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Surveys of the Subtidal Reef Biota of the Cradle Coast 1992-2018 Neville Barrett, Graham Edgar, Elizabeth Oh, Scott Ling and German Soler October 2018


Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 49, Hobart TAS 7001 Enquires should be directed to: Dr Neville Barrett Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies University of Tasmania Private Bag 49, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia Email address: Neville.Barrett@utas.edu.au Ph. (03) 6227 727 Fax (03) 6227 8035

The authors do not warrant that the information in this document is free from errors or omissions. The authors do not accept any form of liability, be it contractual, tortious, or otherwise, for the contents of this document or for any consequences arising from its use or any reliance placed upon it. The information, opinions and advice contained in this document may not relate, or be relevant, to a reader’s particular circumstance. Opinions expressed by the authors are the individual opinions expressed by those persons and are not necessarily those of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS) or the University of Tasmania (UTas).

ďƒ“ The Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania 2018. Copyright protects this publication. Except for purposes permitted by the Copyright Act, reproduction by whatever means is prohibited without the prior written permission of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies.


Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Executive Summary This report documents changes on rocky reefs in the Cradle Coast NRM region over the past 25 years, by examining the results of approximately decadal-scale surveys undertaken during the mid 1990s, 2006/2007 and 2017/2018. Overall, reef communities appear to have experience some changes during the past 25 years in response to climate change and fishing pressure. These changes follow, to a lesser extent, the ones reported for reef systems in eastern Tasmanian waters, where rapid warming as a result of increasing EAC influence has seen major changes in biological assemblages. The 0.4 ℃ rise in sea surface temperature in the NW of Tasmania during the 25 years of study, may have driven the increases in some warm-affinity species in the region, particularly amongst the herbivorous fishes. Furthermore, there was a decline of canopy algae in the north region of the Cradle Coast as well as a drop to zero percentage cover of Macrocystis pyrifera during the time of study. Additionally, invertebrate’s species richness dropped to almost half of the 1990s values. This drop in species richness was also mirrored by a drop in abundance of key species such as the common urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the seastar Meridiastra calcar and blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra. Declines in harvested species have also occurred, including declines in size and abundance of the major fish target species, abalone and lobster. Population decline in these important predatory and herbivore species may affect some ecosystem processes, in addition to the fishery related management issues raised. Introduced marine pests did not represent a major threat, although the introduced seastar Astrostole scabra appears to be gradually increasing in abundance along the west coast. Declines in industrial effluent to the coastal waters surrounding Burnie region have coincided with an increase in algal cover of some groups (i.e. foliose brown and filamentous red alga); apparently previously impacted by lack of light to the reef due to pollution increasing turbidity. However, surprisingly few signs of major recovery were apparent overall. To facilitate ongoing examination of reef health in the Burnie region, seven additional monitoring sites were added, with a further three sites added in the far north-west to improve regional coverage for future reporting.

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Contents Executive Summary...................................................................................................................2 Introduction................................................................................................................................5 Materials and Methods...............................................................................................................6 Data collection...................................................................................................................................6 Fishes.................................................................................................................................................7 Cryptic fishes and megafauna invertebrates......................................................................................7 Macroalgae........................................................................................................................................7 Statistical analysis..............................................................................................................................8

Results......................................................................................................................................13 Reef Communities...........................................................................................................................13 Fish..................................................................................................................................................14 Invertebrates...................................................................................................................................21 Algae................................................................................................................................................27 Influence of sea temperature on fish...............................................................................................33 Water Quality..................................................................................................................................37

Discussion................................................................................................................................43 Broad-level patterns:.......................................................................................................................43 Fishing-related trends:.....................................................................................................................43 General trends:................................................................................................................................44 Fishes...........................................................................................................................................44 Invertebrates...............................................................................................................................44 Algae:...........................................................................................................................................45 Burnie region water quality.........................................................................................................45 Implications and recommendations:...............................................................................................46 Summary:........................................................................................................................................47

References................................................................................................................................48 Appendix 1. Fish abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18................................................................................................................................50 Appendix 2. Fish abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18................................................................................................................................61 Appendix 3. Invertebrate abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18......................................................................................................................65 Appendix 4. Invertebrate abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18......................................................................................................................77

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Appendix 5. Macroalgal community percentage cover recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18.............................................................................................81 Appendix 6. Macroalgal community percentage cover recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18............................................................................................88 Appendix 7. Average percentage cover of quadrat taxa/substrate per region and decade...........107 Appendix 8. Total abundance of fish species per region and decade............................................111 Appendix 9. Total abundance of mobile macroinvertebrates per region and decade....................114

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Introduction Our coastal rocky reef systems represent a vital part of Tasmania’s biodiversity assets, and are particularly important for commercial fishery production, with combined rock lobster and abalone production approaching an annual income of $200 million alone. That is before adding the poorly understood value of recreational fishing activities, scale fish fisheries, and the conservation value of maintaining healthy functioning ecosystems. Despite this, our knowledge of the health of these reef systems is particularly poor, as most research and assessment is targeted at single key commercial species rather than on the habitat that supports them. Furthermore, the need for long-term monitoring at the community level and over broad spatial scales is critical to assess ecosystem level changes as a result of anthropogenic impacts, such as climate change, fishing, introduction of pests, and pollution (National Marine Science Plan 2015-2025). For rocky reef communities in the Cradle Coast NRM region, a range of anthropogenic threats exist, including: (1) ocean warming due to strengthening of boundary currents in south eastern (Ridgway 2007, Oliver et al. 2018) ; (2) overharvesting of target and by-catch species by commercial and recreational fishing ; (3) ecological overfishing of large and functionally important reef species resulting in indirect ‘cascading’ ecological change such as proliferation of sea urchin barrens (Ling et al. 2015); (4) introduction of non-indigenous species that can alter the balance of the ecosystem, with possible extirpation of native species (Arthur et al. 2015). These threats rarely act in isolation but can combine to cause species decline and wholesale ecological change. Regional declines in targeted species such as bastard trumpeter, rock lobster, banded morwong, have been reported and evaluated at broad scales via fisheries statistics (e.g. Moore et al. 2018), but such information is rarely available at regional or whole of reef scales, as needed if management is to utilise spatial interventions to particular regional pressures. Thus, measuring and understanding changes in the local scale population abundance of reef species is critical for adaptive spatial management to occur. This strategy has recently resulted in management action to rebuild stocks in areas most impacted in the NE (e.g. East Coast Stock Rebuilding Strategy 2017). Nevertheless, little is known about the extent that similar issues might be prevalent in the NW. Earlier biodiversity surveys indicated that urchin barrens were common in the Rocky Cape region due to the presence of common urchins Heliocidaris erythrogramma (Stuart-Smith et al. 2008), but the extent and rates of change have not been adequately documented. In addition to the potential list of negative impacts on reef systems, the marked decline in industrial pollution from the Burnie region is likely to have had a significant positive impact on the rocky reef health of this region. At the time of initial surveys, between January and March 1999, subtidal assemblages in this region were influenced by ongoing industrial effluent, plus possible after-effects of poorly regulated industrial effluent from a factory producing titanium dioxide, a paint pigment. From 1949 to 1996 this factory was in operation at Heybridge, between Burnie and Penguin. Its effluents (consisting primarily of iron, dilute acid, chromium and manganese) were directly discharged into Bass Strait (Pearce 1991). Reports exist of red pigment staining both shorelines and the water column (Ritz et al. 1985).

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Another major industry in Burnie was a pulp mill operated by Associated Pulp and Paper Mills (APPM) Ltd. from 1938 to 2010. Effluent from the titanium dioxide plant and pulp mill would have significantly increased toxicity of sediments, elevated levels of particulate matter, and reduced light attenuation in the water column (Ritz et al. 1985, Murphy et al. 2003, SoE 2003). Whilst other inputs still exist, such as sewage treatment plant outfalls and agriculturally derived chemicals and fertilisers, the severity of pollution at many sites has improved since the 1990s, owing to the cessation of these two major industries, as well as better environmental standards of current industry (SoE 2009). One sign of habitat recovery may be an increase in kelp and foliose macroalgae, a useful biological indicator as well as a key habitat forming biota (Oh et al. 2015). Despite this, no recent feedback for environmental reporting has been reported in in this region over the past decade. To improve our understanding of the current status and health of rocky reef systems, and to document trends over the past two decades in the Cradle Coast region, the Cradle Coast NRM funded a series of biological surveys spanning the geographical extent of the region. In this report, we examine the data acquired from new surveys undertaken during 2017-2018 describing the shallow reef fauna and flora communities of the Cradle Coast NRM region, and contrast these with the results of surveys undertaken in 2006/7 (Stuart-Smith et al. 2007) and in the early and late 1990s at 32 long-term monitoring sites. These multi-decade scale datasets were compared to examine reef community changes, such as variation in species richness and introduced species populations, and changes that may have resulted from ocean warming and fishing. In addition, we present data from 10 sites added in 2017/18 to both increase the representative coverage of the Cradle Coast region, and to build knowledge in the Burnie region to further document changes in the post-industrial period.

Materials and Methods Data collection Data were collected using underwater visual census methodology to assess changes in fish, invertebrate and algae communities between the 1990s, 2006/2007 and 2017/2018. A total of 43 sites (Figure 1; Table 1) were surveyed, which included 3 new sites around the far NW at The Doughboys nature reserve and Trefoil Island (added in 2018), as well as 7 new sites surveyed in 2017along the northern coast between Burnie and Wynyard. The NW sites were surveyed to add better spatial coverage of that region, while the new sites in the Burnie region were added to better track potential recovery in a section of coast previously influenced by heavy industrial pollution. The 1990s data were collected primarily in 1994 with extra data collected in 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1995. The same group of sites were resurveyed in 2006/2007 and once more in 2017/2018, with the addition of the extra sites. At each reef site the abundance and size structure of fishes, the abundance of cryptic fishes and large benthic invertebrates, and the percent cover of macroalgae and cover-forming invertebrates were censused separately along the same four 50-m transects. The transect lines were laid end to end along a fixed depth contour. Scuba divers recorded all data on waterproof paper. Further details on the underwater census protocols are described in Edgar et al. (1997) and Edgar et al. (2004).

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For analysis of change through time, sites were grouped into two biogeographic regions within the Cradle Coast based on the marine ecoregions of the world (Spalding et al. 2007). In the first biogeographic region, we included all sites east of the Nut in Stanley; this region was called “North”. The second bioregion included all sites west of the Nut as well as sites around Cape Sorell; this region was called “West” (Table 1). This grouping was necessary due to the marked difference in currents, topography, wind and wave exposure, which is strongly reflected in the fish, invertebrate and algae communities.

Fishes The density and estimated size-class of the various fish species within 5 m of each side of the transect line were recorded by a diver swimming up the offshore side of the line and then back along the inshore side in the middle of a 5 m wide lane. Therefore, a total area of 2000 m2 was surveyed at each site (four paired 50 m x 5 m transect blocks). Size-classes of total fish length used in the study were 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 375, 400, 500, 625, 750, 875 and 1000+ mm. Lengths of fish >1000 mm length were individually estimated. Calibration of size estimates was based on comparison of observed fish lengths with a scale-bar on the underwater slates carried by divers. Fish census data are affected by a range of biases, including observer error and variation in behavioural responses of fish to divers (DeMartini & Roberts 1990, Thompson & Mapstone 1997, Kulbicki & Sarramega 1999) . Such biases have been investigated in part and discussed for the transect methods used here (Edgar et al. 2004). Despite the existence of census biases, we consider them to be largely systematic and to not greatly confound interpretation of patterns because data are used for relative comparisons between different time periods only.

Cryptic fishes and megafauna invertebrates To survey cryptic fishes and megafaunal invertebrates, the seabed was searched for a distance of 1 m from the transect line including all visible crevices and overhangs but not overturning boulders. Algae were swept away from the transect line to obtain a clear view of the substratum. A total of four 1 m x 50 m transects were surveyed at each site. Most mobile megafaunal invertebrates were counted, including large decapod crustaceans, large gastropods, bivalves, octopus and echinoderms. Invertebrates not counted comprised cryptic species or those too small to be accurately counted (i.e. <2.5 cm). The maximum shell length of abalone and the carapace length of rock lobsters were measured underwater using vernier callipers whenever possible. Cryptic fishes were also identified, counted and the size estimated.

Macroalgae The percentage cover of macroalgae, coral, sponges and other attached invertebrate species was quantified by placing a gridded 0.25 m2 quadrat at 10 m intervals along transect lines. Macroalgae cover was assessed by identifying and counting algae species that occurred directly under the 50 (49 plus one corner) grid positions. Algae were counted in layers, with percent cover of overstory species recorded first. These were then pushed aside exposing the understorey species for counting. Percent cover of canopy-forming brown algae can exceed 100% at sites in which species within this group co-occur at various canopy heights and thus

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

overlay each other. Unknown or unidentifiable species were assigned functional categories. A total of 5 m2 was surveyed at each site.

Statistical analysis Data were checked for errors before analyses and species for which identification was uncertain were pooled with similar species. Schooling pelagic species such as atherinids (hardyheads), clupeids (herrings), Arripis spp. (salmon), Aldrichetta forsteri (mullet) and Trachurus spp. (jack mackerel) were removed from most analyses but presented in the Appendices. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and PERMANOVA tests were performed in the statistical software package PRIMER, to track changes at the community assemblage level, using multivariate data for fish, invertebrates and algae. This was also done on a subset of data to investigate the possible recovery of macroalgal assemblages along the north coast near Burnie, following a reduction in industrial pollution. For macroalagal data, some categories were lumped or omitted, due to the fact that survey methods and capacity to visually identify algal species has improved since earlier years. Initial survey effort did not record substrate types, including turf-sediment covering on rock surfaces so this information was omitted from the dataset. In addition, initial surveys did not record species of geniculate coralline algae, so these were lumped into one category, as were species of algae not reliably identified in the past. Analysis of interannual variability was based on 30 sites (2 at double depth: 5 and 10 m) that were surveyed during the three periods (Table 1). We used boxplots to generate figures of abundance of fishes and invertebrates as well as percentage cover of algae. In the boxpolots, the midline represents the median of the data, with the upper and lower limits of the box being the third and first quartile1 (75th and 25th percentile) respectively. The whiskers of the boxplots extend up to 1.5 times the interquartile range from the top (or bottom) of the box to the furthest datum within that distance. If there were any data beyond that distance, they were represented individually as points ('outliers'). We used ANOVA tests to determine statistical differences caused by different years and locations for particular species of interest. To resolve differences between years within a region we used Tukey’s ‘Honest Significant Difference’ method. The intervals for Tukey HSD were based on the Studentized range statistic. All test and plots were done in R (R-Core-Team 2018). In some cases, we log transformed the fit for the Tukey test analysis if the raw data was not normally distributed. We specified in the captions of the figures when the data was log transformed. Using ggplot2 we produced boxplots and included the TukeyHSD results in the plots as letters (i.e. same letter = no difference; different letters = difference). In some cases, the outliers were removed from the plots for visualization purposes. We also presented some data using bar plots also done in R (R-Core-Team 2018). The height of the bar represents the mean while the error bars, represents the standard error of the data.

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

To explore the possible influence of sea temperature on the fish communities we examined the relation of the thermal affinity of a given species against the change in abundance through time. The realized thermal niche has been used as a measure of a speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; thermal affinity, also referred to as the Species Temperature Index (STI) (Devictor et al. 2012). Speciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; thermal affinity also relates to the temperature of maximum local abundance (Stuart-Smith et al. 2015). We used species specific data for thermal affinity derived from a previous work published by Stuart-Smith et al. (2015). The change in abundance through time was estimated for each species at the site level by calculating the mean of their mean abundance in 2017/2018 minus the mean of their abundance during the 1990s. Both values were log transformed. Finally, these values were fitted using Linear Models (package lme4 from R) and the slope compared to zero (i.e. no change).

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Figure 1. Location of sites surveyed at the Cradle Coast during surveys from 1992 to 2018. Sites in A and C correspond to the West coast region, while sites in B correspond to the North region.

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Table 1. Site details for surveys conducted in the Cradle Coast region 1992-2018 Cradle Coast Region

Location

Site

Depth

Site*Depth ID

Latitude

Longitude

1992

1993

1994

1995

1999

2006

2007

2017

2018

Surveys in each year 1

Central West

Northern West

2

North

Breakwater

5

290

-42.19954

145.20023

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

Cape Sorell End

10

292

-42.19532

145.16692

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

Cape Sorell Light

5

291

-42.19641

145.16962

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

Cape Sorell Halfway

5

288

-42.19536

145.18481

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

10

289

-42.19536

145.18481

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

Sloop Point

10

293

-42.30987

145.19464

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

South Cape Sorell

5

294

-42.21508

145.18713

--

--

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

Bluff Hill Point

5

284

-41.00586

144.61076

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

--

1

Doughboys

10

800

-40.66972

144.67932

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

East of Doughboys

5

798

-40.67050

144.68429

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

Green Point

5

286

-40.89838

144.64920

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

1

10

287

-40.89838

144.64920

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

--

1

Trefoil Island

5

799

-40.63573

144.70172

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

Anniversary Point

5

63

-40.89050

145.53636

1

1

--

1

--

--

1

1

--

Anniversary Point, 10 m

10

81

-40.89011

145.54053

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

West Point

5

285

-40.93162

144.61475

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

--

1

Blythe Heads

5

796

-41.07827

146.00557

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

--

Boat Harbour

5

65

-40.92450

145.61935

1

--

--

1

--

--

1

1

--

Cooee

5

790

-41.03583

145.86574

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

--

Doctors Rocks

5

793

-41.00320

145.78276

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

--

Goat Island, 10 m

10

70

-41.13136

146.14314

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Goat Island, 5 m

5

76

-41.13433

146.13724

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Lillico Beach, 10 m

10

73

-41.15270

146.29324

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Nut

5

68

-40.76650

145.30836

--

--

1

--

--

--

1

1

--

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

5

74

-41.11980

146.12694

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Penguin Point, 10 m

10

72

-41.11600

146.12080

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Penguin, 5 m

5

78

-41.10429

146.07346

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Piggery, 5 m

5

77

-41.11650

146.10439

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

Rocky Cape

5

67

-40.85850

145.51636

1

1

--

1

--

--

1

1

--

Round Hill Point

5

795

-41.06238

145.96317

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

--

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

10

79

-40.90182

145.54842

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Cradle Coast Region

Location

Site

Depth

Site*Depth ID

Latitude

Longitude

1992

1993

1994

1995

1999

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10

80

-40.90403

145.58150

--

--

--

--

1

Sisters Rocks

5

64

-40.91550

145.58836

1

1

--

1

Somerset Rocks

5

791

-41.03111

145.82510

--

--

--

--

Table Cape

5

66

-40.94350

145.72037

1

--

--

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

10

75

-41.11339

146.10599

--

--

--

West of Nut

5

69

-40.74050

145.29836

--

--

West Park

5

792

-41.04268

145.89755

--

--

West Ulverstone, 10 m

10

71

-41.13270

146.15506

--

Wivenhoe Badger Head

5 5

794 275

-41.06364 -41.09892

145.94133 146.64201

---

Don Heads

5

278

-41.15373

146.31517

Horseshoe Reef

5

277

-41.14274

146.42592

2006

2007

2017

2018

--

1

1

--

--

--

1

1

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

1

1

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

1

--

--

--

1

1

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

--

--

--

--

1

--

1

1

--

---

-1

-1

---

---

-1

1 --

---

--

--

1

1

--

--

1

1

--

--

--

1

2

--

--

1

1

--

Surveys in each year

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Results Reef Communities Multivariate analysis revealed only minor changes in reef communities of the Cradle Coast region over the past two decades. MDS ordinations showed that the Central West, Northern West, and North coasts to have distinct communities of fish, macroinvertebrates and macroalgae (Figure 2).

Figure 2. MDS plots based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrices for fish (top), mobile macroinvertebrates (middle), and Algae (bottom). All data Log(x+1) transformed. Green triangles are north coast sites, blue squares are northern west sites, and red diamonds are central west sites.

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

To track community changes over time fish, invertebrate and macroalgal communities were examined within the distinct regional levels of the Cradle Coast: North, Northern West, and Central West. Communities showed some variation over time, although the direction and magnitude of change was variable (Figure 3, 9 and 15). Pearson correlation vectors identified species correlated with greatest differences in site composition on the ordination graph, indicating which species may be influential in the variation in community composition. Some of these species were tested for statistically significant abundance changes in the box plot analyses presented in the following sections.

Fish According to MDS ordinations of survey data, the community composition of fish of the Cradle Coast has shifted over the 3 periods surveyed (Figure 3). In the central west, several species of fish had increased abundances that were moderately correlated with the most recent surveys, including species of wrasse, herbivores such as Olisthops cyanomelas, and some commercial species such as banded morwong and bastard trumpeter. There were no clear patterns of change for fish communities throughout time in the Northern West or North. The direction and magnitude of change in fish community composition was ambiguous and thus no species were well correlated with change over time.

Northern West - Fish

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Figure 3 Non-metric MDS plots of community data for fish in each bioregion of the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Data were log+1 transformed and Bray Curtis resemblance matrices were used. Pearson correlations vectors of more than 0.6 are shown in blue on the right. Data for the north region were separated between the 5 m depth sites and 10 m sties, for visual clarity and because the ordination with all had a stress of >0.2 indicating a poor ordination. Vectors connecting are drawn between the 3 time periods of the same unique site/depth sample, except for the North Coast 5 m due to the large number of data points displayed.

Box plot analyses showed there was a higher species richness of fish in the Northern region compared to the western regions (Central plus Northern West). However, there was no significant difference in species richness between years within regions (Figure 4). For the West region 2017/2018 species richness was not significantly different from the species richness found in the North coast.

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Figure 4. Boxplot of species richness of fish for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Species richness values are expressed per 2000 m2.

There was a significant difference in abundance for one of the treatments (i.e. North 2006/2007) but not for biomass of fish. For the West bioregion, the abundance of fish remained constant through the three study periods. However, in the North bioregion the abundance of fish for 2006/2007 was significantly higher than in 2017/2018 (Figure 5). In the case of biomass of all fish, there was no significant differences between regions or periods within region (Figure 4).

Figure 5. Boxplots abundance (left) and biomass (right) of all fish for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Means are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2.

The abundance and biomass fish over 30 cm was relatively similar between the two bioregions with no significant differences. Furthermore, the abundance and biomass of fish over 30 cm long showed no significant differences between periods for any of the regions (Figure 6). However, the abundance of targeted fish over 30 cm dropped to less than half in the last period of study in relation to the

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1990s values (Figure 7). Biomass of targeted fish over 30 cm also follow a similar trend as their abundance (Figure 7). Nevertheless, these differences were not statistically significant. Targeted fish include: Notolabrus tetricus, Notolabrus fucicola, Meuschenia australis, Meuschenia hippocrepis, Meuschenia flavolineata, Meuschenia freycineti, Eubalichthys gunnii, Acanthaluteres vittiger, Cheilodactylus nigripes, Cheilodactylus spectabilis, Latridopsis forsteri, Scobinichthys granulatus, Neosebastes scorpaenoides, Pseudophycis barbata, Lotella rhacina.

Figure 6. Boxplot abundance (left) and biomass (right) for fish over 30 cm for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2.

Figure 7. Boxplot of abundance (left) and biomass (right) for targeted fish over 30 cm for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2. Targeted fish include: Notolabrus tetricus, Notolabrus fucicola, Meuschenia australis, Meuschenia hippocrepis, Meuschenia flavolineata, Meuschenia freycineti, Eubalichthys gunnii, Acanthaluteres vittiger, Cheilodactylus nigripes, Cheilodactylus spectabilis, Latridopsis forsteri, Scobinichthys granulatus, Neosebastes scorpaenoides, Pseudophycis barbata, Lotella rhacina.

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Most of the individual fish species abundances did not show marked variation between 1990s and 2017/18, although there were some exceptions (Figure 8). Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus and Pempheris multiradiata dropped in abundance in 2017/2018 surveys in relation to the 1990s. Additionally, some of the most common fish species abundances were higher for the period 2006/2007 in the North region (Figure 8). These species were: Trachinops caudimaculatus, Pempheris multiradiata and Acathaluteres vittiger. Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus seems to have dropped in abundance from the 1990s surveys to the 2017/2018 surveys. Other species such as Notolabrus fucicola and Notolabrus tetricus were more common for the West and North regions, respectively. This is an expected result considering that N. fucicola is better adapted to exposed locations typical of the West region sites. Abundances of Olisthops cyanomelas and Latridopsis forsteri increased in abundance in the West, as indicated by the MDS ordinations where they were highly correlated with the overall change in community composition.

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Figure 8. Bar plots of abundance of some of the most common species of fish through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Means are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2.

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Figure 8 (continues). Bar plots of abundance of some common species of fish through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Mean are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2.

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Invertebrates According to MDS ordinations of survey data (Figure 9), the community composition of mobile macroinvertebrates of the Cradle coast has shifted over the 3 periods surveyed. In the Central West patterns in abundance of black-lip abalone (Haliotis rubra) were similar between survey periods, whilst Jasus edwardsii and the seastar Petricia vernicina showed decline through time. In the Northern West, numerous species were correlated with early surveys whilst only the abundances of Turbo undulatus and the seastar Mediastra gunnii were higher in the later surveys. Patterns for the north coast were ambiguous. Most species with correlations over 0.6 to the MDS were in the opposite direction to the recent surveys, thus indicating a drop in abundance and richness over time. The exception to this was a possible increased abundance of the introduced seastar, Astrostole scaber at 5 m depth.

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Figure 9 Non-metric MDS plots of community data for mobile macroinvertebrate in each bioregion of the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Data were log+1 transformed and Bray Curtis resemblance matrices were used. Pearson correlation vectors of more than 0.6 are shown in blue on the right. Data for the north region were separated between the 5 m depth sites and 10 m sites for visual clarity, and because the ordination with all had a stress of >0.2 indicating a poor ordination. Vectors connecting are drawn between the 3 time periods of the same unique site/depth sample, except for the North Coast 5 m due to the large number of data points displayed.

Box plot analyses confirmed the drop in abundance and richness over the north coast of the Cradle Coast region (Figures 10 and 11). The North Coast initially had a higher species richness than the West coast, however 2017/2018 showed a statistically significant drop to below the level of the West Coast and below the previous values of North Coast surveys (Figure 10). This represented a more than 50% decline in richness over the past decade. The species richness remained similar through the three periods in the West Coast.

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Figure 10. Boxplot of invertebrate species richness for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Species richness values are expressed per 200 m 2.

There were significant differences in abundance of invertebrates between the two regions. However, for both regions, there were no statistically significant differences between the periods surveyed (Figure 11). Despite the lack of statistical significance, the overall abundance per site on the north coast in 2017/18 was approximately half that recorded in 2006/07.

Figure 11. Boxplots of invertebratesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; abundance for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 200 m2.

For the commercial important species such as abalone (Haliotis rubra), we looked at the abundance, size and abundance of legal size individuals for the two regions across years. The abundance of Haliotis rubra was significantly higher in the North compared with the West, except for 2017/2018 (Figure 12). There was no significant difference in the abundance between periods for the West coast but there were differences for the North. The abundance for the period

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2017/2018 in the North region was significantly lower compared with the 1990s and 2006/2007 (Figure 12), representing a marked tenfold decline over this period. The individuals were significantly larger in the West coast compared with the North (Figure 12) for the first two periods but not in 2017/2018 where the sizes of abalone were similar between the two regions. Furthermore, the median size of abalone in 2017/2018 was significantly lower within the West coast in relation to the previous periods. There were no significant differences in size across periods within the North region. The abundance of legal size individuals (>138 mm for the West region south of Arthur river; >120 mm for the North) was statistically significantly higher in the West in 1990s compared with the 1990s and 2017/2018 in the North region. Despite this, the abundance of legal size abalone did not significantly vary through time within regions. However, there was a trend of diminishing numbers of legal size abalone for both regions for 2017/2018 compared with the previous periods, with this representing a tenfold decline in abundance across the western sites. High inter-site and inter-year variability within and between sites limited the power of statistical tests, as did the number of zero counts at the northern sites in 2017/18.

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Figure 12. Boxplots of Haliotis rubraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abundance (top left) and size in mm (top right) and legal abundance (>138 mm for the West south of Arthur river; >120 mm for the North) (bottom left) for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level for abundances. Median size are based on the average size of all individuals measured per survey in 200 m2.

The number of observation of lobsters Jasus edwardsii were not enough to present meaningful boxplots and conduct Tukey Post Hoc Test. Therefore, the information is presented as bar plots (Figure 13) only. The abundance of Jasus edwardsii was significantly higher (p<0.05 based on ANOVA test) for the West region compared with the North, but there were no significant differences between periods. Based on the few individuals observed and measured (none for the 2017/2018 North region) the size of Jasus edwardsii was significantly higher on the West coast. No legal size individuals were encountered in the North region and only a few in the West coast (Figure 13).

Figure 13 Bar plots of abundance (top left), size in mm (top right) and legal abundance (females 105 mm; males 110 mm) (bottom left) for Jasus edwardsii for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Means are based on the sum at the survey level for abundances. Mean size are based on the average size of all individuals measured per survey in 200 m2. Note: there were no lobsters recorded in the surveys in the North region in 2017/2018

The abundance of some of the most common invertebrates are presented in Figure 14, with abundances of the remaining species being given in the appendices. Many species declined in the most recent surveys, including the common sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma), one of the IMAS Internal Report Page 25


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Figure 14. Bar plots of abundance of some of the most common species of invertebrates and cryptic fish through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Mean are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 200 m2

most abundant reef species, whose abundance declined by approximately 50% between 2006/7 and 2017/18. Abundance of the invasive pacific sea star (Astrostole scaber) seems to have increased from the 1990s surveys through to the 2017/2018 surveys. The sea star Meridiastra gunnii increased in IMAS Internal Report Page 26


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numbers from zero in the 1990s to more than four individuals on average per site in the West region. For both invasive and native cryptic fish in the North coast, there were higher numbers recorded in the 2006/2007 period compared with the 1990s or the 2017/2018 period, however their numbers were low.

Figure 14 (continues). Bar plots of abundance of some of the most common (or invasive) species of invertebrates and cryptic fish through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Means are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 200 m2.

Algae MDS ordinations of macroalgal assemblages did not show clear patterns of change in community composition in the Central West or Northern West (Figure 15). However, on the North coast, sites underwent some directional change in community composition over time. This is indicated by the similar direction of change on the MDS ordinations. The most consistent change at 10 m and 5 m sites was the apparent loss of the sponge covered red algae T. dichotomum, a pattern also indicated by the box plot analyses (Figure 15 and 18). At 10 m, filamentous algae consistently increased abundances in recent surveys, however since these are ephemeral species which vary greatly in IMAS Internal Report Page 27


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abundance over short periods of time and according to seasons, this may be partly an artefact of variation in the particular months and conditions of surveys. At 5 m depth in the North, Pearson correlation indicate an overall drop in the common kelp Ecklonia radiata, offset by increases in the cover of canopy forming fucoids from the genus Cystophora. However, these changes may be partly due to inconsistencies in the true depth of each survey caused by the large tidal fluctuations on the north coast, up to 3m. These habitats are likely to be more light limited, due to higher turbidity from rivers and anthropogenic sources, and thus the changes in macroalgae correlated to depth will occur within a smaller depth range.

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Figure 15 Non-metric MDS plots of community data for macroalgae and sessile invertebrates in each bioregion of the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Data were log+1 transformed and Bray Curtis resemblance matrices were used. Pearson correlations vectors of more than 0.6 are shown in blue on the right. Data for the north region were separated between the 5 m depth sites and 10 m sties for visual clarity, and because the ordination with all had a stress of >0.2 indicating a poor ordination. Vectors connections are drawn between the 3 time periods of the same unique site/depth sample, except for the North Coast 5 m due to the large number of data points displayed.

Algal species richness was significantly higher for the North region compared with the West (Figure 16). Despite species richness increasing significantly through time in both bioregions, this may be an artifact of increasing ability to differentiate species by observers (Stuart-Smith et al. 2010) rather than a real pattern.

Figure 16. Boxplot of algal species richness for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test . Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Species richness values are expressed per 5 m2.

At a broad level, the percentage cover of canopy, understorey brown and green algae were similar for both bioregions and did not show significant changes through time (Figure 17). The percentage cover of canopy algae in the North, dropped close to 50% from the 1990s surveys in relation to the 2017/2018 surveys; however this difference was not significant due to the high inter-site variation with in each region. In the case of red algae, there was a significant increase in the North region for IMAS Internal Report Page 29


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2017/2018 compared with the 1990s, representing an increase from around 3% cover to 6% cover. For the West region, there was no statistical difference in percentage cover of red algae through time, despite the overall pattern indicating an increase from around 9% to 18% cover overall.

Figure 17. Boxplots of canopy forming algae (top left), red algae (top right) and filamentous algae (bottom left) for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

The percentage cover of many common species of algae remained relatively constant within each region across the study period with some exceptions (Figure 18). For example, the percentage cover in the North region of Ecklonia radiata dropped from around 12% to 4% from the 1990s to 2017/2018, Acrocarpia paniculata cover dropped from around 16% in the 2007/2008 to about 6% in 1990s while the percentage cover of Macrocystis decreased to zero in 2017/2018. Contrary to this trend, the percentage cover in the North region of Cystophora spp. increased from 5% in the 1990s to around 14% in 2017/2018. There was an increase of almost 8-fold of filamentous red algae in the North region from the 1990s (~1%) to a higher and more constant cover in 2006/2007 and 2017/2018 (~8%).

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Figure 18 Bar plots of percentage cover of some of the most common species of algae through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

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Figure 18 (continues) Bar plots of percentage cover of some of the most common species of algae through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

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Figure 18 (continues) Bar plots of percentage cover of some of the most common species of algae through time for the two bioregions (North and West). Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

Influence of sea temperature on fishes Data from a temperature logger located on the North coast at Stanley from 2005 onwards as well as SST data from SRS SATELLITE - SST L3S from the west coast of Tasmania are displayed in Figure 19. Although, little interannual change in STT has been detected at these sites through the 26-year time series, SRF SATELLITE showed an overall positive increase in temperature of ~0.4 oC.

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Figure 19 Top figure: Temperature at The Nut at Stanley (oC). Depth logger set at 10 m depth. Missing data from August 2006 till March 2010 were not available because the temperature logger was lost. Bottom figure SST from -40.73 latitude 144.63 longitude. Satellite data from: IMOS - SRS SATELLITE - SST L3S - 01 day composite - day and night time composite. Black line is the linear trendline.

The change in abundance of each fish species in the North and West regions of the Cradle Coast are plotted against their thermal affinity in Figure 20. For the North region, there was a positive increase in the slope between the change in abundance (2017/2018 vs 1990s) and the thermal affinity of each species; however, this increase was not significant (Figure 20). The change in abundance in relation to their thermal affinity was also positive in the West coast and non-significant (Figure 20). These

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results suggest that the fish communities of both regions have remained relatively constant through time and have not been significantly impacted by changes in water temperature.

Figure 20. Fish species abundance change against their thermal affinity. Abundance change is the log of the mean abundance of each fish species across sites in 2017/2018 minus the log of their abundance in the 1990s. MP 5%â&#x20AC;&#x201C;95% is the mid-point of the 5thâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;95th percentile of species thermal affinity (Species Temperature Index, STI). Data was fitted with linear models; 95% confidence intervals are shown by green (North region) and pink (West region) shading. The number of fish species for the North region was 65 and 32 for the West.

Some of the species that were indicated by the community analyses to have increased in abundance since the 1990s surveys compared with 2017/2018 surveys were: Olisthops cyanomelas, Girella zebra, Latridopsis forsteri, Meuschenia hippocrepis and Parma victoriae. These species have thermal affinities ranging from 16.3 to 18.0oC (Figure 21). Species such as herring cale (Olisthops cyanomelas) and the zebra fish (Girella zebra) are common on the central coast of Western Australia, South Australia and Victoria and are associated with reef habitats on the northern and eastern coasts of Tasmania as well. In particular, it is interesting to note the significant increase in abundance of herring cale (O. cyanomelas) for the West region of Cradle Coast.

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Figure 21. Bar plots of abundance of five species that show the greatest change in abundance between the 1990s and 2017/2018 for the two bioregions (North and West) and periods within each bioregion. Differences between years were significant based on an ANOVA test (P<0.01). Means are based on the sum at the survey level. Abundance values are expressed per 2000 m2.

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Ecosystem Monitoring – Cradle Coast

Water Quality Sites previously impacted by industrial pollution in the North region were investigated for changes in macroalgal communities over the survey periods of 1999, 2007 and 2017. These sites were situated around Penguin and Ulverstone. In 2017, seven new sites in the vicinity of Burnie and Heybridge were also established for future monitoring. This area was not surveyed during initial 1990s surveys due to low visibility caused by pollution inhibiting visual census assessments. Sites at Rocky Cape were used for comparison with the impacted zone. Sites at Rocky Cape exist on a stretch of coastline without input from major agriculturally important river catchments and industrial effluent, due to the surrounding Rocky Cape National Park, but are still under relatively similar pressure from fishing and climate change. These sites were surveyed at various times during the 1990s, and similar months in 2007 and 2017, as the “impacted” sites between Burnie and Ulverstone. Baseline regional differences in macroalgal communities between the Rocky Cape and the Penguin/Ulverstone coastline also exist as an artefact of the natural environmental differences in geomorphology and estuarine input, and results need to be interpreted cautiously. Over the three survey periods, some changes in overall community structure, canopy algae, filamentous algae, and foliose brown algae were detected in the impacted region (referred to as “Penguin”), with the most distinct changes detected at 10 m sites. MDS ordinations of macroalgae at each site showed different community structure patterns between the Penguin region and Rocky Cape areas, and that these communities displayed different magnitudes of variation between the three survey periods; 1990s, 2007, and 2017 (Figure 22). The new sites established at Burnie were most similar to those surveyed in the impacted region that year (Figure 22). Over time, assemblages at 10 m depth in the impacted region have undergone larger and more consistent changes of community structure through time than 10 m sites at Rocky cape (Figure. 22). At 5 m sites the changes in community structure over time were not as distinct for the impacted or the control region (Figure 22).

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Figure 22. MDS ordinations of the macroalgal community at each site (codes displayed in adjacent table) over the three survey periods, based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrices of square-root transformed data. Vectors are drawn to display the trajectory of change for each site over the 3 survey periods. Data are displayed separately for 10 m and 5 m sites. The seven new sites in the Burnie region are presented in the 5 m plot as no new 10 m sites were established.

Using the sites from both Rocky Cape and Penguin area, a PERMANOVA test investigated the potential significance of depth, time period (1990s, 2006/7, and 2017), and region (Rocky Cape vs Penguin) in affecting the macroalgal community structure. All two-way interactions were significant (<0.05), suggesting that the pollution-affected sites varied over time differently to the sites at Rocky Cape, and that changes were not consistent between depths. A PCO ordination of 10 m macroalgal assemblages in the Penguin area over time is shown in Figure 23. The first axis of this plot, which explained 47% of community variation, aligns with the distribution of sites over time from 1999 to 2017. Percentage cover data of taxa that were most correlated with this axis (>0.6 Pearsons correlation) are displayed in the table. Species of brown foliose algae, Dictyotaceae spp., Sporochnus spp., Colpomenia spp. and the canopy forming Sargassum species were positively correlated, indicating an increase over time, whilst bryozoans and the sponge covered red alga Thamnoclonium dichotomum showed negative correlation, indicating a decrease in abundance.

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Figure 23. PCO ordination of macroalgal community at 10 m sites in the Penguin area and species whose abundance was most highly correlated (Pearsons >0.6) with the first PCO axis.

Common species groups or individual taxa that were indicated by the community analysis to have responded over time in the impacted region were investigated for significant changes in percentage cover in the following boxplots and Tukeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Post Hoc tests. At 10 m, the percentage cover for most of the groups of algae did not show significant differences at the control sites around Rocky cape with the exception of filamentous red algae that increased significantly in 2017/2018 in relation to the 1900s values (Figure 24). In the Penguin sites, canopy algae percentage cover increased significantly from the 1990s to 2006/2007. However, the percentage cover in 2017/2018 for canopy algae at 10 m depth was not significantly higher in relation to the 1990s values. Foliose brown (noncanopy) and filamentous red algae percentage cover increased significantly in 2006/2007 and 2017/2018 in relation to the 1990s values. Conversely, the sponge covered red alga Thamnoclonium dichotomum, which may be sediment tolerant (Shepherd et al. 2009), decreased significantly in percentage cover from the 1990s values at the 10 m sites (Figure 24). Total cover of all red algal species did not significantly change over time, presumably owing to decreases in some, such as T. dichotomum, and increases in others, such as filamentous red algae.

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Figure 24. Boxplots of canopy forming algae (top left), foliose red algae (top right), foliose brown (middle left), filamentous red algae (middle right) and Thamnoclonium dichotomum (bottom left) at 10 m depth for the Rocky Cape and Penguin areas. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc

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Test. Data for the Tukey test were log transformed but raw data was plotted for visual purposes. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

Figure 25. PCO ordination of macroalgal community at 5 m sites in the Penguin area and species whose abundance were most highly correlated (Pearsons >0.6) with the first PCO axis.

At 5 m depth, the PCO ordination of multivariate community data showed differences in the macroalgal assemblages between 1990s and the latest surveys along the first axis of the graph (Figure 25). Abundances of Cystophora spp., sponges and various foliose brown and red algae were positively correlated with this axis, whereas T. dichotomum was negatively correlated, similar to 10 m sites. Box plots for 5 m sites showed that the control sites around Rocky Cape did not show any significant differences in algae cover for any of the groups or species analysed (Figure 26). In the Penguin sites, canopy algae and foliose brown algae percentage cover increased significantly from the 1990s to 2006/2007, however the percentage cover increase to 2017/2018 was not significant. Filamentous red algae percentage cover did not increase significantly from the 1990s values. Similarly to the 10 m sites, the percentage cover of Thamnoclonium dichotomum decreased significantly from the 1990s values (Figure 26).

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Figure 26. Boxplots of canopy forming algae (top left), foliose red algae (top right), foliose brown (middle left), filamentous red algae (middle right) and Thamnoclonium dichotomum (bottom left) at 5 m depth for the Rocky Cape and Penguin areas. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments based on Tukey Post Hoc Test. Data for the Tukey test were log transformed but raw data were plotted for visual purposes. Medians are based on the sum at the survey level. Percentage cover values are expressed per 5 m2.

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Fish and invertebrate communities were also investigated for change over time using the same tests but did not return significant results for any species investigated or changes over time on a community level.

Discussion The quantitative surveys presented in this report give an indication of trends in fish, large mobile invertebrates and macroalgae communities in the Cradle Coast region over a 25 year period, and an analysis of the key species that may be driving observed trends. This report covers a set of surveys performed in 2017 and 2018 and compares them with data collected in the 1990s (primarily 1993) and 2006/2007. A total of 32 sites were resurveyed during these three periods. In addition, to enhance our ability to detect and describe regional trends in the future, an additional ten sites were added to the survey design, three in the far NW, and seven in the Burnie region.

Broad-level patterns: In general, at the broad community level, there has been some changes in the Cradle Coast region. Like in eastern Tasmanian waters, where increasing influence of the East Australian Current has substantially altered the species mix (e.g. declines in giant kelp (Johnson et al. 2011), increases in urchins and associated urchin barrens (Ling et al. 2015)), it appears that there has been, to certain extent, a matching trend in the NW of Tasmania. These changes can in part be attributed to the influence of the current systems in this region (the Zeehan Current). For this area, there has been an increase in average sea surface temperature of approximately 0.4 â&#x201E;&#x192; between 1992 and 2018 based on satellite derived data, which may have driven the increases in some warm-affinity species in the region, particularly amongst the fishes. These fishes include the herring cale, most notably along the west coast, and zebrafish, horseshoe leatherjackets and scalyfins along the north coast. As three of these four species are herbivores, such changes, if ongoing, may eventually influence the macroalgal composition. Furthermore, Macrocystis pyrifera percentage cover dropped to zero in the 2017/18 surveyes; possibly as a result of increase water temperature. Additionally, the percentage cover of canopy forming algae also dropped to almost half of the original cover between the 2017/2017 surveys in relation to the 1990s surveys. Another conspicuous trend, potentially also related to this slight warming, was an overall decline in the species richness of large mobile invertebrates in this region, particularly along the north coast where diversity declined by 50% over the past decade. This marked decline was also mirrored in the overall abundance of mobile invertebrates that also declined by around 50%, although this wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t statistically significant due to the variation between sites. Such trends have also been recorded in eastern and south-eastern Tasmanian waters and in southern NSW (Edgar et al, in press) where they appear to be related to increasing water temperature.

Fishing-related trends: From analysis of species targeted by commercial and recreational fishers, ongoing impacts of fishing activities seem likely. Declines were evident in the abundances of abalone (Haliotis rubra; a statistically significant tenfold decline along the North coast, a smaller but not statistically significant decline on the West coast) and of targeted fishes over 30 cm (a 30% decline along the north coastnot statistically significant), and few rock lobster were detected in the North region. The decline in abalone abundance on the West Coast was matched by a large (approx. 40 mm) and statistically significant decline in mean size, and an ongoing decline in the abundance of legal sized individuals. This latter decline was not statistically significant, however, due to the highly variable nature of estimates between sites and through time. Overall, the large reduction in abalone numbers over the IMAS Internal Report Page 43


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

past 25 years contributes a substantial proportion in the overall invertebrate abundance decline. As well as being a potential management concern, this may have ongoing ecological consequences, such as alteration of algal assemblages through reduced grazing (Strain and Johnson 2009), particularly on the north coast where abalone decline was greatest. For lobsters, the low abundances recorded were surprising given the extent and quality of the habitat surveyed, which would typically host abundant numbers. A range of anecdotal information suggests that there were significantly greater numbers and size of lobsters in the North region prior to 1992, when these surveys commenced, so the declines observed here are likely at the tail end of a significant decline occurring before monitoring commenced. Overall, very few lobsters were observed on our north coast surveys over the past 25 years, with no legal size animals observed in the North region during 2017/18.

General trends: Fishes. Overall there do not appear to be any major trends in total abundances or biomass of resident species, with none of the most common species showing clear trends through time. The most notable trends were increases in the abundance of some species with warm water affinity, including Olisthops cyanomelas (herring cale) and Girella zebra (zebrafish), and the notable absence of Latridopsis forsteri (bastard trumpeter) at sites on the North coast. The increase in warm affinity species may well be related to gradual warming in this area over the past 25 years, making the environment more suitable for large bodied herbivores. Latridopsis, on the other hand is particularly vulnerable to capture in gillnets (Barrett et al. 2007), and it is quite likely that its absence at North Coast sites is an artefact of netting pressure rather than a natural pattern. While the 30% decline in large individuals of targeted species was not statistically significant given inherent variability around this signal, it does indicate that there is a likely trend related to fishing pressure that may require a management response. However, there is insufficient data on individual species to determine the particular species that contribute to this decline, and hence the types of fishing activities that may be responsible. Invertebrates. The most marked trend amongst the mobile invertebrates was the large decline in overall species richness over the past decade. As discussed above, this loss may relate to overall warming through time, as similar patterns have been reported at a number of locations in eastern Australian waters as part of long-term monitoring programs (Edgar et al. in press). It appears that the species that constitute this decline have generally reduced in abundance at the transect and site scale, rather than disappearing from the region altogether. Examination of the total regional species richness across regions indicates that this has remained constant over the 25 year period of the study. The overall decline in total invertebrate numbers appears to be driven by three key species, the common urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the seastar Meridiastra calcar and blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra. While the abalone decline is likely due to fishing pressure, the cause of the urchin decline is unknown. However, such large reductions in the abundance of large and numerically abundant grazers such as abalone and urchins are likely to have flow-on effects within the algal assemblage (Ling et al. 2010, Kriegisch et al. 2016), and long-term observations and studies are needed to understand the causes and implications of these changes. While there were no other major patterns in abundance at the individual species level, a notable feature was the gradual increase in seven-arm seastar Astrostole scabra numbers over the study period. This species was introduced from New Zealand at some stage last century and is slowly spreading throughout Tasmanian waters. Despite this, numbers remain at low levels, and it is unlikely to have a significant ecological impact at this stage. IMAS Internal Report Page 44


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Algae: For the algae, at the broad community level, there was little evidence of biologically significant change through time. The most marked pattern in the algal assemblage was an overall increase in the cover of red algae through time; although only the trend on the North coast was statistically significant. While such changes may relate to a range of environmental drivers, possible causes include reduction in grazing pressure due to reduced urchin and abalone numbers, as well as improved water clarity on the north coast in areas where pollution has declined (but see below). Although not statistically significant, there was also an overall reduction in canopy algae cover on the north coast from around 60% cover to around 30% cover over the 25 year period, which is cause for concern. This at least in part relates to a decline in the common kelp Ecklonia radiata from around 13% cover to 5% cover. While some species such as Ecklonia have declined, others, such as Cystophora spp. have increased, and this may represent long-term successional cycling in response to a range of as yet unknown environmental drivers. Certainly, long-term observations are needed to track the loss of important canopy species, and to determine the causes if this is the case. Anthropogenic drivers of kelp loss have been reported at a range of locations around Australia, including siltation around Adelaide, and the formation of urchin barrens in response to removal of top predators. One potential climate-related pattern in the algal data is the current reduction in giant-kelp Macrocystis spp. along the north coast between 2006/7 and 2017/18. This species is typically underrepresented in algal quadrat data as the bulk of the plant is on the surface where it is not counted, hence even low counts around 2% represent a much higher overall cover in the area. Over this period the north coast cover appears to have declined from around 2% cover to zero, representing complete loss from the surveyed sites. This species is known to be particularly susceptible to water temperatures above 20oC (Buschmann et al. 2004), and it dies-back rapidly when such peaks in temperature occur. Our examination of satellite SST data for this region indicates that in recent years this threshold has been exceeded a number of times (unlike the previous decade), perhaps indicating the beginning of unfavourable conditions for growth of this species in the region if the warming trend continues. Burnie region water quality: Algal assemblages were likely to be the primary component of the biological assemblage on reefs that responded to changes in water quality in the Burnie region following reductions in industrial effluent outputs. This is through likely increases in light availability (clearer water) and also reduced rates of siltation (smothering). Hence, our examination of potential recovery focused on algal assemblages. Specific analysis of algal assemblages for the Burnie region showed that there was indeed a positive increase in the percentage cover of foliose brown, filamentous red algae as well as positive trends in percentage cover in other groups (i.e. canopy algae), although this trend was only small. This increase may at least be in part due to improved water quality in the Burnie region, as a result in significant declines in industrial pollution from the Tioxide paint pigment plant and the APPM paper mill. Both of these industries added significant contributions to sediment loading and water colour that inhibited algal growth in the region. Annectodally, the water is now markedly clearer in this region, allowing greater light penetration for algae to grow to depths of 5 m or more. Our results showed that algae groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; percentage cover increased more in the 10 m sites; where in the early 1990s, the light penetration was extremely low. Overall, the recovery of macroalgal communities around Burnie was less pronounced than anticipated, especially with regard to canopy cover. This may be due to an increase in other anthropogenic pressures affecting turbidity and light attenuation, but possibly more likely, due to

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

residual siltation on these reef systems that continues to inhibit algal settlement and growth. Assemblages in both regions are also at times dominated by annual algae such as filamentous taxa that grow opportunistically in response to fluctuating spring and summer conditions. It is unknown whether the observed increase in filamentous algae over time was due to interannual variability or an overall increase, which could be a response to increased nutrients (Oh et al. 2015). Also, it is likely that our ability to precisely resurvey the exact original survey locations was limited by the large tidal variations on the north coast (meaning large horizontal variation in the 5 m depth contour at different times of the day and month, depending on the slope of the sea bed). This, combined with a lack of precision of GPS coordinates for initial surveys in 1990s, may have added extra variation and reduced the ability to detect real change, especially at 5 m depth contours. Macroalgal communities in the impacted region were likely to have been severely light limited at the time of initial surveys and thus likely to vary greatly according to average depth. The results presented are likely partially an artefact of these influences as well as improved survey methods over time, including better resources to identify the poorly known but diverse Tasmanian macroalgae, so should be interpreted as such. Now that survey methods have been further improved and that new sites have been established near Burnie, the ability to detect and interpret future change is promising.

Implications and recommendations: A number of changes in reef condition over the past 25 years in the Cradle Coast NRM region deserve further examination given that they indicate a potential need for management intervention. Some of the most notable changes are related to fishing pressure, particularly the marked decline of abalone numbers, especially along the north coast. These declines are biologically as well as ecologically significant, warranting management actions to restore populations to more natural levels. This is likely to also be the case for rock lobsters, however the absence of early baseline data before rock lobster fishing depleted stocks in the area limits our ability to quantify the magnitude of the issue. Similarly, for targeted fish species, numbers appear to be continuing to decline through time, especially on the north coast, but the absence of early baseline data limits our ability to assess the extent that current numbers are below natural levels. To more adequately benchmark natural population levels, a regional no-take protected area is needed in NW Tasmania, as discussed and examined in a number of previous reports (e.g. Edgar 1981, Edgar et al.1997, Barrett and Wilcox 2000). Such areas allow comparison of natural populations (once reestablished through time) with adjacent areas, such that the extent of depletion of target species can be determined, with this information then feeding back into appropriate off-reserve management of species such as abalone, lobsters and finfish, as well as their ecological interactions. An example of the latter is the extensive presence of urchin barren grounds in the Rocky Cape region that may be due to over-removal of top predators such as rock lobsters. However, in the absence of evidence from natural populations, it is currently difficult to determine the extent that these barrens are induced by fishing, or are a natural occurrence. There is some evidence of change in response to climate-related processes, with increasing abundances of herbivorous fish species, particularly along the North coast. Conversely, temperaturesensitive species such as giant-kelp Macrocystis are increasingly challenged by increasing peaks in summer maximum temperatures. While changes in water temperature canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be locally managed, effective long-term monitoring is required to understand the interaction of multiple pressures on species such as Macrocystis, to minimize cumulative pressures where possible. Very few introduced pest species were encountered during the surveys, and the species present, such as the seastar Astrostole scabra, were at sufficiently low numbers to have minimal ecological impact. While other introduced pests such as the seaweed Undaria pinnatifida are capable of spreading along IMAS Internal Report Page 46


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

the north coast from eastern areas where they have become established, there was no evidence that such species had become established in the Cradle Coast region. While there have been significant improvements in water quality in the Burnie region over the past 25 years it appears that reefs in that region have still not made a full recovery from the impact of siltation and light reduction. Some recovery was noted, particularly on deeper reef areas, with increased canopy cover, understorey browns and filamentous red algae, however it remained significantly less than on comparable reefs to the east and west. The most likely cause of the slow recovery is residual silt that smothers the reef in the area, which may diminish through time with water movement. To further assess recovery in the future, an additional set of monitoring sites were established in the Burnie region. Ideally this monitoring program would be continued at decadal scales (at least) to inform the community and management agencies of the health of reef systems in the region and the measures needed to effectively manage this and the targeted species they support. This would be significantly enhanced by the presence of an effective no-take marine protected area from which to provide an adequate baseline from which to benchmark the extent of the changes already observed.

Summary: Overall, the patterns observed in the Cradle Coast NRM region indicate changes associated with climate change as well as substantial declines in commercially important species over the past 25 years. However, climate-related impacts have not been as strong as in the reef systems in eastern Tasmanian waters, where rapid warming as a result of increasing EAC influence, there were some notable changes in the reef communities in the NW of Tasmania. In a similar way as in eastern Tasmania, the 0.4 â&#x201E;&#x192; rise in sea surface temperature in the NW during the 25 years of study, may have driven the increases in some warm-affinity species in the region, particularly amongst the herbivorous fishes. Furthermore, there was a decline of canopy algae in the north region of the Cradle Coast as well as a drop to zero percentage cover of Macrocystis pyrifera during the time of study. Additionally, invertebrateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s species richness dropped to almost half of the 1990s values. This drop in species richness was also mirrored by a drop in abundance of key species such as the common urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the seastar Meridiastra calcar and blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra. Also, declines in fished species, and a continuing loss of larger individuals, plus an ongoing depletion of their stocks has occurred (i.e. blacklip abalone and lobsters). All of these changes may have some ecosystem consequences in addition to the fishery related management issues raised. There were no major issues detected around introduced marine pests, although the introduced seastar Astrostole scabra does appear to be gradually increasing in abundance along the West coast. Finally, the decrease in pollution in the Burnie area appears to have resulted in positive increase in percentage cover in some important algae groups. This is an encouraging result in the recovery of the reefs in the area but with a long way to go to reach full recovery.

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References Arthur, T, Arrowsmith, L., Parsons, S., and Summerson, R. (2015) Monitoring for marine pests: A review of the design and use of Australia's national monitoring strategy and identification of possible improvements. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences report. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/pests-diseasesweeds/marine-pests/monitoring-marine-pests.pdf Barrett, N, Edgar, G, Buxton, C & Haddon, M. (2007) Changes in fish assemblages following 10 years of protection in Tasmanian Marine Protected Areas. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 345:141–157. Barrett, N.S & Wilcox, S. (2000) Biological surveys and habitat mapping of proposed Marine Protected Areas on the Tasmanian North and North-eastern coasts. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Technical Report Series. No. 6, 56p. Bates, A., Barrett, N., Stuart-Smith, R., Holbrook, N., Thompson, P., and Edgar, G. (2014) Resilience and signatures of tropicalization in protected reef fish communities. Nature Climate Change, 4:62-67. Buschmann, A. H., Vásquez, J. A., Osorio, P., Reyes, E., Filón, L., Hernández-González, M. C. & Vega, A. (2004) The effect of water movement, temperature and salinity on abundance and reproductive patterns of Macrocystis spp. (Phaeophyta) at different latitudes in Chile. Mar. Biol 145:849–62. DeMartini EE, Roberts DA (1990) Effects of giant kelp (Macrocystis) on the density and abundance of fishes in a cobble-bottom kelp forest. Bull Mar Sci 46:289-300 Devictor V, Van Swaay C, Brereton T, Brotons L, Chamberlain D, Heliölä J, Herrando S, Julliard R, Kuussaari M, Lindström Å (2012) Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale. Nat Clim Change 2:121 Edgar GJ, Barrett NS, Morton AJ (2004) Biases associated with the use of underwater visual census techniques to quantify the density and size-structure of fish populations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 308:269-290 Edgar GJ, Moverley J, Barrett NS, Peters D, Reed C (1997) The conservation-related benefits of a systematic marine biological sampling program: the Tasmanian reef bioregionalisation as a case study. Biol Conserv 79:227-240 Kriegisch N, Reeves S, Johnson CR, Ling SD (2016) Phase-shift dynamics of sea urchin overgrazing on nutrified reefs. PloS one 11:e0168333 Kulbicki M, Sarramega S (1999) Comparison of density estimates derived from strip transect and distance sampling for underwater visual censuses: a case study of Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthidae. Aquat Living Resour 12:315-325 Ling S, Ibbott S, Sanderson J (2010) Recovery of canopy-forming macroalgae following removal of the enigmatic grazing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 395:135146 Ling S, Scheibling R, Rassweiler A, Johnson C, Shears N, Connell S, Salomon A, Norderhaug K, PérezMatus A, Hernández J (2015) Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing. Phil Trans R Soc B 370:20130269 Murphy RJ, Crawford C, Barmuta LA (2003) Estuarine health in Tasmania, status and indicators: water quality. Moore B, Lyle J, Hartmann K. (2018) Tasmanian Scalefish Fishery Assessment 2016/2017. Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania

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Oh E, Edgar G, Kirkpatrick J, Stuart-Smith R, Barrett N (2015) Broad-scale impacts of salmon farms on temperate macroalgal assemblages on rocky reefs. Mar Pollut Bull 98:201-209 Oliver EC, Lago V, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Ling SD, Mundy CN (2018) Marine heatwaves off eastern Tasmania: Trends, interannual variability, and predictability. Prog Oceanogr 161:116-130 Pearce D (1991) Industry and the environment. J Biol Educ 25:263-269 R-Core-Team (2018) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. . R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL http://www.R-project.org/. Ridgway KRL (2007) Long-term trend and decadal variability of the southward penetration of the East Australian Current. Geophys Res Lett Ritz D, Thomas D, Sanderson J, Kirkwood R (1985) A Subtidal Survey of the Tasmanian North West Coast for Tioxide Pty Ltd. Shepherd SA, Watson JE, Womersley HBS, Carey JM (2009) Long-term changes in macroalgal assemblages after increased sedimentation and turbidity in Western Port, Victoria, Australia. Bot Mar 52:195-206 SoE (2003) http://soer.justice.tas.gov.au/2003/cem/7/issue/55/index.php. SoE (2009) http://soer.justice.tas.gov.au/2009/wat/3/issue/35/index.php#z20 Spalding MD, Fox HE, Allen GR, Davidson N, Ferdaña ZA, Finlayson M, Halpern BS, Jorge MA, Lombana A, Lourie SA, Martin KD, McManus KD, Molnar J, Recchia CA, Robertson J (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. Bioscience 57:573-583 Stuart-Smith, RD and Barrett, NS and Crawford, C and Edgar, GJ and Frusher, SD, “Condition of rocky reef communities: A key marine habitat around Tasmania”, NRM/NHT Report, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, Hobart (2007). Stuart-Smith RD, Barrett NS, Stevenson DG, Edgar GJ (2010) Stability in temperate reef communities over a decadal time scale despite concurrent ocean warming. Glob Chang Biol 16:122-134 Stuart-Smith RD, Edgar GJ, Barrett NS, Kininmonth SJ, Bates AE (2015) Thermal biases and vulnerability to warming in the world’s marine fauna. Nature 528:88 Thompson AA, Mapstone BD (1997) Observer effects and training in underwater visual surveys of reef fishes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 154:53-63

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 1. Fish abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Site Depth (m)

Anniversary Point, 10 m 10

Site*Depth ID number Species \\ year*month Acanthaluteres vittiger

Anniversary Point 5

81 1999*2

2007*3 2

1

2017* 1 3

63 1992* 5

1993* 6

1995*1 0

Aetapcus maculatus Aldrichetta forsteri

2007* 3 1

Meuschenia freycineti Meuschenia hippocrepis Neoodax balteatus Notolabrus fucicola Notolabrus tetricus Olisthops cyanomelas Parma victoriae Pempheris multiradiata Pentaceropsis recurvirostris Pictilabrus laticlavius Pseudolabrus mortonii Pseudophycis bachus

275 1994*1 2

796 1995* 7 1

2007* 2

2017*2 1

Boat Harbour 5 65 1992* 5 2

1995*1 0 4

2007* 3 172

2017* 3

150 1 1 1 2 64 16

91 6 180

33 1 6

136

6

11

2

15 1 2

2

3

5

1

Eubalichthys gunnii Girella zebra Heteroscarus acroptilus Latridopsis forsteri Meuschenia australis Meuschenia flavolineata

2017* 1

5

1

Aplodactylus arctidens Atypichthys strigatus Bathytoshia brevicaudata Bovichtus angustifrons Caesioperca rasor Cephaloscyllium laticeps Cheilodactylus nigripes Dinolestes lewini Diodon nicthemerus Dotalabrus aurantiacus

Blythe Heads

Badger Head 5

11 1

9

5

5

1 1

1

2

1

1 1 1

39

1 5 4 62

7

1

58 3 2

10

8 4

6 3

8

1 1 9

1

3 2

1

2 1 1 2 170

2

1

1 10 42 8

42 6 78

6

1 1

9

3

7

20

88

17

3 7 2

3 49

16

2

4 14

1 2

30

22

1

2

3

3

1 4 1

1

1

82

2 2 63

1 3 56

4 1900

1 1218

2 4

1 15

9

3

5

4 3

4

2 1

1 7

2 2 4 17 82

2

1 9 112 1 2

1 4 18

2 1

2 1

15 128

2 2 2 122

10

2

62 1 1

3

3

1 16

1 2

1 2 6 47 1

1 70 1 4

3

9

5 5 4

1 4 28 7 3

65 24 3

2

7

1

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site Depth (m)

Anniversary Point, 10 m 10

Site*Depth ID number Species \\ year*month Scorpis aequipinnis Scorpis lineolata Sepia apama Siphonognathus beddomei Siphonognathus tanyourus Sphyraena novaehollandiae Spratelloides spp. Trachinops caudimaculatus Upeneichthys vlamingii Urolophus paucimaculatus Vincentia conspersa

Anniversary Point 5

81 1999*2

2017* 1

2007*3

63 1992* 5

Blythe Heads

Badger Head 5

1993* 6

1995*1 0 2

2007* 3 6

2017* 1 1

275 1994*1 2

5 796

1995* 7

2007* 2 5

2017*2

Boat Harbour 5 65 1992* 5 1

1995*1 0 1

2007* 3 4

2017* 3

1 1 20

8

11

2

4

4

4

3

4

2

1 1 100 448

1873 2

250

42 2

25

50 1

214

204 1

6

272 3

70

97 4

401

454 1

211 1

1 1

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site Depth (m) Site*Depth ID number Species \\ year*month

Cooe e

Doctors Rocks

Don Heads

Goat Island, 10 m

Goat Island, 5 m

Horseshoe Reef

Lillico Beach, 10 m

5

5

5

10

5

5

10

790

793

278

2017*2

1994* 4

2017* 2

70 1995*1 0

2007* 3

2017* 2

76

1999* 1

2007* 3

Aplodactylus arctidens

2017* 1

277

1999* 3

73

1994* 4

1995*1 0

1995* 7

2007* 3

2017* 2

1999* 1

2007* 3

1

2

7

3

7

1

18

3

12

11

3

4

8

3

1

2

1

Contusus richei

7

16

5

10

1

4

5

3

1

1

Dinolestes lewini

1

Diodon nicthemerus

1

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

3

Girella zebra

1

3

2

4

Heteroscarus acroptilus Leptatherina presbyteroides

3

4

6

1

3

1 8

25

2

3

3

4

36

1 3

1

Meuschenia freycineti Meuschenia hippocrepis

1 1 2 1

1

3

2

6

1

2

1

9 1

1 5 1

1

22

1

2

Notolabrus tetricus

76

98

25

10

Olisthops cyanomelas

1

10

5

1

Notolabrus fucicola

Pempheris multiradiata

50

1

Neoodax balteatus Neosebastes scorpaenoides

Parma victoriae

6

1

Lotella rhacina Meuschenia australis Meuschenia flavolineata

2017* 1

22

Caesioperca rasor Cheilodactylus nigripes Chironemus marmoratus

2017* 1

5

Arripis spp. Atypichthys strigatus

2007* 3

25

30

1

1

25

54

62

1

4

5

8

665

26

28

1

1

1

4

4

89

28

87

35

41

2 79

120

28

26

37

1

3

5

5

186

2 2

7

150

5

1 480

1037

120

2 2

7

1

1

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site Depth (m) Site*Depth ID number Species \\ year*month

Cooe e

Doctors Rocks

Don Heads

Goat Island, 10 m

Goat Island, 5 m

Horseshoe Reef

Lillico Beach, 10 m

5

5

5

10

5

5

10

790

793

278

2017*2

1994* 4

2017* 2

70 1995*1 0

2007* 3

2017* 2

76

1999* 1

Pentaceropsis recurvirostris Pictilabrus laticlavius

8

6

4

12

5

Pseudolabrus mortonii

21

2007* 3

2017* 1

1

14

21

9

277

1999* 3

12

Vincentia conspersa

1995*1 0

1995* 7

2007* 3

2017* 2

1999* 1

2007* 3

2017* 1

19

3

8

1

5

1

3

22

9

14

4

17

2

3 1 1

12

6

Siphamia cephalotes Siphonognathus beddomei

Upeneichthys vlamingii

73

1994* 4

1

1

Pseudorhiza haeckeli Scobinichthys granulatus

Tetractenos glaber Trachinops caudimaculatus

2017* 1

1

1

Pseudophycis bachus

Scorpis aequipinnis

2007* 3

20 19

11 1

52

235

5

25

2

1 1331

1

927

2200

153

91

242

9

229

101

225

3630

1

4

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Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site Depth (m)

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut 5

Site*Depth ID number

68

Species \\ year*month

1994* 4

Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus

4

Aetapcus maculatus

1

Aplodactylus arctidens

1

2017* 2

1999* 1

Penguin, 5 m

10

74 2007* 3

89

Acanthaluteres vittiger

Penguin Point, 10 m

5

72 2007* 3

2017* 1

1999* 1

Piggery, 5 m

5 78 2007*3

2017* 1

1999* 3

25

2

67 2007* 3

2

1

1

1992* 5

1993* 6

1995*1 0

2007* 3

6

33

3

52

1 311

589

63

1

15

18

Cheilodactylus spectabilis

27

10

22

2

1

4

3

66

12

10

12

2

2

7

3

2

1

2

2

1

1

40

32

5

12

59

78

2

6

3

3

1

8

1

3

1

3

1

Chironemus marmoratus

2

4 20000 0

Clupeid spp. 229

33

35

800

3

1

1

1

1

2

3

1

25 1

2

3

2

1

Dipturus whitleyi

1 1

1

2

4

4

4

Eubalichthys gunnii

3

1

Eupetrichthys angustipes

1

Girella zebra

18

3

1

2

40

7

30

6

14

6

1

1

Haletta semifasciata Heteroscarus acroptilus

2017* 3

1

2 1

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

2017* 1

900

Bovichtus angustifrons

Diodon nicthemerus

1999* 3

1

Bathytoshia brevicaudata

Dinolestes lewini

2017* 1

1

Atypichthys strigatus

Cheilodactylus nigripes

5

77 2007* 3

Arripis trutta

Caesioperca rasor

Rocky Cape

5

61 1

1

Latridopsis forsteri

2

1

5

Lotella rhacina

2

1

1

4

1

8

3

3

1

2 1

Meuschenia australis

5

2

Meuschenia flavolineata

2

13

2 5

3 3

14

5

1

1

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 54


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site Depth (m)

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut 5

Site*Depth ID number

68

Species \\ year*month

1994* 4

2017* 2

1999* 1

2017* 1

1999* 1

4 1

1

4

2007*3

1 2

1999* 3

5

77 2007* 3

2

2017* 1

1999* 3

67 2007* 3

2017* 1

2

1

2

2

1

1992* 5

1993* 6

1995*1 0

2007* 3

2017* 3

1

1

1

6

2

10

8

21

34

15

18

63

30

14

91

63

25

81

139

4

12

12

1

Neoodax balteatus

1

Neosebastes scorpaenoides

Notolabrus tetricus Notolabrus tetricus/fucicola hybrid

2017* 1

Rocky Cape

5

78

Myliobatis australis

Notolabrus fucicola

Piggery, 5 m

5

72 2007* 3

2 2

Penguin, 5 m

10

74 2007* 3

Meuschenia freycineti Meuschenia hippocrepis

Penguin Point, 10 m

5

2

1

1 5

36

6

24

22

48

7

2

38

53

55

2

4

40

54

36

5

6

11

54

56

58

1 30

128

36

1

Olisthops cyanomelas

1

Parablennius tasmanianus

1

Parascyllium ferrugineum

2

Parequula melbournensis

4

Parma victoriae

5

6

3

1

27

84

8

115

2

6

1

10

7

25

Pempheris multiradiata Pentaceropsis recurvirostris Phyllopteryx taeniolatus Pictilabrus laticlavius

2

7

5

3

2

13

528

5

150

4770

1

1

11

7

22

16

5

8

16

1

Pseudolabrus mortonii

6

Pseudophycis bachus

4

3

1

2

770

107

1

1

198

1210

771

1

Scorpis aequipinnis

6

Scorpis lineolata

7

15

5

7

17

3

6

1

11

4

4

1

1

2

10

9

2

1

7

41

187

1

1

22

1

1 22

3

2

1

5

1

Siphamia cephalotes

4 4

12

3 7

1

10 3

5

Pseudophycis barbata

Tetractenos glaber

1

1

Pseudocaranx georgianus

Siphonognathus beddomei

3

2

3

51

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 55


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut

Depth (m)

5

Penguin Point, 10 m

5

Site*Depth ID number

68

Species \\ year*month

1994* 4

2007* 3

2017* 2

1999* 1

2007* 3

2017* 1

1999* 1

18

260

87

165

393

50

1561

Trachinops caudimaculatus

Penguin, 5 m

10

74

Piggery, 5 m

5

72

78 2007*3

2215

Rocky Cape

5

5

77

67

2017* 1

1999* 3

2007* 3

2017* 1

1999* 3

2007* 3

1500

192

600

135

565

735

2017* 1

1992* 5

1993* 6

1995*1 0

2007* 3

2017* 3

72

157

48

430

482

Trinorfolkia clarkei

1

Upeneichthys vlamingii

1

Urolophus cruciatus

6

2

1

1

1

3

2

1

4

Site

Round Hill Point Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

Sisters Rocks

Somerset Rocks Table Cape

Depth (m)

5

10

10

5

5

5

Site*Depth ID number

795

79

791

66

Species \\ year*month Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus

2017*2

1999*2

80 2007*3

64

2017*3 1999*2

2007*3

2017*2 1992*5

1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*2 2017*2

1

12

Aplodactylus arctidens

5

2

6

41

42

11

2

1

9 2

1

Arctocephalus pusillus

1

Atypichthys strigatus

6

Bathytoshia brevicaudata

5

100

1

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

1

Caesioperca rasor 1

36

91

70

255

194

38

15

5

5

15

1

6

10

9

1

6 5

1

1

1

5 9

18

Cheilodactylus spectabilis

4

25

1 14

10

466

38

38

5

2

3

Chironemus marmoratus

1

Dinolestes lewini

300

85

Diodon nicthemerus

Enoplosus armatus

2007*3 2017*2

1

Aracana aurita

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

1992*5

6

Acanthaluteres vittiger

Cheilodactylus nigripes

1

2

1 3

7

2

11

2

5

3

1

46

54

1 1 1

4

1

1 2

3

4

IMAS Internal Report Page 56


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site

Round Hill Point Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

Sisters Rocks

Somerset Rocks Table Cape

Depth (m)

5

10

10

5

5

5

Site*Depth ID number

795

79

80

64

791

66

Species \\ year*month

2017*2

1999*2

2007*3

2017*3 1999*2

2007*3

2017*2 1992*5

1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*2 2017*2

1992*5

2007*3 2017*2

Eubalichthys gunnii

1

Forsterygion varium Girella zebra

2 2

29

Heteroscarus acroptilus

1

1

1

5

10

1

Hypoplectrodes nigroruber

1

1

3 2

1 150

Meuschenia australis

1 1

Meuschenia freycineti

1 2

3

1

1

2

1

6

18

Notolabrus fucicola

3

8

2

2

2

3

12

4

6

17

14

7

43

4

58

51

52

24

6

18

2

10

1

486

780

2

1

2

5

3

7

1

1

2

1

1

24

9

1

45

31

107

16

78

89

69

105

69

33

62

1

1

1

17

1

2

6

3

7

2

2

4

26

3

7

6

4

1

3

4

6

540

96

1

400

4

Pempheris multiradiata

121

Pentaceropsis recurvirostris

1 3

9

5

13

85

11

1 11

21

9

8

10

3

4

3 10

5

4

Pseudocaranx georgianus

2 3

6

8

Pseudolabrus mortonii

17

1

2

7

Pseudophycis bachus Scorpis aequipinnis

Sepia apama

5

3

24

Olisthops cyanomelas

Scorpis lineolata

15

3

1

Neoodax balteatus

Pictilabrus laticlavius

3 5

2

1

Nemadactylus valenciennesi

Parma victoriae

2 7

Meuschenia hippocrepis

Notolabrus tetricus

15

1

Leptatherina presbyteroides

Meuschenia flavolineata

2

1

Kyphosus sydneyanus Latridopsis forsteri

12

8

2

3

4

2

2

1

4

1

10

2

44

1

10

17

14

2

IMAS Internal Report Page 57


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Site

Round Hill Point Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

Sisters Rocks

Somerset Rocks Table Cape

Depth (m)

5

10

10

5

5

5

Site*Depth ID number

795

79

80

64

791

66

Species \\ year*month

2017*2

1999*2

Siphonognathus beddomei Trachinops caudimaculatus

18

2007*3

2017*3 1999*2

2007*3

2017*2 1992*5

3

24

4

8

2

31

75

27

88

250

1108

199

225

256

111

569

2

1

1

Trachurus novaezelandiae Upeneichthys vlamingii Urolophus paucimaculatus

1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*2 2017*2

1992*5

2007*3 2017*2

12 112

18

7

2

2

76

310

150

25 2

18

10

25

1

2

1

1 1

IMAS Internal Report Page 58


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

Species

West of Nut

West Park

West Ulverstone, 10 m

5

5

10

5

75

69

792

71

794

1999*1

2007*3

2017*1

1994*4

2007*3

Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus

2

Acanthaluteres vittiger

7

2017*2

2017*2

Aplodactylus arctidens

1999*1

1

Aracana aurita

2007*3

1

3

86

24

Cheilodactylus nigripes

2

2

5

Chironemus marmoratus

3

9

3

17

12

32

2

4

13

3

6

Diodon nicthemerus

2

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

1

2

1

2

Enoplosus armatus Girella zebra

2

2

7

Heteroscarus acroptilus Meuschenia australis

1

Meuschenia flavolineata

1

Meuschenia freycineti

1

2

5

1

10

1

2

4

7

26

1

6

1

2

1

2

2

3

2

Neoodax balteatus

2

4

1

2

1

7

2 1

1

1

100

7

1

Meuschenia hippocrepis

2

1

Dinolestes lewini

1

6

1

Notolabrus fucicola

1 24

Parma victoriae 1

61

36

6

9

38

51

41

2

38

49

80

76

52

6

2

3

10

7

7

5

642

110

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus Pictilabrus laticlavius

2017*2

2

Caesioperca rasor

Pempheris multiradiata

2017*1

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

Notolabrus tetricus

Wivenhoe

10

3 8

13

Pseudolabrus mortonii

1

Pseudophycis bachus

1

8

7

18

5

4

15

27

2

IMAS Internal Report Page 59


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

Species

West of Nut

West Park

West Ulverstone, 10 m

Wivenhoe

10

5

5

10

5

75

69

792

71

794

1999*1

2007*3

2017*1

Pseudophycis barbata

1994*4

2007*3

2017*2

2017*2

1999*1

2007*3

2017*1

1

1

Scorpis aequipinnis

3

1

Scorpis lineolata

3

Siphonognathus beddomei

40

1

Sphyraena novaehollandiae Trachinops caudimaculatus

1 548

5533

2550

5

Trinorfolkia clarkei Upeneichthys vlamingii

2017*2

1710

1537

1866

1 1

12

6

2

2

IMAS Internal Report Page 60


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 2. Fish abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Site

Breakwater

Cape Sorrel End

Cape Sorrel Light

Cape Sorell Halfway

Depth (m)

5

10

Species \\ year*month

1994*11 2006*4 2018*2 1994*10 2006*4 2018*2 1994*5 2006*4 2018*2 1994*5 2006*4 2018*2 1994*11 2006*4 2018*2 1994*10 2006*4 2018*2 1994*9 2006*4 2018*2

5

5

10

Acanthaluteres vittiger 2

Aplodactylus lophodon

1

Aracana aurita

8

3

6

2

2

16

2

2

1

5

2

1

3

2

10

3

3

14

1

1

1

1

8

1

1

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

10

5

1 1

Dinolestes lewini 1

Genypterus tigerinus

4 45

50

3

5

2

10

3

3

1

1

1

3

1

6

1

45

8 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

Latridopsis forsteri

12

Lotella rhacina

63

3

1

1 4

1

3

2

5

6

30

1

46

1

Macroctopus maorum

1

Meuschenia australis

1

Meuschenia freycineti

1

Meuschenia hippocrepis

1

Nemadactylus macropterus

2

1

Notolabrus fucicola

88

57

29

116

79

184

34

49

142

81

67

53

30

12

8

Notolabrus tetricus

3

3

32

4

3

23

3

2

17

5

1

17

12

4

33

Octopus spp.

70

4

40

1

1

1

1

33

32

29

6

56

2

Octopus tetricus

Pempheris multiradiata

3

1

3

Heteroclinus johnstoni

Omegophora armilla

1

1

Girella zebra

Olisthops cyanomelas

3

2

2 2

4

2

1

Cheilodactylus nigripes

Diodon nicthemerus

South Cape Sorell

1

Aplodactylus arctidens

Cheilodactylus spectabilis

Sloop Point

2 10

12

1

8

1

11

2

2 195

4

Pentaceropsis recurvirostris

1

1

1

Pictilabrus laticlavius

7

1

8

2

15

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 61


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Breakwater

Cape Sorrel End

Depth (m)

5

10

Species \\ year*month

1994*11 2006*4 2018*2 1994*10 2006*4 2018*2 1994*5 2006*4 2018*2 1994*5 2006*4 2018*2 1994*11 2006*4 2018*2 1994*10 2006*4 2018*2 1994*9 2006*4 2018*2

Pseudolabrus mortonii

2

28

Pseudophycis barbata

12 3

Cape Sorrel Light

Cape Sorell Halfway

5

50

23

38

5

4

4

2

10

4

1

10

31

35

19

Spiniraja whitleyi

South Cape Sorell

10

5

18

1

Scorpis aequipinnis Scorpis lineolata

Sloop Point

9 2 1

Trachinops caudimaculatus

226

Trachurus declivis

120

12 3

IMAS Internal Report Page 62


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m)

5 1994* 4

Species \\ year*month

2007* 2

2018* 2

Doughboy s

East of Doughboys

Green Point

10

5

5

2018*2

2018*2

2018* 2

1995*10

Acanthaluteres vittiger

2

10 1994* 4

2007* 2

2018* 2

Trefoil Island

West Point

5

5

2018*2

1994*4

2 25

Arripis spp.

1

2

1

1

1

91

Arripis trutta

258 1

Cheilodactylus nigripes

1

4

1

Dinolestes lewini Diodon nicthemerus

45 1

1

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

1

Enoplosus armatus

2

Heteroscarus acroptilus

1

2

Latridopsis forsteri

6

1

1

Meuschenia australis

1

Meuschenia hippocrepis

1

Neoodax balteatus

1

Notolabrus tetricus Notolabrus tetricus/fucicola hybrid

2

1

Girella zebra

Notolabrus fucicola

4

6

3

1

3

4

3

18

7

21

19

12

27

21

1

4 23

32

23

16

7

4

4

16

20

14

29

2

Octopus spp.

1

Octopus tetricus Olisthops cyanomelas Parma victoriae

1 1

4

8

1

Pempheris multiradiata

3

2

1

20

2

8

3 35

Pictilabrus laticlavius

1

130 3

1

1

10

Pseudolabrus mortonii

3

Pseudophycis barbata Scorpis aequipinnis

2018* 2

1

Aplodactylus arctidens Aracana aurita

2007* 2

1 39

3

IMAS Internal Report Page 63


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m)

5 1994* 4

Species \\ year*month

2007* 2

2018* 2

Doughboy s

East of Doughboys

Green Point

10

5

5

2018*2

2018*2

1995*10

Sepia apama Seriolella brama

2018* 2 2

2018* 2

5

5

2018*2

1994*4

2007* 2

2018* 2

1

2

Siphonognathus beddomei

1

1

Siphonognathus tanyourus

1

Trachinops caudimaculatus

91

Upeneichthys vlamingii

2007* 2

West Point

2

Siphamia cephalotes

Trachurus novaezelandiae

10 1994* 4

Trefoil Island

1

6 1

IMAS Internal Report Page 64


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 3. Invertebrate abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Site

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 1999* 2 2007*3

Species \\ year*month Amblypneustes spp.

Blythe Heads Boat Harbour

Anniversary Point 5

2017*1

5

5

5

5

Goat Island, 5 m

10

5

1992*5 1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*1 2017*2 1992*5 1995*10 2007*3 2017*3 2017*2 2017*2 1999*1 2007*3 2017*1 1999*3 2007*3 2017*1

6

1

Aplysia spp.

1

Argobuccinum pustulosum

Doctors Rocks Goat Island, 10 m

Cooee

2

1

Astralium aureum Astralium squamiferum

1 1

2

Astralium tentoriiforme

1

Bovichtus angustifrons Cabestana tabulata

1

7

1

4

1

4

1

Chironemus marmoratus

1

Clanculus undatus

1

1

2

Comanthus trichoptera Conus anemone

2

1

Calliostoma armillatum

Comanthus tasmaniae

1

1 1

16

14

2 3

1

8

8

1

1

16

2

3

1

Dicathais orbita

1

3

5

2

3

Diodon nicthemerus

23

1

21

2

1

1 1

2

2

1

1 1

Forsterygion varium

5

Fromia polypora

1

Haliotis laevigata Haliotis rubra

5

7

138

62

5

Haliotis scalaris Heliocidaris erythrogramma Heteroclinus johnstoni Jasus edwardsii Lomis hirta Meridiastra calcar

5

1

4

6

1

1

29

12

12

26

13

5

29

13

48

9

1

2

2

37

1 2

16

7

6 310

388 1

202

588

44

11

7 516

182

702

293

231

184

124

3

1

122

178

117

192

50

84

99

144

1 1 1 1

IMAS Internal Report Page 65

170

33


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 1999* 2 2007*3

Species \\ year*month

Blythe Heads Boat Harbour

Anniversary Point 5

2017*1

5

Doctors Rocks Goat Island, 10 m

Cooee

5

5

5

Goat Island, 5 m

10

5

1992*5 1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*1 2017*2 1992*5 1995*10 2007*3 2017*3 2017*2 2017*2 1999*1 2007*3 2017*1 1999*3 2007*3 2017*1

Meridiastra gunnii

2

Mimachlamys asperrima Mitra glabra

1 1

2

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus

1

Nectria ocellata

1

1

Neothyonidium spp.

2

1 1

2

7

Nesogobius spp. Pagurid spp.

19 3

3

3

5

17

2

Paguristes brevirostris

3

Paguroidea spp.

2

Parablennius tasmanianus

48

Paragrapsus gaimardii

1

Pempheris multiradiata

1

Penion mandarinus

2

1

Pentagonaster dubeni Petricia vernicina

1

2

1 10

Phasianella australis

1

1

10

1

Phasianella ventricosa

3

1

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

2

3

1

2

1

3

2

1

1 12

Phasianotrochus rutilus

1

Plagusia chabrus

2

Plectaster decanus

8

5

2

5

Pleuroploca australasia

1

1

1

1

Ranella australasia Scorpaena papillosa

3

5 2

1

3

1

1

3

1

2

2

9

1

5

1 1

1

2

1

1 1

1

2

2 2 1

1

Sepia apama

1

Siphonognathus beddomei

1

Strigopagurus strigimanus Tosia australis

1

2 3

1

6

6

2

1

2 1

12

4

3

2 1

1

6

IMAS Internal Report Page 66

1


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 1999* 2 2007*3

Species \\ year*month

Blythe Heads Boat Harbour

Anniversary Point 5

2017*1

Trinorfolkia clarkei

8

Turbo undulatus

1

5

5

5

5

10

Goat Island, 5 m 5

1992*5 1993*6 1995*10 2007*3 2017*1 2017*2 1992*5 1995*10 2007*3 2017*3 2017*2 2017*2 1999*1 2007*3 2017*1 1999*3 2007*3 2017*1

1

3

1

6

9

3 15

38

3

1

Unidentified invertebrate (mobile) Uniophora granifera

Doctors Rocks Goat Island, 10 m

Cooee

2 1

2 4

1

8

5

1

2

1

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 67

74

1


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Outer Sister (West), 5 m Penguin Point, 10 m

Site

Lillico Beach, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 5 5 10 5 5 5 1999* 2007* 2017* 1994* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 1 3 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 5 6 0 3 3

Species \\ year*month

Nut

Amblypneustes ovum

Penguin, 5 m

Rocky Cape

6

Amblypneustes spp.

3

3

Argobuccinum pustulosum

3

Astralium aureum

2

Astralium squamiferum

1

1

Astralium tentoriiforme

1

1

3

Astrostole scaber

1

Australostichopus mollis

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

1

Cabestana tabulata

1

1

Ceratosoma brevicaudatum

1

3

1

5

4 6

Comanthus tasmaniae

2

6

Comanthus trichoptera

39

40

1

1

2

1 2

1

8 1

Conocladus australis

2

1

1

27

1

8

20

1

1

10

1

2

1 1

Dicathais orbita

3

4

5

7

2

4

1

2

1

Diodon nicthemerus

1

Fromia polypora

1

Gobiid spp.

1

2

1

Goniocidaris tubaria

1

2

Haliotis laevigata 24

2

2

15

73

4

1

71

46

1 10

62

17

8

Haliotis scalaris

Heteroclinus johnstoni

4

1

Cristiceps australis

Heliocidaris erythrogramma

2

1

Clanculus undatus

Haliotis rubra

2

2

Charonia lampas

Conus anemone

Piggery, 5 m

51

3

7

1 263

204

46

250

233 1

308

415

295 1

221

34

92

39

167

65

1 30

2

75

49

56

63

55

347

125

329

228

83

647

153

3 211

166

215

2

IMAS Internal Report Page 68


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Outer Sister (West), 5 m Penguin Point, 10 m

Site

Lillico Beach, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 5 5 10 5 5 5 1999* 2007* 2017* 1994* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 1 3 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 5 6 0 3 3

Species \\ year*month

Nut

Heteroclinus tristis

Penguin, 5 m

Piggery, 5 m

Rocky Cape

1

Hippocampus abdominalis

3

Holopneustes inflatus

3

Hypoplectrodes nigroruber

1

Jasus edwardsii

2

2

Lotella rhacina

1

Meridiastra gunnii

1

Meuschenia hippocrepis

1

1

2

Mitra glabra

1

1

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

Neothyonidium spp.

6

1

1

2

7

2

Nesogobius spp.

2

Pagurid spp.

1

7

Paguristes spp.

1

2

2

17

6

1

1

9

Paguroidea spp.

4

Parablennius tasmanianus

4

Parma victoriae

1

Pempheris multiradiata

5

35

Penion mandarinus Pentagonaster dubeni Petricia vernicina

3 1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

3

1

Petrocheles australiensis

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

Phasianella australis

1

Phasianella ventricosa

1

1

3

Plagusia chabrus Plectaster decanus

1

1

Mimachlamys asperrima

Nectria ocellata

1

2

2

1 2

5

1

5

6

3

2

4

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

6

2

1

9

5

4

5

3

IMAS Internal Report Page 69


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Outer Sister (West), 5 m Penguin Point, 10 m

Site

Lillico Beach, 10 m

Depth (m)

10 5 5 10 5 5 5 1999* 2007* 2017* 1994* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1999* 2007* 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 1 3 1 4 3 2 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 1 5 6 0 3 3

Species \\ year*month

Nut

Pleuroploca australasia

2

Ranella australasia

3

1

Penguin, 5 m

1 1

3 1

Piggery, 5 m

Rocky Cape

1

5

1

2

5

2

2

1

Scorpaena papillosa

1

Sepia apama

1

Strigopagurus strigimanus

1

Tosia australis

2

3

1 2

Tosia magnifica

1

5 1

1

1 1

2

1

1

10

2

1 20

Unidentified chiton Unidentified invertebrate (mobile)

10

3

1 1

1 1

1

11 7

4

5

5

1

45

1

4 2

1

7

Uniophora granifera Urolophus cruciatus

3

2

Turbo undulatus

Unidentified nudibranch

5

1

Trianectes bucephalus Trinorfolkia clarkei

23

2

1

3

4

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 70


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Round Hill Point

Depth (m) Species \\ year*month

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m 5

2017*2

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999*2

10 2007*3 2017*3

1999*2

Aetapcus maculatus

5 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 2 5 6 0 3 2 2017*2

2007*3

Table Cape

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

5

5 1992*5

10 2007* 2017* 2017* 3 2 1999*1 2007*3 1

1

Amblypneustes ovum

1

1

Amblypneustes spp.

9

Astralium squamiferum

2

Astralium tentoriiforme

1

1

1

1

Australostichopus mollis Bovichtus angustifrons

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

1 1

1

1

Brachaluteres jacksonianus

1

5

1

2

1

1

Cabestana tabulata

3

Clanculus undatus

2

Comanthus tasmaniae

4

Comanthus trichoptera

4

12

25

2 25

13

9

5

4

1

Cominella lineolata

1

Conus anemone

1

Coscinasterias muricata

1

Creocele cardinalis

1

Cristiceps australis Dicathais orbita

1

2 1

1

1

4

1

13

2

11

Diodon nicthemerus

32

13

2

Equichlamys bifrons

1

Fromia polypora

1

1

1

Gnathanacanthus goetzeei

1

Gobiid spp.

2

Granata imbricata

1

Haliotis laevigata Haliotis rubra

8

3

1

2

69

25

2

68

44

148

451

346

125

375

502

Haliotis scalaris Heliocidaris erythrogramma

2

3

3

1 14

6

196

60

3

34

9

9

121

18

7

59

72

30

73

245

299

383

181

251

133

193

119

22

39

65

1

5

IMAS Internal Report Page 71


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Round Hill Point

Depth (m) Species \\ year*month

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m 5

2017*2

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999*2

10 2007*3 2017*3

1999*2

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

5 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 2 5 6 0 3 2 2017*2

2007*3

Heteroclinus johnstoni

Table Cape 5

Tea-tree Point, 10 m 5

1992*5

2

10 2007* 2017* 2017* 3 2 1999*1 2007*3 1

1

Heteroclinus perspicillatus

1

Heteroscarus acroptilus

1

Holopneustes inflatus

1

Macroctopus maorum

1

Meridiastra gunnii

1

Mimachlamys asperrima

2

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus Nectria ocellata

1

1

1

2

1

2

Neothyonidium spp.

5

Pagurid spp.

4

2

5

2

4 1

1

1

1

7

4 1

3

6

4

1

13

Paguristes brevirostris

5

Pempheris multiradiata

14

Penion mandarinus Pentagonaster dubeni

1 1

Petricia vernicina

1

1

1

1

2 3

Phasianella australis Phasianella ventricosa

2

6

1

4

3

1

2

11

1

1

11

5

Pleuroploca australasia

8

2 2

Pterynotus triformis

1

1

6

3

2

4

5

1

2

2

1

1

1 3

3

12 2

4

1

2 1

2 2

1

Ranella australasia

1

Scorpaena papillosa

1

1

1

1

1 1

Scutus antipodes

1

Sepia apama

1

Strigopagurus strigimanus Tosia australis

1

2

5

Plagusia chabrus Plectaster decanus

1

2

4

1

1

27

9

3 4

2

2 1

1

2

1

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 72


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Round Hill Point

Depth (m) Species \\ year*month

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m 5

2017*2

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999*2

10 2007*3 2017*3

1999*2

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

5 2017* 1992* 1993* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 2 5 6 0 3 2 2017*2

2007*3

Trianectes bucephalus 6

1

Vincentia conspersa

5 1992*5

1

8

85

Unidentified chiton Unidentified invertebrate (mobile) Uniophora granifera

5

Tea-tree Point, 10 m 10 2007* 2017* 2017* 3 2 1999*1 2007*3 1

1

Trinorfolkia clarkei Turbo undulatus

Table Cape

1 19

18

325

2 29

3 2

2

4

3

2

1

1

1 1

IMAS Internal Report Page 73


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Don Heads

West of Nut

Site

Badger Head

Depth (m)

5 5 5 1994*1 1995* 2007* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 1994* 1995*1 1995* 2007* 2017* 2 7 2 1994*4 0 3 2 4 0 7 3 2 1994*4

Species \\ year*month Aetapcus maculatus

Horseshoe Reef

West Park 5

5 2007* 2017* 3 2 2017*2

1

Amblypneustes spp.

1

Aplysia spp.

1 1

Austrocochlea spp.

2 2

2

1

2

1

1

Cabestana tabulata

1

2

1

Ceratosoma amoenum Ceratosoma brevicaudatum

1

Clanculus undatus

1

1

Comanthus tasmaniae

3 43

58

5

1

7

1

1

9

10

13

8

12

17

23

Coscinasterias muricata

1

11

6

1 2

2

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

4

3

4

2

2

3

3

2

1

2

1 3

1

1

2

2

4

Echinaster arcystatus

2

Fromia polypora Goniobranchus tasmaniensis

1

1 1 61 2

1

5

1 1

Haliotis laevigata

Herdmania grandis

3

1

Cristiceps australis

Haliotis scalaris Heliocidaris erythrogramma

2007*3

1

Australostichopus mollis

Haliotis rubra

1999*1

5 2017* 1 2017*2

1

Astrostole scaber

Dicathais orbita

10

1

Allostichaster polyplax

Comanthus trichoptera

Wivenho e

1

Agnewia tritoniformis

Bovichtus angustifrons

West Ulverstone, 10 m

1

15

12

2

29

25

37

5

10

10

7

26

1

70

10

9

27

10

6

95

30

8

3

242

97

314

114

53

1 311

325

221

108

127

150

136

337

287

327

622

616

69

79

3

4

8

IMAS Internal Report Page 74


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Don Heads

West of Nut

Site

Badger Head

Depth (m)

5 5 5 1994*1 1995* 2007* 1995*1 2007* 2017* 1994* 1995*1 1995* 2007* 2017* 2 7 2 1994*4 0 3 2 4 0 7 3 2 1994*4

Species \\ year*month Heteroclinus johnstoni

Horseshoe Reef

1

1

Heteroclinus perspicillatus

West Park 5

West Ulverstone, 10 m 5

2007* 2017* 3 2 2017*2

1999*1

1

1

1

2

3

2

Mitra glabra

1 1

Neothyonidium spp. Nesogobius spp.

1

Pagurid spp.

1

1

2

1

19

4

1

1

3

10

1

1

Paguroidea spp.

3

5

1

6

1 2

2

Phasianella australis

2

1

2

2

2

1

3

1

2 1

3

1

2 2

2

Phasianella ventricosa

2

1

7

Phasianotrochus eximius

1

Plagusia chabrus

1 3

3

1

4

1

Pleuroploca australasia

2

1

Smilasterias multipara

1

2

2

12 2

1

Turbo undulatus

1 2

4

1

1

1 4

1

5

4

4

1

2

Strigopagurus strigimanus Tosia australis

1

1

1

Scorpaena papillosa

1 4 20

3

4

2

1

1

1

5

69

Unidentified chiton

8

18 3

2

1

1

1

1

1

9

4

3 1

Unidentified nudibranch Uniophora granifera

4 1

Petricia vernicina

Trinorfolkia clarkei

2

1

Parablennius tasmanianus

Plectaster decanus

5 2017* 1 2017*2

2007*3

2

Meridiastra gunnii

Pentagonaster dubeni

10

1

Holopneustes inflatus

Nectria ocellata

Wivenho e

7

53

1

1

2

2 5

2

9 1

3 1

1

1

1

1

2

6

7

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 75


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

IMAS Internal Report Page 76


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 4. Invertebrate abundances recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Cape Sorrel Light

Breakwater

Depth (m)

5 10 5 5 1994*1 2006* 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 2018* 1 4 2 0 4 2 1994*5 2006*4 2 1994*5 2006*4

Species \\ year*month

Cape Sorrel End

Cape Sorell Halfway

Site

Amblypneustes ovum

South Cape Sorell

Sloop Point

10 10 5 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 2018* 2 1 4 2 0 4 2 1994*9 2006*4 2

2

Aplodactylus arctidens

1

Astrostole scaber

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

3

1

1

0

2

Cabestana spengleri

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Chironemus georgianus

1

Comanthus tasmaniae

8

Conocladus australis

1

6

Coscinasterias muricata Dicathais orbita

1

Diodon nicthemerus

4

2

0

1

2

7

1

5

2

14

5

37

10

11

5

1

3

3

1

Gnathanacanthus goetzeei

1

1

1

Gobiid spp. Goniobranchus tasmaniensis

1 1 46

1

14

1

8

14

Heteroclinus johnstoni

19 1

Heteroclinus perspicillatus

2

2 2

1

4

3

13

52

1

1

Jasus edwardsii

4

Lotella rhacina

4

8

1

1

1

1

1

4

4

2

765

2

10

5

2

1

Macroctopus maorum

1

Meridiastra calcar Meridiastra gunnii

16

2

Pagurid spp.

1

1

0

1

2

Pentagonaster dubeni Petricia vernicina

1

2

Fromia polypora

Haliotis rubra

1

1 1

1

2

1

1

6

2

1

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 77


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Cape Sorrel Light

Breakwater

Depth (m)

5 10 5 5 1994*1 2006* 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 2018* 1 4 2 0 4 2 1994*5 2006*4 2 1994*5 2006*4

Species \\ year*month Plagusia chabrus

1

Cape Sorrel End

Cape Sorell Halfway

Site

3

Plectaster decanus

7

6

1

7

2

1

2

0

5

2

10 10 5 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 1994*1 2006* 2018* 2018* 2 1 4 2 0 4 2 1994*9 2006*4 2

15

1

1

6

1

2

3

1

Pseudophycis bachus

1

Ranella australasia Scorpaena papillosa

1

Strigopagurus strigimanus

1 2

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

Tosia australis

1

Tosia magnifica

1

1

2

Trinorfolkia clarkei Turbo undulatus

South Cape Sorell

Sloop Point

1 13

1

1

1

1

0

2

1

4

743

39

IMAS Internal Report Page 78


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m)

5

Species \\ year*month

2007* 2

1994*4

2018* 2

Doughboy s

East of Doughboys

10

5

2018*2

Green Point

Trefoil Island 5

2018*2

2018* 2

1995*10

10 1994* 4

5 2007* 2

2018* 2

Amblypneustes ovum 2

1

1

Comanthus tasmaniae

7

Comanthus trichoptera

3

5

1 1

9

1

4

7

Fromia polypora

1 27 2

Goniocidaris tubaria

6

2

2

4

3

17

1 5

Haliotis laevigata

3 29

26

111

195

12

4

Herdmania grandis

7 25

6

2

1

176

90

42

19

1

21

16

22

53

62

36

32

134

3

60

23

28

49

5

1

49

1044

12

3

24

Heteroclinus perspicillatus

1

Heteroclinus tristis

1

Jasus edwardsii

1 1249

648

Nectria ocellata

1

1

Pagurid spp.

3

1

6

Meridiastra gunnii

43

1

2 1

9 4

16

38

1

1

4

Paranepanthia grandis

1

Parascyllium ferrugineum

1

Parascyllium variolatum

1

1

Pempheris multiradiata

40

Penion mandarinus

1

Pentagonaster dubeni Petricia vernicina

2018* 2

4

55

2

Dicathais orbita

Meridiastra calcar

2007* 2

1994*4

1

Cephaloscyllium laticeps

Heliocidaris erythrogramma

2018*2

1

Cabestana spengleri

Haliotis rubra

5

1

Bovichtus angustifrons

Coscinasterias muricata

West Point

2 1

2

1

2 5

1 1

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 79


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m)

5

Species \\ year*month

2007* 2

1994*4

2018* 2

Doughboy s

East of Doughboys

10

5

2018*2

Green Point

Trefoil Island 5

2018*2

2018* 2

1995*10

10 1994* 4

Phasianella australis

West Point

5 2007* 2

2018* 2

5

2018*2

2007* 2

1994*4

5

Phasianotrochus eximius

1

Plagusia chabrus

3

Plectaster decanus Pleuroploca australasia

1

Pseudonepanthia troughtoni

1

2

3

3

1

3

1

1

1

Ranella australasia

2

1

1

2

Scutus antipodes

1

Sepia apama

1

Tosia australis

1

Tosia magnifica Turbo undulatus Unidentified invertebrate (mobile)

1

3

1

3

2

21

64

22

1 17

50

64

10

92

170

2

3 6

4

101

16

31

1

Unidentified whelk Uniophora granifera

2018* 2

2 3

IMAS Internal Report Page 80


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 5. Macroalgal community percentage cover recorded during surveys conducted on the Western Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Site

Breakwater

Depth (m)

5 1994 *11

Phylum Heterokont ophyta

Taxa Acrocarpia paniculata Brown algae (encrusting) Carpoglossum confluens

200 6*4

Cape Sorrel End 201 8*2

10 1994 *10 0.4

200 6*4 4.5

Cape Sorrel Light 201 8*2 1.9

5 199 4*5 12.6

200 6*4 9.7

Cape Sorell Halfway 201 8*2

5 199 4*5

18.8

20.3

200 6*4 3.8

201 8*2

10 1994 *11

200 6*4

201 8*2

10 1994 *10

200 6*4

201 8*2

5 199 4*9

2.5

200 6*4

15.9

30.4

20.5

7.8

10.3

11.8

8.5

12.6

8.1

3.9

11.1

10.7 0.5

Colpomenia sinuosa Cystophora moniliformis Cystophora platylobium

0.1

7.3

5

11.9

22.5

9

14.5

0.2

0.7

8

17.1

14.9

15.2

10.5

0.1

2.2

Cystophora racemosa

0.2 1.4

0.7

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.7

8.8

Cystophora xiphocarpa

0.2

Dictyopteris muelleri

0.1

3.2

0.2

Dictyota spp.

0.1

Dictyotaceae spp.

0.4

Dilophus spp.

0.1

Durvillaea spp. Ecklonia radiata Foliose brown algae

36.9

30.5

52.4

2.4

18.2

12.3

48.2

22.7

3.4

26.3

38.4

59.7

0.7

3.3

0.1

0.1

3.6

84.7

65.5

64.8

29.3

41.8

0.2

0.1

5.4

1.3

2.3

2.9

0.8

58.8

28.3

31.4

27.7

31.5

2.2

1.4

3.7

0.2

0.6

2.1

1.1

0.1 2.2

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.1

Perithalia caudata

0.2

1.3

Sargassum spp.

Xiphophora gladiata

6.2

0.1

Lobophora variegata

Sargassum vestitum

0.3

0.4

Halopteris spp.

Macrocystis pyrifera

201 8*2

0.5

Carpomitra costata

Cystophora retroflexa

South Cape Sorell

Sloop Point

0.1 0.2

0.9 3.4

6.2

7.5

7.3

3.1 1.4

IMAS Internal Report Page 81


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Breakwater

Depth (m)

5 1994 *11

Phylum

Taxa

Cape Sorrel End

200 6*4

201 8*2

10 1994 *10

200 6*4

Cape Sorrel Light 201 8*2

5 199 4*5

200 6*4

Cape Sorell Halfway 201 8*2

5 199 4*5

200 6*4

Zonaria spp. Rhodophyt a

Ballia spp.

1

0.6

0.4

1.7

1.2

0.6

4.5

2.8

2.2

2.1

3.7

Delisea spp.

201 8*2

10 1994 *11

200 6*4

2.9

0.8

3.3

5.3

Foliose red algae

2.5

8.3

1.9

13.6

8.8

3.7

24.3

10.9

Gelidium spp. Geniculate corallines

0.2

2.7

0.2

1.7

1.7

2.8

0.3

8.3

0.4

2.3

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline) Chlorophyt a

Caulerpa brownii

0.7

0.2

200 6*4

201 8*2

0.5 10.6

0.2

5.5

3.8

4.8

9.9

0.9

9.4

2

13.8

23.2

0.2 0.2

0.2

4.6

4.7

14.5

2.3

2.9

0.6

1.5

10.5

3.5

4.6

9.4

11.5

1

7.1

13.7

1.5

3.2

6.2

3.1

9.3

15.3

7.1

8.6

16.8

2.2

6.3

11

0.3

2.1

8.2

0.2 2

0.8

0.3 4.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.3 0.3 0.1

0.6

0.2 0.7

0.1

1.3

0.4

0.6

3.4 1.2

0.1

1.9 0.2

0.9 0.6

2.5

0.8 0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

Pollexfenia lobata Ptilonia australasica Sonderopelta/Peyssonn elia Synarthrophyton patena Thamnoclonium dichotomum

5 199 4*9

0.5

1.2

Plocamium angustum Plocamium dilatatum Plocamium leptophyllum

201 8*2

0.9

Melanthalia abscissa Phacelocarpus peperocarpos Phacelocarpus spp.

200 6*4

1.3

Gigartina muelleriana Hemineura frondosa Lenormandia marginata

10 1994 *10

3

Euptilota articulata 0.7

201 8*2

0.2

0.8

Filamentous red algae

South Cape Sorell

Sloop Point

1

0.1 0.6 2.8

1.2

6.6

0.3

2.4

0.3 0.5 5.1 47.8

17.7

0.2

2

3.4

0.1

3.5

5.2

7.4

2.2

8.5

6.2

9.9

6.7

0.7

1

8.7

3.3

1.9

84

57.8

44.9

59.7

0.3

3.5

0.1

0.3

0.5

0.5

3.4

3.7

4.6

6.8

7.5

0.5

1.9

51

24.9

67.6

51.9

57.7

31.2

39.6

19.5 3.7

IMAS Internal Report Page 82


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Breakwater

Depth (m)

5 1994 *11

Phylum

Taxa

200 6*4

Cape Sorrel End 201 8*2

10 1994 *10

200 6*4

Cape Sorrel Light 201 8*2

Caulerpa flexilis

5 199 4*5

200 6*4

Cape Sorell Halfway 201 8*2

5 199 4*5

200 6*4

201 8*2

10 1994 *11

0.6

Caulerpa longifolia

0.5

200 6*4 1.5

0.5

South Cape Sorell

Sloop Point

5.4

201 8*2

10 1994 *10

200 6*4

201 8*2

5 199 4*9

15.9 2.1

0.6

0.3

12.5

0.1

Chaetomorpha spp.

0.3

Cladophora spp.

0.1

1

Codium dimorphum

0.1

Ulva spp. 0.2

Bryozoa

Bryozoans

1.1

Animalia

Alcyonarians

Cnidaria

Alcyonarians

0.3

0.7

12.8

8.1

6.6

4.3

3.7

4.7

6.1

5.4

0.8

0.1

0.2

0.7

8.1

8.4

2.2

0.8

4.5

2.7

14.4

0.7

1.1

0.4

1.8

0.9

1.4

0.4

0.1

0.3 0.4

2.3

8.3

4.7

2.9

1.7

0.4 4.2

0.1

1.6

0.3

1.3

0.2

0.6

Zoanthids

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.7

0.2 0.1

0.4 0.5

0.7

0.1

0.8

0.7 0.1

0.6 1.9

Pebbles

Turf algae

1.7

1.9

Hydroids

Algae

0.5

3.9

0.4

1.4

Erythropodium spp.

Sand Turf/sand/sediment matrix

0.8

0.7

Anemones

Bare rock

0.8

0.1

Sponges Unidentified sponge (encrusting)

Substrate

0.3

0.3

Codium spp.

Ascidians

3.4

0.7

Caulerpa trifaria

Chordata

201 8*2 2.5

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

Porifera

200 6*4

0.4

2.7 0.9

1.8

1.5

0.3

17.8 34.4

1.3

2.9

2.3

1 21.2

8

23

2.5 2.9

4.3

9.3

6.3

22.4

1.6

0.1

1 1.9

1

10.7

0.6

2.4

IMAS Internal Report Page 83


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m)

Doughboys

East of Doughboys

10

5

5

Phylum

Taxa

Heterokontophyta

Acrocarpia paniculata

1994*4

2007*2

2018*2

17.8

4.1

18.5

2018*2

2018*2

16.4

7.1

Trefoil Island

Green Point 5

10

1995*10

2018*2

61.1

1.6

1994*4

West Point

5

5

2007*2

2018*2

2018*2

1994*4

2007*2

2.5

3.7

3.1

3.3

21.3

Bellotia eriophorum

2018* 2 4

0.8

Brown algae (encrusting) Carpoglossum confluens

0.5 0.5

2.3

3.6

Colpomenia sinuosa

0.1

Cystophora monilifera

0.7

12.6

2.5

6.4

2.7

Cystophora moniliformis

6.2

7.4

1.1

11.2

2.9

10.4

0.4

Cystophora platylobium

0.5

Cystophora retorta 5.6 4.7

15.8

Dictyota spp.

1.1

Dictyotaceae spp.

0.4

Durvillaea spp.

5.6

Ecklonia radiata

0.3

Filamentous brown algae Halopteris spp.

5

14.7

0.2 1.8

4.4

1.7

10.3

59.7

2.6

0.8

16.4

4.8

2.3

1.1

4.4

9.1

5

1.6

4.7

0.7

5.3

0.1

10.7

0.3

0.3

4.2

1.2

5.8

33.8 0.6

1.7

3.1

11.2

2.8

3.7

17.2 0.1 7.7

18.2

12.8

0.4

1.2 0.6

Perithalia caudata

24.6

6.3

5

17.2

2.1

0.9

19

Phyllospora comosa

11.7

5.1

10.1

26.6

6.5

5.1

55.1

Sargassum verruculosum

3.5

0.2

Pachydictyon paniculatum

Sargassum varians

52.4

0.9

Lobophora variegata

Sargassum spp.

3.3

0.7

Lessonia corrugata

Sargassum sonderi

4.5 0.3

Hormosira banksii

Macrocystis pyrifera

1.8

0.8

0.7

Cystophora retroflexa Cystophora xiphocarpa

10.9

1.4

56

10.5

14.8

14.4

25.7

8.9 62.9

5.3

8.3 76.7

22.3

0.7 0.2

4.8 1.5 0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 84


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m) Phylum

Doughboys

East of Doughboys

10

5

5 Taxa Sargassum vestitum

1994*4

2007*2

2018*2

2018*2

2018*2

Trefoil Island

Green Point 5 1995*10

10 2018*2

1994*4

2007*2

0.8

2018*2

1994*4

2007*2

2018* 2 0.4

15.7

Sporochnus spp.

0.3

Zonaria spp.

5.8

Ballia spp.

0.1

Champia spp.

5

1

Seirococcus axillaris

Rhodophyta

2018*2

West Point

5

0.4

3.3

0.3 0.8

4.9

2.8

0.3

0.1 0.2

1

0.2

Dictyomenia spp.

1.1

1.8

0.1

2.4

3.1

0.7

0.6

0.2

0.4

2.7

0.7

2.1

2.2

2.9

0.2

Erythrymenia minuta

0.2

Euptilota articulata Filamentous red algae

0.2 0.2

0.1

Foliose red algae

3

0.2

7.8

Gelidium spp. Geniculate corallines

5.8

11.3 2.2

0.6

6

21.8

11.3

4.2

1.8

7

1

8.6

36.3

0.9

23.7

3.3

16.9

7.8

19.5

0.5

Laurencia spp.

0.2

1.3

0.3

Lenormandia muelleri Phacelocarpus peperocarpos

2.2

Phacelocarpus spp.

0.8 1.7

0.7

1.1

2.2

Plocamium costatum

0.6

Plocamium dilatatum

3.9

0.2

0.3

2.2

0.3

0.6

2.5

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.4

2.1

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.2

Plocamium leptophyllum

0.5

Plocamium mertensii

0.6

Plocamium preissianum

0.2

Pollexfenia lobata Ptilonia australasica

2.3

2.6

5.2

0.3

0.1

Sarcothalia crassifolia Sonderopelta/Peyssonnelia

1.1

0.2

Haloplegma preissii

Plocamium angustum

0.6

1 2.4

1.8

10.4

10

20.5

0.2

11.2

5.3

13.7

IMAS Internal Report Page 85


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m) Phylum

Doughboys

East of Doughboys

10

5

5 Taxa

1994*4

2007*2

2018*2

2018*2

2018*2

Trefoil Island

Green Point 5 1995*10

10 2018*2

Thamnoclonium dichotomum 3.9 53.8

47.9

6.3 31.4

60.8

19.6

1.8

2.5

45.8

2018*2

1994*4

0.9

25.6

23.6

74.7 1.2

0.4

10.4

0.8

1.1

0.4

0.3

Caulerpa scalpelliformis

0.2

Caulerpa sedoides

1.7

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

0.2

2.2

Caulerpa spp.

5.4

Caulerpa trifaria

3.3

Chaetomorpha spp.

2.2

0.1

Cladophora spp.

0.2

Codium dimorphum

0.1

0.8

0.2

0.6

0.3

Codium spp.

0.7

Filamentous green algae

0.2

Ulva spp.

0.4

Magnoliophyta

Heterozostera tasmanica

2.2

Porifera

Sponges

Mollusca

Xenostrobus pulex

Cnidaria

Anemones Erythropodium spp.

7.3

1.7 0.1

Caulerpa obscura

Bryozoans

49.8

3

2.1

Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

Unidentified sponge (encrusting)

2018* 2

1.4

Caulerpa flexilis

Bryozoa

2007*2

3.2

3.2 1.1

Caulerpa cactoides

Caulerpa longifolia

2018*2

0.1

Bryopsis spp. Caulerpa brownii

2007*2

5

1.5

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline) Chlorophyta

1994*4

West Point

5

0.6

1.4

2

0.4

1.5

1.3

0.8

0.4

0.2

0.1

5.6

7

2.6

4.2

4.2

1.4

0.9

0.2

6.2 0.4

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

IMAS Internal Report Page 86

0.2


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Bluff Hill Point

Depth (m) Phylum

Chordata

Doughboys

East of Doughboys

10

5

5 Taxa

1994*4

2007*2

2018*2

2018*2

2018*2

10 2018*2

1994*4

2007*2

2018*2

Hydroids

0.1

Zoanthids

0.2

Ascidians

0.2

Bare rock Pebbles Sand Turf/sand/sediment matrix

Algae

5 1995*10

2

Herdmania grandis Substrate

Trefoil Island

Green Point

Turf algae Unidentified algae (drift)

5.5

0.8

0.2

0.4

5

2018*2

1994*4

0.2

3.1

1.4

0.9

1.8

7.5

29.6

1

0.5

1.8

28.1

26.8

3.6

2.5

1

1.1

14.7

30.9

6.1

14.6 6.1

5.7

2.3

13.2

20.1 0.4

2018* 2

0.6

2.4

7.7

2007*2

1.8

5.5 8

West Point

5

2.2

4.6 0.3

0.5 3 2.5

IMAS Internal Report Page 87

3.3


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 6. Macroalgal community percentage cover recorded during surveys conducted on the Northern Cradle Coast region 2017/18 Site Depth (m) Phylum Heterokont ophyta

Taxa Acrocarpia paniculata

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Anniversary Point

Badger Head

10 199 9*2

5 199 2*5

199 3*6

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*1

5 1994 *12

12.7

42.9

45.2

21.8

12.8

56.8

4.2

200 7*3 15.5

Asperococcus bullosus

201 7*1 9.5 0.3

Blythe Heads 5

199 5*7 39

200 7*2 12.9

2017*2 11.3

Boat Harbour

Coo ee

5 199 2*5

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*3

5 201 7*2

40.1

30.8

19.3

11.9

10.7

Doctors Rocks 5 2017*2 11.5

Don Heads 5 199 4*4

1995 *10

201 7*2

28.7

18.5

11.1

1.3

0.4

Bellotia eriophorum

0.1

Brown algae (encrusting)

1.4

Carpoglossum confluens

1

0.5 8.5

0.2

Caulocystis cephalornithos

0.2

0.3

1.2

4.3

0.8

Caulocystis uvifera

2.2

Colpomenia peregrina

0.9

0.8

1.7

4.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.5 0.2

1.1

0.5

0.3

2.1

0.8

4

0.5

1.7

0.2

0.9

0.1

3.9

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.1

0.6

0.4

Colpomenia sinuosa

0.2

Cystophora brownii

0.2

Cystophora expansa

3.1

0.4

0.9

Cystophora grevillei

1.2

0.3

Cystophora monilifera Cystophora moniliformis

3.6

4.8

4.9

11.3

2.1

2.7

2.1

3.7

8.1

Cystophora platylobium

4.4

3.9

1.9

6.8

6.5

1.6

0.6

0.5

1.8

Cystophora retroflexa

0.5

7.1

Cystophora retorta 1.4

4.6

1.9

3.6

2.9

8.9

6.6

4.7

8

Cystophora spp.

13.8

1.5 5.6

13.9

1.9

0.5

6.2

36.5

13.5

5.5

0.3

0.8

0.3

4.5

5.7

2.3

1.5

Cystophora subfarcinata Dictyopteris muelleri

4.1 0.3

0.1

0.2

1.2

1.9

0.3

0.2

0.3

Dictyotaceae spp.

0.1

0.9

0.2

1.2

1.2

5

1.2

2.2

0.7 5.3

Filamentous brown algae

1.5

1.1

Dilophus spp. Ecklonia radiata

10 0.1

Cystophora polycystidea

Dictyota spp.

1.1

14

5.9

0.5

0.2

4.5 12.4

4.1

1

0.3

0.4

0.4

4.8

7.9

15.7

0.5

0.8 0.2

0.3

2.4

1

1.4

24.5

3.8

7.6 0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 88


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Anniversary Point

Badger Head

10 199 9*2

5 199 2*5

5 1994 *12

200 7*3

Foliose brown algae Halopteris spp.

0.5

Leathesia difformis

3.8

201 7*1

199 3*6

0.2

0.6

4.5

1.9

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*1

Blythe Heads 5

199 5*7

200 7*2

2017*2

Boat Harbour

Coo ee

5 199 2*5

5 201 7*2

1995 *10

2.1 4.4

0.5

1.5

3.8

4.2

0.6

0.1

6

2.4

0.5

4.7

0.4

Myriodesma spp.

2.3

4.8

0.4 0.4

12.2

Perithalia caudata

3.3

2.7

Phyllospora comosa

0.7

2.2

Sargassum decipiens

5

Sargassum fallax Sargassum heteromorphum Sargassum sonderi

1.7

Sargassum spp. Sargassum varians

1.9

5.8

1.2

2.2

0.8

0.9

0.5

0.7

3.2 2.5

3.4

6.2

1.1

5 199 4*4

1995 *10

0.2 2.1

8.1

201 7*2 1.7

9.7

2

0.1

1.4 3.9

0.5 2.8

0.3

1.7

1

2.8

0.4

1.2

7.6

0.4

0.1

4

1.2

1.1

0.5

1.8

2.1

1.7

4.2

0.3

8.1 1.6

1.6

0.5

0.3

8

2.2

6.6

1.9

2.1

0.9

6.9

0.3

0.2

1

4.6

2.5

2

37.9

16.9

1.4

0.8 0.6

0.4

7.2

1

3.4

3

0.9

0.9

0.5

6.8

4.1

0.2

0.2

0.8

0.7

0.2

0.6

3

1

0.6

10

0.4

0.9

0.4

2.6

0.5 1

Turf algae

0.7

0.2

0.5

5.2

0.1

0.9

0.7 16.5

3.7

4.6

7.6

15.1

7.7

6.2

0.5

4.1

Xiphophora chondrophylla 2.4

6

0.3

1.1

4.2

9.5

1.7

2.5 0.3 2.1

2.5

0.7 1.2

1.2

1.8

0.7

6.4

0.2

Seirococcus axillaris

0.6 1.8

3.4

0.2

3.7

1.5

2

0.3

2.2

0.3

9.5

4.9

0.9

0.6

2.2

1

3.1

Scaberia agardhii

1.5 1.6

2.6

1.4

1.2

0.5

0.7

0.2

12.9

5.8

6.7

12

5.3

15.8

6.1

4.8

4.8

8.9

16.4

13.6

8.2

1.4

Ballia spp. Botryocladia sonderi

3

2.3

0.7

Sargassum verruculosum

Asparagopsis spp.

0.4 0.4

5.4

0.7

Sargassum vestitum

1.4

0.3

1

1.4

8.3

1.5

Pachydictyon paniculatum

Rhodophyt a

0.2

2017*2

Don Heads

4.1

Lobophora variegata Macrocystis pyrifera 1.4

Zonaria spp.

2

201 7*3

5

0.3

Lessonia corrugata

Sporochnus spp.

200 7*3

Doctors Rocks

0.1 0.6

0.2 0.4

IMAS Internal Report Page 89


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Anniversary Point

Badger Head

10 199 9*2

5 199 2*5

5 1994 *12

Callophyllis spp.

200 7*3

201 7*1

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*1

5 199 5*7

200 7*2

2017*2

Boat Harbour

Coo ee

5 199 2*5

5 201 7*2

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*3

0.1

1.4

2017*2

Don Heads 5 199 4*4

1995 *10

1.3

0.9

201 7*2

0.2

Erythrymenia minuta Filamentous red algae 0.3 Foliose red algae

0.1 4

4.6

0.3

0.5

2.6 0.1

0.1 13.2

3.4

15.9

Gloiosaccion brownii

0.3

Gracilaria spp.

1.3

0.6

2.4

8.7

12

0.2

2

0.2

0.9

0.6

3.8

13

5.1

7.4

0.2 16.5

22.4

4.7

7.5

39.9

4.2

18

6.2

15

30.9

21.5

1

10.9

34.1

0.1

Melanthalia obtusata

0.4

Phacelocarpus spp. Phymatolithon masonianum

8.5 0.9

1.1

Phacelocarpus peperocarpos

1.8

0.9

0.3 0.1

0.7

Laurencia spp.

2

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.6 2.3

4

Plocamium angustum

0.4

0.8

0.3

0.9

1.7

0.3

5.2

3

9

9.2

2.1

4.6

57.4

40

11.1

13.5

0.6

0.7

0.1

1.7

0.2

0.3

1.5

0.1 1

2.2

4.4

0.9

3.2

3.4

1.3

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline) Chlorophyt a

5

0.3

Delisea spp.

Pollexfenia lobata Sonderopelta/Pey ssonnelia Thamnoclonium dichotomum

Doctors Rocks

0.4

Champia spp.

Gelidium spp. Geniculate corallines

199 3*6

Blythe Heads

0.1 0.6 26.8

Caulerpa brownii

0.2

0.9

Caulerpa flexilis Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae Caulerpa longifolia

1.2

0.3

3.2 11.8

5

18.1

17.2

0.3

2.3

11.1

3.8

0.5

1

1.1

3.2

0.3

6.7

1

0.2

0.4 1.6

0.4

35.8

5

2.4

1.4

0.9

1.8

1.2

0.3

2

0.4

1.5

0.5

4.6

0.1

0.7

0.1

0.1 34.5

0.6

0.2

0.5

0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 90


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

Aniversary Point, 10 m

Anniversary Point

Badger Head

10 199 9*2

5 199 2*5

5 1994 *12

Caulerpa obscura Caulerpa scalpelliformis Caulerpa sedoides

200 7*3

201 7*1

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*1

1 0.3

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.4

200 7*2

2017*2

Coo ee

5 199 2*5

5 201 7*2

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*3

0.1

0.2

2.9

0.2

0.1 0.2

2.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.4

0.4

0.7

0.2

0.1

1.4 1.3 2.2

Sponges Unidentified sponge (encrusting)

0.8

Bryozoa

Bryozoans

1.8

Mollusca

Mytilidae spp.

Cnidaria

Anemones

1.6

0.3

3

1.9

3

3.8

0.5

0.6

1.8

1.5

1

1.9

1.7

0.7 0.3

0.8

0.6

Erythropodium spp.

0.2

Hydroids

0.2

4

0.2

0.8

0.3

1.1

1.6

0.5

0.9

3.2

0.4

1.4 0.4

0.1

0.2

0.5 5.6

15.4

0.3

0.9

0.1

10.5

25

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

2

0.5

Pebbles

Unidentified algae

1.1

7.8

Herdmania grandis

Algae

1

0.9

0.8

Porifera

Sand Turf/sand/sediment matrix

201 7*2

0.1

Amphibolis antarctica

Bare rock

1995 *10

0.1

Turf algae

Substrate

5 199 4*4

0.3

Filamentous green algae

Ascidians

2017*2

Don Heads

0.1

0.4

0.1

Dictyosphaeria sericea

Chordata

5

0.5

0.3

Cladophora spp.

Magnoliop hyta

Doctors Rocks

0.3

Caulerpa vesiculifera

Codium spp.

199 5*7

0.3

0.2

Caulerpa spp.

5

Boat Harbour

2

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

Caulerpa trifaria

199 3*6

Blythe Heads

0.2 1.6

8.6

1.9

16.9

10.8

11.8 3.5 13.7

1.5

3 34.9

1.5

23.4

6.6 21.7

6 34.9

2.8

0.7

2.6

3.2

17.1

20.5

29.3

41.5

20.8

0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 91


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

IMAS Internal Report Page 92


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Goat Island, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum Heterokont ophyta

Taxa

10 199 9*1

200 7*3

Acrocarpia paniculata Asperococcus bullosus

Goat Island, 5m 201 7*1 0.5

5 199 9*3 6.3

200 7*3 23.4

Horseshoe Reef 201 7*1 3.6

0.5

5 199 4*4 35.5

Lillico Beach, 10 m

1995 *10 36.6

199 5*7

200 7*3

201 7*2

18.8

43.4

11.4

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

3.8

0.1

0.3

201 7*1 5

5 199 4*4 10

1.6

Carpoglossum confluens

0.1

Carpomitra costata Caulocystis cephalornithos

7.1

5 1999* 1 11

2007* 3 22.6

201 7*1 9.7

0.9

1.9

1.7 12.7

1.2

0.4 7.6

3.2

4.4

0.8

1.2

Colpomenia peregrina

1.2

0.2

3.3

3.9

0.1

0.1

0.4

10.7

9

Cystophora expansa

1

Cystophora grevillei

0.7

1.7

1.6

0.2

Cystophora monilifera Cystophora moniliformis

3.9

12.4

0.3

0.5

20.6

14.5

2.7

11.4

5.6

0.1

Cystophora platylobium

0.3

0.6

4.4

0.6

0.6

Cystophora retorta Cystophora retroflexa

1.1

0.5

Cystophora xiphocarpa

0.2

1.8

0.2

3.2

6.3

0.4

Dictyotaceae spp.

0.3

Dilophus spp.

0.1

0.4

0.1 3.6

Foliose brown algae

2.3 2.6

0.2 0.6

1.4

Filamentous brown algae

1.1

0.4

0.6 2

0.3

1.6

2.3

0.2

0.4

7.6

16.9

6.9

0.6

8

1.5

4.5

2.9

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.3

2.1

1.4 17.7 0.4

0.6

0.7

1.5 1.3

0.3

1.2

1.2 50

51

37.5

10.8

6

4.1

1.2 5.2

2.3

0.8

5.9

14.9

5.8

0.8 0.3

Dictyota spp.

2.8

2.2

0.2

Dictyopteris muelleri

1

1.8

1.6

1.8

4.3 0.4

0.4

0.1 2.7

Hydroclathrus clathratus Leathesia difformis

26.6

201 7*2

1

Brown algae (encrusting)

Halopteris spp.

200 7*3

0.7

Bellotia eriophorum

Ecklonia radiata

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut

2.2

2.1

1.3

4.1 5.7

14.6

0.9

5.8 0.2

1.5

Lobophora variegata

0.5

Lobospira bicuspidata

0.7

0.3

1.2

1.3

0.5

1.7

5.8

0.4 3.1

0.2

1.3

0.1

2.4

IMAS Internal Report Page 93


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Goat Island, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 199 9*1

200 7*3

Goat Island, 5m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

Horseshoe Reef 201 7*1

5 199 4*4

Macrocystis pyrifera

Lillico Beach, 10 m

1995 *10

199 5*7

0.4

Myriodesma spp. Pachydictyon paniculatum

4.2

200 7*3

201 7*2

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

201 7*1

1.2

1.5

1.2

4.4

7.8

0.2

3.2

0.2

2007* 3

2.4

Sargassum sonderi

0.7

3.1

0.1

0.3 1.4

0.4 3

3.5

0.6

0.5

1.3

7.7

1.9

1.9

1

0.2

4.3

0.2

0.8

1.7

0.5

5.7

0.6

7.1

1.5

0.3

0.4

Sargassum spp.

0.9

Sargassum varians Sargassum verruculosum

0.5

0.1

0.3

1.8

0.5

3

0.6 0.9

0.6

0.4

1.4 5

4.9

0.7 3.7

0.7

2 0.6

0.5

Sargassum vestitum

0.9

8.2

3

1.3

3.1

201 7*1

2.3

1.4

1.5

Sargassum fallax Sargassum heteromorphum

0.2

4.7

0.9

0.5

0.8 0.6

0.4

Scaberia agardhii

1

0.9

2.3

0.7

Seirococcus axillaris

1.8

Sporochnus spp.

0.9 1.1

3.2

Asparagopsis spp.

0.6

0.1

2.5

1

2.4

8.7

4.1

0.5

2.1 1

0.8

4

Turf algae Xiphophora chondrophylla

3.3

0.8

0.5

8.8

4.8

0.6

9.7

4.9

14.5

8.6

5.3

5.8

7.4

1.2

1.1

0.5

0.5

0.7

Botryocladia sonderi

0.9 4.6

0.5

3.3

0.3

0.7

5

0.7

2.2

6.3

11

3.4

0.7

Ballia spp. 1.1

0.7

0.3

1.2

Delisea spp.

Erythroclonium spp.

5 1999* 1

2.1

1.6

Sargassum decipiens

Dictyomenia spp.

201 7*2

0.8

Phyllospora comosa

Champia spp.

200 7*3

0.2

Perithalia caudata

Rhodophyta

5 199 4*4

0.6

Padina spp.

Zonaria spp.

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut

0.4 1

1.4 0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 94


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Goat Island, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 199 9*1

200 7*3

Goat Island, 5m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

Horseshoe Reef 201 7*1

5 199 4*4

Lillico Beach, 10 m

1995 *10

199 5*7

Erythrymenia minuta Filamentous red algae

200 7*3

201 7*2

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

201 7*1

5 199 4*4

0.2 1.8

11.7

16.6

Foliose red algae

1.6

1.9

Gelidium spp.

0.2

Geniculate corallines

16.4

Gloiosaccion brownii

0.3

6.9

0.4

0.4

0.2 0.8

0.4

0.9

0.2

200 7*3

201 7*2

5 1999* 1

2007* 3

1.5

3.9

5.3

21.4

0.9

0.4

18.1

0.9

0.6

2.5

5.3

1

0.5

0.2

2.2

17.1

5

20.8

3.9

22.1

0.3

1.4 6.1

36.6

28.5

5.2

8.4

8.3

10.2

20.7

22.2

5

2.1

7.8

4

0.6

0.1

0.8

Hemineura frondosa Laurencia spp.

0.2 0.3

1.7

2.2

Lenormandia marginata Phacelocarpus peperocarpos

0.8

3.2 2.2

Phacelocarpus spp.

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline) Chlorophyta

0.3 0.3

Plocamium angustum Plocamium dilatatum Sonderopelta/Peyssonne lia Thamnoclonium dichotomum

0.1

1.2

1.2

1.2

13.2

0.5

2.6

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.7

1.1

2.4

1.6

3.8

6.1 0.6

1.2

0.4

2.3 0.4

1.2

0.3

11

6.1

2.4

0.7

0.3 3.6

14.4

8.8

0.3

14.9

5.2

2.4

0.1

1.6

1.2

8.6

0.4

2.4

0.7

19.5

38.3

8.8

0.5

0.7

1.1

17.2

8.4

58.2

13.5

0.1

0.1

1.7

5.1

Caulerpa cactoides

0.8

1 5

0.8

0.2 0.2

5.4

Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

1.6

0.3

8.5

0.5

3.1

3.1

0.1

2.2

2.1

0.3

2.2

0.2 6.5

0.4

Caulerpa longifolia

0.2

Caulerpa obscura

0.5

Caulerpa sedoides

2.1 0.1

Caulerpa brownii

Caulerpa scalpelliformis

4.8

0.3

Apjohnia laetevirens

Caulerpa flexilis

201 7*1

0.1

0.8

Gracilaria spp.

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut

2.5

0.5 0.5

0.2

0.9

0.1 0.2

0.1 0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 95


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Goat Island, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 199 9*1

200 7*3

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

Goat Island, 5m 201 7*1 0.4

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

0.3

Horseshoe Reef 201 7*1

5 199 4*4

1995 *10

Lillico Beach, 10 m 199 5*7

200 7*3

201 7*2

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

Outer Sister (West), 5 m

Nut 201 7*1

5 199 4*4

200 7*3

5 1999* 1

0.1

3.8

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.1

Codium spongiosum

0.1

Codium spp.

0.4 0.5

0.3

0.5

1.2

0.2

0.1

20.3

0.2 1.5

Sponges Unidentified sponge (encrusting)

3.9

Bryozoa

Bryozoans

2.1

Mollusca

Mytilidae spp.

Cnidaria

Alcyonarians

1.8

13.2

5.1

2

0.2

1.2

2

0.8

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

Algae

Bare rock

0.7

3.4

3.3

0.8

0.6

1

0.1

7

2.6

4.7

2.6

0.8

0.1

1.8

4

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.9 0.1 1.1

2.5

0.3

0.5 1

Herdmania grandis Substrate

0.2

2.4

0.6

Hydroids Ascidians

1.7

0.1

Anemones

Chordata

0.2

0.3

Amphibolis antarctica

Erythropodium spp.

0.1

0.7

Turf algae

Porifera

0.2

8.9

Green algae (encrusting) Magnolioph yta

201 7*1

0.1

Codium harveyi

Filamentous green algae

2007* 3

1

Caulerpa spp. Caulerpa trifaria

201 7*2

4

3.5 4.8

1

0.8

1

1.5

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.2

3.7

2.6

0.5

0.5

0.6

5.3

11.7

0.8

0.8

1

6.7

0.3

7.2

Pebbles

10.3

1

4.8

1.1

4.3

9.1

7.7

2.9

Sand Turf/sand/sediment matrix

31.9

15.6

7.9

36.2

5.7

18.8

21.1

5.5

2.5

9.4

1.2

8.6

29.2

1.6

21

1.8

16

27.7

44.3

30.5

9.9

32.1

Unidentified algae (drift)

15.1

0.9

0.6

0.6

6.2

0.9

1.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 96


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Penguin Point, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

Heterokon tophyta

Acrocarpia paniculata

10 1999 *1

Penguin, 5 m

2007 *3 0.2

Asperococcus bullosus Bellotia eriophorum Brown algae (encrusting) Carpoglossum confluens Caulocystis cephalornithos

201 7*1

5 199 9*3 4

200 7*3 25.8

Piggery, 5 m 201 7*1 4.8

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

12.2

15.7

Round Hill Point

Rocky Cape 201 7*1 2.6

5 199 2*5

199 3*6

5

7.1

13.6

1995 *10 15

0.2

2017*2 29.6

10 1999 *2

2007 *3

2017 *3

10 199 9*2

4.5

13.9

5.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.7

3

8

0.1

4.5

1.1

4.7

6.1

0.2

2.5 0.8

2.5

0.4

3.4

6.3 1.4 0.5

0.9

7.5

2.2

7.5

0.8

0.2

1.7

2.8

0.8

2.5

19.8

3.3

0.3

6.6

1.7

4.3

7.8

4.3

0.2

0.5

7.8

9

7.5

3.1

3.4

2.2

4.9

3.7

10.3

11.1

0.2

0.9

0.5 3.2

0.5 0.7

8.6

0.8

0.2

1.1

3.1

1.5

4.9

6

3.2

9.1

6.9

0.2 2.1

6.8

1.5 1 0.6

0.3

1.3

Dictyota spp. 0.2

Dilophus spp.

0.6

2.6

5.5 0.5

0.4 0.2

1.6 2.5

2.8

0.4

1.2

5.8

0.1

0.1

0.6

0.2 0.3

0.5

0.9

7.4

29.8

27.4

25.9

4.7

4.7

7.7

0.6

1.8 1.3

4

6.3

0.9

0.1

1.4

3.5

2.3

0.2

0.3

0.3

0.2

1.3

0.1

1.2

0.1

9.1

3

54.6

16.4

13.1

0.3

0.4

2.1

3

0.3

2.3 2

Foliose brown algae Halopteris spp. Hydroclathrus clathratus

9.5

0.4

Desmarestia ligulata

Ecklonia radiata Filamentous brown algae

8.1

1.2

8.1

Cystophora retorta

Dictyotaceae spp.

201 7*2

6.8

5.6 4.4

Cystophora expansa

Dictyopteris muelleri

200 7*3

0.3

Colpomenia peregrina

Cystophora retroflexa Cystophora xiphocarpa

1.3

201 7*3

Sisters Island East, 10 m

0.4

Caulocystis uvifera

Cystophora monilifera Cystophora moniliformis Cystophora platylobium

200 7*3

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

0.6

15.7

5.1 1.7

1

0.4

0.7

2.6

1.1

0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 97


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Penguin Point, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

Leathesia difformis

0.3

Lobophora variegata

4.5

Penguin, 5 m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

Piggery, 5 m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

Round Hill Point

Rocky Cape 201 7*1

5 199 2*5

5 199 3*6

1995 *10

0.3 0.8

Lobospira bicuspidata

0.3

201 7*3

2017*2

2.1

0.4

0.2

2.8 0.2

1

0.7

0.3

Perithalia caudata

0.6

2.8

2.6

0.1

18.1

2.6

5.1 31.5

Sargassum decipiens

16.3

10.4

2.6

Sargassum sonderi

0.1

0.3

2.3

0.2 0.3

Sargassum spp. Sargassum varians Sargassum verruculosum

2.4

0.3

0.5

1.4

0.9 3.6

1

2.4

1.6

1.6

1.4

5.8

2.9

1.6

0.1

0.7

0.1

0.8

0.1

14.3

0.8

0.9

Turf algae Xiphophora chondrophylla

0.1

1.7

1

1.4

10.6

3.2

0.4

2.1

5.7

9.1

0.3

1

5.8

0.4

0.3

3.7

4.9

2.1

0.3

1.4

4.7

0.3

1

1.4

0.2

11.8

7.5

5.4

1.9

2.6

8.6

2.4

1.3

4.7

4

3.5

1.4 0.6

2.6

4.5 4

0.9

1.7

1.3

0.3

3.4

0.6

5.8

2.4

4.4

0.6

5.1

1.8

12.4

0.2 5.2

1.5

0.2

4.8

5.1 0.6

0.3

0.3

3.8

0.5

3.8

6.2

7.2 0.7

0.2

0.3

1

1.9 0.5

8.6

Seirococcus axillaris Sporochnus spp.

3.4

2.7

0.3

11.7 2.1

0.4

1.6 15

0.7

1.4

0.1 0.4

Scaberia agardhii

4.3

0.2

18.6

0.9

201 7*2

2.3

1.6 0.5

1.6

Sargassum fallax Sargassum heteromorphum

200 7*3

2.4

0.6

0.3

3.9

3.6

2.5

11.3

3.4

5.9

9.4

2.4

0.2

0.4

0.7

0.5

0.7

9

2.9

1.9

Botryocladia sonderi

0.2

Callophyllis spp. Champia spp.

2017 *3

2.2

0.2

Phyllospora comosa

Asparagopsis spp.

10 199 9*2

2007 *3

0.2

1.1

Padina spp.

Zonaria spp.

10 1999 *2

2.9

Myriodesma spp. Pachydictyon paniculatum

Rhodophyt a

Sisters Island East, 10 m

1

Macrocystis pyrifera

Sargassum vestitum

200 7*3

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

0.2 0.3

3

0.1

0.1

1.8

IMAS Internal Report Page 98


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Penguin Point, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

Penguin, 5 m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

200 7*3

Piggery, 5 m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

Round Hill Point

Rocky Cape

200 7*3

201 7*1

5 199 2*5

5 199 3*6

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*3

2017*2

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999 *2

10 199 9*2

Delisea spp.

2007 *3

2017 *3

0.6

0.2

Erythrymenia minuta

0.1 0.3

Foliose red algae

35.2

35.9

0.1

0.7

0.2

4.2

11

16.2

0.6

1.1

0.3

Gelidium spp.

6.1

1.4 1.7

7.5

Gloiosaccion brownii

0.5

1.7

4.5

35.9

18.2

0.8

31.2

21.4

19.3

0.3

Gracilaria spp.

0.2

2.4

0.1

2.6 0.7 0.5

21.5

0.4

3.7

9.9

3.4

32.3

14.4

4.6

9.3

0.5

0.2

1.7

5.2

8.2

0.3

0.2

1.3

0.4

0.4

Melanthalia obtusata Phacelocarpus peperocarpos

0.2 0.6

0.2

Plocamium angustum Plocamium cartilagineum

1.2

0.5

0.1

0.3

Plocamium dilatatum

0.9 1.2 2.2 4.2

1.6 0.6

1.4

4.5

3.5

2.3

8.3

0.1

1.1

0.6

0.2

0.3

3.2

1

6.2

1.8

0.1

2.5 4.7

0.1

0.4

0.4

14.4

14

13.5

0.3

28.8

6.6

17

10.1

1.4

0.3

6.5

0.2

Caulerpa cactoides 1

0.3

1.8

11.8

2.6

4.6

2.5

0.8

1.1

0.7

1.3

0.7

0.3

0.3 0.1

15.6

2.8

11.7

21.9

6.4

0.8

2.6

3.1

0.1

3.5

0.7

0.7

1

0.9

5.2

1

1.4

2.8

7.8

0.5

2

Caulerpa brownii

Caulerpa flexilis Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

17

0.4

Laurencia spp. Lenormandia marginata

Chlorophyt a

0.9

0.3

Hemineura frondosa

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline)

3

0.2

Geniculate corallines

Pollexfenia lobata Sonderopelta/Peysson nelia Thamnoclonium dichotomum

201 7*2

0.2

Dictyomenia spp.

Filamentous red algae

200 7*3

0.2

1.5

0.3

30

32.9

4.7

1.4

1.7

0.7

0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 99


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Penguin Point, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

10 1999 *1

Penguin, 5 m

2007 *3

201 7*1

5 199 9*3

Piggery, 5 m

200 7*3

201 7*1

5 199 9*3

Caulerpa longifolia Caulerpa scalpelliformis

200 7*3

Round Hill Point

Rocky Cape 201 7*1

0.2

5 199 2*5

5 199 3*6

0.3

1995 *10 0.2

0.1

Caulerpa sedoides Caulerpa simpliciuscula

0.2

200 7*3

201 7*3

2017*2

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999 *2

10 199 9*2

2007 *3

2017 *3 0.1

6.1

15.3

0.9

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.1

0.4

0.4

0.2

Caulerpa trifaria

0.2

Cladophora spp.

1.6

0.1

0.3

Codium fragile

0.2

Codium harveyi

0.3

Codium spongiosum

0.2

Codium spp. Filamentous green algae

0.2

0.1

0.3

8.5

0.1

0.1

0.3

2.8

Amphibolis antarctica Heterozostera tasmanica

0.3

1

0.1

0.1

3

0.5 0.4

1.5 4.3

Bryozoa

Bryozoans

2.3

Mollusca

Mytilidae spp.

Cnidaria

Anemones

2

2

0.1

0.7

2.4

1

0.1

1

0.2

0.4

0.1

1.9

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.1

0.4

8.8

1

0.8

3.5

3

0.4

0.3

2.4

0.3

0.1 0.7

0.3

3

3.2

1

0.5

1

2.2

0.4

1

1.5

1.3

6

1.7

5.7

2.8

2.7

0.8 0.4

0.5 0.6

2.4

1.5

0.8

2

0.1 0.4

0.2

0.2

Herdmania grandis Bare rock Pebbles

1

2

3.6

Hydroids

Substrate

0.1

3

Sponges Unidentified sponge (encrusting)

Ascidians

0.8

1.9

Porifera

Chordata

1.8

0.3

Turf algae

Erythropodium spp.

201 7*2

0.3

Caulerpa spp.

Magnoliop hyta

200 7*3

5 3.6

0.8

3.2

0.8

10.8

8.4

6.6

11.6

0.2

0.3

0.2

16.8

9.1

4.4

12.3

0.4

3

3.6

16

3.9

IMAS Internal Report Page 100


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Penguin Point, 10 m

Site Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa Sand Turf/sand/sediment matrix

Algae

Unidentified algae

10 1999 *1

2007 *3

Penguin, 5 m 201 7*1

37

14.2

10.6

32.9

5 199 9*3

200 7*3 7.3

Piggery, 5 m 201 7*1

5 199 9*3

Round Hill Point

Rocky Cape

200 7*3

201 7*1

5 199 2*5

5 199 3*6

1995 *10

200 7*3

201 7*3

2017*2

Sisters Beach, Point West, 10 m

Sisters Island East, 10 m

10 1999 *2

10 199 9*2

2007 *3

2017 *3

200 7*3

201 7*2

10.7

14

7

16.4

18.1

1.5

4.5

1.2

8

2.2

17.5

11.8

33.6

7.7

20.5

20.5

19.8

22.9

2.6

13.4

1.8

1.7

3.4

0.3

IMAS Internal Report Page 101


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

Depth (m) Phylum

Taxa

Heterokontop hyta

Acrocarpia paniculata

5 1992 1993 *5 *6 36.5

48.8

Table Cape 5

1995* 2007 10 *3 31.5

16.9

2017 *2 16

2017*2 0.7

5 1992 2007 *5 *3 29.7

32.3

2017 *2

West of Nut

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

5 1994 2007 *4 *3

7.6

Asperococcus bullosus

2017 *1

1.1

53.1

47.1

West Park

West Ulverstone, 10 m 5

2017 *2 7.8

2017*2

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

17.2

8.8

0.8

Bellotia eriophorum 0.8 0.8

0.5

1.1

0.7

2.6

0.2

Caulocystis cephalornithos

5 2017 *1 6.7

7.6 0.2

3

0.8

1.6

0.4 14.5

1.2 0.6

Cystophora congesta

0.1

0.9

0.5

1.5

4.2

3.7

4.1

6.2

0.8

Cystophora expansa

7.7

2.6

0.1

Cystophora grevillei

0.6

Cystophora monilifera Cystophora moniliformis

4.2

2.1

Cystophora platylobium

4.4

0.7

1.4

3.3

3.6

3.9

7.5

Cystophora retroflexa

1.8

Cystophora subfarcinata

0.2

0.5

Cystophora xiphocarpa

1.8 2

1.8

8.5

1.1

1.6

2.8

3

Cystophora retorta 2.4

1.6

0.7

0.6

22

11.6

26.9

31.9

4.2

1.2

2.4

2.6

0.9

1.1

10.6

0.9

0.2 2.6

0.2

8.4

10

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.6

0.3

4.4

0.2

0.8

0.2

0.7

1.6

Dictyopteris muelleri

0.9

0.7

0.1

0.5

Dictyopteris spp.

0.3 0.1

Dictyota spp.

0.3

Dictyotaceae spp.

0.7

1.9 0.3

0.4

0.9

Dilophus spp.

0.1 16.1

4.3

17.7

Filamentous brown algae Foliose brown algae

Homoeostrichus spp.

4.8

2.4

3.1

8

Colpomenia peregrina

Halopteris spp.

2017*2

0.2

Caulocystis uvifera

Ecklonia radiata

Wivenh oe

0.2

Brown algae (encrusting) Carpoglossum confluens

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

20.2

0.9

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.6

1.2

4.6

2.8

0.3 0.3

0.7

0.7

1.6

43.4

4.7

7.3

2.8 7.8

4.2

1.9 3.9

11.9

0.6

1.1 1.1

2.4

1

0.6

1.4

0.9

0.4

1 0.1

2.9

1.1

2.8

5.6

5.1

2.5

0.7

0.6

1.4 0.5

8.5

4.1

2.1

0.5

IMAS Internal Report Page 102


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

Taxa

5 1992 1993 *5 *6

Table Cape 5

1995* 2007 10 *3

2017 *2

2017*2

5 1992 2007 *5 *3

2017 *2

West Park

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

West of Nut

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

5 1994 2007 *4 *3

2017 *1

West Ulverstone, 10 m 5

2017 *2

2017*2

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

Hydroclathrus clathratus 0.5

Lobophora variegata

0.3

Macrocystis pyrifera

1.2

0.7 0.4

0.5

0.2

4.5

1.7

0.4

0.2

1.4

3.4

1.8

1.7

0.2

Pachydictyon paniculatum

0.2

0.7

1.5

1.2

0.6

0.6

2.2

2.1

3.4

7.2

26.3

2.7

2.5

1.9

0.7

Phyllospora comosa

19.1

19.8

23.5

47.1

6.7

13.4

Sargassum decipiens

0.6

0.7

0.4

0.8

2.2

0.6

Sargassum fallax Sargassum heteromorphum

0.2

Sargassum sonderi

2.8

2.7

2

1.7

5.5

Sargassum varians

1.7

0.6

3.8

4.6

0.4

2

0.7

0.3

1.7

2.9

0.8

0.6

0.6

1.3 0.6

0.5 1.8

0.9 1.5

0.1 0.5

0.1

0.6

0.2

0.6

0.3 0.1

0.7

1.1

0.8 0.5

1.8

0.7

Sargassum vestitum

0.4

0.5

1.9

0.5

0.7

2.4

1.4

Scaberia agardhii

0.5

Seirococcus axillaris

0.2

4.5

Sporochnus spp.

0.7

1.6

Turf algae

4.5

Xiphophora chondrophylla 7.3

4

5

1.5

0.6

1.5

9.3

3.3

0.3

3 1.4

2.7

1.4

1.2

0.4

1.4

2.1

4.6

0.1

0.6

0.2

3.5

3.4

4.1

0.4 5.9

Asparagopsis spp.

3.9

2.1 0.2

0.2 1

1.2

Champia spp. Claviclonium ovatum

0.5

0.4

9.8

0.3

0.1

2.8

Sargassum verruculosum

0.4

1.3

Sargassum spp.

Botryocladia sonderi

1.1

0.4 5.9

Ballia spp.

1.6

32.7

Myriodesma spp.

Zonaria spp.

2017*2

0.9

Padina spp.

Rhodophyta

5 2017 *1 0.1

Leathesia difformis

Perithalia caudata

Wivenh oe

0.2

0.3

0.2

IMAS Internal Report Page 103


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

Taxa

5 1992 1993 *5 *6

Table Cape 5

1995* 2007 10 *3

2017 *2

2017*2

5 1992 2007 *5 *3

2017 *2

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

West of Nut

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

5 1994 2007 *4 *3

2017 *1

Dictyomenia spp. 0.4

Foliose red algae

0.8

6.6 0.2

0.3

3.1

0.2

0.1

1.6

Hemineura frondosa

1.2

5

9.9

2.3

1.1

15.3

9.1

10.2

45.4

0.5

0.1

1.6

0.2

3.2

1.4

2.5

0.6

0.7

1.8

1.6

0.2

17.5

20.1

15.8

7.5

7.7

12.3

0.6

0.1

0.5

9.8

0.5

0.5

33.4

0.3

15.6

16.9

6.5

0.2

2.9

0.6

1.1

0.4

0.3

0.9 0.2

0.6

0.1

3.8

0.2

0.3

0.3

6

2.3

2.2

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.3

Plocamium preissianum

0.6 0.3

1.1

0.9

9.1

4.2

0.9

5.1

8.1

Thamnoclonium dichotomum

1.2

3.5

0.5

4

Turf algae Unidentified algae (crustose coralline)

0.2 5.6

1.2

3.6

6

0.8

0.3

14.3

3

0.3

9.2

8.1

18.8

16

3.7

4.8

0.4

0.8

Caulerpa brownii

2.7

50.4

17.3

6.8

1.5

1.1

0.3

34.6

31

5.5

Caulerpa cactoides

13.2

7.4

25.6

4.2

2.8

0.6

0.1

0.3

0.6

0.4 0.6

1

3.1

1.8

4.2

1.4

1.5

1.2

1.2

5.5

3.3

0.2

Caulerpa longifolia

0.3

Caulerpa scalpelliformis

0.4

0.1

Caulerpa sedoides Caulerpa spp.

1.1

0.5

Plocamium dilatatum

Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

8.7

1.5

Phymatolithon masonianum

Caulerpa flexilis

0.1

0.1

Phacelocarpus peperocarpos

Chlorophyta

2017*2

17.5

Lenormandia marginata

Sonderopelta/Peyssonnelia

5 2017 *1

0.3

Laurencia spp.

Plocamium mertensii

2017*2

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

0.7

Gloiosaccion brownii

Plocamium angustum

5 2017 *2

Wivenh oe

35.4

Gelidium spp.

Melanthalia obtusata

West Ulverstone, 10 m

0.1

Filamentous red algae

Geniculate corallines

West Park

0.1 0.5

0.4

0.9

0.6

0.2

0.1

0.2 0.1 0.8

0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 104


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast Site Depth (m) Phylum

Somerset Rocks

Sisters Rocks

Taxa

5 1992 1993 *5 *6

Codium fragile Codium spp.

Table Cape 5

1995* 2007 10 *3

2017 *2

2017*2

5 1992 2007 *5 *3

2017 *2

0.8

0.4

0.1

Animalia

Mytilidae spp. Unidentified invertebrates (encrusting)

Cnidaria

Alcyonarians

Chordata

0.3

2.7

0.9

0.6

0.7

1.2

0.1

5.6

3.8

9.8

7.1

1.2

5.1

0.3

0.5

9.8

1.2

9.2

0.2

2017*2

0.1

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

0.9

33.8

0.3

0.4

1.5

0.3

0.1

2.9 1.2

2.6

2

1.2

1.7 0.1

21.7

5 2017 *1

2017*2

0.4

0.2

14.8

2.7

2.4

2

0.2

2.1

0.4

0.3

0.3

1.6

0.7

0.2

3.6

3.7

3.3

1

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

8.7

6.7

3

0.4 0.3

Anemones

0.5

Erythropodium spp.

1.6

Ascidians

0.3

0.2

1.2 0.5

4.4

1.2

0.5

Herdmania grandis Substrate

5 2017 *2

Wivenh oe

0.8

Sponges Unidentified sponge (encrusting) Bryozoans

5 1994 2007 *4 *3

2017 *1

West Ulverstone, 10 m

0.2

Unidentified algae (green)

Mollusca

10 1999 2007 *1 *3

0.2

Filamentous green algae

Bryozoa

West of Nut

0.3

Dictyosphaeria sericea

Porifera

West Park

Tea-tree Point, 10 m

0.5 0.6

Bare rock

4.8

3.5

9.8

Pebbles Sand

0.7

2

1.1

3.6

1.2

4.6

4

1.5

Turf/sand/sediment matrix

2.1

33.5

39.2

2.7

12.9

8.4

1.7

0.7

1.1

12.9

14.3

14.5

22

3.3

13.4

11.9

4.4

4.8

1.5

3.4

3

0.9

18.3

25

14.1

5.2

1.8

4.7

2.7

13.4

39.9

26.6

24.9

38.8

IMAS Internal Report Page 105


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 7. Average percentage cover of quadrat taxa/substrate per region and decade. Central West Phylum

Taxa/Substrate Group

Heterokontophyt a

Acrocarpia paniculata

1990 s 4.8

2006/ 7 3.6

North 2017/1 8 4.0

Asperococcus bullosus

1990 s 30.3

Northern West 2006/ 7 17.0

0.2

2017/1 8 6.8

1990 s 20.6

2006/ 7 9.3

0.1

Bellotia eriophorum

0.2

Brown algae (encrusting) Carpoglossum confluens

2017/1 8 7.0

0.1 10.1

14.9

Carpomitra costata

10.8

2.7

0.1

1.2

0.1

1.0

1.2

0.1 3.5

1.1

3.7

0.1

Caulocystis cephalornithos

0.1

0.5

Caulocystis uvifera

0.2

0.6

0.2

0.9

1.3

Cystophora brownii Cystophora congesta Cystophora expansa Cystophora grevillei

0.1

Cystophora monilifera Cystophora moniliformis

0.9

0.3

Cystophora platylobium

2.2

1.5

Cystophora polycystidea

0.4

0.5

0.5

2.5

4.8

4.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.2 0.1

0.5 1.0

2.6

0.3

Cystophora racemosa Cystophora retorta Cystophora retroflexa

0.2 0.3

1.4

Cystophora subfarcinata Cystophora xiphocarpa

0.5

4.4

4.4

0.2

0.3

7.2

0.3

0.2 1.4

2.7

0.1

6.8

5.0

Desmarestia ligulata Dictyopteris muelleri Dictyota spp. Dictyotaceae spp.

0.1

Dilophus spp.

0.5

1.4

0.2

0.1

0.5

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.1

Durvillaea spp.

10.2

16.3

15.3

Ecklonia radiata

27.3

23.4

25.7

Filamentous brown algae Foliose brown algae

0.5

Halopteris spp.

0.4

0.9

17.0

7.8

4.8

0.1

1.6

0.7

14.5

5.9

11.7

1.7

1.6

0.5

0.3

0.7 1.1

1.8

2.7

3.8

2.3

2.6

5.0

Hormosira banksii

0.1

Hydroclathrus clathratus

0.3

Leathesia difformis

0.5

Lessonia corrugata

0.2

Lobophora variegata

0.1

0.1

1.3

Lobospira bicuspidata Macrocystis pyrifera

3.0

4.3 2.7 0.1

0.3

1.1

1.9

4.8

Myriodesma spp.

0.8

0.1

Pachydictyon paniculatum

1.1

0.6

7.4

3.2

Padina spp.

IMAS Internal Report Page 106


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Phylum

Taxa/Substrate Group

1990 s

2006/ 7 1.5

2017/1 8 1.3

1990 s 8.6

2006/ 7 5.6

2017/1 8 11.8

Phyllospora comosa

6.0

6.3

2.6

19.5

32.1

28.3

Sargassum decipiens

3.0

0.6

1.0

Sargassum fallax

0.8

1.0

1.9

Sargassum heteromorphum

0.2

0.4

0.4

Sargassum sonderi

3.3

1.4

0.5

0.2

Sargassum spp.

1.6

1.3

1.2

Sargassum varians

2.7

1.7

0.4

Sargassum verruculosum

0.1

Sargassum vestitum

0.2

2017/1 8

Northern West

1990 s 1.9

Perithalia caudata

2006/ 7 0.2

North

0.4

0.3

Scaberia agardhii

0.1

Seirococcus axillaris

1.1

Sporochnus spp.

0.3

Turf algae Xiphophora chondrophylla Xiphophora gladiata

1.5

0.9

1.3

Zonaria spp.

0.5

0.1

0.5

0.1

0.3 0.8

0.4

0.8

3.9

1.0 2.4

0.3

0.8

0.8

0.5

7.9

5.1

3.3

0.1

3.5

1.2

2.9

1.6

Asparagopsis spp. Ballia spp.

0.2

0.1 0.3

Colpomenia spp. Rhodophyta

0.3

0.1

0.3 4.3

1.7

1.6

0.2

Botryocladia sonderi

0.2

0.2

Callophyllis spp. Champia spp.

0.1

0.2

0.4

1.0

0.6

0.3

Claviclonium ovatum Delisea spp.

0.1

Dictyomenia spp.

0.1

0.5

Erythroclonium spp. Erythrymenia minuta

0.1

Euptilota articulata

0.1

Filamentous red algae

2.7

4.0

3.7

0.7

7.6

7.8

1.0

1.4

Foliose red algae

3.0

6.6

10.5

1.1

0.4

0.6

1.5

1.8

Gelidium spp. Geniculate corallines

0.1 3.3

4.4

Gigartina muelleriana

0.1 12.3

13.1

9.4

0.1 13.4

7.2

2.8

21.4

0.3

Gloiosaccion brownii

0.2

Gracilaria spp.

0.1

Hemineura frondosa

0.1

0.1

Laurencia spp.

0.1

Lenormandia marginata

0.4

0.6

0.3 0.2

Lenormandia muelleri

0.1

Melanthalia abscissa Melanthalia obtusata

0.2

Phacelocarpus peperocarpos Phacelocarpus spp.

0.2 0.6

0.4

0.1

0.6

0.1 0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 107


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Phylum

Taxa/Substrate Group

North

1990 s

2006/ 7

2017/1 8

1990 s

2006/ 7 0.3

2017/1 8

1990 s

2006/ 7

2017/1 8

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.2

0.6

1.1

0.3

0.5

0.1

0.5

0.1

0.1

Phymatolithon masonianum Plocamium angustum

Northern West

Plocamium cartilagineum Plocamium dilatatum

0.1

Plocamium leptophyllum

0.2

0.2

Plocamium mertensii

0.2

Plocamium preissianum Pollexfenia lobata Ptilonia australasica

0.1

Sonderopelta/Peyssonnelia

4.8

Synarthrophyton patena Thamnoclonium dichotomum

0.1

0.1

0.6

0.7

4.3

3.1

0.1

2.4

0.4

0.1

0.4

Unidentified algae (crustose coralline) Apjohnia laetevirens

0.4

1.4

3.8

3.1

56.1

37.5

0.4 1.5

27.2

12.8

58.1

35.7

1.5 0.5

0.5

1.1

Caulerpa cactoides Caulerpa flexilis

10.3

1.8

Bryopsis spp. Caulerpa brownii

6.3

0.1 0.1

Turf algae

Chlorophyta

3.6

0.1

1.8

0.4

1.0

2.7

0.1 0.1

0.2

2.6

2.6

1.5

0.4 2.0

Caulerpa hodgkinsoniae

3.5

0.7

0.4

0.2

0.4

Caulerpa longifolia

0.1

1.7

Caulerpa obscura

0.1

2.0

1.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

Caulerpa scalpelliformis Caulerpa sedoides

0.1

Caulerpa simpliciuscula

0.1

0.1

0.1

Caulerpa spp.

0.2

Caulerpa trifaria

0.6

1.8

0.6

0.1

0.2

1.4

0.1

1.1

0.6

Caulerpa vesiculifera Chaetomorpha spp. Cladophora spp.

0.2

0.2

Codium dimorphum

0.1

Codium fragile Codium harveyi

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

Codium spongiosum Codium spp.

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.2

Dictyosphaeria sericea Filamentous green algae

0.2

4.4

0.1

Green algae (encrusting) Turf algae

0.3

Ulva spp. Magnoliophyta

Amphibolis antarctica

0.1

Heterozostera tasmanica Porifera

Sponges

0.8 0.1

0.7

1.6

1.2

0.6

1.7

0.8

0.5

0.6

IMAS Internal Report Page 108


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Phylum

Taxa/Substrate Group

Bryozoans

Mollusca

Mytilidae spp.

Northern West

1990 s

2006/ 7 5.2

2017/1 8 3.8

1990 s

2006/ 7 2.6

2017/1 8 1.7

1.8

3.8

1.1

1.2

1.0

1.3

Unidentified sponge (encrusting) Bryozoa

North

1990 s

2006/ 7 3.9

0.2

2.2

Xenostrobus pulex Animalia

Alcyonarians

Cnidaria

Unidentified invertebrates (encrusting) Alcyonarians Anemones

1.6 0.2

0.5

0.2 0.1

0.2 0.2

0.1

0.3

Erythropodium spp.

0.3

0.9

1.0

Hydroids

0.3

Zoanthids Chordata

Ascidians

Algae

0.1

0.1

0.1 0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1 0.1 0.5

Herdmania grandis Substrate

2017/1 8 2.8

0.3

1.8

0.9

0.2

0.2

3.1

9.5

2.0

Bare rock

0.3

0.8

Pebbles

1.1

0.4

3.5

2.4

3.4

3.6

Sand

2.9

2.2

10.4

8.7

13.3

4.9

Turf/sand/sediment matrix

0.9

5.9

7.8

24.8

2.2

11.4

Turf algae

12.7

1.6

Unidentified algae

0.3

Unidentified algae (drift)

0.1

IMAS Internal Report Page 109


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 8. Total abundance of fish species per region and decade Central West Species

1990s

North 2006/7

2017/18

Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus Acanthaluteres vittiger

Northern West

1990s

1

Aetapcus maculatus

2006/7 6

1

166

274

8

3

13

2

8

1

39

5

5

1 3

15

6

2

26

22

Arripis trutta

Bathytoshia brevicaudata 3

Caesioperca rasor Cephaloscyllium laticeps

12

155

6

1

2

2

5

3

3

1075

1215

470

110

147

1 4

2

13

156

11

6

45

3

Chironemus marmoratus

1

1 4

1

200000

Contusus richei

2

Dinolestes lewini

94

59

832

457

1335

3

7

30

19

4

1

50

54

32

1

Enoplosus armatus

4

2

10

Eubalichthys gunnii

2

1

5

Dipturus whitleyi

Eupetrichthys angustipes 2

Genypterus tigerinus

1

Girella zebra

1 2

Haletta semifasciata

59

184

1

Heteroclinus johnstoni

237

2

2

2

Heteroscarus acroptilus

12

Hypoplectrodes nigroruber

10

10

1

Kyphosus sydneyanus

3 3

22

151

5

Leptatherina presbyteroides

7

2

151

Lotella rhacina

Meuschenia australis

2

1

Forsterygion varium

Macroctopus maorum

45

1

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

Latridopsis forsteri

1

15

Clupeid spp.

Diodon nicthemerus

2

349 900

Atypichthys strigatus

Cheilodactylus spectabilis

2

1

Arripis spp.

Cheilodactylus nigripes

2017/18

150

Arctocephalus pusillus

Bovichtus angustifrons

2006/7

2

Aplodactylus lophodon Aracana aurita

1990s

91

Aldrichetta forsteri Aplodactylus arctidens

2017/18

2

2

1 1

Meuschenia flavolineata

43

80

3

23

36

35

Meuschenia freycineti

1

21

4

32

Meuschenia hippocrepis

1

23

33

66

2

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 110


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Species

1990s

North 2006/7

2017/18

Northern West

1990s

2006/7

2017/18

Myliobatis australis Nemadactylus macropterus

1

63

Neosebastes scorpaenoides

37

70

1

2

300

485

192

156

51

15

14

10

27

20

179

1748

1340

1357

88

53

94

1 2

Octopus tetricus

2 2

1

Omegophora armilla

44

1 64

25

1

Parascyllium ferrugineum

2

Parequula melbournensis

Pempheris multiradiata 1

84

89

199

4106

10655

934

2

10

9

19

3

1

241

180

8

2

24

268

109

91

81

64

24

30

24

1

1

2

2

Pseudocaranx georgianus

Pseudophycis barbata

4

Pseudorhiza haeckeli

130

4

11

3

1

1

Scorpis aequipinnis

9 2

Sepia apama

76

56

64

10

2

9

3

3

2

Seriolella brama

1 2

Siphamia cephalotes

71

4

Siphonognathus beddomei

496

21

Siphonognathus tanyourus

1

63

1 1

Sphyraena novaehollandiae

2

Spiniraja whitleyi

1

Tetractenos glaber Trachinops caudimaculatus

238 3

10683

1

2

19722

10188

91

120

Trachurus novaezelandiae

25

Trinorfolkia clarkei Upeneichthys vlamingii

18

1

Scobinichthys granulatus

Trachurus declivis

4

12

Pseudophycis bachus

Scorpis lineolata

3

48

Phyllopteryx taeniolatus

Pseudolabrus mortonii

3

4

Parma victoriae

Pictilabrus laticlavius

76

2

Parablennius tasmanianus

Pentaceropsis recurvirostris

1

452

Octopus spp.

Olisthops cyanomelas

2017/18

1

Neoodax balteatus

Notolabrus tetricus Notolabrus tetricus/fucicola hybrid

2006/7

2

Nemadactylus valenciennesi

Notolabrus fucicola

1990s 1

49

Urolophus cruciatus

8

Urolophus paucimaculatus

1

Vincentia conspersa

1

1

1

35

35

6

1

2 1

IMAS Internal Report Page 111


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

IMAS Internal Report Page 112


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Appendix 9. Total abundance of mobile macroinvertebrates per region and decade. Central West Species

1990s

North

2006/7

2017/18

Aetapcus maculatus

1990s

Northern West 2006/7

2

2017/18

1

Amblypneustes ovum

2

Amblypneustes spp.

7 24

Aplodactylus arctidens

1

Aplysia spp.

4

Argobuccinum pustulosum

4

Astralium aureum

2

2

1

2

Astralium squamiferum

6

Astralium tentoriiforme

8 1

5

6

Australostichopus mollis

2 3

Bovichtus angustifrons

5

14

Brachaluteres jacksonianus

24

10

1

3

Cabestana tabulata

2

1 19

Calliostoma armillatum

1

Cephaloscyllium laticeps

1

Ceratosoma amoenum

1

Ceratosoma brevicaudatum

3

Charonia lampas

4

Chironemus georgianus

1

Chironemus marmoratus

1

Clanculus undatus

13

Comanthus tasmaniae

14

Comanthus trichoptera

49

14

348

111

Cominella lineolata

3 11 52

55

5

1

Conocladus australis

1

1

Conus anemone 1

1

5

4

1

2

Creocele cardinalis

1

Cristiceps australis

5 12

Diodon nicthemerus

18

13

2

96

83

2

2

Dotalabrus aurantiacus

4

39

11

10

55

4

Echinaster arcystatus

1

2

Equichlamys bifrons

1

Forsterygion varium

5

Fromia polypora Gnathanacanthus goetzeei

2

1

Cabestana spengleri

Dicathais orbita

2017/18

1

Allostichaster polyplax

Coscinasterias muricata

2006/7

1

Agnewia tritoniformis

Astrostole scaber

1990s

1 1

1

7 1

4

1

1

2

1

IMAS Internal Report Page 113


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Species

1990s

Gobiid spp.

North

2006/7

2017/18

1990s

1

Goniobranchus tasmaniensis

2006/7

2017/18

1990s

2006/7

3

2 1

2

106

25

41

1317

817

207

22

1

1

7943

6198

3331

Granata imbricata

5

1

Haliotis laevigata 112

82

42

Haliotis scalaris Heliocidaris erythrogramma

87

67

255

467

67

228

Herdmania grandis Heteroclinus johnstoni

73 1

Heteroclinus perspicillatus

1

9

5

1

1

1

Heteroclinus tristis

1

1

1

Heteroscarus acroptilus

1

Hippocampus abdominalis

3

Holopneustes inflatus

6

Hypoplectrodes nigroruber Jasus edwardsii

2 1

16

16

19

7

Lomis hirta

1

2

1

1

Lotella rhacina

2

Macroctopus maorum

1

Meridiastra calcar

2

Meridiastra gunnii

1 1

791

1

2

6

Meuschenia hippocrepis

2293 3

3

660

11

16

47

1

Mimachlamys asperrima

6

Mitra glabra

5

4

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus

13

5

Nectria ocellata

32

11

3

56

7

Neothyonidium spp. Nesogobius spp. Pagurid spp.

2

1

2

1

21

92

31

1

Paguristes brevirostris

5

Paguristes spp.

9

Paguroidea spp.

8

Parablennius tasmanianus

7

1

7

1

53

Paragrapsus gaimardii

1

Parascyllium ferrugineum

1

Parascyllium variolatum

1

Parma victoriae

1

Pempheris multiradiata Penion mandarinus

19

36

1

31

21

10

4

3

2

11

26

5

6

7

Petrocheles australiensis Phasianella australis

40

7

Pentagonaster dubeni Petricia vernicina

2017/18

5

Goniocidaris tubaria

Haliotis rubra

Northern West

1 1 2

2

1 1

26

1

5

IMAS Internal Report Page 114


Ecosystem Monitoring â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Cradle Coast

Central West Species

1990s

North

2006/7

2017/18

Phasianella ventricosa

1990s

2006/7

2017/18

62

4

Phasianotrochus eximius

1

1

Phasianotrochus rutilus

1

Plagusia chabrus

2

Northern West

20

20

Plectaster decanus

1990s

2006/7

1

23

40

7

12

3

1

99

34

38

3

40

19

7

2

Pleuroploca australasia

3 1

Pseudonepanthia troughtoni Pseudophycis bachus

1 1

Ranella australasia

2

Scorpaena papillosa

2

3

3

11

8

3

5

4

4

2

Scutus antipodes Sepia apama

1

Siphonognathus beddomei

1

Smilasterias multipara

1 1

Tosia australis

2

Tosia magnifica

1

1

2

2

14

16

176

30

8

3

2

1

6

5

120

87

19

746

1

9

68

3

41

75

724

39

Unidentified chiton

329

41 8

Unidentified nudibranch

1 2

7

Unidentified whelk Uniophora granifera

6

3

Trinorfolkia clarkei

Unidentified invertebrate (mobile)

3

1

2

Trianectes bucephalus

Turbo undulatus

5 1

Pterynotus triformis

Strigopagurus strigimanus

2017/18

2 50

15

2

Urolophus cruciatus

1

Vincentia conspersa

1

3

IMAS Internal Report Page 115

Profile for Cradle Coast Tasmania

Surveys of the Subtidal Reef Biota of the Cradle Coast 1992-2018  

Scientific Report: Surveys of the Subtidal Reef Biota of the Cradle Coast 1992-2018 By IMAS Researchers - Neville Barrett, Graham Edgar, Eli...

Surveys of the Subtidal Reef Biota of the Cradle Coast 1992-2018  

Scientific Report: Surveys of the Subtidal Reef Biota of the Cradle Coast 1992-2018 By IMAS Researchers - Neville Barrett, Graham Edgar, Eli...