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CSUresearch C L E V E L A N D S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y F A L L 2 0 1 6

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Creating a STEM Learning Environment for All Students

Improving Policymaking in American Cities

Expanding the Frontiers of Digital History

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A reconstructed fluorescence image of epithelial cells. Nuclei are purple and primary cilia are green. These cilia are small, hairlike, flow-sensing structures found in most human cells. CSU researchers are analyzing how cells respond when the primary cilia detect flow and how this response impacts cell and tissue health.






Introduction from the VP for Research Welcome to @CSUresearch, where you can learn about the latest outstanding research and scholarly activity at Cleveland State University! Our research enterprise has grown remarkably in recent years. This edition of @CSUresearch highlights some exceptional success stories. The 2015 Almanac of Higher Education, published by The Chronicle of Higher Education, shows that Cleveland State is one of the leading U.S. universities in research growth. From 2004 to 2013, CSU ranked 1st in the nation in total research funding growth with a 298% increase, 1st in the nation in federal research funding growth with a 684% increase and 12th in the nation in corporate research funding growth with a 459% increase. Our research growth is the direct result of the creativity and hard work of our faculty, students and staff. It can also be attributed to the University’s ongoing commitment to research, which includes recruiting exceptional young faculty, funding collaborative multidisciplinary research and building state-of-the-art facilities such as the new Center for Innovation in Medical Professions, completed in fall 2015, and the new Washkewicz College of Engineering addition, which is scheduled to open in 2017. Our research contributions to society have far exceeded the expectations of those who established the University over 50 years ago. The first article, on page 6, paints a fascinating contrast and comparison between CSU research 4

in the early '60s and '70s, and CSU research today. Our ranking as an urban research university is just one way to measure the advancing research culture at Cleveland State University. Every day we can point to new examples of inspirational scholarship. For instance, Dr. Moo-Yeal Lee and Dr. Chandra Kothapalli, professors in the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering in the Washkewicz College of Engineering, were recently awarded a $1.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health for innovative research to test for toxic compounds that can harm the development of the human brain. These CSU researchers are developing novel techniques to analyze the effects of toxicants on neural stem cells, which are found in the brain and evolve into nerve cells. Other examples include Dr. Adam Voight, a professor in the College of Education and Human Services, who is working with local school districts to understand the economic and social influences that can lead to better health and success for urban high school students. Professor Browne Lewis from the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law has received international recognition and awards for her research on bioethics and end-of-life issues. Dr. Ronnie Dunn, a professor in the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, serves in an official advisory capacity to Ohio Governor John Kasich regarding public policies for the enhancement of community-police relations. Dr. Madalynn Wendland, a professor in the School of Health Sciences, is designing carefully crafted play therapies for children with Down syndrome. And Dr. Yuping Wu, a professor in the Department of Mathematics, is using her statistical expertise


to discover previously unknown patterns in cardiac health data sets, and to potentially transform cardiac therapies. The entrepreneurial culture at Cleveland State is thriving along with our research and scholarship. Aspiring entrepreneurs and innovators can now benefit from the University’s new Innovation Portal, an internet resource that highlights and promotes the many innovation-related initiatives across the University. The APLU recently designated CSU as an Innovation and Economic Prosperity University in recognition of our strengths in innovation and economic engagement. We were also awarded an Ohio Federal Research Network grant to lead technology transfer, commercialization efforts and workforce development focused on Ohio’s federal research lab priorities. And faculty in the Monte Ahuja College of Business continually assist local and national companies in developing marketing plans, export plans and cultural analyses for international activities. From science and engineering to law, from business to the humanities, from education to urban studies, and from physical therapy to the fine arts, Cleveland State researchers and scholars are changing the community, the nation and the world. I hope that you will enjoy learning about the research, scholarship and creativity at Cleveland State University, and that you will find @CSUresearch both educational and inspiring. Sincerely,

Jerzy T. Sawicki Vice President for Research

Table of Contents 50+ Years of Research at CSU

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Medical Research

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Improving Human Health through Genetic Science Developing a Better Understanding of Heart Failure Upward Mobility for Disabled Children

Applied Medical Research

Creating Smarter Prosthetics Tissue Engineering and Disease Modeling with 3D Printing Real-Time Motion Assessent to Improve Physical Rehabilitation and Proper Body Mechanics


Creating a STEM Learning Environment for All Students Advancing Educational and Health Outcomes for Urban Students Advancing STEMM Education

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Designer Ivy Garrigan Contributing Photographer Brian Hart

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Arts & Humanities

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Innovation & Entrepreneurship

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CSU Research by the Numbers

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COVER IMAGE: Aaron Severson of CSU’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease is investigating the cellular machinery required to form healthy sperm and eggs and how defects in this process can lead to infertility and diseases such as Down syndrome. Full story pg. 8


Writing Consultant Pamela J. Willits

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Expanding the Frontiers of Digital History A Magical Blend of Music and Imagery Exploring Jewish Contributions to Art

Editor Will Dube

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Public Policy

Improving Policymaking in American Cities Bioethics, Reproductive Rights and Public Policy The Law of Outer Space

Executive Editors Jerzy T. Sawicki Dan Simon

CSU is an AA/EO institution. Š 2016 University Marketing 160754 / 25M Printed on McCoy Silk by Angstrom Graphics, Cleveland, OH.



50+ Years of Research at CSU Then and Now


PROFESSOR PAUL CHU, Department of Physics, received one of CSU’s first NSF grants for his work in superconductivity.

On December 17, 1964, the Ohio General Assembly approved Amended House Bill No. 2, thereby creating Cleveland State University. Built on the legacy of Fenn College, the University then included 5,600 students, 250 faculty members, 3 buildings and no endowment. Over the years, Cleveland State has transformed from these beginnings into a nationally recognized urban research university with 17,000 students, 2,000 faculty and staff, an 85-acre campus and a $75 million endowment. The University’s research enterprise has also expanded over the last five decades and now makes a major impact in many areas, while also greatly improving economic development in the region. One of the University’s earliest research milestones was achieved in 1966 when Professor Louis Milic, Department of English, published A Quantitative Approach to the Style of Jonathan Swift, which was one of the first applications of computer analysis to the humanities. Professor Milic played a leading role in the then-novel and controversial use of computers in literary criticism. Today the Universi-


ty is proud to claim Professor Angelin Chang, Department of Music, as the first female American classical pianist to receive a GRAMMY Award. Professor Chang, along with her colleagues in the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, produce hundreds of award-winning creative works and performances each year. You can read more about Professor Chang’s novel approach to music on page 38. In 1969, the University’s first research grant was awarded to Professor Herman Meisner in the Department of Biology. Professor Meisner received numerous awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his heart and cancer research. In 1995, Professor William Morgan in the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences received the University’s first NIH R01 grant, widely regarded as the most prestigious research award in the nation, for his drug treatment studies. Today the University boasts the nationally recognized Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease (GRHD), which conducts world-class research and


annually receives millions of dollars in grant funding. You can read about GRHD and their transformative approaches to cancer treatment and cardiac medicine on page 8. Among the University’s earliest and most successful authors is Jearl Walker, a professor in the Department of Physics, whose 1975 book The Flying Circus of Physics has been translated into 10 languages. Professor Walker’s book led to an Emmy Award-winning television show and an appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Today, Professor Walker continues to enthrall CSU physics students in his fourth decade at the university. Professor Antonie van den Bogert in the Department of Mechanical Engineering is among those who today are carrying on the University’s tradition of influential publication. Professor van den Bogert has written over 250 peer-reviewed papers, which have received over 10,000 citations by other researchers. You can read more about Professor van den Bogert’s groundbreaking research in prosthetics and exoskeletons on page 16.

In 1976, one of the University’s first National Science Foundation (NSF) grants was awarded to Professor Paul Chu in the Department of Physics for energy transmission and superconductivity research. Professor Chu collaborated with Soviet researchers at a time when such partnerships were highly unusual. Today the University’s tradition of NSF funding is being continued by many faculty, including Professor Nigamanth Sridhar in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Professor Sridhar has been awarded millions of dollars in NSF funding, including the University’s first NSF Career Award for his research in software engineering. This award is widely regarded as the most competitive honor in the world for young scientists and engineers. You can read about how Professor Sridhar is transforming computer science education on page 22. In 1992, Earl Graham, a professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering, received the University’s first patent for his invention Ceramic Article Having Wear-Resistant Coating. In 2003, Professor Zhiqiang Gao in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering received his first patent, and in 2008 he founded the Universi-

ty’s first spin-off company, LineStream Technologies. LineStream’s technology has since received over $6.5 million in funding, and its investors and industrial partners include multibillion-dollar conglomerates Danfoss, Texas Instruments, and NXP Semiconductors. Today the University has 45 active patents, with new applications being filed every month. You can read more about the University’s commercialization efforts on pages 40-43. Over the past few decades the research and scholarship enterprise at the University has skyrocketed. According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, CSU ranked 1st in the nation from 2004 to 2013 in total research funding growth with a 298% increase. CSU now ranks in the top 20% of all U.S. universities for research and development, with an impact that is seen regionally, nationally and globally. As you read about faculty achievements in the following pages, we hope that you share our optimism and excitement about the future of research and scholarship at Cleveland State University!


PROFESSOR JEARL WALKER, Department of Physics, earned national fame as a popularizer of scientific principles.


PROFESSOR EARL GRAHAM, Department of Chemical Engineering, earned CSU’s first patent based on his research in wear resistant coatings.






Through both its own programs and in collaboration with numerous research centers and medical institutions, including the Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals, CSU researchers are working at the cutting edge of medical discovery.




Human Health through

Genetic Science CSU’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease seeks to find cures to some of the world’s deadliest diseases.





Since its inception, GRHD has received over $20 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the American Heart Association and other sources.

Cancer. Stroke. Heart disease. Hardening of the arteries. Leukemia. These are words that strike fear in hearts across the nation, but if CSU’s Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease (GRHD) has anything to say about it, many of these afflictions will gradually become as obsolete as polio and smallpox. GRHD was launched in 2008 with a grant from the Ohio Third Frontier, and was designated as a Center of Excellence by the Ohio Department of Higher Education two years later. Under the direction of biology professor Anton A. Komar, the Center seeks to advance our understanding of how gene expression is regulated, how cells increase or decrease the production of proteins and RNA and how malfunctions within those processes cause disease. This research has a significant potential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms and the specific molecules that control reproductive health and the aging process, as well as to expand our capabilities for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, cardiac and neurological diseases and infectious diseases. Since its inception, GRHD has received over $20 million in fund-


ing from the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the American Heart Association, and other sources. In addition, GRHD researchers have published more than 150 articles in high-profile, peer-reviewed journals, including Science, Nature, Cell, Molecular Cell and others. These papers have been cited more than 2,000 times by other medical researchers in the U.S. and around the world. GRHD leverages graduate programs that are jointly offered by Cleveland State and the Cleveland Clinic to provide unique opportunities for doctoral students specializing in the application of cellular and molecular approaches for understanding disease causes and mechanisms. By studying the causes of disease, GRHD researchers are helping advance the vision of personalized medicine that will offer customized treatments based on an individual’s genetic makeup. Reducing Cellular Inflammation Molecular genetics professor Barsanjit Mazumder, who is a co-founding member of GRHD, focuses his research on uncontrolled inflamma-


tion, which is a leading cause of many diseases, including atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries, a major form of cardiovascular disease), sepsis and colitis. Inflammation is a cellular defense mechanism that involves immune cells. Although inflammation is necessary for protection against infection, chronic inflammation can lead to heart disease and stroke. Dr. Mazumder’s research team has identified a specific regulatory protein called L13a, which blocks the synthesis of inflammatory molecules. His discovery of how cells protect against inflammation could greatly enhance the development of therapies to reduce inflammation and may lead to custom therapies that promote L13a activity.


GRHD is directed by Dr. Anton Komar, second from right, an internationally recognized expert in protein synthesis and folding.

Preventing the Spread of Cancer Cells Chemistry professor Michael Kalafatis, who is also a co-founding GRHD member, is studying the biochemistry of cancer with the goal of identifying proteins that control cell proliferation. While researching blood coagulation, Dr. Kalafatis discovered that a molecule which he calls CancerX has positive effects on lab-grown leukemia cells as well as breast, skin, kidney, brain and prostate cancer cells. Dr. Kalafatis worked with researchers from the Cleveland Clinic to evaluate CancerX in human tumors implanted in mice and found that CancerX shrank


or killed the tumors. When CancerX was injected into nervous system cancer cells, tumor growth was substantially reduced in mice within 20 days without causing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. Dr. Kalafatis has since developed new cancer-killing molecules which have produced promising results in his laboratory, and is pursuing animal trials and human trials to evaluate the potential of these molecules to treat cancer. Impoving Reproductive Health To better understand the cellular process necessary for reproduction, assistant professor of biology Aaron

Severson studies how the protein complex cohesin affects meiosis (the cell process that creates eggs or sperm). Approximately one in three human zygotes has abnormal chromosomal material, which can lead to miscarriages and birth defects. As women age, the cohesin needed for meiosis weakens. This may explain why infertility and the incidence of chromosomal diseases such as Down syndrome increase as women get older. Dr. Severson’s research could have far-reaching implications because chromosomal issues similar to those that disrupt meiosis also occur in many forms of cancer.




Dr. Roman Kondratov, near right, is utilizing the human body’s circadian clock to better understand the aging process.

Analyzing the Aging Process Researchers have long known that aging is dependent on both biological and environmental factors. But associate professor of biology Roman Kondratov has also established a connection between the body’s circadian rhythm and aging. The body’s master clock, which is located in a small region of the brain’s hypothalamus, is regulated by signals from the retina and controls processes such as movement and the sleep/wake cycle. Recent research has revealed that the circadian clock is also a key regulator of metabolism, cardiovascular physiology and


immune and stress response systems, thus linking several causes of disease to disturbances in the circadian cycle. Dr. Kondratov’s research has shown that changes to the key circadian protein BMAL1 result in early aging and a reduced life span in mice, as well as the development of age-related pathologies such as osteoporosis, decreased hair growth, cataracts and cornea inflammation. Mice that are bred to be deficient in BMAL1 have lower bone mass and experience accelerated bone aging compared to normal mice. Dr. Kondratov has also discovered that calorie restriction, a diet that is known to delay aging, sig-


nificantly affects circadian rhythms in gene expression. This implies that the circadian clock is a mediator of calorie restriction. Dr. Kondratov’s ongoing research will provide greater insights into the interactions between the circadian clock, aging and diet, and will provide new opportunities for healthy aging. Moving forward, GRHD will continue to expand its cutting-edge research into other areas of medical genetics, provide more opportunities for student involvement and increase private sector partnerships to expand the impact of its research.


THE TEAM Dr. Anton A. Komar Director, Professor Dr. Sailen Barik Professor Dr. Anthony Berdis Associate Professor Dr. Valentin Boerner Associate Professor Dr. Michael Kalafatis Professor Dr. Roman Kondratov Professor Dr. Bibo Li Professor Dr. Barsanjit Mazumder Professor Dr. Andrew Resnick Associate Professor Dr. Aaron F. Severson Assistant Professor Dr. Girish Shukla Associate Professor Dr. Bin Su Associate Professor Dr. Xue-Long Sun Professor Dr. Crystal M. Weyman Professor Dr. Aimin Zhou Professor





Developing a Better

Understanding of Heart Failure It is often said that there is too much data and not enough insight. Yuping Wu, associate professor of mathematics in the College of Sciences and Health Professions, utilizes her expertise in complex statistical analysis and high dimension data analysis to transform information into insights that will reduce the incidence of heart failure. Dr. Wu teams with scientists Dr. Wilson Tang and Dr. Stanley Hazen at the Cleveland Clinic to improve how physicians assess cardiovascular disease and to improve treatment outcomes for patients. According to the CDC Foundation, nearly 800,000 Americans die annually from heart disease, stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, while one in six health-care dollars is spent

on cardiovascular disease. Dr. Wu's work has resulted in over 40 landmark clinical publications in journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine, Nature and Cell. Dr. Wu’s research is so groundbreaking that her recent paper in Nature has been referenced over 1,000 times by leading medical researchers across the world. Dr. Wu has a range of training and experience that makes her particularly qualified to analyze complex data from medical studies. After completing a master’s degree in chemistry, she earned another master’s in computer engineering. She went on to receive a Ph.D. in statistics. This broad educational and research background is part of what motivates Dr. Wu to collaborate with

According to the CDC Fo u n d at i o n , n ea r l y 800,000 Americans die annually from heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases.



Dr. Yuping Wu Associate Professor

biologists, chemists, and physicians to solve critical health problems. Cardiovascular disease and heart failure have been linked to a wide range of possible causes and are becoming an increasing burden on the health-care system. Dr. Wu is applying her knowledge and skills to clarify disease pathways and improve clinical diagnosis and treatment. She led a CSU team in partnership with the Cleveland Clinic to understand the role that a physiological condition known as nitrative stress, which is associated with inflammation in the body, can play in the development of a dangerous heart condition that does not show up in typical heart screening procedures such as angiograms. In other studies, Dr. Wu is investigating the roles that our dietary choices and the microflora that live in our digestive system play in the development of cardiovascular disease. Again in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic, Dr. Wu is identifying how certain fats in animal products are metabolized, and how that can lead to plaque buildup in the arteries. She is also studying more broadly the role that gut microbes play in heart failure susceptibility, and whether changes in diet can help to prevent or treat heart failure. Beyond the direct impact that Dr. Wu is making through her own research, she is also helping other life science researchers by developing user-friendly software that allows them to manage complex data sets and better visualize that information. Dr. Wu’s work is helping to create the insights necessary to improve public health.


Upward Mobility for Disabled Children Life moves at a fast pace for infants as they develop into walking toddlers and learn to explore their environment. However, babies with Down syndrome crawl and walk at a slower pace than their peer group. When mobility is delayed, it is more than just muscles that develop at a slower pace. These decreased motor skills also have consequences for brain and language development. Physical therapist and research project manager Andrina Sabet is collaborating with professor Madalynn Wendland to explore the effects of movement on infant development as part of a national initiative called GoBabyGo. CSU was selected as a research hub for GoBabyGo in 2015. The team’s stateof-the-art facilities are housed in CSU’s Center for Innovation in Medical Professions, which was opened in 2015. Under the direction of Dr. Cole Galloway of the University of Delaware and Dr. Sam Logan of Oregon State University, Ms. Sabet and Prof. Wendland are collecting data with funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. They modify electrically powered toy cars for toddlers to test the effect of movement on development. A simple framework using plastic plumbing pipes provides postural support for the children as they sit or stand in the car, and simple switches give the children stop-and-go control. This research involves observing children doing what they do best – playing! Upside of Downs, a community nonprofit that provides support, education and advocacy for children with Down syndrome, helps with the csuohio.edu/research

Dr. Madalynn Wendland Clinical Assistant Professor

recruitment of children for the study. The modified toy cars help children with Down syndrome to not only expand their movement and strengthen their muscles and joints, but also to enjoy the opportunity for exploration, which fuels brain and socialization development. As the children’s motor skills advance, the cars are further modified so that the children have to stand up to make the cars move forward. In addition to giving the children a new way to play and engage with others, the specially modified cars give them opportunities to improve balance, strength and coordination. Prof. Wendland and her students are also using the modified cars, along with hands-free harness systems for body weight support, to stimulate independent exploration, interactive play and hands-on learning for children at Sensory Friendly Time, which is a collaboration between CSU and the Children’s Museum of Cleveland. Funding for

Andrina Sabet Physical Therapist

this program, as well as GoBabyGo car-building workshops, is provided by the Reinberger Foundation, the National Interstate Insurance Company and the CSU Office of Civic Engagement. These projects have also fostered relationships with RePlay for Kids, a nonprofit organization that repairs and adapts toys and assistive devices for children with disabilities, as well as with faculty and staff at the CSU College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences and Washkewicz College of Engineering. These global GoBabyGo initiatives are aimed to help not only children with Down syndrome, but also children with other diagnoses, including cerebral palsy and spina bifida. As the CSU research team bridges the barriers that limit access to independent play, their GoBabyGo program will help children of all abilities play alongside each other and interact with each other, while providing hope for a better future for children with disabilities.




CSU’s innovative scientists and engineers are working with numerous government agencies and Fortune 500 companies to create the next generation of medical devices and life-saving drugs.

Creating Smarter

Prosthetics Tomorrow’s prosthetics will provide a level of mobility and comfort that will greatly improve the overall health and well-being for millions around the world.




Approximately 2 million people in the U.S. have lost a limb, and there are 200,000 amputations each year. Amputations can result from accident, cancer, disease, birth defect or paralysis, but over 25% of amputations are due to complications related to diabetes.

Diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate, having tripled over the last 25 years, and there has been a corresponding increase in amputations. Cleveland State University is working to address the growing need for smarter prosthetics that can help amputees regain mobility and lead more healthy and active lives. Reducing Energy Use is Key to Better Prosthetics While prosthetic legs can restore some walking functions to amputees, prostheses cannot compete with the body’s natural design. Amputees expend 65% more walking energy than non-amputees. They also need to exert unnatural forces with their residual muscles. Consequently, amputees frequently develop accompanying health problems such as arthritis and back pain. These health problems lead to inactivity and eventually result in a downward spiral in the amputee’s overall health.


To help address these problems, a Cleveland State University research team consisting of engineering professors Dan Simon, Hanz Richter and Antonie van den Bogert, are developing new prosthetic leg technologies. They believe that the use of coordinated motors at both the knee and ankle of the prosthesis will reduce amputee energy expenditures and enable amputees to lead healthier and more active lives. The team is using supercapacitors to store the energy that is generated while walking. The excess energy that is stored during walking can then be accessed and used later in the stride. The team’s goal is to reduce amputee energy expenditure to the same level as non-amputee energy expenditure, thereby reducing the extra 65% energy expenditure to zero. The technology is similar to the energy storage methods implemented in electric cars, but the CSU team’s application is the first time this technology has been used in prostheses.


Dr. Hanz Richter Associate Professor

Dr. Dan Simon Professor

Dr. Antonie (Ton) van den Bogert Professor

Dr. Jerzy Sawicki Professor




A Multidisciplinary Team The CSU research team was originally funded by the State of Ohio through the Cleveland Clinic, and is currently funded by the Parker Hannifin Corporation and the National Science Foundation. The team includes a diverse mix of multidisciplinary expertise. Dr. Simon’s knowledge of computer intelligence and control systems enables him to use biologically based computer algorithms to derive optimal prosthesis designs and control systems. Dr. Richter’s expertise in control systems, mechanical system design and regenerative energy systems has enabled him to develop a prosthesis prototype and a robot that emulates human motion for prosthesis testing. Dr. van den Bogert utilizes his expertise in human motion and control to develop mathematical algorithms of human motion that model joint and muscle control. His stateof-the-art motion study lab houses a

treadmill with two separately controlled tracks that can also tilt around two axes. Dr. van den Bogert can then impose random alterations in the treadmill motion. His software correlates the treadmill perturbations with those of the test subject to identify human strategies for maintaining balance. Creating Next Generation Devices The CSU team is also collaborating with the Cleveland Veterans Administration, which has conducted gait studies for them using both able-bodied and amputee subjects. They will soon

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cerebral palsy occurs in as many as 4 per 1,000 live births...



conduct initial tests of CSU's prosthesis prototype on amputees, which will help determine if user-specific customization of the prosthesis control algorithms will be necessary. The CSU team is also developing exoskeleton technology. Exoskeletons are robotic devices worn by humans to assist or augment their physical abilities. Exoskeletons are becoming increasingly popular for individuals with handicaps, paralysis or degenerative diseases, since they can help disabled persons regain normal physical function. Dr. van den Bogert is developing control technologies for Parker Hannifin’s Indego exoskeleton. Parker Hannifin received clearance from the Food and Drug Administration in March 2016 to market the Indego for clinical and personal use. The Indego could be a milestone for victims of spinal cord injuries. Aiding Children With Disabilities Jerzy Sawicki, Bently and Muszynska Endowed Chair and professor of Mechanical Engineering, in collaboration with Parker Hannifin, leads


The Parker Hannifin Human Motion and Control Lab

the development of an exoskeleton for children ages 6 to 11. There is a pressing need for exoskeletons that can address the unique needs of children who suffer from walking impairments because of diseases such as cerebral palsy or spina bifida. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cerebral palsy occurs in as many as 4 per 1,000 live births, and 1,500 babies are born in the U.S. each year with spina bifida. Pediatric exoskeletons must be smaller and lighter than adult-sized exoskeletons. Another engineering challenge is the design of an exoskeleton to be easily adaptable in size as the child grows. Finally, control methods for pediatric exoskeletons need to be safe and simple enough to be used by children. Cleveland State University’s research in prosthetic legs and exoskeletons has captured attention both nationally and internationally in peer-reviewed and invited conference and journal publications. The CSU team hopes to provide transformational lifestyle changes for handicapped adults and children one step at a time.


studies the science of human motion, with the goal of improving the development of exoskeletons for paralyzed individuals, prosthetics for amputees and computer-controlled exercise devices.




Tissue Engineering and Disease Modeling with 3D Bioprinting Though it might sound like something out of science fiction, 3D printing is a paradigm shift in how we manufacture complex parts such as aircraft fuel injectors and custom prosthetics. Now bioengineers are taking 3D printing to the cellular level. Dr. Moo-Yeal Lee, an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, is creating 3D printed tissues using cells obtained from patients to rapidly screen therapeutic drugs. Dr. Lee uses automated printing robots to create multicellular tissues by dispensing human cells layer-by-layer in hydrogels that create bioink. These bioinks have the potential to be used for cancer research and drug discovery, and even to

regenerate human organs and tissues. Dr. Lee and his colleague Dr. Chandra Kothapalli were awarded a $1.3 million four-year grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for stem cell research to improve testing for toxic compounds that are harmful to the development of the human brain. Exposure to toxicants in utero or during childhood can result in neurological disorders, but the specific effects on the brain are not well understood. Studies have linked air pollution to increased incidence of epilepsy, and there are conflicting opinions regarding the effect of heavy metal exposure on the development of autism. Dr. Lee and his team are developing a technique to analyze the

Dr. Chandra Kothapalli Associate Professor

Dr. Moo-Yeal Lee Assistant Professor



effects of toxicants on neural stem cells by mimicking the microenvironment of living tissues. Dr. Lee has utilized 3D bioprinting technology to create neural stem cells and human liver tissues via layer-by-layer cell printing. His work facilitates personalized cancer therapy by creating tumors in the laboratory using a patient’s own cancer cells. Dr. Lee collaborated with the Cleveland Clinic on liver tissue regeneration, the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute to study recombinant viruses and Samsung Electro-Mechanics on the development of novel bio-printing chips, software and instrumentation. He and his colleagues have devised a process to apply high-content imaging (HCI) of printed human tissues to high-throughput screening (HTS), which promises to deliver the improved accuracy of HCI with the rapid testing capability of HTS for toxicity and drug testing. Dr. Lee includes many graduate and undergraduate students on his research teams and recently received a CSU Faculty Merit Recognition Award for his contributions to engaged learning at CSU. In addition, he has been selected as one of ten semi-finalists in the Transform Tox Testing Challenge, which is supported by the US EPA and NIH. He has published 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals, including the prestigious Nature Communications. Dr. Lee and his team are revolutionizing bioscience and are teaching the next generation of bioengineers to continue and expand their work.


Real-Time Motion Assessment to

Dr. Wenbing Zhao Professor

Improve Physical Rehabilitation and Proper Body Mechanics The population of the United States is aging, and that shift has triggered a rise in physical rehabilitation and in-home care. Studies indicate that around 1 million inpatient falls occur annually in U.S. hospitals, often involving geriatric patients, while the rate of “overexertion” injuries suffered by health-care workers in hospitals and patients’ homes is alarmingly high. Dr. Wenbing Zhao, professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, is developing a computer vision based motion tracking technology to better monitor patient and caregiver activities alike. This technology can be used as an alert system to detect patient falls, reduce caregiver injuries, improve patient rehabilitation outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Dr. Zhao conducts research related to real time motion assessment of rehabilitation exercises using csuohio.edu/research

the Microsoft Kinect sensor. In collaboration with Dr. Ann Reinthal and Dr. Deborah Espy in the School of Health Sciences, Dr. Zhao developed a Kinect-based rehabilitation exercise monitoring system. Human subject trials have shown that the system helps patients better adhere to activity requirements and improve overall recovery. His system incorporates machine vision with fuzzy logic (which mimics the imprecise reasoning of human thinking) to capture the clinician's requirements and provide easily understood feedback to patients. The types of motions in a rehabilitation regimen may not be easy for the patient to perform, so fuzzy logic gives the patient a relative rating of their motions, which allows them to improve and achieve the best possible outcome. Dr. Zhao collaborated with the School of Health Sciences and the School of Nursing to develop

a Kinect-based system to enhance nursing home worker compliance with best practices for assisting patients. Funded by a grant from the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation, they partnered with the Jennings Center for Older Adults in Cleveland to test their system, which tracks worker activities to help reduce injuries. He has also demonstrated the practicality of his system to the technology community. In 2015, Dr. Zhao and his students demonstrated their research at the OneCommunity [R]IoT event in Cleveland, the World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering, and Applied Computing in Las Vegas, and the IEEE Smart World Congress in Beijing. Dr. Zhao’s research on motion tracking technology will help to maintain people’s mobility and reduce the cost of health care by decreasing time lost to exertion-related injuries.




Cleveland State is leading efforts to improve teaching and student performance in elementary and high schools in Northeast Ohio and across the U.S.

Dr. Nigamanth Sridhar Professor




Creating a STEM Learning

Environment for All Students Educators and researchers are working together to increase understanding of and enthusiasm for STEM subjects.

Cleveland State University is at the forefront of efforts to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education at the elementary, high school and college level. As part of this effort, the university participates in a number of national initiatives which seek to combine expertise in education, engineering and computer science to enhance the STEM learning environment.

ensure their future economic success. Last year, more than 600,000 high-paying technology jobs across the United States were unfilled due to the lack of a skilled labor force, and by 2018, 51 percent of all STEM jobs are projected to be in computer science-related fields.1 CSU has assisted in launching a CSforAll initiative in Cleveland, in collaboration with the Cleveland Metropolitan School District (CMSD). With funding from the Cleveland Foundation, the

Teaching Computer Science is Now a Necessity Computer Science for All (CSforAll) is Last year, more than 600,000 high-paying a national initiative designed to provide all technology jobs across the United States were K-12 students with the appropriate skills in, and enthusiasm for, computer unfilled due to the lack of a skilled labor force, and science. Equipping today’s youth with compuby 2018, 51 percent of all STEM jobs are projected tational thinking skills will prepare them for our to be in computer science-related fields. increasingly technology-driven world and help


The White House





Dr. Nigamanth Sridhar, professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, serves as the principal investigator on the grant.

Dr. Nigamanth Sridhar directs the CS4All initiative, which seeks to create and implement computer science curricula in all schools in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District.

project plans to offer computer science courses in all of CMSD’s high schools within three years and eventually expand into the district’s middle and elementary schools. The Cleveland Foundation worked with academic leadership from CSU and CMSD in designing the initiative, which was modeled after similar programs in Chicago and New York City. Led jointly by CSU’s Washkewicz College of Engineering and the College of Education and Human Services, the project will provide training for 25-30 CMSD teachers through a professional development program, thereby creating a corps of educators who will serve as the district’s resource base as the program is implemented.



Better Preparing Students for College Another national CS education initiative is Computer Science Principles (CSP), a joint effort between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the College Board to develop an Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science curriculum for high school students. This new course is being offered for the first time in hundreds of schools across the country beginning in fall 2016. The course is designed to be a broad and inclusive introduction to the field of computing. Students learn how to approach problems, break them down into pieces and then derive and devise solutions from the subparts. Students are introduced to concepts of abstraction and algorithmic development, which are fundamental to computational thinking. The course also provides students a clear understanding of how the internet works, how data and information can be used to understand the world around us and how computing is having a global impact. Students are also introduced to commonly used algorithms, such as Google’s PageRank search algorithm and the public key encryption algorithm used in secured data communications. Through funding from the NSF, Cleveland State created the Computing in Secondary Schools Initiative (CISS), which seeks to train high school teachers from across the state of Ohio to teach CSP. Since 2014, over 50 teachers have received the training and over 1,000 Ohio high school students have


taken, or are enrolled in, a CSP course taught by CISS-trained teachers. The effort has also sought to expand diversity and gender equity in STEM education and has made a concerted effort to enhance the number of females and minorities enrolled in CSP courses. Addressing STEM Education Challenges in College Finally, with a five-year grant from the NSF, CSU’s College of Sciences and Health Professions launched Operation STEM (OpSTEM) to address STEM education challenges among college students. Designed to help firsttime students, full-time freshmen and first-generation college students pass precalculus and calculus, this innovative program has delivered impressive results. Previous passage rates for students in Precalculus I and Precalculus II were 57 and 61 percent, respectively. Between 2013 and 2014, OpSTEM boosted passage rates to 71 percent for Precalculus I and 87 percent for Precalculus II. Peer-teaching and mentoring by upperclassmen who have participated in OpSTEM, or who have been highly successful in precalculus, have been a key to the program’s success. STEM Peer Teachers meet twice weekly with the entire class for mandatory reviews. Working with students in groups, teachers prepare detailed, interactive sessions to help cement precalculus concepts. To date, more than 300 CSU students have passed precalculus courses with help from OpSTEM. As computer science skills have become vital for a successful future workforce, Cleveland State University looks forward to further advancing computer science education among K-12 and college students alike.


Since 2014, over 50 teachers have received the training and over 1,000 high school students have taken, or are enrolled in, a CSP course taught by CISS-trained teachers.




Advancing Educational and Health Outcomes for Urban Students What is the relationship between you and your environment? Does your environment shape who you are, or do you shape your environment? Dr. Adam Voight, assistant professor in the College of Education and Human Services, leverages his background in community psychology to explore the reciprocal relationship between individuals and their settings. Dr. Voight, the director of CSU’s Center for Urban Education, partners with local schools to improve the educational outcomes and general wellness of students who have been marginalized by socioeconomic, racial and ethnic inequalities. After earning his Ph.D. from Vanderbilt University, Dr. Voight spearheaded a research project with the public schools in Nashville, Tennessee to prevent youth violence. The project was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and showed how positive teacher-student relationships and meaningful community involvement improve school safety and student achievement. That success in Nashville prepared Dr. Voight to advance his educational initiatives in the city of Cleveland. His current research, funded by the Spencer Foundation, explores how Cleveland youth think about issues like bullying, school failure and dropping out of school. But Dr. Voight is more than an academic – he goes to the streets to collect data from student interviews and surveys, and then applies sophisticated algorithms to analyze his data. What is the relationship between bullying and poverty? School


dropout rates and unemployment? A failing grade in math and racism? This research, conducted in collaboration with the University of Michigan, helps young people better understand social and educational issues. These young people will then be prepared to make better-informed decisions about involvement with their communities and schools. Students who gain a better understanding of the social forces that impact their lives will be equipped to achieve better health outcomes and academic success. The research team is also working with the Cleveland Metropolitan School District to improve school district practices by involving student committees that discuss problems in schools and offer recommendations for change. Dr. Voight is working with the schools to ensure that their student committees are representative of the student body. These students’ involvement with their schools leads to significant improvement in attendance and academic achievement. Dr. Voight’s work in educational research, and his work with some of the most disadvantaged students in society, promises to transform the youth of the city of Cleveland and provide a brighter tomorrow for us all.


Dr. Adam Voight Assistant Professor


Advancing STEMM Education The Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine (STEMM) Education Center at Cleveland State University is a collaboration between the colleges of Education and Human Services, Engineering, and Sciences and Health Professions, and is designed to bring faculty together in the interest of advancing STEMM education in Northeast Ohio. Dr. Joanne Goodell, professor of teacher education, has been a co-director of the Center since its inception in 2010, and has led a number of research projects focused on equity, reform and professional development issues in the teaching and learning of mathematics and related disciplines. By designing and implementing enhanced professional development initiatives, the Center seeks to produce changes in teaching that lead to increases in student achievement. Dr. Goodell notes that research in mathematics and science education shows the need to move from


a lecture-based format to hands-on engagement. Using real-world objects and situations, teachers can more accurately assess student understanding and their ability to apply learned knowledge. In addition to her work through the Center, Dr. Goodell leads a number of initiatives designed to transform how teachers teach and better target teaching to the unique needs of students. She is the co-director of CSUTeach, a new model for secondary mathematics and science teaching license programs based on the successful UTeach model developed by the University of Texas at Austin. The program streamlines curriculum requirements for degree and licensure, while also allowing students the flexibility to take additional math and science courses to further expand skills in those fields. Additionally, Dr. Goodell serves as principal investigator of the Noyce MUST STEM Fellows program, which assists in preparing prospective high school mathematics

and science teachers to work in urban settings and address the challenges facing urban students. During the 2015-2016 academic year, Dr. Goodell was an American Council on Education (ACE) Fellow at Kent State University. She worked with the KSU provost and senior leaders to improve faculty-mentoring programs, develop new strategies to attract and retain a diverse faculty and create and implement a math boot camp for incoming students. Dr. Goodell now seeks to implement similar programs at CSU through her new post as director of the Center for Faculty Excellence.

Dr. Joanne Goodell Professor





From race relations to water policies to reproductive rights to space law, CSU faculty are working to reform public policies at the local, national and international level to improve society for all individuals.



Improving Policymaking in American Cities CSU professors are seeking to improve urban policymaking as well as the quality of life for city

Dr. Wendy Kellogg Professor

residents across the U.S. As seen in Flint, Michigan, access to safe water has become an important and defining issue facing American cities in the 21st century. And as witnessed by shootings in numerous municipalities around the country, addressing issues related to police-community relations will help define who we become as a nation. Here at Cleveland State University two professors are addressing these critical urban policy issues. Water Policies and Water Quality Dr. Wendy Kellogg, chair of the Department of Urban Studies in the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, and professor of Urban Planning and Environmental Studies, focuses her research on urban and regional planning and watershed governance. Dr. Kellogg’s research began with her doctoral dissertation on federal and state planning efforts to restore


polluted rivers across the Great Lakes basin, focusing on the role and influence of citizens and nongovernmental stakeholders. Further studies examined the role of local governments in protecting water and other environmental resources in Northeast Ohio. Dr. Kellogg has also studied state-level policies designed to protect Lake Erie, and Great Lakes coastal management practices. With state and federal grant funding, these projects were conducted through CSU’s Center for Community Planning and Development, and the Center for Economic Development. A SEGMENTED PROCESS

Studying the relationship between water and cities led to the recognition that planning, policy development and management of water constitute a segmented process. With influence from different government agencies, as well




as private sector entities, drinking water, waste and storm water, lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands were being managed as separate resources. Yet in reality, water is one system moving through one hydrologic cycle. To examine how societies plan for and manage water sustainably, Dr. Kellogg explored three aspects of water governance: 1) Land development practices to prevent soil erosion and changes to water’s natural flow that lead to flooding and loss of critical ecosystems; 2) Improved water management by various stakeholders, including government; and 3) How to convey scientific knowledge to public policy leaders and apply it to water use and management planning.

focus on restoring the function and biological integrity of streams, restoring polluted lakes and managing storm water to reduce community flooding along the river. Identifying best science practices related to overseeing water quality, stream habitat and river hydrology has brought valuable information to decision makers, including local elected officials, citizens and businesses. Using social network mapping, Dr. Kellogg’s team is combining this information with in-depth interviews to understand how the structure of governance networks emerge and change over time, and how changes in network structure enable substantial gains in water quality, habitat improvement and relationships among

change, infrastructure and governance within the Great Lakes Basin. Pursuing Equality for All Urban sociologist Dr. Ronnie Dunn, associate professor of Urban Studies in the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, examines social forces that define the choices and opportunities available to people based on their cultural, economic and social affiliations. Using this analytical framework, Dr. Dunn investigates the interactions and relationships of marginalized citizens in relation to other social groups and institutions. Race as a social construct, and its influence on the administration of justice, especially in regards to law enforcement, is one of his central focuses. INCREASING TRANSPARENCY

In 2007, Dr. Dunn was commissioned by the Cleveland water quality, stream habitat and river hydrology has brought City Council to conduct a study valuable information to decision makers, including local of the Cleveland Police Review elected officials, citizens and businesses. Board. At the time, it was the first comprehensive analysis of this oversight body in its then IMPROVING WATER POLICY PLANNING local governments. They have also 25-year history. A key recommendaCurrently, Dr. Kellogg is utilizing found practical implications for use tion adopted from the study resulted a case study regarding a small river in other water planning and managein changing the investigative staff basin in Northeast Ohio’s Chagrin ment settings. of the Office of Professional StanRiver Valley to analyze these water Serving on the Cleveland Water dards, which receives and investigates governance components. Working Alliance’s steering committee, Dr. Kelcitizens' complaints for the Civilian with graduate students, she is examlogg continues exploring the economic Review Board, from sworn officers to ining the policies that have preserved development and research potential recivilian investigators, thereby creating stream conditions, and has engaged lated to the city’s geographic location. a more transparent oversight process. local governments and stakeholders In April 2016, she also chaired and Dr. Dunn was also asked by the in a series of planning efforts and organized the Water Resilient Cities Cuyahoga County prosecutor to restoration projects. These projects Conference, which addressed climate

Identifying best science practices related to overseeing




Dr. Ronnie Dunn was appointed by Governor John Kasich to serve on the Ohio Collaborative Community-Police Advisory Board in 2015.

conduct a study of police discretion in determining how it affected racial disparities within the county’s criminal justice system. The study revealed disproportionate traffic citations among blacks and other minorities within Cleveland and Shaker Heights, two racially diverse cities. However, no such disparities were found in Brook Park and Westlake, two racially homogeneous cities. DEVELOPING BETTER POLICY STANDARDS

In the wake of recent high profile police-involved shootings in Cleveland and throughout the nation, Dr. Dunn worked with members of the Ohio State Senate to recommend the creation of a statewide taskforce on policing. That effort ultimately helped lead to the creation of the Ohio Collaborative Community-Police Advisory Board, and Governor John Kasich appointed Dr. Dunn to the panel in 2015. The board is tasked with setting statewide policies overseeing the use of force, recruitment


and hiring practices, as well as the development of standards to enhance community-police relations. Currently, Dr. Dunn is working with fellow board members to develop methods for collecting gender and racial information on traffic stops and other public encounters to detect and correct potential bias among officers. Dr. Dunn’s expertise in the area of policing and racial politics has also made him a valued national expert and frequent media commentator. This includes being invited to provide written testimony to President Barack Obama’s Taskforce on 21st Century Policing and making appearances on CNN, NBC News, the PBS News Hour and MSNBC, among others. In these challenging times, CSU’s Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs is dedicated to advancing research to ensure effective management of our cities and the development of sound urban policies.

Dr. Ronnie Dunn Associate Professor




Bioethics, Reproductive Rights and Public Policy What ethical issues are involved when a mother dies but her unborn baby continues to live inside her uterus? What about the use of sperm or eggs from donors who have died? Browne Lewis, professor in the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, isn’t afraid to grapple with difficult questions such as these. Prof. Lewis serves as the director of the College’s Center for Health Law & Policy. She struggles with the formation of ethical policies for reproductive rights, including issues such as posthumous reproduction, the birth of motherless or fatherless children and the resulting custody disputes. At the other end of the life continuum and Prof. Lewis’ research is physician-assisted suicide, which also sparks high levels of controversy. Prof. Browne Lewis received her M.P.A. and J.D. from the University of Minnesota and her LL.M. from the University of Houston. Prof. Lewis was recently invited to the Brocher Foundation in Geneva, Switzerland, where she conducted research on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), including interviews with both supporters and opponents of PAS. She collected her findings in an article in the Oregon Law Review,


where she argued for allowing PAS among patients suffering from Alzheimer’s and other incurable diseases, even when life expectancy was greater than six months. As a visiting scholar at the University of Texas Institute for Medical Humanities, Prof. Lewis expanded her research to include the study of medical futility. She examined cases where doctors discontinued treatment without permission of the patient or next-of-kin. She concluded that their actions were justified based on the fact that continued treatment would probably yield minimal benefit to the patient. In 2013 Prof. Lewis was awarded a Senior Fulbright Specialist Grant to lecture and conduct research at Haifa University and Hebrew University in Israel. Her Fulbright research focused on posthumous reproduction, which is not unknown in Israel. For instance, the Israeli Supreme Court recently gave permission to parents to have eggs extracted from the body of their daughter, who was killed during military service. In another highly publicized case, a woman sought legal permission to gestate an embryo using her deceased daughter’s eggs; if approved, the


woman would have given birth to her own grandchild. Prof. Lewis’ most recent article, which was published in the Winter 2016 issue of the Tennessee Law Review, documents her analysis of human oocyte property rights. She also is writing a book chapter on oocyte cryopreservation that will be published by Oxford University Press. Her book on the legalities of posthumous reproduction, entitled Arrogance, Avarice and Anguish: Addressing the Ethical and Legal Consequences of Posthumous Reproduction, is scheduled to be published this year by Routledge Press. Technology is making our world increasingly complex, and legal and ethical principles are having a hard time keeping pace. Prof. Browne Lewis is doing her best to keep the law and ethics abreast of reproductive technology.

Browne Lewis, J.D. Professor

Private companies are revolutionizing the space transportation industry. For example, Bigelow Aerospace has launched three prototype private space stations, while SpaceX and Blue Origin are developing reusable rockets that will reduce launch costs by one-third. Virgin Galactic is looking to shuttle the first group of private citizens into suborbital space. The proliferation of activity in outer space raises a host of legal questions. What laws apply in outer space? Mark Sundahl, the Charles R. Emrick, Jr.- Calfee, Halter & Griswold Professor of Law at the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, is an internationally recognized expert on the rules, regulations and laws surrounding human activity in outer space. As private space ventures continue to pose new legal concerns, Prof. Sundahl works with local, national and international entities to ensure that the laws of outer space strike a balance between sustainable public policy and industry needs. As a member of the Federal Aviation Administration’s Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee, Prof. Sundahl has assisted in developing policy recommendations that can ease restrictions on space tourism companies that want to launch spacecraft out of foreign spaceports. His recommendations seek to ensure that companies operating on the moon and Mars will be able to conduct their operations without the risk of interference from other private entities. BETTER SPACE


How does

These policies also clarify legal rights to minerals so that asteroid mining companies will have rights of ownership to any valuable minerals that they extract. Given the complexity of financing for space ventures, Prof. Sundahl has worked to give investors the legal certainty that they need before committing billions of dollars to space-based projects. To encourage development and facilitate the launch of start-up space companies, Prof. Sundahl helped draft the Cape Town Convention. The Cape Town Convention creates an international system of secured financing that will facilitate the use of space assets, such as satellites and reusable spacecraft, as collateral to raise capital. Prof. Sundahl also serves as an advisor to the U.S. delegation to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Among other things, this committee seeks to guarantee that space development – at this point mostly by U.S. companies and subsidiaries – will benefit all mankind. International law created under the auspices of the United Nations also prohibits the assertion of sovereignty in space to ensure that spacefaring countries do not claim ownership of the moon or other celestial bodies. Most of us are largely Earth-bound in our day-to-day activities. But Prof. Sundahl’s work focuses beyond Earth to apply laws to space travel and enterprise that are critical to the residents of this planet as we head toward the future.

Surendra Tewari, a professor

metal change

in the Chemical and Biomedical

launched into

examining the role that gravity-

when it’s

outer space? Researchers at Cleveland State University are trying to answer that question. Their work

promises to greatly improve the durability of materials and the safety of astronauts.


Engineering Department, is

driven fluid flow (convection)

plays in the formation of defects in metal alloy. Prof. Tewari’s team is

conducting directional solidification experiments in the zero-gravity

environment of the International

Dr. Mark Sundahl Professor


The Law of Outer Space

Space Station and is comparing the materials with their earth-

bound counterparts. Prof. Tewari’s research is on the cutting edge

of understanding the relationship between convection and metal defect formation. Prof. Tewari’s research partners include the

University of Arizona, NASA, and

Dr. Surendra Tewari Professor

the European Space Agency.





CSU is seeking to transform how we think about, study and appreciate art, history and culture.


Frontiers of

Digital History


Expanding the

Cleveland State is assisting institutions around the world in developing interactive digital archives. The Center for Public History + Digital Humanities (CPHDH) at Cleveland State University works in conjunction with university and K-12 educators and students, libraries, museums, cultural institutions, and neighborhood organizations to develop state-of-the-art public history projects and resources. Building on scholarly research and a commitment to engage academics and community members alike, the Center incorporates digital technology to offer a unique approach to history.

Dr. Mark Souther Professor


Promoting Cleveland to the World CPHDH evolved from a series of collaborations between history professors at Cleveland State University. The Center is currently led by Dr. Mark Souther, CSU Professor of History and an internationally known digital humanities expert. Under his direction the Center has focused on developing mobile apps that foster digital storytelling and has built one of the largest digital oral history collections in the Midwest. As an example, the award-winning Cleveland Historical website and app provides an interactive tour of the city as well as a host of oral histories, photos and media regarding the national legacy of Cleveland. It has been a powerful tool for student and civic engage-




ment, and involved hundreds of CSU students and numerous community organizations in the creation of its content. Curatescape Building upon that success, and funded with seed money from the CSU Office of Research and the National Endowment for the Humanities, Dr. Souther and his team developed Curatescape, an open-source mobile app designed to curate the landscape through the use of geo-located historical texts, archival film and images, oral history audio and short documentary videos. Curatescape is housed on GitHub, a public web-based repository for open-source technologies, and its Android and iOS apps are available through licensing by the CSU

means to share their interpretive voice with community audiences. Uses range from creating self-guided neighborhood and city tours to highlighting landmark designated buildings. The Smithsonian Gardens, a division of the Smithsonian Institution, uses the app to curate a participatory archive where visitors contribute stories and photos of their favorite garden. In addition, CPHDH created the Cleveland Regional Oral History Collection, which consists of more than 1,000 audio interviews. Covering a broad cross-section of the community, researchers, educators and students throughout Northeast Ohio regularly contribute to the collection. Topics range from local history to civil rights issues, from the Cuyahoga Valley Project to the Cleveland Cultural Gardens, from the birth of the West Side Market to the rise of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, from the region’s rivers, roads and rails to the International Women’s Air and Space Museum at Burke Lakefront Airport and more.

an open-source mobile app designed to curate

Tourism, History and America's Cities Along with his work through the Center, Dr. historical texts, archival film and images, oral history Souther has sought to expand understanding of audio and short documentary videos. public history through a host of projects. These include examining the role tourism Research Corp. Using the Omeka content has played in reshaping American cities, management system, this framework for and more recently how perceptions of publishing location-based humanities conmetropolitan change and concerns about tent has since been adopted by dozens of post World War II urban decline guided universities and cultural organizations on campaigns to revitalize downtown refive continents. gions, rehabilitate surrounding neighborBoth technologically and conceptually hoods, combat deindustrialization and sophisticated, Curatescape is an affordable, help craft a positive urban image. user-friendly solution that offers small to Dr. Souther’s book, New Orleans on mid-sized educational institutions, cultural Parade: Tourism and the Transformation organizations and preservation groups the of the Crescent City, was awarded the

the landscape through the use of geo-located




Kemper and Leila Williams Prize by the Historic New Orleans Collection and the Louisiana Historical Association. He is currently completing a book manuscript titled Believing in Cleveland: Managing Decline in The Best Location in the Nation. Curating Kisumu Dr. Souther, in collaboration with CSU associate professor of history Dr. Meshack Owino, is now working to expand the impact of his research around the globe. Through a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities and in partnership with Maseno University in Kenya, Drs. Souther and Owino have created the Curating East Africa project. The initiative seeks to create a new, streamlined version of Curatescape tailored for the developing world. Titled Curating Kisumu, the project’s initial phase involved the collaboration of student teams from Maseno University and CSU in researching and presenting stories about historic sites in Kenya’s third largest city. These stories explore themes of colonialism, landscape and environment, trade and transportation, race and gender, politics, religion, and traditional culture. Currently, the project is in the process of seeking additional grant funding to add new partners in Kenya and Tanzania, while developing a new toolset to digitally aggregate location-based projects throughout East Africa. Cleveland State University’s tradition of Engaged Learning, in which the city is our campus, seeks to enhance the work of historical organizations, cultural institutions and community groups through collaborations between faculty, students and community partners. In extending the conversation about public history, the Center for Public History + Digital Humanities not only aspires to reimagine Cleveland, but to reconnect the city’s history to the history of the nation and the world.


MaCleKi | Curating Kisumu

A project by Maseno University and Cleveland State University MaCleKi lets you explore the history of Kisumu, Kenya, through location-based essays and media. The project presents a range of themes, including culture, education, leadership and politics, land and environment, housing, health, trade, technology, religion, tourism, gender relations, ethnic and racial relations and regional and international relations. A partnership between Maseno University and Cleveland State University, MaCleKi is funded by a grant from the NEH Office of Digital Humanities.




A Magical Blend of Music and Imagery

Most music teachers don’t hold a joint appointment in the College of Law. And most music teachers haven’t won a Grammy Award. But then again, most music teachers aren’t Angelin Chang, Professor of Music and Law at Cleveland State University. Dr. Chang energizes her students with a unique blend of musical classics and digital technology. She enthralls audiences with classical works performed on a hybrid concert grand piano that is synched to multimedia. This combination of art and public education lies at the heart of Dr. Chang’s life, which includes a long string of first-ever accomplishments in the world of music. She is the first CSU professor to hold a joint appointment in the Department of Music and the College of Law. She is the first female American classical pianist to win a Grammy Award. She was the first musician to be appointed Artist-inResidence at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. She was also the first American to be awarded the Premier Prix (First Prize) for both piano and chamber music in the same year by the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique de Paris. A Disklavier piano is her instrument of choice to merge music and media. It is a high-end acoustic concert piano that can generate images from pedal and key articulation. Dr. Chang uses this unique hybrid piano to enhance music concerts with synchronized video and 3D imagery. As her fingers create musical and technical beauty on the piano, relayed signals routed to a


Dr. Angelin Chang, J.D. Professor

high-performance computer produce a coordinated multimedia display with laser-like synchronization. Dr. Chang’s renditions from Bach to Messiaen immerse her audience in visuals that highlight the emotional undercurrent of her music. Her performances, which often include the fusion of timeless classical repertoire with modern technology, have been presented at some of the most prestigious musical venues in the world: the Cleveland Museum of Art, Playhouse Square’s State Theater, Severance Hall, Lincoln Center, and Ingenuity and FireFish festivals that celebrate the collaboration between art and technology. In addition to teaching at Cleveland State University, Dr. Chang has trained up-and-coming musicians through master classes at the Manhattan School of Music, Temple University, the Shanghai Conservatory, and others. Dr. Chang is a leading authority in the Taubman Approach, a groundbreaking method for preventing and curing performancerelated injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Dr. Chang incorporates this approach into her instruction to help her students achieve optimal musical performance and professional longevity. As CSU’s coordinator of keyboard studies, Dr. Chang uses the Disklavier as a modern-day player piano


to replicate student performances, incorporate tempo changes, and expand her students’ skills. She is also able to combine her passions for music and law by teaching at the Great Lakes Sports and Entertainment Law Academy, a joint program of Case Western Reserve University and CSU. She instructs students in the legalities of representing musical artists along with the growing impact of technology on intellectual property and copyright law. Her students have interned at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, won recognition from the Grammy Foundation’s Entertainment Law Initiative, and worked with established artists who face intellectual property concerns. Dr. Chang’s unique talents and abilities have made her a truly singular artist and scholar in the CSU community.

Contributions to Art

Since the emergence of the internet, it seems that all kinds of data are being stored on permanent, digital records. But what about artists, artwork, subjects and themes that have been ignored, forgotten or simply overlooked with the passage of time? Samantha Baskind, professor of art history in the College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, studies modern art with a focus on Jewish contributions to American and European culture. With five books and over eighty articles and book reviews, Dr. Baskind’s scholarship is helping shape the nascent study of modern Jewish art. Dr. Baskind interrogates the work of Jewish artists in an effort to discern if Jewish content is encoded in it. Her scholarship expands the canon of American art by analyzing the Jewish aspects of an artist’s work, and questioning how that subject matter fits into the artist’s larger, more secular contributions. Her research ranges from eighteenth-century prints of Dutch Jews, to biblical images by twentieth-century Jewish American artists, to portrayals of Jews in film and television. Having distinguished herself as an internationally recognized expert, she has been quoted in The Washington Post, Huffington Post, and Religion News Service, as well as Lilith and Moment magazines. In 2011 she co-authored Jewish Art: A Modern History, which examines nineteenth and twentieth-century art created by Jews across America, Europe, and Israel. The book serves as


Dr. Samantha Baskind Professor

The Holocaust by George Segal

both an introductory discussion and a critical analysis to facilitate classroom teaching. She explored several major Jewish American artists’ biblical imagery across a diverse range of visual mediums in Jewish Artists and the Bible in Twentieth-Century America, a book that reviewers have described as “a stunning achievement” and “a treasure.” Since 2012, Dr. Baskind has served as the editor of an ongoing series of books published by the Pennsylvania State University Press: Dimyonot: Jews and the Cultural Imagination. These volumes are interdisciplinary explo-



Exploring Jewish

rations into the Jewish experience and culture, with topics ranging from literature to philosophy and art. She also served as editor for U.S. art for the 22-volume revised edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica (2006). Dr. Baskind’s book on the Warsaw Ghetto in American art and culture is scheduled for release in 2017. By fleshing out connections between the Jewish American experience and the cultural representations found in art, Dr. Baskind aims to legitimize a sub-field of American art history: Jewish American art.



ECONOMIC IMPACT Cleveland State generates enormous economic impact through our innovative faculty and industry partners. CSU also directly impacts the local economy through our operations. In 2013, CSU received approximately $65 million in state funding, and our activities provided an outstanding return on that investment. The University provided a five-fold return of $308 million in labor income, created thousands of jobs, and added hundreds of millions of dollars in economic value and tax revenues.


6,739 Jobs


$463 Million


$679 Million





Innovation and Entrepreneurship at Cleveland State University Cleveland State University is at the forefront of turning university-created technology and innovation into the next generation of businesses and products. Since 2014, the number of venture-backed startups in Northeast Ohio has increased nearly threefold, and CSU is helping lead the way in the renaissance of small business ventures. CSU's Technology Transfer Office assists faculty, staff, and students with intellectual property protection and technology commercialization. The Cleveland State University Research Corporation, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, facilitates licensing and commercialization and promotes industry partnerships. These efforts to foster innovation and entrepreneurship are vital to CSU’s ongoing mission to provide Cleveland with economic, community, and talent development.

Innovation and Economic Prosperity Designation The University’s success in innovation, entrepreneurship and commitment to economic engagement with the business community has been nationally recognized by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU), which recently awarded CSU the Innovation and Economic Prosperity (IEP) designation. This prestigious honor is shared with only 54 universities in the U.S. and is a reflection of a culture of collaboration and creative problem solving that improves the economic well-being of Northeast Ohio. The IEP designation highlights Cleveland State’s tremendous successes in developing workforce talent for the regional economy, providing entrepreneurship training and promoting technology transfer.


Industry Collaboration Cleveland State is focused on developing solutions that make a positive impact on the region's businesses and on society as a whole. A prime example of CSU’s innovation and entrepreneurship is the partnership between Invacare Corporation, and Professor Orhan Talu and Associate Professor Sridhar Ungarala in the Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering. Since 2012, Invacare has invested over $500,000 in CSU research, resulting in a next-generation portable oxygen concentrator (POC) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a condition which affects over 12 million adults in the U.S. This research has led to the creation of a prototype POC device that is being evaluated for patent protection by CSU and eventual commercialization by Invacare.

CSU Spin-off Success One of CSU’s most successful technology commercialization projects rose out of the work of Zhiqiang Gao, an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science. Dr. Gao’s research focuses on novel software for controlling motors and robots. In 2008, Dr. Gao formed a spin-off company which is now called LineStream Technologies. LineStream has obtained numerous patents, created 10 jobs, and secured over $6.5 million in external funding. In September 2015, the Danfoss Group purchased a 30% stake in LineStream. Danfoss is a multinational conglomerate that is headquartered in Denmark, and is a leader in the development of products for controlling electric motors, compressors, and mobile machinery, such as packing machines, elevators, and assembly lines. Danfoss is utilizing LineStream’s software to improve assembly line operations. Dr. Gao’s technology will greatly reduce assembly line setup time and associated costs. According to Danfoss’ 2016 Shareholder Report, “Getting the optimum setting at an assembly line is a complicated process … being almost able to offer our customers a plug & play solution is a huge improvement in our competitiveness. Innovating to differentiate themselves from their competitors means Danfoss plans to keep a keen eye on what is going on in the minds of bright, young students at universities like Cleveland State.”

CSU Innovation Portal Cleveland State is a researchfueled technology development and commercialization driver and continues to innovate by connecting to businesses to spur growth in Northeast Ohio. The University launched the Innovation Portal in 2016 to provide a centralized web-based collection of resources for innovation, research, and entrepreneurship that promotes the transfer of University-derived

Enhancing Commercialization

technology to the marketplace. The portal serves as a virtual workspace for collaborations, partnerships, economic engagement, and commercialization among students, faculty, and regional industry partners to address real-world problems. In the coming years, the University will continue to prioritize outreach and business activities as its research and scholarship continue to impact the community, the state, and the nation.

Cleveland State is leveraging

State of Ohio entrepreneurship programs to commercialize University technologies. Ye

Zhu, an associate professor

of electrical engineering and

computer science, has developed innovative communication


technologies for mobile

the market potential of their

funding from the National Science

a compelling commercialization

computing devices that received Foundation. In 2016, Dr. Zhu and his team were selected as one of 20 participants in the I-Corps@ Ohio program. This initiative

assists researchers in analyzing

innovations, helps them develop strategy, and assists them in

attaining the skills needed for creating a scalable business model and for launching a

successful startup company.



Supporting Entrepreneurship Cleveland State offers a host of programs for students and faculty which are designed to promote entrepreneurial skills and assist individuals in creating their own businesses. The Solo Practice Incubator in the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law supports entrepreneurship within the legal profession. The Monte Ahuja College of Business offers a range of services through the Small Business Development Center, the Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, the Sustainable Business Center and the Global Business Center. These initiatives foster a culture of entrepreneurship for students, faculty, and alumni, and provide guidance for navigating the murky waters of market analysis and business development.

CSU Commercialization Assistance for Ohio Cleveland State’s impact on new technology marketing extends far beyond its own campus. CSU is facilitating commercialization with industry partners and faculty from universities across the state of Ohio. As part of the $25 million Ohio Federal Research Network Initiative, CSU is leading statewide efforts to commercialize research, coordinate workforce development and market new technologies. The Initiative seeks to align Ohio public research universities with key government research priorities, promote additional federal and industry investment in the state and enhance overall economic and societal impact.

The Dan T. Moore MakerSpace Innovation is driven by fresh ideas, so it makes sense to cultivate the creativity of Cleveland State’s students. Thanks to a generous donation from Cleveland entrepreneur Dan T. Moore, the 100,000-square-foot addition to the Washkewicz College of Engineering will include the Dan T. Moore MakerSpace. Beginning in January 2018, the MakerSpace will provide 6,400 square feet of open laboratory space that will enable CSU students, faculty and the community to transform their ideas into practical solutions with the assistance of high-resolution 3D printers and scanners, computer aided manufacturing (CAM) equipment, digital design tools and electronic test equipment.



Entrepreneurship around the World What can the U.S. learn

from India? In the modernday era of globalization,

small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in

emerging markets play

a critical role as a major

source of employment and

revenue. Rajshekhar Javalgi, a professor in the Monte

Startup Vikes

Ahuja College of Business, studies the development

and growth of SMEs in India.

To foster new generations of entrepreneurs, the Monte Ahuja College of Business sponsors Startup Vikes, an intense 54-hour business competition for students, faculty, alumni, and the greater Cleveland community. Participants can launch a business in a single weekend, develop product demonstrations, and obtain feedback from University business experts. Since its inception in 2014, the competition has successfully incubated nine startup companies.

Dr. Javalgi has found that the ability to access new

technology and embrace risk allows Indian entrepreneurs

to capitalize on opportunities, management resources,

and human resources more

quickly than large firms. The combination of evolving regulations and positive

Innovation in the Clouds

attitudes about international expansion have enhanced Indian SMEs’ competitive

Cleveland State's innovative ideas are at work to better understand climate change and even the local weather forecast. In current climate prediction models, the behavior of clouds is one of the largest uncertainties. Assistant Professor of Physics Thijs Heus is addressing this problem by developing high resolution computer models known as large eddy simulations (LES), which he combines with data from airplanes, radar, and satellites to improve representations of clouds and atmospheric flow in global weather and climate models. Dr. Heus is also improving predictions about how and when fog layers dissipate in the morning. This is crucial for air traffic control or solar energy forecasting, where a 20 minute difference between prediction and reality can make a large and costly difference.


strategies for success. Dr.

Javalgi notes that SMEs in

India account for 7% of India’s gross domestic product, 34% of exports and 40% of the manufacturing sector.

Dr. Raj Javalgi Associate Dean



Research by the Numbers Cleveland State University is a nationally recognized research university. We are classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a “Doctoral University with Higher Research Activity.”

Cleveland State University led U.S. universities for increases in research spending on science and engineering between fiscal years 2004 and 2013, according to the latest edition of The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Almanac of Higher Education. CSU was No. 1 in the nation for greatest increases in total research spending and greatest increases in federal research dollars spent, up 298 percent and 684 percent, respectively.

$ in millions

SOURCE: The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Almanac of Higher Education 2015-2016


$55.5 million


$34.2 million


National Rank: #183

$67.4 million National Rank: #174

$61.8 million National Rank: #176

National Rank: #220

$14.3 million National Rank: #261

10 2009


National Rank: #193

$61.1 million









CSU was ranked #77 out of 485 institutions without a medical school in total R&D expenditures in the NSF Higher Education R&D Survey.

University of Massachusetts, Lowell American University


Cleveland State University



#77 $62,000




Ohio State University



Case Western Reserve University



University of Cincinnati



University of Dayton



Cleveland State University



University of Toledo



Wright State University


7 41

SOURCE: NSF/National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, Higher Education Research and Development Survey. NSF survey data from 2010-2014 can be found at https://ncsesdata.nsf. gov/herd/2014/

459% increase in corporate research dollars spent during 2009-2014. CSU ranked No. 12 among U.S. universities for largest increase in corporate research funding.



$ in thousands

positions that CSU moved up in ranking for Federal R&D expenditures from 2009-2014.

in Federal Research spending in Ohio in 2014, according to the NSF Higher Education R&D Survey.


University of Massachusetts, Boston

166 #5



since 2010. CSU has averaged 1 new startup per year from 2010-2016.


Curatescape is a low-cost yet highly sophisticated platform for curating cultural content on mobile devices. Cultural and educational groups can create geo-located storytelling apps that are enhanced with layered multimedia, search functions, and more. Curatescape has 41 active projects with more on the way.

UNDERGRADUATE SUMMER RESEARCH PROJECTS supported by CSU over the past 5 years. CSU has spent approximately $1.2M to fund these projects.



Endowed Chairs and Fellows at Cleveland State University Cleveland State University is proud of its many endowed chairs and fellows. The conferral of Endowed Chair or Fellow status is an honor that is granted only to the most outstanding faculty.

FELLOWS Fellows are members of professional societies who have been awarded the highest level of membership. Evidence of significant professional achievements is required for promotion to the grade of Fellow. A typical professional society awards the status of Fellow to only about 1% of its members. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN SERVICES


Dr. Julia C. Phillips, American Psychological Association Dr. Donna E. Schultheiss, American Psychological Association Dr. Charles K. Alexander, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Dr. Stephen F. Duffy, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Dr. Yung-Tse Hung, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Dr. Mounir B. Ibrahim, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Dr. Anette M. Karlsson, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Dr. Paul P. Lin, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Dr. Jerzy T. Sawicki, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Dr. Surendra N. Tewari, American Society for Metals (ASM)


Alan M. Ruben, J.D., The College of Labor and Employment Lawyers


Dr. David W. Ball, American Chemical Society Dr. Susan Bazyk, American Occupational Therapy Association Dr. Elizabeth Domholdt, Catherine Worthingham Fellow of the American Physical Therapy Association

Dr. Boaz Kahana, Association for Psychological Science; Gerontological Society of America Dr. Xue-Long Sun, American Heart Association Dr. Jearl D. Walker, American Association of Physics Teachers

Jearl Walker is nationally recognized for his efforts to popularize the field of physics. He authored the Flying Circus of Physics, toured the nation presenting physics demonstrations and

appeared frequently on national TV, including The Tonight Show. In honor of his contributions to science education, CSU’s

Outstanding Science Teaching Award is named in his honor.



ENDOWED CHAIRS Endowed chairs are faculty positions that are funded by either individual or corporate University donors. The appointment of a faculty member as an endowed chair constitutes the highest honor that can be accorded to a member of the professoriate. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN SERVICES

Dr. Ralph D. Mawdsley, J.D. Roslyn Z. Wolf Endowed Chair of Urban Educational Leadership


Dr. Elizabeth A. Lehfeldt, Mandel Professor in Humanities


Dr. Robert E. Gleeson, Albert A. Levin Chair of Urban Studies and Public Service


Dr. Ping Deng, Monte Ahuja Endowed Chair of Global Business Dr. Joseph B. Mazzola, Monte Ahuja Endowed Chair


Dr. Jerzy T. Sawicki, Donald E. Bently and Agnes Muszynska Endowed Chair in Rotating Machinery Dr. Antonie J. van den Bogert, Parker Hannifin Endowed Chair in Human Motion and Control


Heidi Gorovitz Robertson, J.D., J.S.D. Steven W. Percy Endowed Professorship Browne C. Lewis, J.D. Leon M. and Gloria Plevin Professor of Law Christopher L. Sagers, J.D. James A. Thomas Distinguished Professor of Law Mark J. Sundahl, Ph.D., J.D. Charles R. Emrick, Jr. – Calfee, Halter & Griswold Endowed Professor of Law Jonathan P. Witmer-Rich, J.D. Joseph C. Hostetler - Baker & Hostetler Professor of Law

About Cleveland State University

Founded in 1964, Cleveland State University is a public research institution that provides a dynamic setting for Engaged Learning™. With 17,000-plus students, nine colleges and more than 175 academic programs, CSU was again named in 2016 as one of America’s best universities by U.S. News & World Report. Find more information at www.csuohio.edu.

Follow @CSUresearch: csuohio.edu/research



Cleveland State University Office of Research 2121 Euclid Avenue Parker Hannifin Hall, 2nd Floor Cleveland, OH 44115-2214


Jearl Walker presents a physics demonstration to students at CSU during the 1970s. Nationally recognized for his efforts to popularize science, Professor Walker appeared on The Tonight Show and hosted his own educational program on PBS.

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