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The Workbook content has been expanded and revised, and features a new, attractive and student-friendly design. A complementary Coursebook and a Teacher’s Resource Book with CD-ROM, by the same well-known and respected author, are also available. The Workbook contains: rsupplementary material designed to support the Cambridge IGCSE First Language English Coursebook rtwelve independent units providing examination practice in Language and Style, Comprehension and Summary, Directed Writing, Composition and Coursework rtasks that can be completed in class, for homework or by the student working independently rpractice of relevant skills through a variety of exam-type tasks rexercises including grammar and vocabulary work rspace for students to write in their answers rlanguage accessible to students of a wide range of abilities ra diverse range of topical stimulus material to enliven the subject ra removable answer section offering exemplar as well as set answers. Other titles available for Cambridge IGCSE First Language English: Coursebook Teacher’s Resource Book with CD-ROM

Workbook Third edition

ISBN 978-0-521-74359-4 ISBN 978-0-521-74369-3

Completely Cambridge – Cambridge resources for Cambridge qualifications Cambridge University Press works closely with Cambridge International Examinations as parts of the University of Cambridge. We enable thousands of students to pass their Cambridge exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about Cambridge International Examinations visit www.cie.org.uk Visit education.cambridge.org/cie for information on our full range of Cambridge IGCSE titles including e-book versions and mobile apps.

Marian Cox

Cambridge IGCSE

®

First Language English Workbook Third edition

Cox

978 0521 74362 4 COX: IGCSE FIRST LANGUAGE ENGLISH WORKBOOK COVER. C M Y K

Cambridge IGCSE First Language English, Third edition brings a fresh, modern look and up-to-date content matching the specifications of the Cambridge First Language English course (0500). The series is written by a teacher trainer, and is endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations, ensuring that it is tailored to exam board requirements.

Cambridge IGCSE First Language English

Cambridge IGCSE First Language English Workbook, Third edition Marian Cox


Marian Cox

Cambridge IGCSE

ÂŽ

First Language English Workbook Third edition

Completely Cambridge – Cambridge resources for Cambridge qualifications Cambridge University Press works closely with University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE) as parts of the University of Cambridge. We enable thousands of students to pass their CIE exams by providing comprehensive, high-quality, endorsed resources. To find out more about University of Cambridge International Examinations visit www.cie.org.uk To find out more about Cambridge University Press visit www.cambridge.org/cie


CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521743624 © Cambridge University Press 2003, 2010 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2003 Third edition 2010 7th printing 2012 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-74362-4 Paperback Cover image: © Nick Servian / Alamy Illustrations by Paul Moran / Beehive Illustration Every effort has been made to reach copyright holders of material in this book previously published elsewhere. The publisher would be pleased to hear from anyone whose rights they have unwittingly infringed. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding process, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. ® IGCSE is the registered trademark of University of Cambridge International Examinations


Contents Introduction

1

v

Olympic Games vocabulary, passive voice, prefixes summary, persuasive letter, report

2

1

Furry creatures vocabulary, parenthesis, stylistic effects summary, advertisement, report, speech

3

11

Simply flying vocabulary, spelling, prefixes, dashes and hyphens summary, dialogue, application letter

4

23

Football crazy apostrophes, semicolons, vocabulary, spelling, speech punctuation, prefixes summary, dialogue, informative writing, persuasive letter

5

34

Great rivers parts of speech, commas, sentence structures, fact and opinion, stylistic effects summary, dialogue, complaint letter

6

47

On the road phrasal verbs, prefixes, vocabulary, synonyms, structuring summary, presentation, magazine article, news report

Contents

60

iii


7

Bricks and stones vocabulary, synonyms, past tenses, relative clauses, prepositions, sentence punctuation, stylistic effects summary, dialogue, news report, magazine article, discussion dialogue, informative letter

8

72

Medical notes punctuation, homophones, spelling, stylistic effects summary, diary entry, argument dialogue, charity appeal letter

9

87

All in the mind vocabulary, spelling, synonyms, stylistic effects, colons, speech punctuation summary, discussion dialogue, argument speech

10

96

Watching the screen initial adverbials, conditionals, prepositions, stylistic effects, persuasive devices summary, argument dialogue, debate speech, survey report, magazine article

11

106

Hot and cold vocabulary, synonyms, sentence structures, stylistic effects summary, advertisement, informative writing

12

118

Technological invasion stylistic effects, vocabulary, apostrophes, hyphens, fact and opinion, structuring summary, argument dialogue

iv

Contents

127

Acknowledgements

138

Answers

139


Introduction This supplementary workbook is designed to support the coursebook Cambridge IGCSE First Language English by Marian Cox, third edition published by Cambridge University Press in 2010. The skills offered for practice are those examined in IGCSE First Language English 0500, which are comprehension, style analysis, summary, directed writing, and composition. One of the two main texts in each unit is easier and shorter than the other, and some of the tasks in each of the Reading sections relate to a single text, as core-tier candidates are required to answer on only one passage. This third edition of the workbook, which has been revised and includes additional material, contains 12 independent units, each based on a different topic, which cover the areas of Language and Style, Comprehension and Summary, Directed Writing, and Composition or Coursework. Each unit practises the examination techniques of skimming, scanning, selecting, collating and structuring. The topics have been selected to cater for a variety of interests and to have international appeal to the relevant age group. The passages cover the range of genres for the Reading and Writing exam tasks. The units are roughly equal in level of difficulty – that of the exam standard – and can be studied in any order. Each unit contains a mixture of exam-type tasks for skills practice as well as specific language exercises on spelling, punctuation, vocabulary extension or grammar points. Teachers can select tasks according to which skills and language areas need practising at a particular time by a particular student or class. The contents page indicates which language-revision and exam-practice tasks are contained in each unit. Although Speaking and Listening (optional Papers 5 or 6) skills are not directly addressed in this supplementary workbook, many of the Reading and Directed Writing tasks could be extended or adapted to become Speaking and Listening tasks for exam practice or assessment. By using this workbook, students will become familiar with a range of examstyle passages and tasks and gain practice in writing in different voices and registers for different audiences. The tasks can be done in class, as homework, or by the student working independently. An Answers appendix gives suggested answers for tasks where appropriate, though these are not necessarily definitive. (The appendix is perforated to be removable from student copies of the workbook.) Answer space for all questions is given in the workbook, the size of the space indicating the expected length of the response.

Introduction

v


Unit

1

Olympic Games

Reading 1

Read the article below.

Passage A: The Olympic flame

T

he carrying of the Olympic flame from its source in Olympia in Greece is one of the more spectacular features of the Games. It is also one of the ways in which the modern Games are linked to the original Ancient Greek games of 2500 years ago, although when the modern Olympic Games were first held in Athens in 1896, the Olympic flame played no part. It was not introduced into the opening ceremony until the 1928 Games in Amsterdam, and the relay, the carrying of the flame from Olympia itself, was only introduced eight years later, at the celebrated Berlin Games of 1936. The flame was lit at Olympia by women wearing traditional Greek costume and it was then carried by relays of runners the 1910 miles overland to Berlin in 12 days. They passed through five other countries on the way. Sometimes the flame goes out, and a backup lantern is always carried from Olympia in case relighting is necessary. In 1976 and 1984 this happened and the torch was successfully relit. The 1964 Tokyo Olympics involved the largest number of torch-bearing runners: 101,839. The longest Olympic relay was for the 2000 Sydney Olympics, when the torch travelled 37,500 miles through 14 countries over 120 days. The Olympic flame features in both summer and winter Olympics. For the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics, 11,500 individual torches were manufactured, one for each participating runner; fresh torches were lit from the Olympic lantern each morning, and each of the runners was given the option of purchasing their torch as a memento. Once the Olympic flame finally arrives at the Games stadium, it is used for the ceremonial lighting of the Olympic cauldron, the giant flame which burns throughout the Games and forms the symbolic focus of the event. It is the dramatic physical reminder of nearly three millennia of Olympic tradition.

Unit 1

Olympic Games

1


Language and Style 2

Give synonyms for the following words, as they are used in Passage A. Look up any words you do not know.

a

source

f

manufactured

b spectacular

g participating

c

h option

celebrated

d backup

i

memento

e

features

j

focus

3

Next to each of the above words, write which part of speech it is, as used in Passage A. Write N for noun, V for verb and Adj for adjective.

4

Look at the word millennia in the last line of Passage A. In two lists, give as many other words as you can think of using the prefix mill(i) (meaning thousand) and the stem ann or enn (meaning year). An example of each has been given to start you off. ann/enn

mill(i)

c_bb_]hWc

Wdd_l[hiWho

Reading 5

Read the following article.

Passage B: The Olympic story The Ancient Olympic Games were held at Olympia in southern Greece. A popular myth identifies Heracles and his father Zeus as the creators of the Games. Heracles, the eldest son, defeated his brothers in a running race and was crowned with a wreath of

2

Unit 1

Olympic Games

wild olive branches. He then went on to build the Olympic stadium, which is 200 metres long, in honour of his father, after completing his legendary 12 labours. In the 8th century BC, the oracle at Delphi urged King Iphitos to use the

Olympic Games as an opportunity to bring peace to the perpetually warring city-states of the Greek world, and for more than a thousand years this was achieved. From the first of the quadrennial Games in 776 BC, the


Olympic Truce, or Ekecheiria, was declared seven days before the opening of the Games and continued for seven days after the close. This not only enabled competitors to travel to Olympia in safety, but also meant that for the duration of the Games old hostilities were put aside and all competed honourably and fairly in the hope of bringing glory to their city. The modern Games started in Athens 1500 years later, in 1896, thanks to the vision of Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin, who believed that the French were defeated in the FrancoPrussian war because the soldiers had not received proper physical education. His vision was to bring together athletes from around the world to compete in a variety of sporting events under the motto Citius, Altius, Fortius (‘Swifter, Higher, Stronger’). He tried to preserve as many features of the original Games as possible, including the amateur status of the athletes. The first modern Olympics had only nine events (athletics, cycling, fencing, gymnastics, shooting, swimming, tennis, weightlifting and wrestling) and fewer than 250 athletes took part, representing 14 nations. Greece offered to host the Games permanently, but the second Games took place in Paris, and it was here that women were first allowed to compete. The Olympic Games now constitute an international multi-sport event for both summer and winter sports. They were extended to include winter Games in 1924, first held in Chamonix, France. Since 1994 they have alternated on different four-year cycles from the summer Games. The Paralympic Games (which began in 1960 and are hosted by the same city as the summer Olympics) and the Youth Olympic Games have also been added. Baron de Coubertin’s hope of

total world peace during the time of the Games was not achieved: three Olympiads were missed because of World War I and World War II, and in what is known as the Munich massacre nine athletes were killed after being abducted during the Games. The International Olympic Committee (IOC), the governing body of the modern Olympic movement, was founded in 1894. It is the umbrella organisation whose job is to ensure that the host city, after it has been chosen in competition with other contenders, meets its obligations. The IOC visits the future host city to check that the building works to house the events, accommodate the athletes and visitors, and improve the transport systems are all on schedule. The committee also makes all the important decisions concerning the events programme. French and English are the official languages of the Olympic movement, plus the language of the host country in each case. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913 and first introduced on the Olympic flag flown at the Antwerp Games in 1920. They represent the five inhabited continents (with the Americas regarded as one). The colours – red, blue, green, yellow and black on a white background – were chosen because each nation has at least one of these colours in its national flag. Other symbols and rituals were established during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most of these traditions are displayed during the opening and closing ceremonies, such as the Parade of Nations which opens the Games, followed by the raising of the Olympic flag, which must fly for the duration of the Games between

the Greek flag and the host nation’s flag. The national anthem of the gold medal winner’s country is played during the presentation of the three medals after each event. At the end of the Olympics, the flame is extinguished while the anthem is being played, and the flag is carried horizontally from the stadium. Since 1968, there has been an Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country; in 1980 Misha, a Russian bear, made a popular appearance. Participation in the Games has increased to the point that nearly every nation on earth is represented. Now the combined winter and summer Olympics involve more than 10,000 competitors from more than 200 countries, who take part in 35 different sports and more than 400 events. This growth has created numerous challenges, including political boycotts, use of performanceenhancing drugs, bribery of officials, demands of sponsors, terrorist attacks and the financial commitment of a host country, sometimes resulting in disapproval of the government by its people. The artistic displays alone at the opening ceremony of the Beijing Games reportedly cost $100 million. It is one of the world’s largest media events, with an estimated 3.7 billion television viewers, and is therefore an irresistible opportunity for a country to promote itself.

Unit 1

Olympic Games

3


Language and Style 6

Find synonymous words or phrases for the following words, as used in Passage B.

a

duration

f

rituals

b hostilities

g extinguished

c

h mascot

vision

d motto

i

heritage

e

founded

j

boycotts

7

Underline the passive verb structures in Passage B. What effect do they have on the passage? Why do writers choose to use passive rather than active verbs in certain types of text?

8

English uses Greek and Latin prefixes for numbers. The one used in Passage B is quad- (4). Give words beginning with the prefixes below, and say which number is being referred to.

a

dec-

b octc

pent-

d trie

bi-

f

uni-

g quinh sept-

4

Unit 1

Olympic Games


9

Passage B contains the phrase fewer than. Fill the blanks in the following sentences with one of the options below, then explain the rule for how these words are used. few

fewer

fewest

a few

less

a little

least

at least

countries participated in the 1896 Games in Athens than in the 1900 Games in Paris.

a

b At the Paris Games, there were competitors were female. c

little

Comparatively

than half of the

countries participate in the winter Games.

d Some of the competitors had to be placed

women athletes, but much

hope of gaining a medal, but

of them managed

in the first five, so they felt they had achieved

e

The number of television viewers increases each time, and it is now slightly 14 billion.

f

No

success. than

than nine athletes were killed in the Munich massacre.

g The specialist sports attract the

spectators and are the

likely to be televised.

Comprehension and Summary 10a In one sentence, summarise what Passage B says about Baron de Coubertin.

b In one sentence, summarise the role of the IOC.

c

In one sentence, summarise the facts given about the Olympic rings.

Unit 1

Olympic Games

5


d Write a one-sentence summary about the first modern Olympic Games of 1896.

11 Write a one-paragraph summary of the problems now associated with the Olympic Games.

Directed Writing 12 Imagine that you can win a free trip to the next Olympics by writing a letter to the President of the IOC. You must explain persuasively why you wish to attend. Refer to material in Passages A and B, and add ideas of your own.

6

Unit 1

Olympic Games


Unit 1

Olympic Games

7


13 Look at the following bids by three cities to host the Olympics in 2016.

City A July climate temperate; max temperature 27 °C ; slight possibility of rain Venues 8 in existence, total increasing capacity to 1,2 capacity 420,000; 8 planned, 80,000, to be completed in 2016 Transport advanced bu s system in place; new bu ses to be purchased in 2015; new construction, to be comp international airport under leted in 2014 Accommodation 180,0 00 rooms within 50 km ; 360,000 under construction Security security police efficiently suppress any opposition; no terrorism in the past 10 years

City B re 22 °C; moderate rain likely July climate cool; max temperatu acity 1,400,000; 2 planned, Venues 17 in existence, total cap , to be completed in 2014 increasing capacity to 1,650,000 an Rapid Transit System under Transport state-of-the-art Urb 2012; new international airport construction, to be completed in opened in 2006 within 50 km; 120,000 under Accommodation 780,000 rooms construction ent has caused difficulties in the Security the Liberators’ movem under control past; government claims it is now

City C

July climate tropical; max temperature 38 °C; high humidity; rainfall can be severe Venues 12 in existence, total capacity 980,000; 6 planned, increasing capacity to 1,440,000, to be completed in 2015 Transport new underground railway to be built; construction commences 2012 Accommodation 430,000 rooms within 50 km; 220,000 under construction Security minor terrorist conflict in the north but capital is at present secure 8

Unit 1

Olympic Games


14 Imagine you are the President of the IOC. Write a report evaluating each bid and recommending to the committee which one should be selected.

Unit 1

Olympic Games

9


Composition Argumentative/discursive writing a

Discuss the benefits and problems of the existence of the Olympic Games. b ‘International sport is war by another name.’ Do you think this is true?

Descriptive writing c

Describe the environment and atmosphere of the stadium during an international athletics competition. d Give an account of a real or imaginary experience of taking part in an important sporting event.

Narrative writing e f

10

‘The Marathon’. Write a story with this title. Write a story which involves an athlete as a main character.

Unit 1

Olympic Games

Coursework topics 1 Describe the sports programme at

your school, and give your views on rt, team competitive sport, compulsory spo sport, versus individual sports, single-sex . life lt and the role of sport in adu

y’. 2 ‘Fitness, health and the human bod

tury Discuss aspects of life in the 21st cen which relate to these issues.


Cambridge IGCSE First Language English: Workbook (third edition)