Page 1

EXTRATERRITORIAL BORDER: t o w a rd s a n e w e x c h a n g e z o n e t y p o l o g y

césar rodarte


“Extraterritorial Border: Towards a New Exchange Zone Typology” Wa s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y i n S a i n t L o u i s S a m F o x S c h o o l o f D e s i g n a n d Vi s u a l A r t s Master of Architecture, Design Thinking Fall 2017 César Daniel Rodarte Kathryn Dean, Adviser M a l i a K a l a h e l e , Te a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t


“WHEN YOU E S TA B L I S H A N EDGE, PEOPLE T E N D TO R E V O LV E A R O U N D I T. ”


“magnetic trade” [Traditional Mercado near San Ysifro Port of Entry. Tijuana, México]


CONTENTS [PREFACE]

Borders: A Manifesto

05

[DISCOURSE: Borders, Borders and More Borders]

Global Borders........................................................ 09 ‘Secured’ Borders................................................... 15

U. S. Customs Inspection....................................... 19 NAFTA....................................................................... 21

[ EXTRATERRITORIAL BORDER ]

Formal ‘Borderconomics’....................................... 25 Informal ‘Borderconomics’..................................... 27 Existing ‘Exchange Zones’..................................... 29 Where am I?............................................................ 31 Border (not) As Dividing Line............................... 37 Border As Exchange Zone.................................... 39 Border As Gateway................................................ 41

[CONTEXT: Where Are These Borders?]

Extenuated Border.................................................. 47 Multi-modal Transportation..................................... 49 Political Border........................................................ 53 Quick Facts............................................................. 55 Context History........................................................ 57

[SPECULATION: What if...]

What if...................................................................... 71

Privatization............................................................. 73

Corporate Embassy................................................ 77 Clinic Without Borders............................................ 81 North America Air Gateway..................................... 85 Speculating Program.............................................. 91

[PROGRAM: Extraterritorial Border]

North America Air Gateway..................................... 95 Encouraging Small Businesses.............................. 99

Site Strategy............................................................ 101

[POSTFACE]

Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road?.................. 103


44 47 71

103


ex·tra·ter·ri·to·ri·al1

/ekstre’tere’tôrēel/ adj. valid outside a country’s territory.

bor·der2

/bôrder/ noun. the edge or boundary of something, or the part near it.

[ PREFACE ]

B O R D E R S : A M A N I F E S TO Throughout history, infrastructure and natural environment have been used to create divisions in society. Despite the monumentality of rivers, rail tracks, highways ,and walls, it is important to establish that borders are not always physical; invisible boundaries play an important role on how people interact and how they are controlled. Jurisdictions, district boundaries, international zones, free trade zones and airspace are among such invisible borders. These invisible borders sometimes confined an extraterritorial zone that has its own regulations and jurisdiction. When an edge or border is established, people tend to revolve around it. How does society start to “break down” borders in order to facilitate exchange between two different zones? The U.S. - México border presents a unique condition, thousands of people cross the border everyday in order to attend school, work, receive healthcare or simply just for recreational activities. Adjacently, thousands of surface freight crosses the border due to the economic dependency between bi-national border towns. Despite the national infrastructural divide, the ports of entry are spots of magnetic border activity: these spots

05 06

become cultural and economic exchange zones. Our southern border is a prime example of how trade, economy and industry break down borders and open line of communication between two subjects.

1. Extraterritorial (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/extraterritorial 2. Border (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Border


[U.S.- México ‘Great, Great’ Border Wall]


BORDERS, BORDERS AND MORE BORDERS


[ DISCOURSE ]


brandt line

[ DISCOURSE ]

imaginary economic line 1980s imaginary line drawn by William Brandt during the 1980s that shows the inequality between the Rich North and the Poor South.

G LO B A L B O R D E R S It is important to understand borders in a global scale, both terrestrial and aerial, before start analyzing any particularities of borders. Even with the economic growth and development of some nations in the last few decades, the Brandt line still divides a “Rich Northern Nation” from a “Poor Southern Nation.” The Human Development Index, Gross Domestic Product, birth rates, life expectancy, mortality rate and literacy rate are important indexes that show the development of each Nation. The U.S. - México border, for instance, is not only a physical barrier but also a division between the Rich North and the Poor south. On the other side, every country also has its own aerial border. Such border in not uniform since it varies depending on the country. The United States is responsible for a considerable amount of airspace. The Federal Aviation Agency is in charge of providing air traffic control and protection within that zone.

09 10


US Aerial Border US Aerial Border

0 , 198 Brant Line

s

0s 198 , e n i nt L Bra


“THE RICH NORTH”

E.U

México

Brandt

Line,

1980s

U.S

11 12

Brazil


Russia

Turkey

China India

South Africa

Australia

Bra

ndt

Lin

e,

198

0s

“THE POOR SOUTH”


US Aerial Border

13 14


US Aerial Border


se·cure1

[ DISCOURSE ]

/səˈkyo͝or/ verb. protect against threats; make safe.

‘SECURED’ BORDERS Since the construction of the first 13-miles along the San Diego - Tijuana border in 1993, the U. S. government has completed more than 650 miles of fencing along the southern border costing $6.5 Million per mile2. In 2011, $1 Billion was spent on a pilot program in Arizona for a ‘virtual wall’ that consisted on virtual surveillance. In the northern border, the lenght of the U.S. - Canada border is marked by a 20-foot-wide slash through the trees. Every year, with a budget of $1.4 Million, the International Border Commission deforests the U.S. - Canada border set at the 49th parallel3. The juxtaposition between opposite means of marking a border presents an scenario

builds infrastructure in order to establish a border; on the other hand, the Northern border is defined by the erasure of trees. for further discussion: In the South the U.S.

15 16 1. Secure (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/secure 2. Cromer, A. A. (2017, June 08). Brief History: A Timeline of the U.S. Border Wall. Retrieved November 03, 2017, from http://www.worldstir.com/history-us-mexico-border-wall/ 3. Blank, L. (2016, September 19). US-Canada Border Slash. Retrieved November 29, 2017, from https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/uscanada-border-slash


vancouver. bc

CANADA U N IT E D STATES

seattle, wa

LAK

UP E S

ERIO

R

LA

LAKE MICHIGAN

us - CANADA border border “sl ash” bi-nati onal border ( 3, 987 m il es) primary ports of entry

KE

HU

RO

N

fo rt e rie ,o n win d s o r, o n

b u ffa lo , n y

d e tro it, mi

primary w ater bodies

‘Border slash’

‘Border fence’

13 ’- 0 ”

2 0 ’- 0 ”

NORTHERN BORDER

SOUTHERN BORDER

RI O

G

RA

ND

E

calexico, ca

s a n di ego, c a me x i ca l i , m x ti j uana, mx

nogales, az nogales, mx

UNITED STATES MÉXICO

e l p a s o , tx ju á re z , mx

us - méxICO border existing border fence ( 650 m il es) bi-nati onal border ( 1 , 954 m il es) primary ports of entry primary w ater bodies

la re d o , tx n u e v o la re d o , mx br ow nsvi lle, t x ma ta mo ro s ,mx


314

PORTS OF ENTRY C AT E G O R I Z E D BY F I E L D O P E R AT I O N S OFFICES

[ DISCOURSE ]

19

There are 314 ports of entry (land, air and sea) in the United States. Every state has at least one port of entry.

17 18

data. Pew’s analysis of U.S. Customs and Border Patrol data, 2014


[ DISCOURSE ] 19 20

U . S . C U S TO M S I N S P E C T I O N cargo

deployable structure


infrared scanner

CBP inspection station

cargo


NAFTA

[ DISCOURSE ]

north america free trade agreement 1992 act that removed taxes on products traded between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

N A F TA North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) establishes a free-trade zone in North America. NAFTA lifts tariffs on almost all goods produced by Canada, Mexico and the United States. This international agreement also establishes the gradual elimination of most remaining barriers to cross-border investment and transportation of goods and services among the three nations1.

21 22 1. U.S. Customs and Border Protection. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.cbp.gov/ trade/nafta


CANADA

Pacific Ocean

NAFTA TRANSBORDER FREIGHT FLOWS Truck Truck U.S. U.S. -

Flows from Canada Flows from Mexico Canada Port of Entry (traffic by volume) Mexico Port of Entry (traffic by volume)

data. BTS for port of entry data. Truck Flows simulation (2005). Modeling Transnational Surface Freight Flow and Border Crossing Imrpovement, The Ohio State University.

MéXICO


Atlantic Ocean

STL

Truck Flows from Canada and Mexico overlap in Saint Louis.

Gulf of México


NAFTA

[ DISCOURSE ]

north america free trade agreement 1992 act that removed taxes on products traded between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

FO R M A L ‘ B O R D E R C O N O M I C S ’ The North American Free Trade Agreement of 1992 signed by the U.S., México and Canada sparked industrial economy along the U.S. - México border. Such policy helped develop an even stronger cultural and economical connection between border towns like El Paso, TX and Juárez, MX. Ports of entry are exchange zones of both formal and informal economies: for one side, thousands of cargo trucks cross the border daily thus contributing to the formal U.S. - México economy. There are (5) international ports of entry between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, three of which can accommodate commercial shipments. Ten years ago the daily crossing at the international ports was 23,210 pedestrians and 43,922 Private Owned Vehicles and 2,284 commercial trucks1. Today, Mexico is the top-three exporter to the United States with $297 Billion annually just after China and Canada. The primary goods traded between U.S. - Mexico - Canada are vehicles, heavy machinery, electronics, furniture. Electronic parts and are amongst the top raw products these nations trade.

25 26 1. Regional Stakeholders Committee (2009), “The Paso del Norte Region, US-Mexico: Self-Evaluation Report”, OECD Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development, IMHE, http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/regionaldevelopment


free trade zones1

secure sites considered outside of U.S. Customs territory but physically located in the United States.

[ DISCOURSE ]

synonyms: foreign, trade zone.

I N FO R M A L ‘ B O R D E R C O N O M I C S ’ Informal economy plays an important role on creating intense magnetic activity around the border. Dozens of street vendors occupy the spaces between the private owned vehicles waiting to cross the border at the ports of entry. Such vendors represent a different type of informal trade which does not generate any tax revenues for the government. It is almost if the informal vendors operate inside their own “free trade zone”. It is interesting how these two economic models overlap at the border despite their opposite organizational structure and revenue. Furthermore, both types of trading strengthen the connection between the two nations.

27 28


san ysidro port of entry [TIJUANA, MX - SAN DIEGO CA]

puppies puppies

c er am i c s c er am i c s

a u to - a cce ssor i es

mexican snacks

in fo rma ti o n bever ages n e ws paper s

0:15: 0 0

0 : 3 0 : 00

1 : 00: 00

t oys

1 : 30: 00

religious statues puppies

beggers alcoholic bar

2:00:00

beggers

car journey

sea food

2:30:00

3:00:00

3:30:00 time

Intensity of the informal market in relationship to the progression along the waiting line to cross into the United States and the time at the waiting line. The size of the circles demonstrates the intensity of the goods and vendors during a time span.

45’

5’ 9’

9’

9’

5’ 9’

9’

Cross section through the San Ysidro Point of Entry shows the spatial relationship between the cars in the waiting line with the informal vendors.


ex·tra·ter·ri·to·ri·al1

[ DISCOURSE ]

/ekstre’tere’tôrēel/ adj. valid outside a country’s territory.

EXISTING ‘EXCHANGE ZONES’ An international zone is a type of extraterritoriality governed by international law. Such zone could operate within areas of international airports outside customs and immigration controls. These areas often contain duty-free shopping, and/or foreign trade zones. Similarly, Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZs) are designated, secure sites considered outside of U.S. Customs territory but physically located in the United States. Foreign and domestic merchandise may be admitted into foreign-trade zones for storage, exhibition, assembly, manufacture, production and processing without formal Customs entry procedures, the payment of Customs duties, or the payment of federal excise taxes. Applicable duties and fees are paid when the products leave the zone2.

29 30 1. Extraterritorial (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/extraterritorial 2. Foreign Trade Zone #5 . (n.d.). Port of Seattle. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.portseattle.org/Cargo/Foreign-Trade-Zone/Pages/default. aspx


FTZ BENEFITS

Defer customs duties and federal excise taxes until merchandise is transferred from the FTZ to domestic market customs territory of the U.S. or a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) country (Canada or Mexico).

Reduce processing/entry fees by as much as 85 percent with the Weekly Entry Process, which allows goods to be shipped 24 hours a day, seven days a week, with just one entry filed each week and just one Merchandise Processing Fee per entry.

Reduce customs duties on goods processed or assembled in the FTZ when imported components have a higher duty rate than the finished goods Eliminate customs duties entirely when goods are re-exported from the FTZ.

Exempt imported goods from state and local ad valorem taxes when they are held in the FTZ for storage, sale, exhibition, repackaging, assembly, distribution, sorting, grading, cleaning, mixing, display, manufacturing or processing. Goods manufactured in the U.S. and held in the FTZ are also exempt.


country A

country B

int

e

ational zon ern

[ DISCOURSE ]

customs

WHERE AM I? International zones are part of which country is physically located; it almost operates as separate country because people that inhabit those zones are considered to be in the country in a legal aspect but not in immigration sense. Some countries do not require a visa to transfer at airports, but it does require a visit to enter the country. A crime committed at airports must be prosecuted in a court house outside the airport’s limits. If a citizen without a visa commits a crime, the citizen cannot legally enter the country; the country therefore has the rather ability to create a floating international zone around the citizen, no matter where they go they are not in the country even if they are physically walking on the streets1. The US operates a unique system of pre-clearance facilities in some train stations and ports around the globe. For instance, flying from Dublin to New York City, you clear U.S. customs at Dublin Airport. When you pass U.S. Costumes in Dublin, you are in the United States in an immigration sense but you are not in U.S. soil. Therefore, Irish laws still apply pass U.S. Customs at the airport. The U.S. CBP agents are subject to U.S. despite being in Ireland, essentially treated as diplomats.

31 32 1. ‘Which Country Are Airports in?’ by Wendover Productions. (2017, June 06). Retrieved December 04, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=lkCeKc1GTMs image credit. ‘Matthew, Transit and Preclearance in Dublin Airport. Live and Let’s Fly. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from http://liveandletsfly.boardingarea. com/2015/09/22/transit-and-us-preclearance-in-dublin-airport/


border patrol pre-clearance facility [Dublin International Airport]


DUB

YYC

YVR YEG

YOW YWG

YUL

YYZ

SNN YHZ

AUA FPO NAS BDA

33 34

u.s. pre-clearence facilities


AUH


HOW CAN ‘BORDER’ BE REDEFINED?


[ H Y P OT H E S E S ]


[ DISCOURSE ]

BORDER (not) AS DIVIDING LINE It has been suggested... that architecture must produce a distance between itself and the program it fulfills. This is comparable to the effect of distanciation first elaborated in the performing arts as the principle of non-identity between actor and character1. The main purpose of a boundary is to divide. Throughout history, boundaries have been created in order establish segregation, isolation, protection or punishment. But why should a boundary look like a divisive agent? Why should there be an identification between “the actor” and the “character”? Why should boundaries be physically manifested as walls and/or fences?

A border must NOT look like a border. Such thesis comes from the deconstructive idea that a bank must not look like a bank, nor a park like a park.

37 38

1. Tschumi, B. (2001). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 204.


I. divisive line

II. gateway

III. exchange zone

“boundary (not) as dividing line” [U.S.- México ‘Great, Great’ Border Wall]


zone1

/zōn/ noun. an area or stretch of land having a particular characteristic, purpose, or use, or subject to particular restrictions.

[ DISCOURSE ]

synonyms: area, sector, section, belt, stretch, region, territory.

BORDER AS EXCHANGE ZONE

Crossprogramming is defined as combining two programs regardless of their incompatibilities, together with their respective spatial configurations. Reference: planetarium + rollercoaster2. The main purpose of a boundary is to divide. What if a boundary acts as an “exchange zone” between two different actors rather than a divisive line?

A border could act as an exchange zone; an overlap between two conditions no matter how similar or different they are.

39 40

1. Zone (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zone 2. Tschumi, B. (2001). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 205.


III. exchange zone

“boundary as exchange zone” [bi-national volleyball game over the U.S.- México Boder Wall]


gate·way1

[ DISCOURSE ]

/gāt,wā/ noun. a means of access or entry to a place. synonym: portal.

B O R D E R A S G AT E W AY

The simplest cases to correct, I think, are borders that could logically encourage much greater use of their perimeters. Park uses... should be brought right up to the borders of big

parks, and designed as links between the park and its bordering street. They can belong to the world of the street and, on the other side, to the world of the park, and be charming in their double life. They should be calculated... as spots of intense and magnetic border activity2.

The main purpose of a border is to divide. What does it mean when you cross a border? What if the border is perceived as a gateway or transition between two “zones”? A border could act as a gateway; a transition between two different zones with spots of intense and magnetic border activity.

41 42

1. Gateway (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gateway 2. Jacobs, J. (2011). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Modern Library. p. 265-266.


II. gateway

III. exchange zone

“boundary as gateway” [Zaragoza Port of Entry- U.S.- México]


[ DISCOURSE ]

1. line

43 44

2. gateway


3. zone

4. magnetic border

?


WHERE ARE THESE BORDERS?


[ CONTEXT ]


ex·ten·u·ate1

/ikˈstenyəˌwāt/ verb. to underestimate, underrate, or make light of.

[ CONTEXT ]

E X T E N U AT E D B O R D E R The Saint Louis Lambert International Airport presents a unique border condition. Lambert exists already within an enclave space—an in-between zone that is subject to different rules and opportunities than the areas around it. At that site there is an ability to develop an architecture with less formal/economic design predictions but with more security and logistics restrictions. An extenuated border condition—Lambert lies in Foreign Trade Zone No. 102. An extraterritorial border that is considered outside of U.S. Customs territory but physically located in the United States. Such conditions open the possibility to propose cargo, logistics and other programs that get processed at the airport within the threshold-borderspace in order to avoid certain taxes that are imposed outside airport limits. Lambert’s boundaries also indicates ownership: the airport is owned by the city of Saint Louis and is located in a unincorporated municipality in Saint Louis County. Therefore, the airport’s boundary is not only an aero-terrestrial border but also a political border between the county and the city of Saint Louis.

47 48

1. Extenuate (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/extenuate


MIDWEST

STL

[ CONTEXT ]

M U LT I - M O D A L D I S T R I B U T I O N Saint Louis is strategically located to serve trade and distribution. More than half of the country is within a day driving distance for a truck driver (16 hours), in two days, trucks not only reach the whole continental United States but also parts of the countries top trading partners, Canada and Mexico. Saint Louis has the ability to efficiently transfer between all modes of transport (rail, truck, air, water).

49 50


5h our s

8h our s

10 hou rs

15 hou rs

20 hou rs

CANADA

STL

MEXICO

flight paths rail interstate driving time


Sea

tle

/Ta

com

Pacific Ocean

a

CANADA

OAK

d

an l k a

O

LAX

h

DFW

Airport Cargo by weight High Medium Freight Freight Volume Volume

Se vo apor (TElume t Us)

ort dp Lanolume v S$) (U

High Volume Rail Highway

MéXICO

do

Highway Bottleneck

Lare

Trans-American Freight Network

El Paso

LA

Lo

B

esa yM Ota

d

an

ng

c ea


Buffalo

Detroit and Port Huron

EWR JFK

ORD

NY/NJ

IND STL

Atlantic Ocean

SDF

Nor

folk

MEM

Charlesto

n

DFW

Savan

nah

Hou

sto

Gulf of México

n

MIA


[ CONTEXT ]

POLITICAL BORDER

53 54

Saint Louis Lambert International Airport is a political border between the City of Saint Louis and Saint Louis County. The airport’s boundary is not only an aero-terrestrial border but also a political border between the county and the city of Saint Louis. The City of Saint Louis spends millions of dollars in the maintenance of the airport.


BRIDGETON

KINLOCH

stl county

city of stl


air·side1 /’ersīd/

the side of an airport terminal from which aircraft can be observed; the area beyond security checks and passport customs control.

land·side2

/’landsīd/ noun. Public or free flow areas that do not require security checks.

A I R P O R T D E S I G N : Q U I C K FA C T S At airports, the smooth flow of passengers becomes a series of filters where travelers are divided from terminal visitors, domestic and international travelers are channeled into separate streams, those with baggage are divided from those without, and those of national origin are split from non- nationals.3

[ CONTEXT ]

Saint Louis-Lambert International Airport becomes a political threshold when invisible infrastructure --- social class, air space protection protocols and political agenda --establishes juxtaposing conditions within the same space. While the airport acts as a gateway for many ‘privilege’ passengers, it also acts as barrier for people without the ability to travel by air due to social class, travel bans and cultural differences. Where this division occurs is crucial. At arrival, international and domestic passengers should be separated at the airside of the terminal, which usually takes form of a segregated airside corridor. Arriving and departing passengers are also normally separated on airside of the immigration control barrier due to security reasons.4 The necessity to introduce physical segregation is translated into multi-level floor terminals. Immigration, health, customs among other government controls at airports are in conflict with the necessity for operational flexibility.5 These controls lead to compartmentalized terminals, sunlight can also be used to help define the concourse areas from control zones.

55 56

Airport Urbanism has developed into designing “cities within airports”. In today’s society, International Airports are being designed with hotels, duty-free shopping malls, offices, spas, health clinics, restaurants, grocery stores and even parks post-security check in an area known as international zone. How can this interstitial zone within an aero-terrestrial border could illustrate a new typology for a more flexible programmatic arrangements?

1. Airside (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/airside 2. Landside (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airport 3. Edwards, B. (2009). The modern airport terminal: new approaches to airport architecture. p. 102 London: Spon Press. 4. Edwards, B. (2009) p. 102.


TO

FENCE AIRSIDE

SOMEWHERE

FROM

SOMEWHERE

FROM

SOMEWHERE

DOMESTIC DEPARTURE

INTERNATIONAL DEPARTURE

DOMESTIC ARRIVAL

INTERNATIONAL ARRIVAL

GATE LOUNGE

GATE LOUNGE

GATE LOUNGE

GATE LOUNGE

DOMESTIC DEPARTURE LOUNGE

INTERNATIONAL DEPARTURE LOUNGE

SECURITY THRESHOLD

CUSTOMS CONTROL LANDSIDE

CHECK-IN GENERAL CONCOURSE

GENERAL CONCOURSE

ARRIVAL PASSENGERS access to

DEPARTURE PASSENGERS access from

LEGEND control point public zone (landside) private zone (airside)

barrier public filter security zone passenger flow easy access (tsa pre check)

FENCE

TO

SOMEWHERE


C O N T E X T H I S TO R Y In 1920, The Aero Club of Saint Louis leased 170 acres of cornfield, Kinloch Horse Racing Track and the Kinloch airfield and the field was officially named Lambert-St. Louis Flying Field in honor of Albert Bond Lambert1. The airport was then sold to the city of St Louis, making it the first municipally-owned airport of the United States. In 1980, the airport expanded its main runaways as an attempt to attract Trans-World Airline’s expansion plan and establish Saint Louis as an international economic hub. After concourse D was completed, TWA began transatlantic service from Lambert to London, Frankfurt and Paris2. As part of the process, the Federal Aviation Administration adjusted noise-decibels levels for the areas around the airport and a noise-control plan was

[ CONTEXT ]

implemented. The plan consisted in two parts: providing home insulation improvements to properties around Kinloch, and a property buyout plan focused for Kinloch residents. By promoting the airport’s expansion in order to achieve regional economic growth, the airport authority demolished about 75% of Kinloch’s residential fabric as well as the complete erasure of the white suburb of Carrollton3. The events on September 11, 2001, resulted on the reduction of commercial flights in and out of Saint Louis. Such event created a chain reaction that lead to the loss of the airport’s TWA hub status. After American Airlines bought TWA in the late 1980s, smaller and quitter aircraft models hit the market and made the runway expansion and noise-control plan completely redundant4. In 2009, St. Louis Regional leaders envisioned turning the underutilized land owned by the airport as cargo and storage facilities for Chinese exports. The unethical aspect of this vision was the transition of land ownership. The acquired land in Kinloch that was originally acquired for “public purposes” will then be sold to private developers in order to build “big box” architecture with the purpose of storing Chinese goods.

57 58

Land acquisitions through opaque laws and policies have created a social border between the airport and its surrounding municipalities.

1. Leonard, M. D. (2016, December 25). Lambert airport traces its history to an aviation visionary who knew how to sell mouthwash. Retrieved December 04, 2017, from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/lambert-airport-traces-its-history-aviation-visionary-who-knew-how-sell-mouthwash#stream/0 2. ”Lambert History”. Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011 3. Choi, E and Trotter M. (eds) Architecture is all over. (2015). Erasure Urbanism Chapter by Patty Heyda: Actar Publications. 4. Choi, E and Trotter M. (eds) Architecture is all over. (2015). Erasure Urbanism Chapter by Patty Heyda: Actar Publications.


STL City

still owns parcels in the municipality of Bridgeton, within STL County. such land is fenced with “no tresspassing signs”

BRIDGETON

Y NWA 11/29 RU

$1billion

cost to build

2.000

houses destroyed

5-10%

flights use

CARROLLTON “ghost town”

I-170

LAMBERT AIRPORT

KINLOCH STL City owns and operates the airport. The aiport is located in an unincorporated area in STL County.

I-70

POPUL CH’S A LO 10.000 (1900s)

4.500

N TIO

KIN

70

I-2

(1980’s before noise regulations)

200

(2010)


building: none size: 310 acres

70

I-2

ON

2.

CARROL LT ST WE rail access

land available for lease

HAZEL 2 3 1

70

GIST ROAD 3.

I-2

building: none size: 154 acres highway + runway + rail access

ROLLTO N CAR 1.

land available for lease

building: none size: 120 acres no access

land available for lease

BRIDGETON I-70

AIRPORT OWNED PROPERTIES The airport authority owns six properties in different municipalities near Lambert Airport. These properties present different opportunities in terms of access, size and availability.

airport property

municipal boundary

ST. ANN


FLORISSANT

RN THE TRAC OR

K

4. N

I-170

LWOOD

building: 2.6 m SF size: 50 acres rail + runway access land available for lease

BERKLEY

4

FERGUSON

UNINCORPORATED 5

KINLOCH NORTHPARK 6.

WNLEIG BRO H 5.

building: none size: 492 acres

building: none size: 123 acres

EDMUNDSON

highway access

runway + highway access

6

land available for lease

WOODSON TERRACE

I-170

I-70

land available for lease


70

I-2

HAZEL

70

I-2

BRIDGETON I-70

FOREIGN TRADE ZONE #102 The largest Foreign Trade Zone in Missouri is Foreign Trade Zone #102. Merchandise entering the zone may be stored, tested, sampled, labeled, repackaged, displayed, repaired, manipulated, mixed, cleaned, assembled, manufactured, salvaged and/ or destroyed.

foreign trade zone #102

municipal boundary

ST. ANN


FLORISSANT

I-170

LWOOD

BERKLEY

FERGUSON

UNINCORPORATED KINLOCH

EDMUNDSON

WOODSON TERRACE

I-170

I-70


70

I-2

2.

building: none size: 310 acres

ON

CARROL LT ST WE rail access

land available for lease

HAZEL 2 3 1

70

GIST ROAD 3.

I-2

building: none size: 154 acres highway + runway + rail access

ROLLTO N CAR 1.

land available for lease

building: none size: 120 acres no access

land available for lease

BRIDGETON I-70

POTENTIAL EXTRATERRITORIAL ZONES The overlap between the underutilized properties and the Foreign Trade Zone show potential for developing an intervention that could benefit from suitable from an extraterritorial zone.

airport property

foreign trade zone #102

municipal boundary

ST. ANN


FLORISSANT

RN THE TRAC OR

K

4. N

I-170

LWOOD

building: 2.6 m SF size: 50 acres rail + runway access land available for lease

BERKLEY

4

FERGUSON

UNINCORPORATED 5

KINLOCH NORTHPARK 6.

WNLEIG BRO H 5.

building: none size: 492 acres

building: none size: 123 acres

EDMUNDSON

highway access

runway + highway access

6

land available for lease

WOODSON TERRACE

I-170

I-70

land available for lease


JA

ME

Mc

DO

NN

EL

L

BL

VD

LIN

DB

ER G

H

BL VD

S

H

DB

LIN

E HE

ERN TRA RTH C NO

K

G ER

VD

BL

building: 2.6 m SF size: 50 acres

RD

rail + runway access

S

N BA

land available for lease

POTENTIAL SITE FOR PROPOSAL The Northern Track property owned by the airport was chosen for further exploration since it lies in a Foreign Trade Zone and it has access to rail, runway, and highway. Such property leads to speculate what program could benefit from a multi-modal transportation/distribution network.

airport property

foreign trade zone #102

municipal boundary

fenced area

railr


road tracks

ATER COLD W

CREEK

HAZELWOOD NNELL JAMES McDO

BLVD

BERKLEY

BANSHEE RD

UNINCORPORATED

railroad access

runway


[ CONTEXT ]

S I T E P H OTO S

The Northern Track property owned by the airport contains a vacant building of over a million squared feet. The proposal will demolish this structure since it is in a decaying status.

67 68


From lef to right: railroad tracks, Banshee road, site for proposed intervention.

The Northern Track property has access to rail, runway, and highway. Such property leads to speculate what program could benefit from a multi-modal transportation/distribution network.


W H AT I F. . .


[ S P E C U L AT I O N ]


spec·u·la·tion1

[ SPECULATION ]

/spekye’lāSH(e)n/ noun. the forming of a theory or conjecture without firm evidence.

W H AT I F. . . The airport presents a unique border condition which leads to speculate what could happen within that extraterritorial zone. People cross borders for healthcare, education, jobs, etc; cargo crosses borders in order to strengthen economies. Thus, ports of entry between different zones become crucial spots of magnetic border activity. Programs and scenarios speculate the future of ports of entry and borders in relationship to Lambert airport. This manifesto is attempting to formulate a new future for an extraterritorial border, a zone that is outside local and federal jurisdictions. As previously stated, a foreign trade zone is outside U.S. Customs jurisdictions and the border of such area has economic and social consequences in society.

Private Corporations and developers are the primary users within the foreign trade zone, how can the FTZ’s border be broken in order to benefit “the little man”?

71 72

1. Speculation (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/speculation


zone1

/zĹ?n/ noun. an area or stretch of land having a particular characteristic, purpose, or use, or subject to particular restrictions.

synonyms: area, sector, section, belt, stretch, region, territory.

public-private partnership2

[ SPECULATION ]

/ppp/ cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors. typically involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time

P R I VAT I Z AT I O N The city of St. Louis has recently applied to the Airport Privatization Pilot Program, created in 1996 by the Federal Aviation Agency in which allows city-and-state owned airports to enter lease agreements for services, development, and management. The benefits of such model is that the city could use the money to fund infrastructural projects in the city: from increasing monetary assets for the school system to developing the North-South Metrolink. Former Mayor Francis Slay stated on an interview that the city of Saint Louis currently receives about $6 million per year from the airport. Travis Brown of Grow Missouri Inc., a non-profit that is partnering with the city on the project, said that figure could increase by 4 - 10 times under a public-private partnership. The increase in annual revenue is not the only monetary asset, this model could also mean a upfront influx of cash for the city. The only airport in the United States under a public-private partnership is in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The city of San Juan got $600 million upfront for the airport, which is smaller than Lambert.

73 74

1. Zone(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zone 2. Public Private Partnership(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public-private-partnership


W H AT WOULD A P U B L I C - P R I VAT E AIRPORT LO O K L I K E ?


priva te b or de r

LAMBERT private airland

PRIVATE

public land

publicprivate land

private land

der bor

private air

public airland

LAND exchange zone

publicprivate air

er ord Db N LA

te iva pr

exchange zone

public air

PUBLIC

PUBLIC bo rde r

AIR

LIC border PUB

AIR bo rde r


class “a� office space1 building type.

newest and highest quality buildings in their market. They are also are well located, have good access, and are professionally managed. As a result of this, they attract the highest quality tenants and also command the highest rents.

public-private partnership2

[ SPECULATION ]

/ppp/ cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors. typically involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time

C O R P O R AT E E M B A S S Y The city’s lack of revenue from taxes and investment has led to social issues and disparity like poor education, vacancy and crime. People began moving out of the city in order to seek better lifestyles. Designing a corporate embassy: International Class A Office Space at underutilized spaces Lambert terminals could bring more tax revenue to the city that could be used on investing on social issues like educational disparities. There is also a social border between the airport and its surrounding municipalities (Kinloch and Carrolton). The proposal could partially re-purpose one of the runways to create a public space for the surrounding communities.

77 78

Program: A multi-functional space for meetings, seminars and workshops. International Class A Office space post- security with a public-park component for workers, travelers and adjecent communities. Concourse B serves as an EventSpace, Lambert has empty space on its almost vacant concourse C that could be redesigned as office spaces.

1. Troy Golden. Primer: Differentiating Class A, B, and C Office Space (2016, October 13) Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://www.areadevelopment.com/ AssetManagement/Directory2013/primer-differentiating-office-space-class-26281155.shtml 2. Public Private Partnership(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public-private-partnership


“corporate embassy� [speculation of international class A office space at Lambert airport]


COULD P R I VAT I Z I N G AIRPORT SERVICES H E L P S O LV E I N F R A S T R U CT U R A L PROBLEMS IN THE CITY?


ex ch zo ange ne

RT

BE

LA M

PRIVATE CAPITAL LIC

PU B

ED UC AT ION AL TU D RE PU ISPE BL R IC ITY SE R TR VICE AN S SP OR TA TI O N AS TR UC

FR

IN


clin·ic1

[ SPECULATION ]

/’klinik/ noun. an establishment where outpatients are given treatment, advice, or support especially of a specialist nature.

CLINIC WITHOUT BORDERS An airport becomes a political threshold when invisible infrastructure --- social class, air space protection protocols and political agenda --- establishes juxtaposing conditions within the same space. While the airport acts as a gateway for many ‘privilege’ passengers, it also acts as barrier for people without the ability to travel by air due to social class, travel bans and cultural differences. Can there be a medical clinic in an extraterritorial zone in order to provide medical, legal immigration services and refuge to people without the ability to travel due to social class and travel bans?

81 82

Program: Develop a partnership with anchor institutions in Saint Louis like Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Law and the International Institute in order to establish a medical and legal clinic for banned travelers and immigrants. The airport’s extraterritorial zone, potentially outside federal jurisdictions, could be a space that provides legal counseling, temporary refugee and medical assistance to immigrants and refugees.

1. Clinic(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/clinic


“medical clinic without borders� [speculation of a travel health clinic at Lambert airport]


COULD AN EXTRAT E R R I TO R I A L ZONE IN THE AIRPORT SERVE A S ‘ S A N CT U A R Y ’ CITY?


gate·way1

[ SPECULATION ]

/gāt,wā/ noun. a means of access or entry to a place. synonym: portal.

N O R T H A M E R I C A A I R G AT E W AY Even with physical borders, trade and economy break down barriers and establishes a line of communication between two subjects. Mexico is the top 3 trading partner of the United States with $586 Billion annually, while Canada is the top 2 with $586 Billion. The exports are limited to terrestrial freight since any freight that flies into Mexico must go through one of three destinations, including Mexico City, and then distributed throughout the country. The proposition of a dual customs pre-cleareance facility would facilitate trade between the United States and Mexico. The proposed facility would permit pre-clearance of cargo that is bound for Mexico as well as U.S. Customs inspection of cargo imported from Mexico. St. Louis would have the capacity to clear goods to and from México. Given its central location, St. Louis would have the ability to distribute goods throughout the country via air, rail, truck once the goods are cleared at the internationalcargo terminal.

85 86

Program: An international air cargo terminal with a pre-clearence facility for NAFTA trading. The program would then be complemented by logistics space for storage, exhibition, assembly, manufacture, production and processing without formal Customs entry procedures, the payment of Customs duties, or the payment of federal excise taxes due to FTZ regulations. In order to accommodate smaller scales, space for ‘start-ups’ and exhibition space similar to a market will complement the proposal. Small businesses will then benefit by obtaining cheap materials to develop prototypes due to the characteristics of the FTZ.

1. Gateway (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gateway


85 86

[ SPECULATION ]


public-private

office pancake public

multi-purpose market private

warehouse/factory box


87 88

[ SPECULATION ]


public

campus puzzle private

runway carpet private

port of entry speed-bump


[ SPECULATION ]

S P E C U L AT I N G P R O G R A M An extraterritorial zone provides multiple speculative scenarios about how programs can take advantage of the unique characteristics of such zone. Arguments for the three speculated programs are as follow:

a corporate embassy: Envisioning Class A Office Space at one of the under-utilized concourses in the airport. Such program was developed tangentially with the idea of privatizing an airport as a possibility of bringing tax revenue to a city in order to address social infrastructural issues like education, crime and unemployment. Such program needed a more compelling reason as to why an office space needs to be inside an extraterritorial zone rather than within a city’s core.

a clinic without borders: Speculating how an extraterritorial zone could be a ‘sanctuary city’. How can an airport address the issue of medical and immigration services to people without the ability to travel due to social class and travel bans? Even though such idea was a provocative argument, the long process of legally filing for refuge in the United States and the overall immigration policies made this scenario impossible.

91 92

a north america air gateway: Saint Louis is centrally located between Mexico and Canada, United States’ top trading partners, speculates the idea of a center for distribution and pre-clearence capabilities of goods and raw materials. Saint Louis status as a top city for start-up businesses also presents an opportunity that could benefit the community.


?


EXTRAT E R R I TO R I A L BORDER


[ PROGRAM ]


[ PROGRAM ]

N O R T H A M E R I C A A I R G AT E W AY Even with physical barriers, trade and economy break down borders and establish a line of communication between two subjects. Therefore, the program formulates the possibility of an international air cargo facility with the ability to clear customs and strengthen trade across North America. Not only the truck flows from Canada and Mexico overlap in Saint Louis, but also it is centrally locate within the country. More than half of the country is within a day driving distance for a truck driver (16 hours), in two days, trucks not only reach the whole continental United States but also parts of the country’s top trading partners, Canada and Mexico (reference pages 49 and 50). By developing in a Foreign Trade Zone, any merchandise entering the zone has can be stored, tested, sampled, labeled, repackaged, displayed, repaired, assembled and manufactured without paying any fees; therefore a start-up space for small businesses is also proposed. Inside the foreign trade zone these start-up businesses can obtain cheap imported raw products in order to produce prototypes, they would have the machinery, space and transportation networks to produce, store and distribute their prototypes.

95 96


‘maquiladora’

storage, exhibition, assembly, manufactur, production and processing space without formal Customs entry procedures, the payment of Customs duties, or the payment of federal excise taxes due to FTZ regulations.

DUAL CUSTOMS pre-clearance of cargo for u.s. - méxico exports and imports.

NORTH AMERICA AIR GATEWAY

international air terminal for export/import transportation

TRADERS’ PARK space for exhibition, purchase and trade of small scale trading of goods between small scale businesses and public

START-UP SPACE design, development and production space for start-up businesses and locals. Access to transportation networks and to raw imported materials with the ability to stored them at the location.


EVEN WITH PHYSICAL BARRIERS, TRADE AND ECONOMY BREAK DOWN BORDERS AND E S TA B L I S H A LINE OF C O M M U N I C AT I O N .


‘maquiladora’

EXCHANGE EXHIBITION

cargo

cargo

PRODUCTION STORAGE

TRADERS’ PARK

WORKSHOPS

INSPECTION

DUAL CUSTOMS

bi-national AIR CARGO GATEWAY

cargo

cargo

cargo

cargo

TRANSPORTATION

Diagram showing the flow of goods within the proposal. Goods and raw materials get in and out from the air cargo terminal and freight rail stations. The workshop space for small business overlap with the maquiladora’s production space; simultaneously, a traders’ park is overlapped with the maquiladora.


[ PROGRAM ]

ENCOURAGING SMALL BUSINESSES Big tech companies like Amazon, Apple, Google and Hewlett-Packard started in no more than a garage. During the 1950s, living rooms in some homes became a production floor: from designing and manufacturing shoes to crafting elegant furniture to then sell them from a profit. Saint Louis has been categorized as one of the top cities for start-ups in recent years due to its affordability and federal grants that subsidize entrepreneurship. The primary goods traded between U.S. - Mexico - Canada are vehicles, heavy machinery, electronics, furniture. Electronic parts and are amongst the top raw products these nations trade. The program is envisioned to become a space that provides tech and craft start-ups cheap imported raw materials (electronic parts, metal, wood) in order to develop prototypes. Storage, production space with necessary equipment, simultaneously the air cargo terminal, rail and highway access would enhance distribution possibilities across the nation and abroad.

99 100


NORTH AMERICA AIR GATEWAY: PROGRAM BREAK-DOWN

[ PRIVATE ] ‘maquiladora’

[ FEDERAL ] DUAL CUSTOMS

storage, exhibition, assembly, manufactur, production and processing space for electronics without formal Customs entry procedures, the payment of Customs duties, or the payment of federal excise taxes due to FTZ regulations. [ 2.000 SF ]

[ PRODUCTION SPACE ]

[ 40.000 SF ]

[ STORAGE SPACE ]

[ 30.000 SF ]

[ MAINTENANCE ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ INSPECTION ]

[ 2.000 SF ]

[ PACKAGING ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ CAFETERIA ]

[ 7.000 SF ]

[ RESTROOMS ]

[ 3.000 SF ]

ace

p ds e r ha

s

[ INSPECTION ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ CBP OFFICES ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ RESTROOMS ]

[ 1.500 SF ]

[ CAFETERIA ]

[ 7.000 SF ]

ace

p ds are

sh

e

ac

sp

sha

[ PUBLIC ] START-UP SPACE

[ PUBLIC - PRIVATE] NORTH AMERICA AIR GATEWAY

red ce shared space

design, development and production space for start-up businesses and locals. Access to transportation networks and to raw imported materials with the ability to stored them at the location. space for exhibition, purchase and trade of small scale trading of goods between small scale businesses and public

spa

shared space

ed

ar

sh

[ ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES ]

pre-clearance of cargo for u.s. - méxico exports and imports.

international air terminal for export/import transportation [ CARGO BUILDING ]

[ 0.5 SF PER TON OF CARGO ]

[ AIRCRAFT RAMP ]

[ 35,100 SF ]

[ TRUCK DOCK ]

[ 0.6 SPACES FOR TRUCK PARKING PER 1.000 SF OF CARGO BUILDING ]

[ EMPLOYEE PARKING ]

[ 2 -8 SPACES FOR TRUCK PARKING PER 1.000 SF OF CARGO BUILDING ]

[ ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICCES ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ CLASSROOMS ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ PRODUCTION SPACE ]

[ 40.000 SF ]

[ STORAGE SPACE ]

[ 30.000 SF ]

[ INSPECTION ]

[ 5.000 SF ]

[ SHOWCASE + MARKET ]

[ 15.000 SF ]

[ CAFETERIA ]

[ 7.000 SF ]

[ RESTROOMS ]

[ 3.000 SF ]

[ RESTROOMS ]

[ 3.000 SF ]

[ CAFETERIA ]

[ 7.000 SF ]

[ RESTROOMS ]

[ 1.500 SF ]


JA

ME

Mc

DO

NN

EL

L

BL

VD

LIN

DB

ER G

H

BL VD

S

GH

R

E DB

LIN

E HE

VD

BL

MAQUILADORA

RD

TRADERS’

AIR CARGO GATEWAY

S

N BA

WORKSHOP

site strategy The program and site allow the opportunity for multi-scalar interactions: freight terminal and logistics with customs capability for large international manufacturers while providing opportunities (production space, exhibition, raw materials, distribution networks) for small businesses or start-ups. This creates intense border activity around the port of entry by encouraging trade and economy. The proposal not only attempts to capitalize on the characteristics of the foreign trade zone but also on breaking down the border between small businesses and big corporations. intervention site

municipal boundary

fenced area

customs

railroad tracks

rai


ATER COLD W

NNELL JAMES McDO

CREEK

BLVD

BANSHEE RD MARKET

ilroad access

runway

goods flow

cross-program


ex·tra·ter·ri·to·ri·al1

/ekstre’tere’tôrēel/ adj. valid outside a country’s territory.

bor·der2

[ POSTFACE ]

/bôrder/ noun. the edge or boundary of something, or the part near it.

WHY DID THE CHICKEN CROSS THE ROAD? People cross borders for healthcare, education, and jobs, while cargo crosses borders in order to strengthen economies. What if the border is extraterritorial, an independent zone with unique characteristics and regulations? “Why did the chicken cross the road?” is a common riddle joke in our society, with the answer being to get to the other side. The riddle leads the listener to expect a traditional punchline, but instead they are given a simple fact. In the joke, the road acts as a border-an in-between zone between the two sides. What if the road is actually an extraterritorial border with its own programmatic agenda that happens to lie in-between two sides? In such case, the chicken crossed the road in order take advantage of the unique characteristics of the extraterritorial border.

103 104

This manifesto on invisible borders is trying to achieve a new typology of exchange zone. This manifesto is trying to break down the border of foreign trade zones by proposing a program in which small businesses benefit from the FTZ regulations while improving the economic, distribution, and transportation networks of Saint Louis and North America.


SIDE

THE OTHER SIDE

EXTRATERRITORIAL BORDER

zone outside jurisdictions with its own regulations and characteristics.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Airside (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/airside Blank, L. (2016, September 19). US-Canada Border Slash. Retrieved November 29, 2017, from https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/ uscanada-border-slash Border (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Border Secure (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/secure Choi, E and Trotter M. (eds) Architecture is all over. (2015). Erasure Urbanism Chapter by Patty Heyda: Actar Publications. Clinic(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/clinic Cromer, A. A. (2017, June 08). Brief History: A Timeline of the U.S. Border Wall. Retrieved November 03, 2017, from http://www. worldstir.com/history-u-s-mexico-border-wall/

[ EXTRATERRITORIAL BORDER ]

Edwards, B. (2009). The modern airport terminal: new approaches to airport architecture. p. 102 London: Spon Press. Extenuate (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/extenuate Extraterritorial (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/extraterritorial Foreign Trade Zone #5 . (n.d.). Port of Seattle. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.portseattle.org/Cargo/Foreign-TradeZone/Pages/default.aspx Gateway (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gateway Jacobs, J. (2011). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Modern Library. p. 265-266. Landside (n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airport ”Lambert History”. Lambert-Saint Louis International Airport. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2011 Leonard, M. D. (2016, December 25). Lambert airport traces its history to an aviation visionary who knew how to sell mouthwash. Retrieved December 04, 2017, from http://news.stlpublicradio.org/post/lambert-airport-traces-its-history-aviation-visionary-whoknew-how-sell-mouthwash#stream/0 Public Private Partnership(n.d.). Retrieved October 24, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/public-private-partnership Regional Stakeholders Committee (2009), “The Paso del Norte Region, US-Mexico: Self-Evaluation Report”, OECD Reviews of Higher Education in Regional and City Development, IMHE, http://www.oecd.org/edu/imhe/regionaldevelopment Speculation (n.d.). Retrieved November 12, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/speculation Troy Golden. Primer: Differentiating Class A, B, and C Office Space (2016, October 13) Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http:// www.areadevelopment.com/AssetManagement/Directory2013/primer-differentiating-office-space-class-26281155.shtml Tschumi, B. (2001). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 204. Tschumi, B. (2001). Architecture and disjunction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. p. 205. U.S. Customs and Border Protection. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2017, from https://www.cbp.gov/trade/nafta ‘Which Country Are Airports in?’ by Wendover Productions. (2017, June 06). Retrieved December 04, 2017, from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=lkCeKc1GTMs Zone (n.d.). Retrieved September 10, 2017, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zone


WHY DID THE CHICKEN CROSS THE ROAD? - TO B E O N THE ROAD

Extraterritorial Border: Towards A New Exchange Zone Typology  

Master of Architecture Thesis at Washington University in Saint Louis.

Extraterritorial Border: Towards A New Exchange Zone Typology  

Master of Architecture Thesis at Washington University in Saint Louis.

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