PCM 7. Spelling link: phonic spelling strategies; syllables.

Session 6 Sequence words

37


Learning objectives

B

Learning intentions • to identify features of an instructional text • to identify and understand the use of adverbs in an instructional text • to identify and write imperative forms of verbs • to join sentences using and. Learning outcomes Learners can: • re-read a text to identify its features • identify and use adverbs • write and replace verbs in sentences • use different sentence types in their writing, using connectives.

• Remind learners about the importance of sequence and order in instructions. • What would happen if we mixed up the order of the instructions? Would the experiment still work? • Refocus the learners on the use of adverbs in the text: firstly, secondly, etc. Can they explain the function of these words? If those words were not there, what could we use instead to help us to know which order to do things in? (Numbers.) • Ask learners to answer the questions.

A

Looking for language features

• Together, re-read the instructions for the experiment How to make oil and water mix on page 38 of the Learner’s Book. • Group work: ask learners to look in the text for special features of an instructional text: a title/headings bullets numbers or words to indicate sequence list of equipment instruction verbs e.g. make, pour extra information. • Give them time to find these features and then ask them to report back to the class. • Ask learners to record the features in a chart and draw their attention to the Tip box, which provides a suggested layout. • Differentiation: If you are using the PCMs, use PCM 7 How to make oil and water mix here for those pupils who need it. Alternatively you may allow more confident learners to find other instructional texts or to look at the other texts in this unit. They should record the features of these instructional texts and compare them with the How to make oil and water mix text. • Spelling focus: ask learners to count the different ways in which the vowel a is pronounced in the instructions: 1/ai/in make 2/o/in what, washing 3/or/in all 4/a/in add 5/ar/in lastly (or /a/, depending on local pronunciation). • More activities about pronouncing vowels can be found in the Review and reference section on page 189 of the Learner’s Book. Answers: Learners’ own answers.

38

Unit 2 How to write instructions

Steps in a sequence

Answers: firstly, secondly, then, next, lastly firstly, secondly, next, then, lastly

OR

• Differentiation: fast finishers may like to research (online or in a dictionary of synonyms, for example) other words that might be useful in the same way. Ideas might include: before, first, first of all. • Together, create a list of other sequencing words and create a class bank for use during writing activities. Answers: Possible answers: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, at first, finally, etc.

• Hand out word cards featuring these adverbs and see if learners can get themselves into the right order very quickly. Hand out different words and try it again. Encourage discussion about next or then and the fact that either can be used.

C

Instruction words – verbs

• Remind learners of the importance of instruction verbs in instruction texts and draw their attention to the verbs in the text: make, pour, add, stir. These verbs are in the imperative form which means they are an instruction to do something and don’t need a pronoun. Tell learners we don’t need to use a pronoun but we assume you because we are telling someone what to do.

Spelling link Work through each instruction verb and ensure that learners can read them using their phonic strategies: a-dd, m-a-e k, p-or, s-t-ir. There are more activities on using phonic spelling strategies on page 189 in the Review and reference section of the Learner’s Book. • Ask learners to write each instruction with the correct verb and at the same time ensure that they are using the adverbs correctly. This is a good opportunity to check learners’ letter formation and pencil grip too. • Ask learners to join the sentences using and to see if they can reduce the number of sentences to three. • Ask different learners to stand and read their writing when all have finished.

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 2  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 2. Gill Budgell, Kate Ruttle, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 2  

Preview Cambridge Primary English Teacher's Resource Book 2. Gill Budgell, Kate Ruttle, Cambridge University Press. Available November 2014