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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan

Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Author “Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania” Helen Morgan and Anna Povey, 175 Glenford Farm Rd, Underwood TAS 7268. Email: bushways@intas.net.au Mobile: 0429 197 671 © Bushways Environmental Services – Tasmania 30 August 2011 Prepared for: Cradle Coast NRM, A business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority P.O. Box 338, Burnie TAS 7320. Cover photo: Stanley and The Nut with Godfreys Beach.

Acknowledgements This project is supported by Cradle Coast NRM, through funding from the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country. Bushways thanks the following people who provided assistance or were consulted in the preparation of this report: Anna Wind, Belinda Colson Cradle Coast NRM; Perviz Marker, Penguin Monitoring Group; Peter Hefferon, Parks and Wildlife Service; DPIPWE; George Walker, Circular Head Council; Shannon Fox and Allen Carman-Brown, NPWS, DPIPWE; Jason Clare, Stanley Visitors Centre; Norm Brauer, Stanley Port, Hobart Port Authority; Sophie King, Crown Land Services DPIPWE; Rosemary Gales, Marine Conservation Branch DPIPWE; Tim McLaren, Stanley Penguin Tours; John Dabner, Tall Timbers; Graham Wells, Hanlon House; Bill Worthington, local resident; Phil Bester, local resident: Sally Collins, local resident; Lesa Scott, Highfield House; Max Rootes, Cradle Mountain Water. Mapping data has been taken from the TASMAP Series, DPIPWE Natural Values Atlas, The List, TASVEG, and field work conducted by Bushways.


Cradle Coast Authority Circular Head Council Cradle Mountain Water Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and the Environment Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 Natural Resource Management Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania Threatened Species Protection Act

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Table of Contents Author ...................................................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................. 2 Acronyms................................................................................................................................................. 2 Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 3 Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 5 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Background .............................................................................................................................. 6 1.2 Description of the study area ................................................................................................... 8 1.3 Map: location and study sites................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Little Penguin life cycle and habitat use ................................................................................. 10 2 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 12 2.1 Background research ............................................................................................................. 12 2.2 Vegetation survey and Little Penguin habitat assessment .................................................... 12 2.3 Consultation ........................................................................................................................... 12 2.4 Limitations .............................................................................................................................. 12 3 Site Assessment ................................................................................................................................. 14 3.1 Site descriptions – native vegetation and habitat values ....................................................... 14 3.1.1 Godfreys Beach .............................................................................................................. 14 3.1.2 The Nut north .................................................................................................................. 15 3.1.3 The Nut – Restricted access area, wharf, and west slope ............................................. 16 3.1.4 Alexander Terrace to Wharf Road .................................................................................. 17 3.1.5 Green Hills Road vegetation ........................................................................................... 17 3.2 Vegetation communities ......................................................................................................... 18 3.2.1 Acacia longifolia coastal scrub ....................................................................................... 18 3.2.2 Coastal scrub .................................................................................................................. 18 3.2.3 Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest................................................................................... 18 3.3 Little Penguin habitat on site .................................................................................................. 19 3.4 Threatened species and other species of conservation significance .................................... 20 3.5 Weeds .................................................................................................................................... 22 3.5.1 Weeds on The Nut .......................................................................................................... 22 3.5.2 Weeds at Godfreys Beach .............................................................................................. 23 Table 1. Weed species and locations ...................................................................................... 24 3.6 Map: Natural values of Stanley penguin habitat .................................................................... 25 4 Issues and Management Recommendations ..................................................................................... 26 4.1 Native vegetation loss and degradation ................................................................................. 26 4.2 Threatened species habitat.................................................................................................... 28 4.3 Revegetation .......................................................................................................................... 29 4.4 Weeds and their control ......................................................................................................... 32 4.5 Climate change and sea level rise ......................................................................................... 35 4.6 Erosion ................................................................................................................................... 38 4.7 Water quality .......................................................................................................................... 39 4.8 Dog, cat, rabbit and fox control .............................................................................................. 40 4.9 Recreational use .................................................................................................................... 41 4.10 Penguin viewing ................................................................................................................... 42 4.11 Urban penguins .................................................................................................................... 43 4.12 Works in Little Penguin colonies .......................................................................................... 44 4.13 Fire ....................................................................................................................................... 45 4.14 Community involvement....................................................................................................... 46 4.15 Monitoring ............................................................................................................................ 47 5 Management Zones and Actions........................................................................................................ 49 5.1 Management zones ............................................................................................................... 49 5.1.1 Map: Stanley penguin habitat management zones ....................................................... 50 5.2 Protection and Rehabilitation Zone - The Nut........................................................................ 51 5.2.1 The Nut north face .......................................................................................................... 51 5.3 Revegetation Zone ................................................................................................................. 53 5.3.1 Godfreys Beach dunes ................................................................................................... 53 5.3.2 Godfreys Beach back dunes and northern foreshore..................................................... 55 Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 3

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

5.4 Urban revegetation ................................................................................................................ 57 5.5 Maintain and enhance ............................................................................................................ 58 5.6 Map: Stanley penguin habitat management .......................................................................... 59 6 Strategic Priorities .............................................................................................................................. 60 7 References ......................................................................................................................................... 61 8 Appendices ......................................................................................................................................... 63 Appendix 1. Vascular plants recorded in Stanley penguin habitat study area............................. 63 Appendix 2. Threatened fauna known or possible on site ........................................................... 65 Appendix 3. Summary of Management Zones ............................................................................ 66 Appendix 4. Plants suitable for revegetation ............................................................................... 71 Appendix 5. Some native species that resemble weeds ............................................................. 73 Appendix 5. Weed control recommendations .............................................................................. 74 Appendix 6. Some useful resources ............................................................................................ 77

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Summary This Penguin Habitat Management Plan covers the area from Highfield House and the north end of Godfreys Beach to Alexander Terrace in Stanley including the Stanley Cemetery Reserve, the slopes and base of The Nut and the Stanley Wharf. As well as the urban environment, this area is a popular spot for fishing, camping, walking, beach activities and historical tourism. Penguin viewing tours are also run regularly at the Cemetery Reserve. The Plan seeks to provide guidance for the local community and stakeholders to continue their activities whilst improving the protection and management of Penguin colonies as well other fauna of the area. Approximately 70% of the study area contains native coastal vegetation. However, much of the vegetation is infested with a high number of environmental weeds. The remaining 30% of the study area is made up of pasture, residential and rocky areas. There are several colonies of Little Penguins at Stanley from Godfreys Beach to The Nut with the largest numbers coming ashore at the wharf and the southern end of Godfreys Beach. The Penguins occupy a wide variety of habitats including rock crevices, deep burrows or simply scrapes in the sand beneath a dense vegetation canopy. They are most susceptible to human disturbance as well as predation by dogs and cats during egg incubating, chick raising and moulting periods. There are a number of threatened species of both fauna and flora recorded around Stanley and The Nut is a site of considerable importance in the landscape, both for the community and for significant biodiversity values. Several threatened and unusual species are found on The Nut such as Kestrels, peregrine falcons, Tasmanian devil, Stanley and Keeled snails and Grassland paperdaisy while in the coastal strip the Striped marsh frog, Swift parrot and Eastern barred bandicoot have been noted. Loss of habitat through weed infestation and clearance is a major issue for the Penguins and other local fauna. Addressing this loss, protecting remaining areas of native vegetation and connecting patches in good condition through revegetation are priority actions. Including some patches of eucalypts will enhance the diversity of the native vegetation, providing foraging and nesting habitat for a range of species. At the northern end of Godfreys Beach a stream discharges from a culvert onto the beach. The culvert is currently choked with debris and the water is of very poor quality. Investigation to determine the source of the pollution and treatment options to reduce impacts on the local fauna and aquatic environment are necessary. In addition it is important to provide some guidelines for the use of faunal habitat areas to minimise disturbance from humans and pets. Strategic priorities to address the main issues include: 1. Protect all existing native vegetation and connect good patches with revegetation. 2. Restore penguin habitat on The Nut north face, Urban foreshore, Godfreys Beach north. 3. Install artificial nest burrows where weed control will occur and on urban foreshore. 4. Prohibit free camping at Stanley Cemetery foreshore, install signage at cemetery to redirect campers to the verge along Green Hills Road, Godfreys Beach. 5. Ensure responsible penguin viewing and recreational behaviour everywhere. 6. Investigate poor water quality at Godfreys Beach creek and treat cause. 7. Revegetation at Godfreys Beach - widen dune, plant car park and foreshore. 8. Control Sea Wheatgrass, and isolated weeds at Godfreys Beach. 9. Plant patches of eucalypts (allowing for fire buffer zones). 10. Actively involve the community through forming a Landcare group or involving the school, providing education and training workshops, accessing funding programs for revegetation and other support. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 5

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1

Cradle Coast NRM engaged Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania to provide a Penguin Habitat Management Plan for Stanley. The primary objectives of the plan are to: • improve protection and management of Penguin colonies in NW Tasmania • develop a Penguin management plan of the Stanley Little Penguin colony in consultation with the specified stakeholders, and • provide management recommendations that will be adopted by the Parks and Wildlife Service, Circular Head Council, the local community groups and tourism operators to minimise impacts on Penguins and improve the management of the area. The plan identifies threats and sensitive areas for the Little Penguin colonies and provides management recommendations and zoned work plans based on a broad vegetation, habitat and threat assessment of the coastal reserve. Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management, in conjunction with Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania at Stanley, plan to engage the Stanley Primary School in future weed control and revegetation activities in the area, to involve the community and raise youth awareness of natural values in Circular Head. Stanley is a commercial and recreational fishing village, popular for recreation and tourism. Two penguin tour businesses operate in the area and hold permits to conduct penguin viewing tours at the northern base of The Nut. There are several colonies of Little Penguins within the study area from rural land north of Godfreys Beach to Stanley including The Nut. Little Penguins in the area were counted in January 2011 by the Penguin Monitoring Group at three locations, at the north and south of Godfreys Beach and the wharf on the southwestern side of The Nut. The highest numbers of Penguins were counted at the wharf and the southern end of Godfreys Beach (P. Marker, unpublished data 2011) Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service (PWS) manages The Nut State Reserve, including the two quarry reserves recently acquired for inclusion to the state reserve, and Highfield Historic Site. Circular Head Council (CHC) manages the Stanley Cemetery and land at Godfreys Beach on either side of Green Hills Road. Cradle Mountain Water (CMW) owns and manages the sewerage ponds. The Wharf is owned and managed by Tas Ports. The urban foreshore proximal to Alexander Terrace and the wharf is crown land. (See map below).


Cradle Coast NRM operates as a business unit of the Cradle Coast Authority

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Figure 2 Land tenure and managing authority around Stanley (LIST Map 03/06/11)

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1.2 Description of the study area Stanley and the surrounding landscape are dominated by The Nut, a massive basalt headland with sheer rock cliffs to a height of 143m above sea level. Sandy beaches run north and south west from The Nut and the village of Stanley is nestled at the base of The Nut between the beaches. The landscape surrounding Stanley, including The Nut, was cleared of native vegetation early in European settlement and remains rural with very few native vegetation remnants. Rehabilitation since the mid 1980’s has resulted in native vegetation being re-established on The Nut. The study area extends approximately 3km from Highfield House and the north end of Godfreys Beach to Alexander Terrace in Stanley including the Stanley Cemetery Reserve, the slopes and base of The Nut and the Stanley Wharf. Tatlows Beach to the south west of the study area (and not included in this management plan) has remnant native dune vegetation and a narrow coastal reserve containing the Stanley Conservation Area and Tatlows Beach Conservation Area. The area can be found on the Stanley TASMAP 1:25000 map sheet no: 3448, from Highfield Historic Site at E:355792 N:5487956, to Alexander Terrace at E:356433 N:5485733. The study area is shown in the location map below. The land between Highfield Historic Site and the car park at the northern end of Godfreys Beach is privately owned rural land and is primarily pasture. The CMW sewerage ponds and CHC land west of Godfreys Beach were not nominated as part of the study site but were observed and included in the assessment as this land represents valuable natural habitat in the context of the surrounding landscape. Approximately 70% of the study area contains native coastal vegetation. However, much of the vegetation includes a high number of environmental weeds. The remaining 30% of the study area is made up of pasture, residential and rocky areas.

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1.3 Map: Location and study sites

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1.4 Little Penguin life cycle and habitat use Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor, hereafter referred to as ‘Penguins’) are the smallest Penguins in the world and, fortunately, a considerable number of their colonies exist along the North West, North, East and South coasts of Tasmania (Watts 1999, Marker and Wind 2003). Penguins are not listed as threatened but are considered of high conservation significance, and are protected by state legislation (Nature Conservation Act 2002). Little Penguin colonies occupy a wide variety of habitats including rock crevices, deep burrows or simply scrapes in the sand beneath a dense vegetation canopy. Their habitat often extends from near the coastline, to over 100 metres above sea level (a.s.l.), and many colonies occupy the offshore islands of Tasmania (Pemberton et al. 2001). Figure 3 Little Penguin (photo by Anna Wind) Little Penguin habitat generally occurs in coastal vegetation dominated by native plant species such as Boobialla, Bower Spinach, Coastal Saltbush and Correas (Correa alba and C. backhouseana). Nevertheless, Little Penguins have regularly been recorded utilising habitat dominated by introduced species such as African boxthorn, Blackberry, Mirrorbush, and Cape ivy. Hence, weed management in Little Penguin colonies must allow for this, as Little Penguins may make use of any suitable habitat whether it is dominated by weeds or native plants (Marker and Wind 2003). Adult birds may be present in a colony at any time throughout the year, although their numbers generally fluctuate in response to various stages of their life cycle. Pairs of birds breed annually and a clutch of two eggs may be laid as early as May, or as late as November. Male Penguins return to the colony to renovate or dig their burrows between May and August, and as the female birds return, mates are chosen through noisy male courting displays. While Little Penguins select a single mate, they may not remain paired for life. An adult pair share incubation shifts of one-two days and hatching usually takes place within 33-37 days. At three to five weeks old the chicks are left unguarded by parents and at night can be seen outside burrows waiting to be fed. At an age of seven to eight weeks the chicks are ready to take to the sea where they will mature and then return to their original colony to begin breeding as young two year old birds. Once chick rearing is complete adult birds return to the sea to feed for about 15 -21 days before returning to commence moulting. Moulting takes place between February and April and can take up to 15 days to shed the old feathers and grow their replacements. During this time the Penguins remain entirely in their burrows or on land, living off their food reserves (Marker and Wind 2003). Figure 4 Little Penguins moulting (photo by Anna Wind)

Little Penguins are most susceptible to human disturbance during the egg incubating,chick raising and moulting periods. Furthermore, survey results have indicated that breeding in the colonies can be quite variable, reflecting variations in seasonal conditions and food supply. Hence, there is often only a small window of opportunity to undertake works such as revegetation, weeding and construction in little Penguin colonies. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 10

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Figure 5 Penguin Life Cycle Calendar

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2 Methodology 2.1 Background research A Natural Values Report was conducted through the Natural Values Atlas (DPIPWE, May 2011) for all threatened flora and fauna records within 5 kilometres of the site, any other threatened fauna that may occur (based on Habitat Mapping), as well as TASVEG communities. Perviz Marker provided an overview of the penguin colonies on site and an indication of numbers and habitat areas of Penguins. Peter Hefferon, Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service, provided advice on penguin habitat and management issues across the site, including penguin habitat areas, weed control, existing and potential revegetation sites, tourism and recreation activity. 2.2 Vegetation survey and Little Penguin habitat assessment th


A field visit was conducted on 10 and 11 May 2011 by Helen Morgan, Carolyn Hay and Joanna Lyall of Bushways. A follow up visit to liaise further with stakeholders on site was made by Joanna th Lyall on 8 June 2011. Vegetation communities and major flora species, including weeds, and the general condition of the vegetation were identified. A comprehensive vegetation assessment and Penguin counts were not carried out. Evidence of Little Penguin occurrence, including burrows, feathers, scats, runways, tracks and carcasses were noted during the course of this field survey. Particular attention was paid to the areas of Little Penguin habitat and the type and distribution of issues including weeds, vehicles, dog and cat control, informal tracks, Penguin viewing spots, erosion and presence or lack of native vegetation. Presence or signs of any other fauna were noted, and likely species of threatened fauna in the area were considered. Although this Management Plan is focussed on Penguins, it is important to allow for habitat needs of other fauna. Ecological vegetation communities were described according to TASVEG Version 1.0 classifications (Harris & Kitchener 2005). All botanical names are in accordance with the recently updated “A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania� (Buchanan, 2011). Locations were recorded with a handheld GPS, using datum WGS84 (equivalent to GDA94). The plan refers to Guidelines for Works in Areas of Little Penguin Habitat (Marker and Wind, revised 2008) and the Guide to Rehabilitation by Drew Lee, Marine Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries and Water (2003). It is prepared with reference to the Guidelines for Natural Values Assessments (DPIPWE 2009). 2.3 Consultation Consultation was conducted through personal meetings, on and off site, telephone conversations and email. A draft copy of the final report is provided to all nominated stakeholders for comment and feedback. 2.4 Limitations A survey of this type can be expected to identify the vegetation communities and most vascular Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 12

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

plant species. However the flora survey was not intended to be comprehensive and any sampling technique is limited in what can be recorded during one or two visits. Some species vary in abundance from year to year. Bryophytes and lichens were not surveyed. No threatened lower plants were recorded on the Natural Values Atlas as occurring within 5 km. A full fauna survey was not carried out. Determining burrow or population density of the Little Penguin colony on this site is beyond the scope of this project. However, once knowledge and data pertaining to these is available it may be necessary to review the management aims and recommendations made in this document to ensure best possible outcomes for the Penguins. Most of the northeast and southeast escarpments of The Nut are very steep and dangerous and are restricted access areas. No survey of these slopes and penguin habitat was possible other than distant observation where a line of sight was available. Detailed weed mapping is beyond the scope of this project. Weed locations are marked as indication of presence but are not intended to be accurate for extent or distribution of populations.

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3 Site Assessment 3.1 Site descriptions – native vegetation and habitat values 3.1.1 Godfreys Beach Native vegetation at Godfreys Beach occurs as a narrow strip of Coast wattle scrub with Marram grass on low dunes behind the beach. Between this native vegetation and Green Hills Road is a mown area, shaded by a line of Norfolk pines, which the Circular Head Council maintains. Sections of better native vegetation contain good species diversity dominated by Coast wattle with Coast beardheath interspersed with Coastal saltbush, Native pigface, Bower spinach and Creeping sea-celery. These patches form critical habitat for a variety of native fauna such as reptiles, small birds, bandicoots and a multitude of invertebrates. There is significant erosion occurring along the length of the beach as a result of high tides and storm surges. The lack of intact native vegetation on the front of the dune is exacerbating this problem, as the dominant Marram grass dislodges readily under the impact of high tides, causing further erosion. The introduced Marram grass is prevalent throughout the dune strip where there are gaps in the native vegetation. Marram, originally introduced to stabilise coastal sand dunes, has naturalized over large areas of Tasmania’s coast line competing with and displacing native vegetation and altering the natural coastal processes. The rhizomatous roots bind the sands forming steep dunes which, as found at this site, are more vulnerable to wave erosion. The resulting changes to the dunes and beaches are thought to have a detrimental effect on the breeding success of some of our shorebirds through loss of nesting habitat. Figure 6 Good native vegetation on the dune, dominated by Coast wattle which appears to have been slashed on top as well as mown to the edge.

Sea wheat grass occurs on the foredune and low numbers of Sea spurge were found on the dune area. These are both introduced species that also alter the shores and dunes, impacting on coastal processes and reducing natural nesting habitat for shorebirds. Mirror bush has established in several places on the dunes along Godfreys Beach, along with the occasional African boxthorn. Currently these weed species are at low levels within this coastal strip however over time these plants will multiply, competing with the native shrubs and with the capacity to dominate the dune area. This will reduce the complexity found in a natural vegetation system and adversely impact on the quality of the habitat provided for local fauna. Several other serious environmental weeds such as Cape ivy (which already appears to have killed sections of Coast wattle), Trailing daisy and Blue periwinkle occur throughout this coastal strip. These weeds have the capacity to spread to the detriment of native vegetation resulting in a loss of diversity. The mowing carried out by the Council to maintain the grassed verge appears to be gradually encroaching further and further into the remnant native vegetation along the beach, giving rise to a loss of vegetation resilience, loss of native fauna habitat and increased weed invasion.

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Penguins are known to come ashore at the northern end of Godfreys Beach. During this survey signs (scats and tracks) of penguin activity were found, as expected from the recent penguin count, at the northern end of the beach and around the northern rocky shoreline. There is very little nesting habitat at the northern end of the beach as pastured land extends to the foreshore. Penguins evidently cross the road and paddocks to nest under African boxthorn hedges along the road side and on nearby farmland. Several bandicoot diggings were noted along the mown coastal strip which could be either Brown Bandicoot or the threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot, both known to occur in the area (Peter Hefferon pers.com 11/5/11). There is no apparent evidence of any revegetation work having been carried out on the dune. At the southern end of the beach there is formal access to the beach through provision of a timber walkway and steps (although this is currently out of use due to storm damage). Informal tracks lead from the mown area across the dune through native vegetation to the beach in several places. At the northern end the public can walk from the parking area onto the beach and vehicle access is also possible. Dog and cat tracks were evident on the beach. Cat tracks were almost continuous, the animal/s evidently walking along the toe of the dune, close to vegetative cover. Cats especially form a major threat to smaller native fauna including Penguins. This beach is a popular dog exercise beach. Dog tracks were more numerous than cat prints but were randomly spread over the beach where presumably they have been running for exercise with their owners, rather than hunting. However, they may potentially disturb shorebirds. 3.1.2 The Nut north Coastal Scrub occurs on the north face of The Nut characterised by dense shrubs including Coast wattle, Coast beardheath, White correa and occasional Dogwood. Coastal saltbush, Bower spinach and Pigface are vigorous ground covers and occur scattered throughout the understorey, providing good shelter and nesting sites for Penguins as well as erosion control and habitat for other fauna. Coastal tussock grass occurs along the rocky foreshore. There are patches of good native vegetation with diversity and robust structure. However, the majority of the native habitat is very degraded by weed invasion, which is aggressive, and Box thorn, Gorse, Cape ivy, Blue periwinkle and Mirror bush comprise most of the vegetative cover in places. Weeds are present throughout the scrub, some weedy areas are dense, and some are isolated patches. Box thorn is prevalent along the foreshore and on the north facing slopes behind the Parks office where Gorse is very dense. Kikuyu provides space and ground cover for walking tracks and access areas between the cemetery and the foreshore and encroaches along most of the accessible track along the foreshore to the east. Thistles and Three cornered garlic are also present. Figure 7 The Nut north foreshore, penguin habitat with Coast tussockgrass, Coastal saltbush and African boxthorn.

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Many Penguins use this area, evidenced by multiple scat patches, runways and burrows. Penguins come ashore and disperse through the scrub up the slopes to the east and south of the shoreline. Artificial rock burrows have been installed at this site in the past, approximately 15 years ago, (Graham Wells pers.com) to provide nesting burrows for the small penguin population at the time, These rock structures are still evident and, although some have become overgrown by vegetation, (often weeds), some are still in use. Many of them have become part of penguin runways heading uphill, apparent from scat deposits. Foreshore erosion is active and the sea is clearly powerful here at times with large rocks having been dislodged from the edge. Penguins appear to favour certain paths up through the rocks and benefit from some eroded areas. However, some eroded areas are likely to be too steeply overhanging for their access. A considerable amount of bare ground remains on the slope at the eastern end of the old quarry site and this is vulnerable to wind erosion which is likely to be limiting natural regeneration. Box thorn is prevalent and many penguins apparently travel this way uphill. This area needs ground cover plants to reduce erosion. 3.1.3 The Nut – Restricted access area, wharf, and west slope This section of the study area has been largely mapped as Rock, Regenerating cleared land and Weed infestation with very small isolated patches of Coastal scrub. The restricted access area was not surveyed and contains a lot of very steep rock, native vegetation and weeds. Figure 8 Weedy penguin habitat behind the wharf.

The quarry reserve at the southern side of The Nut is a recognised rock fall zone with a fenced bund designed to capture the rock fall. There was evidence of many penguin burrows at the base of the slope behind the bund. Scats found during this survey showed that penguins cross the Tas Ports car park from the foreshore. The fallen rocks and weeds are habitat for the penguins evidenced by feathers and scats. Native vegetation is minimal but Dogwood, Prickly box, White correa, Sliver tussockgrass, Buzzy and Sagg were present. Some of the Gorse has been sprayed as part of the Gorse control program being implemented by NPWS. Other highly invasive weed species such as Cape ivy, English ivy, Mirror bush, Canary broom and English broom have spread up the southern very steep side of The Nut, leaving only limited patches of native vegetation. Regenerating cleared land on the western slope between the wharf and the chairlift is characterised by tough shrub species such as Prickly box and sedges and grasses, Sagg, Silver tussockgrass Spear grass and wallaby grasses. Weed invasion continues to be aggressive with additional weed species evident including Hemlock, Holly, Cape ivy, Common mullein, Three cornered garlic, White horehound, Elder, thistles and introduced grasses. Gardens adjacent to this zone contain a lot of serious environmental weeds including Radiata pine, Blue butterfly bush, Holly and Agapanthus, There was no evidence of Penguins on the western slope.

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3.1.4 Alexander Terrace to Wharf Road Very limited vegetation is present around this area of the survey site. There are no patches of native vegetation in the area. The area is made up mostly of residential and commercial buildings and gardens with a large stretch of mown grass (maintained by a business owner) between the rocky shore and the residential area. Penguins come ashore, cross the road and move through properties to nest in gardens, under houses and commercial buildings. Erosion on the foreshore is active, with approximately 1 metre of bank being lost over a 15 year period (P. Bester, pers. com 11/5/11.) 3.1.5 Green Hills Road vegetation There are two land parcels to the west of Green Hills Road: one is owned by Cradle Mountain Water and contains sewerage lagoons and the other is undeveloped Circular Head CHC land. While a full survey was not conducted over these two properties they were recognised as providing important natural habitat in the area. Circular Head Council land This area is a mixture of native vegetation and weeds. A patch of native vegetation composed of Coast wattle surrounds an area of lower ground where a small patch of Coast paperbark (up to 8m high) remains. Many serious environmental weeds have invaded this area from garden dumping here. Some of the surrounding grassed area in the south of the property is kept mown, presumably to reduce fire risk to the adjoining properties. There is a dense thicket of Blackberry in the middle of this area while introduced grass species found include Buffalo grass, Marram and Cocksfoot. However native rushes, sword sedge, tussock grass, Sagg and spear grasses are present within this grassland. Cradle Mountain Water land The sewerage pond property includes an area of good native vegetation providing habitat for a range of native fauna. On the back dune behind the ponds the vegetation is Coastal scrub with Coast wattle dominating interspersed with Coastal saltbush and Bower spinach and, south of the ponds some Coast beardheath and Silver banksia. Some revegetation with local native species has been undertaken on the western side of the dune behind the ponds. These have been planted into a geotextile erosion-control matting which has helped to stabilise the dune as well as reducing weed competition while the plants become established. Penguins are using the vegetation around the sewerage ponds (evidenced by scats on the road nearby and runways under the existing fence) where there is a dense cover of Coastal scrub, providing good natural habitat for Penguins. Other fauna are likely to use this natural habitat area as it is one of the only patches of native vegetation around.

Figure 9 View of vegetation on CHC land and around sewerage ponds from The Nut.

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3.2 Vegetation communities The survey found that vegetation communities in the study area varied from the TASVEG 2000 classifications that have been mapped for the area. Agricultural land (TASVEG code FAG) mapped on Godfreys Beach dunes is Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG code SAC). Aquatic Saline Herbfield (TASVEG code AHS) mapped on Godfreys Beach is rock (TASVEG code ORO). Coastal grass and herbfield (TASVEG code GHC) mapped in the Council-owned land west of Green Hills Road is Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG code SAC) and Weed infestation (TASVEG code FWU). Other vegetation communities occurring on The Nut but not in the study area include White gum grassy woodland and Lowland sedgy grassland. In general, there was a notable lack of eucalypts across all sites. 3.2.1 Acacia longifolia coastal scrub On the Godfreys Beach dunes the composition of the remnant vegetation is consistent with Acacia longifolia coastal scrub (TASVEG code SAC) with the dominant species Coast wattle and Coast beardheath with a range of understorey species including White correa, Coastal saltbush, Bower spinach, Dune thistle (a native thistle) Southern storksbill and Native pigface. This community has been degraded by weed invasion, mowing and erosion. Patches of Marram grass occur and weeds are out-competing the native plants in places. This community is present on the CHC land and around the CMW sewerage ponds west of Godfreys Beach. 3.2.2 Coastal scrub Coastal scrub (TASVEG code SSC) on site occurs in patches on The Nut and the CHC land on Green Hills Road. On The Nut this community is dominated by Coast wattle and Coast beardheath with other shrubs occasionally present such as Dogwood and White correa. Coastal saltbush, Bower spinach and Pig face occur throughout and play a very important role in habitat provision, erosion control and weed suppression. Most of this vegetation community on The Nut is very degraded by weed invasion. On the CHC land, Silver banksia and Coast beardheath dominate and other trees such as Prickly moses, Coast wattle, Needlebushes and Sunshine wattle are all present. 3.2.3 Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest A small patch of Coast paperbark exists on the CHC land which represents the threatened vegetation community Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest (TASVEG code NME). It is likely that a lot of the coastal plain was covered by this vegetation community prior to clearing and remnants remain on the rural land to the west.

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3.3 Little Penguin habitat on site There is limited good quality nesting habitat available for Penguins throughout the study site as there is little intact, healthy and robust native vegetation available. However, penguins are able to utilize a range of disturbed and artificial habitats. Penguins inhabit The Nut up to approximately 80m above sea level (Peter Hefferon 11/05/11) burrowing beneath native vegetation, weeds, rocks, graveyard slabs and in artificial burrows. The main penguin habitat on The Nut appear to be on the north face near the Cemetery, the old quarries, the wharf and the steep rocky restricted access area between the quarries. Figure 10 Penguin scats on rocks show where they wait to climb up the rocks and eroding foreshore.

Penguins come ashore at the northern end of Godfreys Beach and nest under African boxthorn hedges on the roadside and Macrocarpa pines on rural land to the north of Godfreys Beach. Penguins have, at times, nested beneath the Caretakers Cottage at Highfield House and access this site from the shore north of Godfreys Beach, walking up the paddocks following pines along fencelines (Lesa Scott pers.com. 11/05/11). There were no Penguins nesting at Highfield at the time of the survey but they are thought to be still nesting beneath pines along fencelines nearby. There were signs of Penguins crossing the Godfreys Beach dunes and road at the northern end to access the native vegetation around the CMW sewerage ponds and possibly African boxthorn hedges on the neighbouring farm. In the Stanley urban area, proximal to The Nut, there is virtually no natural habitat for Penguins. As a result, Penguins disperse into nearby residential areas and nest beneath houses and tourist accommodation, in gardens, under timber stacks, and in rock piles near the wharf. They evidently come ashore at the end of Alexander Terrace and near the cemetery. Figure 11 the land between the ocean and the wharf road

Around the Stanley Village (tourist accommodation) Penguins nest underneath buildings, barbeques and large rocks. There are also visible nest spots between discarded concrete slabs on the rocky banks of the ocean. Across the road there were more opportunities to nest within people’s yards. One resident pointed out approximately 10 sites where she has found Penguins nesting (Sally Collins pers. com. 11/05/11). Some residents have erected penguin proof fences to prevent Penguins entering their yard. It is notable that Penguins do not appear to be using the Godfreys Beach dune vegetation. This may be due to the active dune erosion, poor canopy cover, regular disturbance from slashing and mowing or other factors. Rehabilitation of penguin habitat, combined with strategic weed removal and habitat protection for other important animals in the area, would be beneficial for the penguin population and increase the natural values of Stanley. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 19

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

3.4 Threatened species and other species of conservation significance A significant number of threatened species and species of conservation significance are known or likely to be in the area and include the following: Threatened fauna Bandicoot diggings, potentially those of Brown Bandicoot and the nationally threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot, (Perameles gunnii) which has been sighted regularly in the area (Peter Hefferon pers.com 11/05/11), were noted along the grassed area under the Norfolk pines on Green Hills Road and on The Nut slopes. Eastern Barred Bandicoot is listed as vulnerable under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBCA) and occurs in grassy vegetation where it forages for invertebrates with nearby forest, woodland or tussockgrass for refuge (Bryant and Jackson 1999). It is generally active at dusk and during the night. Maintaining open grassy areas near to bushland is a priority for this species. The Striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peroni) is recorded from the northern end of Godfreys Beach in the vicinity of the small (and currently very degraded) stream that discharges into the sea. This species is listed as endangered under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (TSPA) and prefers permanent water with well vegetated margins (Littlejohn 2003). Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is recorded on The Nut and in the local area. This species is now listed as endangered under both the Tasmanian TSPA and the Commonwealth EPBCA. Threatened by the lethal, contagious facial tumour disease, numbers of this species have been reduced by 90% in some areas of Tasmania. While the spread of the disease has been slower in the west of the State to date, in conjunction with losses on our roads, this species is very much under threat and all known habitat areas are a priority for protection. Swift parrot (Lathamus discolor) is listed as endangered under both the Tasmanian TSPA and the Commonwealth EPBCA is known to forage in the region, following breeding in the east of Tasmania during spring. The Tasmanian bluegum is its major food source and Swift parrots can occasionally be seen in small flocks around mature bluegums over the summer period. There are very few of these trees in the Stanley area and revegetation plantings should include them. A tern was seen flying over Godfreys Beach but could not be identified due to distance from the viewer. Tasmania has four species of terns listed under the TSPA and three are likely to be found on site: • Fairy Tern (Sterna nereis) (vulnerable) • Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) (endangered), • White-fronted Tern (Sterna striata) (vulnerable) Terns are shore birds that nest in exposed sand scrapes between the high tide mark and shore vegetation. They are very vulnerable to disturbance from humans, vehicles, dogs and cats (Bryant and Jackson 1999). The Stanley snail (Miselaoma weldii), listed as endangered under the Tasmanian TSPA is recorded from the steep northeast side of The Nut where the species, due to The Nut being a Nature Reserve, should be secure.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Other fauna of conservation significance At the northern end of the beach near the rocky shoreline three pairs of Sooty oystercatchers and a pair of Pied oystercatchers (one banded) were seen. Although considered secure in Tasmania these species are particularly vulnerable to disturbance at nesting time due to their habit of nesting on “sand, shell grit or shingle just above high water mark on beaches, sandbars, margins of estuaries and lagoons” (Birds in Backyards). Figure 12 Banded Pied oystercatcher

On The Nut there is an extensive area of nesting burrows of Short-tailed Shearwater, (Puffinus tenuirostris), a migratory seabird that flies 15,000km annually to the Arctic before returning for breeding around the Australian coastline. The most abundant sea bird of Australia, an estimated eighteen million birds arrive in Tasmania each year. There are known to be at least 167 colonies in Tasmania and an estimated 11.4 million burrows, mainly situated on tussocky headlands, making it easier for the birds to take off and land (Lindsey 1986). Both Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and Australian/Nankeen kestrels (Falco cenchroides) are recorded as nesting and hunting around The Nut. Neither of these species are common in Tasmania and nesting birds should not be disturbed. Threatened flora Sea bindweed (Calystegia soldanella), is a native plant listed as rare under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. This plant has been previously recorded from approximately half way along Godfreys Beach dunes. This species was searched for but not found, probably due to the habitat being very weedy. The Grassland paperdaisy (Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor) is known to grow on The Nut with a healthy number of plants recorded within the “Lowland sedgy grassland”. Some management may be required to maintain the population as some type of disturbance is generally required for the maintenance of the population. Reduction of competition and provision of a bare seedbed will allow regeneration. The ground disturbance caused by the breeding of the Shorttailed shearwaters may in fact be assisting in providing these conditions. This species is listed as endangered under the Tasmanian TSPA and the Commonwealth EPBCA. The Nut State Reserve protects habitat for many of these species. However, it is important to protect all habitat of threatened species and species of conservation significance and land management decisions outside reserved land must consider their habitat requirements.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

3.5 Weeds Invasive shrubs, climbers and herbs are aggressive and dominant in places throughout the study area. African boxthorn, Blackberry, Blue periwinkle, Cape ivy, Gorse and Mirror bush occur in all sites. The level of weed infestation is, on the whole, very high. 3.5.1 Weeds on The Nut The Nut State Reserve Management Plan (2003) recognises weed management as one of the biggest issues in the reserve and recommends that weed and fire management should be a combination of patch burning, slashing, grazing, spraying and biological control agents in conjunction with a replanting program. Gorse mite was released in February 1999 but has had little effect and areas of dead gorse are the result of use of herbicides under the NPWS weed control program (Peter Hefferon pers.com 06/06/11) Revegetation on The Nut is being successfully implemented by PWS, contractors, community groups and volunteers as resources allow. Figure 13 Successful weed control north of the chair lift on steep slopes of The Nut – this area is an excellent demonstration of what can be achieved.

In the past, the now disbanded Stanley Peninsula Land and Coastcare Group accomplished some excellent weed control and revegetation work on the southern slopes of The Nut. The vegetation on the northern side of the chairlift is virtually weed free as a result of diligent effort over time. The difficult terrain of The Nut is a problem for weed control works in penguin habitat areas. African boxthorn and Gorse appeared to be the most invasive weeds here. The Nut escarpment behind the wharf is potentially dangerous due to rock fall. This area is highly impacted by weeds, the most aggressive being English ivy and Gorse. Some Gorse has died from effective weed control treatment but large and mature plants of English ivy are well established. Other weed species in this area include Stinging nettle, English broom and Mirror bush. The western slope of The Nut has been a Gorse control site for many years, with some success to date, but remains seriously impacted by a high number of weeds. This area did not appear to be used by Penguins at the time of this survey but it is a potential future habitat area considering sea level rise. There is native vegetation present, mainly grasses and shrubs that could be enhanced through further weed control and revegetation that provide habitat for the many fauna species present in the area, including Penguins. Gardens adjoining the west slope contain a variety of environmental weeds, such as Agapanthus, Euphorbia, Holly, Pine and Blue butterfly bush, which have the potential to be spread through the reserve by birds or wind. African boxthorn, Blue periwinkle, Cape ivy, Gorse, Kikuyu and Mirror bush are the major weeds invading penguin habitat on The Nut north slope and foreshore.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

3.5.2 Weeds at Godfreys Beach Godfreys Beach dune vegetation contains many weeds. Marram grass, Cape ivy and Buffalo grass occur throughout with Blackberry, Gorse, and occasional Mirror bush present. Cape ivy appears to have killed off some areas of native coast wattle, which may have possibly been weakened by slashing as well. Figure 14 Cape ivy has strangled sections of coast wattle

Some Sea spurge occurs on the foreshore and local advice says there is a lot more Sea Spurge further north on the coast (Lesa Scott pers com 11/5/11). Sea wheat grass is scattered along the base of the foredune. This is a highly invasive weed and should be eradicated if possible. The area at the northern end of Godfreys Beach is mostly pasture with the occasional African boxthorn, Sea spurge and pine. African boxthorn forms hedges along sections of the road up to Highfield House. It is apparent that Penguins cross the road to use these thickets for habitat, as there is no nesting habitat closer to the beach. At the southern end of the undeveloped CHC land behind the houses, there is a whole suite of plants spreading from garden waste dumping and common local weed species spread by birds. These plants, include Arum lily, Fennel, Agapanthus, Mirror bush, Boxthorn, Cape ivy and Variegated thistle. The table below details the main environmental weeds recorded during the survey and their distribution noted throughout the study area. Introduced grasses and common broad leafed weeds are not included.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Table 1. Weed species and locations * indicates declared weeds (DPIWE 2011) Weed species

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42.

African boxthorn * Agapanthus Arum lily Banana passionfruit Blackberry * Blue butterflybush Blue periwinkle Bull thistle Buffalo grass Canary broom * Cape ivy Cape wattle Century plant Common mullein Elderberry English broom * English ivy Euphorbia sp Fennel Gazania Gorse * Hemlock Holly Kikuyu Mallow Marram grass Mirror bush Montbretia New Zealand cabbage tree New Zealand flax Pride-of-Madeira Purple groundsel Radiata pine Sea spurge Sea wheatgrass Soap aloe Stinging nettle Three cornered garlic Trailing daisy Two-row watercress Variegated thistle White horehound *

Godfreys Beach

The Nut north

The Nut south and west

Gardens adjoining The Nut west

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

3.6 Map: Natural values of Stanley penguin habitat

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

4 Issues and Management Recommendations Issues for Penguins, their habitat and the coastal vegetation at this site are described here, with recommendations for addressing these. 4.1 Native vegetation loss and degradation The Circular Head peninsular is largely lacking in native vegetation due to widespread clearing and conversion to agriculture early in the days of European settlement. Natural habitat areas remaining around Stanley include The Nut, Godfreys Beach and Tatlows Beach, with some small remnants and areas of regrowth on rural and private land. Native vegetation on The Nut and Godfreys Beach has been highly modified and loss of coastal native vegetation has occurred as a result of: • past clearing • conversion to agriculture, urban and wharves • excavation • ongoing weed invasion • mowing encroachment on the dune vegetation • some slashing of dune vegetation • informal beach access Coastal vegetation is essential for protection of the foreshore and adjacent infrastructure. Narrow coastal vegetation is very vulnerable to dieback and erosion, so that incremental degradation of vegetation (such as by mowing encroachment, and removal of vegetation) can lead to substantial losses in the end. Loss of coastal vegetation removes habitat from penguins and other animals, and exposes the coast to wind and a serious risk of erosion, with possible impacts on infrastructure. The vegetation on The Nut and at Godfreys Beach is additionally important to protect as threatened species habitat and habitat for a diverse range of flora and fauna. The Nut State Reserve provides habitat for six terrestrial mammals, more than four reptiles and sixty seven birds (Parks and Wildlife Service 2003) and over one hundred and fifty flora species. This is significant diversity and all habitat remnants around Stanley are important to protect and support their environment. A primary aim for coastal vegetation management should be to eradicate invasive weed species and rehabilitate to a more natural form with penguin-preferred native species to provide canopy and understorey cover with diversity, which will provide habitat niches and structure for Penguins and other fauna. There is a notable lack of eucalypts across the study area. Old photographs and records describe Stringybark forest on The Nut and it is likely that eucalypt dominated communities occupied the Stanley peninsular. The loss of these means the loss of considerable habitat and diversity from the region and reduced resilience in the remaining habitat. The native vegetation along Godfreys Beach is narrow, or absent, and cannot afford to become any narrower. The dune vegetation has been cleared and mown for maintenance and recreation. Deliberate slashing of tops has occurred and should be discontinued. Godfreys Beach dunes are vulnerable to the further spread of invasive weeds and to coastal erosion due to sea level rise. To increase the resilience of the remnant native vegetation to threatening processes, revegetation should be carried out along the western edge of the native strip to widen the dune vegetation with strategic weed control and replanting into the existing dune vegetation, preserving vegetative cover during works.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

The vegetation on The Nut is largely in very weedy condition. A good range of native species are present, with many planted through rehabilitation efforts, but most of The Nut remains very impacted by weeds. Parts of The Nut are extremely difficult and/or dangerous to access which limits rehabilitation. In accessible areas weed invasion is so extreme that weed control presents a daunting task requiring a strategic investment of resources. Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania have an ongoing weed control program on The Nut targeting gorse and thistles but also treating other weeds like Blue periwinkle when it is cost effective to do so. Strengthening existing native vegetation on The Nut in penguin habitat areas is recommended such as planting into foreshore gaps, eroding bare areas and weed control sites. There is often an attitude amongst local residents that dead timber must be ‘tidied up’. Dead plant material, both standing and fallen, is important for perching and shelter for animals, food for fungi and invertebrates, erosion mitigation, and improving soil structure. Education regarding the environmental importance of this dead timber may reduce these behaviours. The native vegetation behind Godfreys Beach on the CHC land and surrounding the sewerage ponds is a significant remnant in the landscape. There are few patches of this size remaining and although weedy, it still contains many habitat values and should be maintained and protected as such. Any infrastructure planned (such as security fencing) should also consider wildlife movement and the habitat values of this remnant. This is the largest area of native habitat available to penguins coming ashore from Godfreys Beach and to other wildlife in the area. Retaining this area of native habitat for both threatened and non threatened species is important within the context of the cleared and agricultural surrounding landscape. Most of the coastal native vegetation around Stanley is very narrow, weedy or non-existent and this patch represents one of the few larger patches of bush with diversity of habitat and relative protection from prevailing winds, erosion and sea level rise. Some weed control and revegetation work within this area would be valuable to maintain and improve the habitat values as well as reinforcing the habitat for the long term, considering climate change and sea level rise. Dumping of garden waste is occurring on the undeveloped CHC land and this should be addressed as it is causing increased environmental weed invasion at this site. Currently there is a requirement that there needs to be a buffer between residential zones and the Sewerage ponds area. However, there is a possibility that if Cradle Mountain Water were to upgrade their facilities and install a waste treatment plant that Circular Head Council would be able to develop this land for housing. If this is proposed then issues such as loss of habitat and the effects of sea level rise must be addressed. Native vegetation in the study area is highly impacted and degraded but nonetheless, remains valuable as native habitat within a highly disturbed landscape. Penguins can and do utilise weedy habitat and infrastructure for nesting. However, there is an opportunity here to further improve the continuity and vigour of the coastal strip and improve habitat for many other species, including threatened fauna, as well as Penguins, with some management actions. Recommendations: •

Retain and protect all existing native vegetation and avoid further damage.

Maintain areas in best condition as a first priority. Expand from these to the surrounding areas, and reinforce poor areas.

Maximise width and connectivity of native vegetation through revegetation.

• Revegetate foreshores for penguin habitat. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 27

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

• Revegetate Godfreys Beach dunes, the northern car park, the cemetery, wharf and urban foreshores. •

Revegetate The Nut west and north in conjunction with strategic weed control.

Plant eucalypts for habitat, shade and aesthetics.

Encourage the establishment of a local “care” group to take active involvement in the rehabilitation efforts.

Raise community awareness of vegetation values, vegetation management and wildlife protection needs.

Liaise with residents who have state reserve frontage to control their encroaching gardens, eliminate environmental weeds and replace the native vegetation in the coastal reserve.

Liaise with land managers and owners to protect and maintain native vegetation on their land surrounding Stanley and investigate potential programs for assistance.

• Local residents should be alerted to the importance of maintaining coastal vegetation, and strongly discouraged from cutting it or dumping garden waste. Awareness-raising could include signage, letter box drops and field days. • Run workshops to educate and train the community in native vegetation management and plant identification. • Proposed changes to infrastructure in and around native vegetation areas should be discussed with land managers. Changes should consider wildlife habitat requirements, especially as refuge areas will be increasingly important as a result of climate change and sea level rise. •

Retain fallen branches, dead trees and fallen logs as important wildlife habitat and educate the community about the important role of dead plant material in the natural environment.

Continue the successful weed control work.

Close informal tracks with revegetation and erect interpretation signage.

Monitor impacts such as garden dumping and raise community awareness of this issue if needed.

4.2 Threatened species habitat Threatened species habitat occurs within most of the study area. Some of this is degraded and under threat of further degradation such as the creek and dunes on Godfreys Beach, and the slopes of The Nut. Recommendations are made throughout this document that will benefit threatened species habitat such as pet control, weed control, revegetation and monitoring. Care must be taken during works not to create further impacts to habitat, especially weed control work. Removal of canopy, disturbance to root zones and trampling in general may impact habitat so effort must be made to avoid these and other similar impacts. Restoration of riparian habitat and weed control work around the creek should be undertaken with improving habitat for the Striped Marsh Frog. Similarly, Eastern Barred Bandicoot requires open grassy areas for foraging and these should be maintained in a balance with revegetating the back dunes on Godfreys beach and weed control on The Nut west slopes and north face. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 28

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Sea bindweed, (threatened flora species) is recorded on the dunes at Godfreys Beach and is likely to be at risk from weed invasion. Recommendations •

Protect all existing native habitat

Interpretation signage is important to raise community awareness about wildlife habitat and nature conservation.

Pet control (dogs and cats) by both residents and visitors should be encouraged. Pets should be confined at night.

Ensure that diverse habitat requirements are met when planning and implementing revegetation and weed control projects such as: o plant riparian vegetation to shade creek and improve aquatic habitat, o maintain grassy areas for bandicoots, o use penguin friendly plants in foreshore revegetation sites o plant eucalypts and blackwoods to reintroduce tall habitat trees - plant Blue gums, Black gums, White gums and Stringybark. o plant swathes of grasses and sedges for butterflies and other invertebrates. Encourage local landholders to retain all their native vegetation and protect remnants as they are vital to maintaining threatened species and species diversity across the landscape.

Ensure that penguin habitat creation also benefits other species habitat requirements.

4.3 Revegetation Revegetation is needed to replace lost vegetation, provide penguin and threatened species habitat and strengthen existing vegetation against impacts. Revegetation is recommended for Godfreys Beach, The Nut and urban areas, to be done during May to July when Penguins are least sensitive to disturbance. Revegetation should be integrated with the weed removal program. Figures 15 and 16 Well planted trees on The Nut, using tough guards against wind and browsers, hardwood stakes banged in straight and deep to withstand wind, and mulch mats placed as flat as possible.

Successful revegetation has already been undertaken on The Nut and the methods used here are good to emulate. Ground preparation, strong plant guards with hardwood stakes, mulch mats and plants obtained from a good native nursery are all elements that contribute to achieving a good outcome. Revegetation involves a lot of work and takes time, so it is worth doing a good job throughout. Watering in at planting and follow up weed control and maintenance (straightening guards and mulch mats, replacing dead plants) is essential for success.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Figure 17 Revegetation on the top of The Nut has been successful. Shrubs planted in amongst native grasses and well guarded to give them a good chance of survival.

There are very few trees in the study site and almost no eucalypts. Stringybark, Blue gum and White gum should be planted individually or in clumps with diverse understorey wherever possible. They provide habitat for birds, bats, and invertebrates. Suggested areas where eucalypts can be planted are Godfreys Beach dunes and car park, CHC land and Sewerage ponds, and The Nut, allowing for fire buffer zones. Priority sites for revegetation are: • Gaps in Godfreys Beach native vegetation, such as where vegetation has been mown and cut, linking good patches of native vegetation, informal access tracks (after closure) and where weeds have been removed. Plant native shrubs into Marram and Buffalo grass (following spot spraying as good ground preparation) on the front of the dune will assist erosion control. • The back dunes of Godfreys Beach, which are currently mown, should be restored to native on the slopes leaving lower grassy areas for bandicoot foraging and responsible recreation such as picnics and overnight camping. Plant herbs, shrubs and small trees for increased Penguin habitat, diversity, dune stability and attractiveness from road. • Godfreys Beach northern car park area is very lacking in native vegetation and could be rehabilitated with eucalypts, understorey species and foreshore plants to provide penguin habitat, refuge for bandicoots and other fauna and improve on aesthetics. • The creek should be fenced and planted to provide aquatic and riparian habitat for the creek and threatened Striped Marsh Frog. • The Nut north slopes and foreshore – plant mixed hardy scrub and ground cover species to replace weeds, provide penguin habitat, cover bare ground and reduce erosion.

Additional sites for revegetation are: • The Nut west slopes – plant into weed controlled patches for quick improvements in habitat. Keep existing native grasses as habitat for butterflies, bandicoot, hunting birds and mammals. • Wharf and urban foreshores – plant penguin friendly habitat and erosion controlling plants with spaced eucalypts, Blackwoods and Sheoaks for habitat and shade. • Godfreys Beach north on private land – revegetate foreshore for habitat and erosion control. • CHC land and CMW sewerage pond vegetation – revegetation with eucalypts and understorey The species in the good coastal scrub should guide revegetation efforts. It is considered that Penguins prefer species such as Bower spinach, Coastal saltbush, Correa, Sagg and Silver tussock grass for habitat (P. Marker pers.com.). However, other species should also be included for diversity and habitat for other fauna. In general, a mix of plants should be used, with some variety depending on different situations, as they have various values for coastal stability, shelter and for habitat for Penguins and other fauna. Where the vegetation is regenerating cleared land (The Nut west), vigorous, native plants should dominate the mix to be relatively strong competitors with introduced grasses and other weeds. Space Coast wattles widely. Coast wattle is a structurally important plant in coastal vegetation. It is a very drought-hardy plant, provides wind shelter and improves the microclimate for other plants, helps slow erosion, and provides food for insects etc. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 30

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Recommendations: •

In introduced grass sites, spot-spraying prior to planting will be necessary as grass is a very strong competitor. Spot-spray 1 metre around where the plant will go.

Ground preparation on the mown revegetation area must involve looking out for natives that have been mown and are difficult to recognise, (eg Pigface) and don’t spray them, allow them to grow and they will recover quickly and spread effectively.

In Marram grass, Buffalo grass and Three cornered garlic sites, plant into bare patches, or spot-spray or dig to create a 1 metre bare area. Continue to remove these plants that grow into plant guards, until plants are well established.

In good coastal scrub, (parts of The Nut north face) include fewer vigorous climbers (Bower spinach, Coastal saltbush) and more other species (especially White correa, Coast beardheath, Banksia).

Water plants well following planting.

Planting should be done from May to July, to avoid disturbing Penguins, and also to ensure adequate soil moisture during establishment.

When planting, ensure that the plant’s roots are deeply planted, sand/soil is firm around the plant, and ideally a small “dish” remains in the soil surface, to assist water penetration to the plant.

Stake and guard plants against browsing to ensure success.

Trial mesh guards, which may be less likely to be knocked over by wind than solid guards.

Monitor survival and plan future plantings accordingly.

Check that Pigface is the native species. It is possible that some nurseries are selling the introduced species.

Space Coast wattles widely i.e. plant as scattered individuals, not clumped.

Include eucalypts in plantings where suitable eg: back dunes and inland sites.

It is not advisable to plant Coast tea tree anywhere, even though a native, as it can be invasive and is not currently on site.

Follow-up weed control is absolutely essential for successful revegetation. Re-spray around bags in grassy areas at least every 12 months until plants are well established.

For best results check plants two or three times a year to straighten bags, re-stake, water if possible, weed inside bags and generally monitor the health of the revegetation site.

Appendix 4 provides a list of plants suitable for revegetation at different sites.

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4.4 Weeds and their control Weeds are sometimes used by Penguins as habitat; however, they compete with native vegetation and present an ongoing risk of further spread causing further degradation of the coastal scrub. It is essential to continue weed control work in this area, with the aim of replacing weeds with native vegetation over time. Some small patches of The Nut and Godfreys Beach vegetation are weed free and areas such as these should be identified and weed control undertaken to protect their integrity. The most difficult area for weed control is The Nut, due to the combination of a large population of Penguins, the density of weeds and the difficulty of access to some parts. Notwithstanding this, there would be benefits gained from weed control and revegetation for long-term habitat for Penguins and other fauna, especially taking into account sea level rise and the value The Nut would assume as a refuge. Any weed works must consider potential impacts on Penguins. Weed control should be staged by treating in patches, with appropriate revegetation efforts to ensure Penguin habitat is not compromised. Methods of low impact weed control are outlined in Appendix 6. Timing is important and work should be done May-July when penguins are typically absent from nests. This is further discussed in Section 4.10. The Nut north face and west slope are relatively accessible for weed control with gorse and thistle control currently underway and progressing on these sites. Additional support and resources (from funding programs, volunteers and contractors) would allow for further control of more weed species and for varied techniques to be applied, along with training opportunities in native plant rehabilitation. Other weeds that could be controlled here, when resources allow, include Cape ivy, Blue periwinkle, Mirror bush, African boxthorn, Elder, Hemlock and White horehound. The restricted area of The Nut is difficult to access and major attempts at weed control in this zone are limited by the availability of people with the skills to climb and carry out manual techniques. Some of the more accessible areas in this zone have had weed control work done ie. weed removal from kangaroo grass communities (Peter Hefferon pers com. 06/06/11). Care must be taken with herbicides in this zone as it is threatened species habitat for the Stanley and Keeled snails and Grassland paperdaisy. Environmental weeds such as Blue butterflybush, Holly and Agapanthus occur in gardens bordering The Nut and could provide a seed source for further infestation. Residents of Stanley, and especially those adjacent to the reserve, should be made aware of the weed potential of these plants, to give them the opportunity to replace them with less invasive species. Figure 18 African boxthorn and Blue periwinkle in native vegetation. Nut north face.

Weeds that are sparse in the Godfreys Beach dune vegetation (and should be removed as a priority as they are highly invasive) include Sea spurge and Mirror bush. Mirror bush is often tolerated as it provides penguin habitat and wind protection. However, on dunes this plant seriously exacerbates erosion. It has a large trunk and root system, its spreading canopy excludes other plants and erosion carves out large amounts of sediment from around the roots. Mirror bush on the foredune should be removed by using the “cut and paint� method and replaced by Pigface, Coastal saltbush, White correa, Tasmanian flax lily, Sagg and Silver tussock grass. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 32

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

The Godfreys Beach dune area is proposed as a prime revegetation site as there is good native vegetation to build on. Weed control in this area must be staged to coincide with revegetation efforts, ensuring existing native plants are not harmed, especially those natives in the mown area where they are more difficult to recognise. Further information on this area is detailed in the revegetation plan in Chapter 5. Maintaining the vegetative cover of the coastal strip along Godfreys Beach is the main aim at this site and requires strategic weed control. The major beach weed, Sea Wheat Grass, is present and should be a priority for elimination if possible. Recommendations: For all sites: • Initial weed control focus should be on areas where good native vegetation cover exists before tackling the more heavily degraded areas. •

Control of isolated or sparse occurrences of weeds will be rewarding, requiring minimal effort for good results.

Effort should be put into preventing weed reinfestation in controlled sites and revegetation areas.

Where Penguins are using woody weeds for habitat (such as Boxthorn, Mirror bush etc.) issues surrounding weed removal must be considered carefully, such as whether to remove them at all and the timing and techniques for removal. It is important that any weed control is performed according to guidelines outlined in section 4.11 (Works in Areas of Little Penguin Habitat).

In areas where weeds are growing amongst native vegetation, control using cut-and-paint or stem-scrape methods. Consult Weeds Officers for advice on techniques.

Spot-spray weedy grasses (Godfreys Beach and on the western slope of The Nut) and revegetate, gradually replacing the introduced grasses with native grasses and shrubs. See section 5.

Follow-up control is always necessary and should be budgeted for and scheduled. Revegetation to provide competition and reduce weed reinfestation is recommended.

Where foliar spray is used care should be taken to avoid spray drift impacting on adjacent native vegetation.

Godfreys Beach: • Focus on weeds currently at low levels Eg: Purple groundsel, Mirror bush, • Target major beach weeds Sea spurge and Sea Wheat Grass for eradication • Weeds in higher numbers and clumps, such as Century bush, New Zealand flax, Trailing daisy, require a strategic approach with targeting outliers first and working in towards the centre of infestation • Contain Cape ivy and prevent further spread. Control Cape ivy in isolated patches and where native vegetation is dominant and treat larger areas only if there are the resources available • Plant native shrubs into gaps in the areas dominated by Marram grass, Buffalo grass and Three cornered garlic and ensure follow-up maintenance for their best chance of survival. The Nut: •

Work outwards from areas where weeds have been eliminated and/or are sparse. See section 5.2.1

Control of the African boxthorn, Gorse, Cape ivy and Blue periwinkle should be a staged process including revegetation and follow-up control.

Herbicide spray may be used cost-effectively, where weeds are in swathes and native vegetation is absent. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 33

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Figure 20 Dense Gorse flowering. Nut west Native grasses and shrubs are present and the better areas should be prioritised for weed control and revegetation.

Figure 19 Century bush and New Zealand flax planted as features near the picnic area have spread on the dune. Control outliers first, taking care not to kill natives nearby, and replant native shrubs, spot spray Marram and replant.

Figure 22 English ivy and Gorse on The Nut behind the wharf. This area is dangerous and highly weedy. Low priority Cut and paint weeds if possible to work here .Otherwise leave and put resources into safer areas with more chance of success.

Figure 21 Mirror bush, African boxthorn and Gorse between Cemetery and foreshore. Cut and paint, leave standing and replant with Coast wattle, Coastal saltbush and Bower spinach.

Figure 24 Marram grass and Sea wheatgrass on Godfrey’s Beach foredune. Plant Pigface, Bower spinach and Coastal saltbush into bare areas behind the immediately eroding zone. Eradicate Sea wheatgrass when possible.

Figure 23 Patches of Hemlock, Elder, Blue periwinkle and Cape ivy. Nut west slopes Control weeds, retain natives and revegetate with local species of trees, shrubs, sedges and grasses. Native grasses surround these patches and should be protected as habitat.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

4.5 Climate change and sea level rise The vulnerability to climate change of the North West Tasmanian coastline and infrastructure has been assessed (Sharples 2006) with identified threats being flooding and erosion due to sea level rise, and storm tides. Sea level rise has been modelled for this region and the Stanley peninsula as a whole is likely to be cut off from the Tasmanian mainland during extreme storm surge events by 2100 (see maps over page). The Nut is classed as a “hard rock (erosion-resistant) shoreline” with likely minimal vulnerability to erosion, however the southern side of Stanley is vulnerable to storm surge and inundation, from the boat ramp area through to the caravan park (Sharples 2006). Godfreys Beach is classified as “open sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain - potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability”. Modelling of this coastline out to the year 2100 under two different sea level rises and storm flood conditions indicates not only that the whole dune area could be inundated, but storm waters could extend as far as the Sewerage ponds. Godfreys Beach dunes are already showing the impact of storm surges with much of the dune face eroding and recent damage to a new boardwalk. There is little that can be done under this management plan to address climate change, but awareness of the potential issues may influence prioritisation of other actions. For example, identifying higher sites for long term habitat provision and protection of the coastal vegetation are even more important given vulnerability to erosion. As the foreshore recedes, higher land is the refuge for species that inhabit the tidal and foreshore zones, such as shore birds and penguins. The rocky nature of The Nut, and its higher elevation, makes it a high priority site for Penguin habitat now and in the future, considering potential threats to the lower sandy habitats from sea level rise, storm surges and associated erosion. Stanley township in general is set back from the coastline and is slightly elevated, providing some protection from storm surges and associated erosion. The native vegetation around houses on Alexander St is likely to provide more secure Penguin habitat into the future than the lower sandy areas at Godfreys Beach and in the foreshore near the boat ramp. Recommendations: • Protect and enhance all coastal vegetation to withstand erosion as long as possible • Prioritise provision of Penguin habitat on higher ground, especially around the base of The Nut and the slopes at the northern end of Godfreys Beach. • Maintain and enhance the vegetation surrounding the CMW sewerage ponds and on the CHC land as valuable habitat now and in the future. • Monitor sea level rise i.e. high water mark during storm surges and rate of erosion of the foreshore.

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Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Figure 25 Stanley peninsula neck: Coastal flood vulnerability minimum & maximum by year 2100 (Map source LIST Map May 2011) Legend: Open sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability Re-entrant sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability Extreme storm surge flood vulnerability in 2100 with 8cm sea level rise Extreme storm surge flood vulnerability in 2100 with 84cm sea level rise

N Scale 0


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Figure 26 Stanley - Coastal flood vulnerability minimum & maximum by year 2100 (Map source LIST Map May 2011) Legend: Open sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability Re-entrant sandy shore backed by soft sediment plain – potential erosion and shoreline recession vulnerability Extreme storm surge flood vulnerability in 2100 with 8cm sea level rise Extreme storm surge flood vulnerability in 2100 with 84cm sea level rise

N Scale 0


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4.6 Erosion Erosion is active on the foredunes of Godfreys Beach. The lack of native coastal vegetation means there is little protection from the erosive forces that occur. As this dune consists of unconsolidated sands, there is a risk that with increasing sea levels, this erosion will accelerate, working further towards Green Hills Road. These dunes should be kept well vegetated to increase the resilience of the dune area for as long as possible. Figure 27. Active erosion on the dunes on Godfreys Beach, Marram grass giving way from the dune face.

Native plants, such as Coast beardheath, White correa, Bower spinach and Coastal saltbush, are better at withstanding erosion than Marram Grass. Marram Grass severely affects the dynamics and movement of sand in the foredunes, which are then more susceptible to erosion (Thorpe, 2005). Figure 28 Pigface on the left, remaining on the foredune and Marram on the right creating a steep bare face to the dune and allowing a greater rate of erosion.

Pigface provides excellent erosion protection with their trailing branches and roots and also providing good habitat for Penguins and other fauna. Figure 29. Piles of debris in the paddock at the northern end of Godfreys beach and fence loss show this area’s tidal activity, signifying accelerated erosion and storm surges.

The Nut is resistant to erosion associated with sea level rise due to elevation and the resilience of the basalt rock, although natural erosion forces still work on the substrates causing rock falls over time.

The boat ramp end of Alexander St, behind the grassed area is also suffering some bank erosion due to storm surge. There is little native vegetation here to hold the banks which are a loose rock substrate and tend to crumble away when challenged by the erosional forces of high seas. Figure 30 Foreshore near boat ramp showing erosion and lack of vegetation

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Recommendations: •

Discourage use of informal tracks and strengthen dune vegetation with revegetation.

Revegetate the foreshore near the boat ramp to provide alternative nesting areas for penguins and strengthen the banks against erosional forces.

Use native plants such as Coast beardheath, White correa, Bower spinach, Coastal saltbush and Pigface, as they are quick to establish and will provide the necessary protection within a short space of time.

Plant into dune vegetation with sand binding stabilising plants such as Pig face, Coastal saltbush and Bower spinach.

Poa poiformis is a strong plant suitable for rocky foreshores – plant in clumps as it is competitive.

4.7 Water quality Potential for water quality issues exists due to: • CMW sewerage ponds in close proximity to Godfreys Beach; • an old tip-site beneath the Norfolk Pines on Green Hills Road (Lesa Scott pers com. 11/05/11); • an unfenced creek flowing from farmland into the northern end of Godfreys Beach; • inappropriate disposal of grey water from travelling campers. Cradle Mountain Water has an ocean outfall off the northern rocky point from the Sewerage ponds and this is tested fortnightly to ensure it meets water quality regulations (Peter Triffitt, Cradle Mountain Water, pers. com. 06/06/11). The council tests swimming water at Godfreys beach fortnightly during summer (at random in waist deep water, George Walker pers.com 5/06/11) to meet human health standards. The main focus of concern is the obvious poor water quality in the creek at Godfreys Beach. The creek has been diverted beneath the car park and flows onto the beach through a culvert, which is quite blocked with storm debris at the time of the survey. A stormwater pipe meets the creek water underground on the opposite side of the road near the Sewerage ponds. The water coming through the culvert onto the beach is very poor quality as it is both discoloured and odorous. It is recommended that the source of this contamination is investigated, whether from livestock upstream of the site, leachates from old tip-site, sewerage pond leak, storm water or some other unknown cause. Figure 31 The culvert is currently choked with debris washed up in the last major storm surge.

There is almost no native riparian vegetation on the creek, it is has no shading and aquatic habitat is degraded. There is a record of threatened species Striped Marsh Frog at this site. Tasveg 2000 identified the vegetation community Aquatic Saline Herbfield on the rocky area in the north of Godfreys Beach. This is not present, whether from incorrect classification or loss of the existing herbfield is at this stage unknown. If it has been lost, this may further indicate a problem with the water quality at this point. Recommendations: •

Liaise with stakeholders to investigate source of pollution.

Implement a water monitoring program on the creek. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 39

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Identify degrading factors and implement measures to improve water quality.

The culvert will require clearing out and on-going inspections, particularly with predicted sea level rise and more regular storm surges, to ensure the culvert maintains an unimpeded flow.

Ensure that travelling campers use the grey water disposal point at the public toilets and do not empty randomly into the environment, (likely to be foreshore vegetation and penguin habitat.)

Liaise with landholders to exclude livestock from waterways and revegetate, funding programs are available for this.

Revegetate the creek with riparian and aquatic species to restore threatened species habitat.

Weed control in conjunction with revegetation on the creek: only use Glyphosate (Weedmaster Duo or Roundup Biactive) near the water and refer to the “Rivercare Guidelines for Herbicide Use Near Water” available on DPIPWE website.

4.8 Dog, cat, rabbit and fox control Native fauna in the Stanley area, especially smaller ground dwellers and nesters such as penguins, shore birds, bandicoots and reptiles are very vulnerable to disturbance and attack from dogs, cats and foxes while rabbits impact habitat. Figure 32 This no dog sign is clear but small and positioned well inside penguin habitat. If dogs are allowed up to this point there is unprotected penguin habitat before this sign is reached.

Dogs frequently kill penguins in Tasmania with reports of incidents of multiple penguin deaths over short periods. At West Ulverstone in 2009 penguins were killed by dogs in an event which reduced the penguin population by an estimated 50% (The Advocate 20/1/09). Dogs pose a serious threat to any Penguin colony. Godfreys Beach is a popular dog walking beach with dogs often running free. While penguins do not appear (currently) to use the main dunes for nesting, they do use the northern end of the beach to come ashore. Circular Head Council currently has “no areas declared as exercise areas, training areas, prohibited areas or restricted areas” (Circular Head Dog Management Policy under the Dog Control Act 2000, adopted 17th Nov 2005). The current Regulations ‘allow persons to walk their dogs off the leash, as long as they are under “effective control”’. There are no regulations for the control of feral and domestic cats both of which, are a threat to Penguins and other wildlife. Cat tracks were noted over the length of Godfreys Beach close to the dunes where they would be hunting birds, skinks and invertebrates. While Parks and Wildlife undertake a feral cat control program (P. Hefferon pers. com 10/05/11) remaining roaming cats within the Stanley area pose a threat to native fauna. A few foxes are known to be scattered in low numbers across Tasmania and the Fox Eradication Branch of the Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (DPIPWE) are charged with the task of finding and eradicating this predator that has the potential to devastate Tasmanian faunal species. On mainland Australia foxes have a significant impact on penguin colonies and every effort should be made to ensure Tasmania remains fox-free into the future. All fox sightings or signs of foxes should be reported to the fox task force immediately. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 40

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Rabbits are present in high numbers around The Nut and along the beach, evidenced by scats, diggings and browsing of vegetation. Around the cemetery rabbits dig around the gravestones and penguins are known to utilise these burrows (P. Hefferon pers. comm, 10/05/11). Recommendations: •

Dog control signage should include clear information on where dogs need to be controlled to minimize impact on shore birds, bandicoots and penguins. i.e. walk off lead dogs on wet sand areas, keep them on leads in dunes and penguin areas, do not allow them to roam through nesting sites, dunes or foredunes; overnight campers to keep control of dogs and contain them at night.

Dog control signs should be placed at beach access points (both ends of beach).

Pet owners should be encouraged to keep their pets at home and community awareness raised for this purpose through brochures, newsletters and community information.

The feral cat control program should be maintained.

Investigate methods for rabbit control bearing in mind domestic pets and native fauna use the same areas.

Any reports of foxes should be taken seriously and acted upon, with the aid of the DPIPWE Fox Taskforce. Call 1300 369 688.

4.9 Recreational use Stanley is a well known tourist town and is visited by many campers and travellers annually who come to experience The Nut, the beaches, historical sites and the penguins. Local residents are also active in fishing, walking, and enjoying the beach and outdoor pursuits. Camper vans have been using the carparks at the wharf and Godfreys Beach near the cemetery for overnight stays. It is likely that some of these travellers have pets and are therefore not able to stay in the Stanley Caravan Park. Disturbance to penguins, and other wildlife such as bandicoots, results from informal campers setting up satellite dishes, hanging out washing, using lights at night, having uncontrolled pets and possibly disposing of grey water inappropriately (Jason Clare and Peter Hefferon pers. com. 10/05/11). Campers staying overnight at the wharf are also potentially at risk from falling rocks. To control the impact of these visitors, overnight informal campers should be directed to the mown verge along Green Hills Road, to camp beneath the Norfolk pines, with conditions of responsible camping such as pet control and use of dimmed lights. The native vegetation on the dunes at Godfreys Beach is already narrow, so further fragmentation and erosion from informal tracks will degrade its integrity. Use of informal tracks should be discouraged by revegetation and signage to raise awareness of the rehabilitation. Informal access points are generally associated with gaps in the native vegetation, so are ideal sites for revegetation. Informal tracks should be monitored to assess whether the tracks and impacts are increasing. If damage appears to increase consideration should be given to defining another formal access point. Install signage to inform people about the rehabilitation works and encourage use of the environmentally appropriate access at the northern and southern ends of the beach. The formal access at the southern end of the beach has been storm damaged and needs repair. There is a grey water disposal point at the public toilets in Stanley and camping visitors to Stanley should be made aware of this provision and other responsible camping measures At the southern end of Godfreys Beach, below the northern face of The Nut and around the cemetery is the main penguin viewing site. Penguin viewers should be encouraged to do so from a Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 41

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

designated vantage point outside the penguin colony so that they do not impact on the movement and nesting activities of the penguins. (See section 4.10 for more detail.) Vehicles can potentially access Godfreys Beach and have the capacity to disturb shorebirds and exacerbate erosion. Some vehicles do use the beach for boat launching and fishing and this should be discouraged. The wharf area has always been a very popular fishing spot; fishers may disturb the penguins with lights and noise as they access nesting habitat from the south eastern side of The Nut, coming ashore across nearby large rocks. In Stanley’s urban environment there is potential contact between people and the penguins which nest in and around the houses and come ashore crossing footpaths and roads. Extra signage and speed limits may be beneficial in reducing the risk of road kill. Recommendations: •

Informal access across dunes should be revegetated where possible and monitored for further damage as a high priority.

Upgrade interpretation and information signs at formal access to inform the public how to use the beach without impacting the fauna.

Ensure vehicles cannot access the beach area.

Install signage at cemetery to encourage responsible use of the area, exclude camping and pets from this site and re-direct campers to the Caravan Park or Godfreys Beach Norfolk pine area.

Liaise with the Caravan Park regarding the option for campers with pets to be redirected to stay overnight only at the Godfreys Beach Norfolk pine area and not at the cemetery.

Signage at Godfreys Beach Norfolk pines should allow campers to stay overnight only with pets under control and dimmed lights, no noise and no grey water disposal and not to walk through the dunes but use formal access and respect the rehabilitation works.

Visitor information should be available in Stanley to raise awareness regarding wildlife habitat requirements.

Encourage recreational fishers at night to use red lights, keep pets under control and be quiet to reduce impacts to penguins.

Install road signage and speed limits to reduce road kill.

4.10 Penguin viewing Local Penguin tour guides, Tim McLaren (Stanley Penguin Tours) and John Dabner, have permits from Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service to conduct small group Penguin viewing tours at Stanley, and conduct tours in a way that aims to minimise disturbance to Penguins. Members of the public may occasionally go to view Penguins without a guide, and may not be aware of how to do this without disturbing the birds. Inappropriate Penguin viewing has the potential to create problems for Penguins with disturbance from bright lights, noise and the sight of humans. There is concern that penguins are being disturbed by viewers walking in amongst penguins and through the colony as they come ashore. A designated vantage point should be defined outside the penguin colony at the cemetery so that viewers do not impact on the movement and nesting activities of the penguins. A platform could be erected to improve safety for the penguins. Consultation between PWS, tourism operators, Circular Head Council would be beneficial to guide satisfactory development of this facility. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 42

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Additionally, unauthorised camping occurs at the cemetery and at the wharf where penguins come ashore and disturbance to the birds from these visitors who may be unaware of penguin behaviour and habitat requirements is likely. It is important that tours and any informal Penguin viewing follow these guidelines for viewing Little Penguins:  Keep group sizes small (< 10 people) and remain in a tight group.  Take dim torches emitting a red light (red cellophane can be used) and always point light behind the Penguins and never at the water.  View Penguins from an area away from their main runways from the beach to their nests.  Settle the group before dark and remain still and quiet.  Position people with taller shrubs behind them, to reduce visual impact of people for Penguins.  Wait for the Penguins to come in and allow them to find their own route to the burrows.  Do not chase, feed, attempt to touch or disturb Penguins in any way.  Do not use flash photography and turn off mobile phones.  Walk quietly when leaving.  Keep to the formed track.  Wear dark clothing for camouflage.  Wear sturdy shoes for walking at night.  Do not leave any rubbish or food scraps.  Do not take pets. Recommendations: • Ensure that Penguin tour groups understand and adhere to the responsible penguin viewing guidelines. •

Keep penguin viewing groups outside the penguin colony and provide a designated viewing area. If necessary construct a platform for viewers to ensure for protection.

Mowing of kikuyu near the Cemetery for visibility should only be done in the May-July period to avoid impacts to Penguins.

Upgrade signage near the Cemetery to inform visitors about exclude free camping and control pets.

Create a brochure to inform visitors and residents about responsible penguin viewing and have it available at the visitors centre and accommodation places.

4.11 Urban penguins Residents and business owners of Alexander Terrace and Wharf Road, Stanley expressed some concerns regarding the urban penguins. Figure 33 Little Penguins cross Wharf Road to nest in residential and business properties.

Issues raised include: •

Limited habitat so Penguins crossing road to nest in gardens and under buildings.

Penguins known to crawl into pipes at a local commercial seafood factory where they become stuck and perish.

Penguins are noisy in the evening and early hours of the morning. They also leave many scats throughout properties. Residents are concerned this disturbance and mess may annoy proprietors and they may take their own measures to stop the Penguins.

Penguins being run over by vehicles. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 43

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There is very limited habitat for Penguins on the foreshore at Wharf Road. Vegetation has been removed over the years because the residents have been seeking ocean views from their properties (Local resident pers. com. 10/05/11). There is generally a positive attitude towards the penguins in Stanley and an opportunity for a community group to be supported in developing better habitat for the urban penguins. Recommendations •

Involve the community in revegetation on the foreshore for penguin habitat.

Provide artificial burrows for the birds while the vegetation is establishing.

Plant low growing penguin friendly plants, to retain views, interspersed with shade trees.

4.12 Works in Little Penguin colonies Works, including revegetation and weed control, can cause disturbance to Little Penguins especially during their breeding and moulting seasons; the most sensitive times for Penguins. Even walking over the site during these activities may inadvertently damage the fragile burrows. Plan to undertake major works from May to July, to coincide with the least sensitive periods of their life cycle. The likelihood of disturbance to Penguins if conducting works outside this time period is high. Works which disturb Penguins include use of chainsaws and other machinery, control of weeds in which Penguins are nesting, work involving large numbers of people, revegetation near their burrow or large scale works of any kind. Have the site checked by a Biologist from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch or a Parks and Wildlife Ranger to be sure of the birds’ activity stage at that time (Marker and Wind 2003), as it can vary from year to year. Weed removal must be considered carefully as weeds may be providing important habitat. Penguins are known to nest under Blackberry, African boxthorn, pasture grasses and Mirrorbush. Use by Penguins can be determined by visual or audible detection of the bird itself, or may be indicated by the presence of scats, feathers, burrows or runways. Weed removal protocols and carefully chosen methods can ensure that least disturbance occurs: Recommendations • Control of any weed actively used by Penguins should only be done during May-July, avoiding disturbance to the Penguins. •

Do not totally remove weeds that are providing Penguin habitat in the absence of native vegetation. For example, Boxthorn and Gorse around the northern side of The Nut are providing Penguin habitat in an area with a high density of weed species amongst the vegetation. In this situation weed control should be staged, with artificial burrows provided where necessary while native revegetation establishes.

Remove young weeds that are not yet developed as habitat.

Do remove weeds where there is already ample native vegetation for habitat. For example, sparse remaining Mirror bush in the coastal strip along Godfreys Beach is not currently being used as Penguin habitat. Here, such invasive weeds should be controlled as they threaten the health of remaining good vegetation.

Large scale works should be staged, to minimise disturbance to Penguins. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 44

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Replant natives where weeds have been removed, either at the same time or once follow-up control has ensured successful weed kill.

Artificial burrows can be placed to provide for Penguins while revegetation develops

Step carefully to avoid burrows.

Kill weeds in situ if possible, leaving roots in the ground and the dying tops standing. Plant quick-growing native shrubs that also climb and scramble over other plants like Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach at the base.

Be sure to bag and remove from the site any seeds. Dispose of them properly.

Do not use chemicals before checking that there are no Penguins present.

Use specific chemicals and preferred methods like cut and paint, drill and fill, and frilling.

Always adhere to safety directions and application rates (follow the herbicide label)

Avoid foliar spraying as much as possible in nesting areas. If foliar spraying is used, do so in wind-free conditions, using a careful operator so that there is no risk of spray drift affecting surrounding native vegetation or Penguins. (Foliar spraying can be an effective way of controlling dense weed patches so that native habitat can be established.)

Follow-up control will be necessary as some vigorous weeds can re-shoot.

Revegetation here should be planned specifically for Penguin habitat requirements, while bearing in mind the needs of other fauna and flora: •

Plant species that are known to be preferred by Penguins. (See Appendix 4).

In weeded or burnt sites, plant vigorous climbers, Coastal Saltbush and Bower Spinach, to climb over remaining stumps and branches.

In the coastal scrub, however, include a greater number of other species, such as Banksia, Correa, Boobialla and Coast Beardheath, so that vigorous climbers do not overly dominate.

• Plant some taller shrubs also, for canopy and increased shelter, to obscure human observers, and to provide for habitat for other fauna.

• Where bandicoot diggings are found, leave some open grassy areas for their foraging requirements.

4.13 Fire Any bushland has the potential to burn. Random access and proximity of the bush to urban areas increases the risk of accidental fire, arson, and intentional burning off. Coastal vegetation is especially vulnerable to bushfire due to the dryness of the environment, volatility of some plants, and often windy conditions. The Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit (Kirkpatrick & Gilfedder 1999) recommends that fire is not necessary and be excluded from coastal vegetation (or reduced in frequency in some vegetation types). Fire can make coastal dunes vulnerable to erosion, weed invasion, loss of species and habitat, and increased human access and impacts. With the likelihood of drier summers in western Tasmania due to climate change, there is the potential for increased length of fire seasons when the vegetation is dry enough to burn. This in turn could lead to shorter intervals between fires resulting in response over time, to changes in the vegetation species and structure (Page and Thorp 2010).

Recommendations •

Every effort should be made to avoid fires in coastal vegetation. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 45

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Revegetate any burnt areas as soon as possible and follow up weed control to reduce further degradation.

Keep activity off burnt areas to reduce risk of erosion.

Ensure public awareness regarding risk of burning and bushfire.

4.14 Community involvement Stanley has an excellent history of community involvement with Landcare and rehabilitation works in The Nut State Reserve. Local residents have been involved with rehabilitation of penguin habitat over many years and conducting recent penguin population counts (Graham Wells pers. com. 6/5/11). Generally, the community is keen to protect the penguin population as they are iconic in Stanley and have great attraction for tourists and residents. There are some issues with penguins under houses and in gardens that are addressed by individual residents fencing the birds out. Other issues that could be addressed by increasing community awareness and understanding include: • controlling garden escapes; • not planting environmental weeds; • not dumping garden waste in the bush; • disturbance to penguins and other fauna from unauthorised campers and penguin viewers; • pet control; • habitat values of native vegetation; • managing native vegetation for long term survival and good condition. Community involvement is proposed with Cradle Coast NRM, the Stanley Primary School, Circular Head Council, Cradle Mountain Water and residents of Stanley to undertake weed control and revegetation. Further community involvement with surrounding landholders should be encouraged and supported, to benefit the coastal habitat, the State Reserve and Little Penguins. Recommendations •

News stories, field days and educational events will all help to involve and maintain community interest.

Involve local people in special events and related project activities such as Penguin surveys, working bees, monitoring activities, etc.

Re-establishment of a local Coastcare/Landcare group that could achieve a lot in this area.

Hold a native plants and animals information day and invite local residents.

Run a workshop for council workers and land managers to train them in native plant ID and management of native vegetation.

Letter box drop to local residents about the management plan and include brochures like “Creeping Backyards”, “Coastal Weeds of the Cradle Coast Region” and “Grow Local”.

Involve local residents and landowners in revegetation of penguin habitat on the urban and beach foreshores. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 46

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4.15 Monitoring Monitoring is important for providing baseline information and to show trends over time. It can be invaluable to guide the progress of projects and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies as well as measuring achievements. Cradle Coast NRM, Parks & Wildlife and Circular Head Council are the organisations best placed to conduct a general monitoring program and maintain records. At the very least, a record of activities and management undertaken within the reserve should be kept. Where possible, GPS mapping of activity outcomes is considered good practice. A series of waypoints (at each significant change) can be used to represent areas of revegetation or weed control, or lines of fencing or tracks closed. Perviz Marker and the Penguin Monitoring Group conduct penguin counts in the north west area. Local Penguin tour operators are aware of changes in Penguin numbers due to seasonal factors. Expert advice and support from the Biodiversity Conservation Branch (DPIPWE), Parks and Wildlife Service can also be sought for Little Penguin monitoring. Many additional elements of penguin ecology may be monitored. The following list provides a guide for interest groups who may wish to monitor some elements over time. Data collection, storage and management over time should be considered for a monitoring program to be worthwhile. Advice should be sought from Parks & Wildlife Service or Cradle Coast NRM on methods and procedures to ensure fauna is not disturbed and for data management. Penguins: • The numbers of Penguins and how they use the habitat area • Density and distribution of burrows • Preferred vegetation structure and species for nesting habitat. • Preferred access points to colony • Timing of breeding and moulting • Incidence of predation/death and probable cause • Behavioural changes and possible cause Weeds: • Take photos of site before and after weed control activity. • Take notes of extent of weeds before weeding. • Keep records of weed control methods used, especially any herbicides used. • Inspect sites annually, take photos, and program follow-up weed control. Revegetation: • Keep records of numbers and species planted, site preparation, date, etc. • Take photos of site at planting and as plants grow. • Check and remove weed/grass growth in early spring, especially around each plant. • Check survival of plants (e.g. after summer). Consider cause of deaths and replant if possible. Plan management and re-plantings accordingly. • Remove guards once plants are established. Vegetation condition: • Photos can be taken every five years of various representative sites (fixed photo points are particularly useful for comparison), and notes taken of apparent condition. • Bushways or Cradle Coast NRM may assist with setting up monitoring systems of bushland condition. Track recovery: • Establish photo points and take photos of site before and one year after track closure.

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Erosion: • Establish photo points and take photos annually, and record any catastrophic event. • Measure erosion rates with stakes (but not in volatile areas where more damage may occur from the stake). Pest animals: • Dogs on site, off-lead or unattended. • Rabbit presence, numbers, scats and burrow density and distribution. • Cats trapped, numbers and locations, feral or domestic.

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5 Management Zones and Actions Four management zones have been defined based on environmental characteristics, habitat for Penguins and other species, recovery potential, benefits to be gained and the type of activity required. Management aims for each Management Zone are specified below (section 5.1). Identified issues and management recommendations have been discussed in Chapter 4, above, and a summary table of these for each management zone can be found in Appendix 3. Management zones and actions recommended within them are prioritised in each section following (sections 5.2 – 5.5 Priority Actions are in bold). In all zones, conduct works with prior consideration of Penguins (see section 4.10) and other fauna. Major works in the vicinity of Penguin colonies should only be done May – July to avoid disturbing Penguins. Appendix 4 provides a list of plants suitable for revegetation and Appendix 5 is a weed control table. Native species that look like weeds and should be identified and protected during works are listed in Appendix 5. 5.1 Management zones Management zones were identified as: • Protection and Rehabilitation: The Nut Generally fairly good native vegetation present. Penguin habitat, threatened species habitat and habitat for other fauna. Very weedy. Area used for penguin viewing. Major aim is to improve the condition of this zone with revegetation and weed control, maintain native grasses and grassy foraging habitat, strengthen foreshore vegetation. Place interpretation signage near the tourist area and prevent free camping. • Revegetation: Godfreys Beach Highly impacted area, grass mown and native vegetation on dunes slashed regularly, weed infested in places. Very few Penguins currently use this area but it could be potential habitat with revegetation and reduction of impacts. Recreational area for campers and walkers, picnics. Major aim is to widen the area of native vegetation as a community revegetation project to strengthen dune stability and improve fauna habitat. Repair the formal access. • Urban revegetation: Foreshore at Wharf Road Very limited nesting opportunities for Penguins near the foreshore. Penguins are crossing roads to nest in vegetated areas in residential gardens and commercial buildings. Major aim is to create nesting habitat closer to the foreshore. • Maintain and Enhance Zone: CHC land and CMW sewerage ponds Significant habitat remnant, although weedy. Maintain and enhance the native habitat by at least undertaking strategic weed control and revegetation if resources allow. Develop a walking track through CHC land and maintain or improve habitat values. Retain wildlife access to vegetation and ensure good water quality.

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5.1.1 Map: Stanley management zones

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5.2 Protection and Rehabilitation Zone - The Nut The Nut is the highest priority as it: â&#x20AC;˘

includes the most significant habitat area with high conservation values in the study area,


provides good habitat for Little Penguins and a variety of other fauna,


offers the best long term value for conservation efforts.

However, some parts of The Nut represent better value for works managing penguin habitat than others and priorities can be made within this zone. The restricted areas of The Nut provide the wildest and least impacted natural environment; weeds are the main issue as other human disturbances do not occur on a daily basis. Weed control work here must be carried out with consideration for penguin and threatened species habitat and care taken not to disturb habitat or introduce other impacts. Planting and weed control work in this area will need to be done by specialists who can work in very steep terrain, possibly using ropes and climbing gear. This area is a low priority due to difficulty of the terrain and lower range of impacts. Penguins utilise the rocks and weeds behind the bund in the rock fall area as habitat. To improve the diversity of habitat in this area would require a great deal of effort. Some weed control and revegetation may be able to be done more easily along the foreshore east of the wharf away from the rock fall zone. As this area is the weediest of the whole study site, would require large inputs and has danger issues, it is the lowest priority for works. The west slope of The Nut is a medium priority for rehabilitation with weed control and revegetation as it is very accessible, has a diversity of species with good native grasses and is good potential habitat for a range of species. It would be a good site for community involvement. 5.2.1 The Nut north face The Nut north face is a high priority for works as it provides good habitat for penguins, is an important area for penguin viewing and is accessible. In this zone weed control and revegetation to improve habitat can be carried out with relative safety and with a good chance of success and good outcomes. Revegetate into gaps and bare areas to get more natives established and carry out weed control when resources allow. Revegetation on the slope should build on the work already done with weed control and revegetation progressing out from the weed free area and those patches of well established and diverse native vegetation with isolated weeds. The native vegetation providing Penguin habitat near the cemetery is threatened by weed invasion and a concerted effort will be required to improve this. Control of African boxthorn, Gorse, Mirror bush, Blue periwinkle and Cape ivy is recommended if possible, as they are an ongoing source of seedlings and invasion into the surrounding coastal scrub. The weeds play a role in erosion control as they provide ground cover on this wind exposed slope and there are Penguin burrows below weeds and native shrubs. However, native shrubs would provide better erosion control and a greater diversity of habitat. Native species are present throughout and will strengthen and re-establish if weeds are controlled. Revegetation with additional species is recommended to increase diversity and resilience.

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Figure 36 The Nut north face

Revegetate eroding slopes

Install interpretation signage and no camping

Revegetate gaps in foreshore veg. And revegetate future foreshore

Weed control and revegetate slopes

Plant native shrubs into Marram

Actions recommended: (Priority actions in bold) 1. Woody and herbaceous weed control using various techniques depending on the weed and its location. 2. Target weeds as isolated individuals, distinct clumps and woody weeds in native vegetation. 3. Install new interpretation signage including clear “no dogs” and “no camping” sign at access near Cemetery and re-direct overnight campers to Godfreys beach. 4. Ensure that penguin viewing is responsible and not impacting. Designate a viewing area at the cemetery to ensure viewers do not walk in amongst the penguins. Construct a platform in consultation with stakeholders. 5. Revegetate into gaps and bare areas and following weed control. Revegetation should include a wide range of species, including Banksias, Correas, Coast beardheath, grasses and sedges. (see Appendix 4) 6. Strengthen foreshore vegetation with plantings to reduce erosion and improve penguin habitat. 7. Conduct all works, including mowing to maintain kikuyu, from May – July to minimise disturbance to penguins. 8. Revegetation on the north slope should build on work already done under the chairlift. 9. Retain open native grass areas on The Nut. 10. NPWS to continue feral cat control program, weed control and native vegetation care. 11. Install signage at the wharf to informal overnight campers and fishers of penguin habitat and the need to control dogs, dim lights and noise. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 52

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5.3 Revegetation Zone 5.3.1 Godfreys Beach dunes This is a high priority area for revegetation due to: •

presence of patches of good vegetation to build on;

habitat for a range of native fauna and flora including some of threatened and high conservation significance;

potential for natural regeneration to occur when mowing is ceased;

benefits for biodiversity and erosion control;

great opportunity to involve and educate the community;

good outcomes are possible.

Penguins currently come ashore both at the northern and southern ends of the beach. Revegetation, improved stabilisation of the foredune, and cessation of mowing and slashing may encourage Penguins to utilise this dune area. Patches of good native vegetation should be protected as a priority and strengthened with revegetation and weed control. A major aim should be to maintain vegetative cover at all times. This means that rehabilitation methods should favour • planting into existing gaps and bare ground; • plant to connect good patches of native vegetation; • target weeds in good native vegetation, isolated weeds and weeds in low numbers first; • woody weed control using cut and paint and leaving tops in situ; • careful weed control around existing native vegetation. There are many weeds in this zone and some very dense infestations, especially of Cape ivy, Marram and Buffalo grass. Resources are best allocated to planting more natives and controlling the lesser weed invasions in order to achieve positive outcomes. There are presently only low incidences of other weeds such as Mirror bush, Sea spurge and Boxthorn which are a priority for control. The cut-and-paint technique is probably the most suitable treatment for widespread use in dune sites on weed species such as Mirror bush, African boxthorn, Gorse, English ivy and Canary broom. Cutting, painting and leaving foliage to die in-situ will limit disturbance to penguin habitat. Penguin friendly plants will scramble over the dead structure very effectively for habitat and erosion control. Avoid use of foliar spray on large shrubs and in native vegetation as it is difficult to target weeds and the risk of drift is high on the coast. Isolated and contained patches of low growing weeds such as Blue periwinkle and Cape ivy may be suitable to foliar spray but only pursue this method with extreme caution. Control of the NZ flax and Century bushes is recommended. They can be successfully killed using cut and paint method, low at the base of the large leaves, which gets rid of the tops (these should be mulched) and the area planted into immediately with attractive native trees such as Banksias. Work from the outliers into the centre of the infestation. Revegetation with fast growing, tough dune specialists such as Pigface, Coastal saltbush, Bower spinach, Sagg and Silver tussock grass is recommended into Marram and to connect good native vegetation.

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Mowing to the edge and slashing tops of dune vegetation should cease. Restrict mowing to areas nominated to keep as open grass. Under the Norfolk pines would be ideal to keep as grass for bandicoot foraging and overnight campers. (See next section). Figure 37 Patch of good native vegetation and Marram on Godfreys beach Protect and enhance good native vegetation with weed control and connect patches with revegetation

Discourage informal access with revegetation, allow informal overnight camping with pet control

Strategic weed control in good vegetation and along foredune of Sea spurge, Sea wheat grass and Mirror bush

Widen dune vegetation by revegetating back dune and cease mowing

Plant into Marram with Pig face and Coastal saltbush on foredune and taller shrubs further back

Actions recommended 1. Revegetate to enhance good native vegetation, fill in gaps and connect good patches (see Appendix 5) 2. Cease mowing to the edge of the vegetation; leave the back dune slopes for revegetation. 3. Target weeds in low numbers such as Sea spurge (hand pulling using gloves), African boxthorn and Mirror bush (cut and paint) NZ flax, Century bush (dig out) see Appendix 6. 4. Eradicate Sea wheat grass from base of foredune (dig out all rhizomes, contact DPIWE). 5. Plant in to Marram grass on the foredune with Pigface and Coastal saltbush, Sagg and Silver tussock grass. 6. Contain bad weed areas and only attempt treatment of these areas if resources allow for a concerted effort. 7. Plant into informal access tracks and use plant guards to protect seedlings from browsing an install signage re rehabilitation work. Define access to beach with signage and may need to construct a more formal access in future. 8. Run community field days and training days for council workers in native vegetation management â&#x20AC;&#x201C; plant ID, revegetation techniques and management of habitat. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 54

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5.3.2 Godfreys Beach back dunes and northern foreshore A revegetation program could be done initially in conjunction with the strategic weed control work, also targeting areas used as informal access as there will be gaps here suitable for planting. Revegetation should be undertaken behind the coastal strip on the mown grass, forming scalloped curves towards the road. This will be attractive and allow more secluded overnight camping and picnic areas and increase the robustness of native vegetation whilst retaining grassy habitat for the bandicoots. Look for opportunities for natural regeneration in the mown area, let the native plants grow (don’t spray them during ground preparation for revegetation) and revegetate the weedy areas. Revegetation should include restoring the riparian vegetation on the creek, restoring foreshore habitat at the car park and along the foreshore on private land at the north of the beach if possible. Interpretation/information signs should be erected at the northern and southern ends of the beach informing the public on what fauna and flora are likely to be present and responsible use of the area to minimise disturbance. Overnight campers should be made aware of wildlife habitat and the importance of controlling pets, noise and lights while they are allowed to use this area. Involving the community in the rehabilitation of the area would raise awareness of the values here. Training workshops would assist both the public and Council staff in identifying weeds, native plants and fauna species present. See Appendix 5 for recommended site specific species Actions recommended: 1.

Cease mowing close to edge of native vegetation; allow regeneration and recovery of the coastal vegetation.


Identify native vegetation in mown area and do not spray out for revegetation – leave it to grow, eg Pigface, Kidneyweed, native grasses and sedges.


Stake out or tape off native vegetation areas and allow regeneration.


Maintain grassy areas for bandicoot habitat and camping under Norfolk pines.


Ground preparation in obvious areas of weedy and introduced plants - site preparation to include spot spraying Marram and Buffalo grass where necessary.


Revegetate mown back dune to restore habitat and increase resilience of native coastal vegetation. (see Appendix 5)


Revegetate northern beach foreshore to provide penguin habitat and assist in stabilising erosion.


Install clear ‘Interpretation/information signage’ to guide responsible use of the area by the public particularly with regard to respecting rehabilitation work, controlling dogs and cats, use of lights and noises, no vehicles on beach.


Provide training workshops for Council staff on identification and management of native vegetation and weeds.

10. Liaise with landholders to revegetate foreshore on private land and to plant riparian species on creek to restore habitat. 11. Encourage establishment of a Coastcare/Landcare group to assist in maintaining and improving the vegetation in the coastal strip and provide training opportunities. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 55

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Figure 38 Godfreys Beach north revegetation

Revegetate gaps working out from good native vegetation areas

Revegetate back dune slopes, widen dune vegetation, plant into pasture grass and leave mown natives to grow, leave some grassy areas, include eucalypts

Revegetate future foreshore and potential penguin habitat

Revegetate dunes

Monitor water quality Revegetate car park area and foreshore â&#x20AC;&#x201C; include eucalypts

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5.4 Urban revegetation Revegetation along the urban foreshore would provide a major improvement to this site, and should be very rewarding in time for volunteers. This site could become a focus of community plantings with the aim of creating penguin habitat away from residences. There are some Penguins here, nesting amongst rocks. Hence, revegetation must account for their habitat requirements and ensure that works are carried out during the period of the year when the birds are less sensitive to disturbances (May-July). Revegetation is recommended alongside the foreshore, together with installation of artificial burrows, to provide: • more Penguin habitat, • enhanced native biodiversity, • erosion control (along the path edge), • community involvement and • improved aesthetics. Figure 39 Urban foreshore revegetation site

Plant penguin friendly habitat plants between walking track and foreshore and install artificial burrows where vegetation can grow around them.

There are many aesthetically pleasing low growing penguin habitat plants that would be suitable for this site. It is likely that residents and visitors will wish to maintain the view. Occasional taller plants would provide diversity of habitat without blocking the view, such as She oaks and eucalypts that are resilient to the exposed conditions. Include plants that will also provide habitat for birds, bees, butterflies and other insects. In order to establish native vegetation at this site, grass control is necessary first with spot spraying 1m circles. Post-planting maintenance (including watering in summer, and weed control around and inside guards) will be essential for success. Actions recommended: 1. Liaise with landowners and managers regarding the rehabilitation project 2. Involve the community in planning and plantings 3. Plant penguin preferred plants such as Pigface, Bower spinach, Coastal saltbush and White correa. Other plant species like White and Blue gums, poas and sedges should also be included for diversity and habitat for other fauna. Install artificial burrows 4. Control introduction and spread of weeds. 5. Consider other fauna, including Bandicoots (which need some open grassy areas) and Seaeagles (which need perching trees). Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania 57

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5.5 Maintain and enhance The native vegetation behind Godfreys Beach on the CHC land and around the Sewerage ponds is valuable as wildlife habitat. These areas should be maintained as such and improved if possible. Cradle Mountain Water intend fencing the property to restrict public access for health and safety issues. The public and motorbike riders use the property at times which concerns the Authority from a safety point of view. They will be erecting a chain link fence 3m in from the current boundary fence along Green Hills Road. As some penguins appear to use the property for nesting, Cradle Mountain Water are willing to insert 20cm diameter piping at regular intervals to allow penguins access under the fence. This will also allow bandicoots and other fauna access to the property. At the back of the property the boundary fence will run along the top of the dunes as the outside edge of the dunes is very steep and inherently unstable. The fence line area has been cleared ready for fence construction. The fence will have a green plastic coating intended to blend into the landscape as the surrounding vegetation regrows. Vegetation will be allowed to grow back to within a metre of either side of the fence. Further revegetation on either side of the road fence and at the northern corner will assist in providing more nesting opportunities for the penguins. Woody weed control could be carried out and a planting program implemented to replant eucalypts and a diversity of habitat for many of the threatened and non threatened fauna in the area. There are very few eucalypts around Stanley and this site is ideal for eucalypt plantings. A nature walk would be appealing and is a compatible land use with habitat provision and could also be useful for education and tourism. Actions recommended: 1. Protect the native vegetation as it is and do not develop this area. 2. Develop a nature walk through the council land to raise community interest and provide educational opportunity. 3. Revegetate with patches of eucalypts, including Blue Gums for Swift parrot, perching trees for eagles and other raptors, White gum and Stringy bark as habitat for birds, bats and other arboreal mammals and understorey for diversity. 4. Ensure that infrastructure, especially fencing, does not exclude wildlife. 5. Keep some grassy open areas for bandicoots. 6. Practice weed control â&#x20AC;&#x201C; garden waste being dumped here â&#x20AC;&#x201C; educate community to cease this practice. 7. Maintain revegetation. 8. Liaise with landowners to Monitor water quality of outflows from Sewerage ponds, investigate sources of pollution and act upon pollution events â&#x20AC;&#x201C; take measures to control pollution and mitigate impacts and avoid future pollution.

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5.6 Map: Stanley penguin habitat management

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6 Strategic Priorities There are many actions described above to improve the condition of the coastal vegetation and Penguin habitat. For greatest overall effectiveness and to address the most immediate issues, efforts should initially be focussed on the following priorities:

1. Protect all existing native vegetation and connect good patches with revegetation. 2. Restore penguin habitat on The Nut north face, Urban foreshore, Godfreys Beach north. 3. Install artificial nest burrows where weed control will occur and on urban foreshore. 4. Prohibit free camping at Stanley Cemetery foreshore, install Interpretation signage at cemetery and redirect campers to Godfreys Beach. 5. Ensure responsible penguin viewing and recreational behaviour everywhere. 6. Investigate poor water quality at Godfreys Beach creek and treat cause of pollution. 7. Revegetation at Godfreys Beach - widen dune, plant car park and foreshore. 8. Control Sea Wheatgrass, and isolated weeds at Godfreys Beach. 9. Plant patches of eucalypts (allowing for fire buffer zones). 10. Actively involve the community through forming Landcare group, providing education and training workshops, accessing funding programs for revegetation and other support.

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7 References Baker, M. L. and Duretto, M. F. (2011) A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania and Index to the Student’s Flora of Tasmania and Flora of Tasmania Online Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. Bryant, S. L. and Jackson, J. (1999), Tasmania’s Threatened Fauna Handbook. Threatened Species Unit, Parks and Wildlife Service, Hobart. Bryant, S.L. (2002), Conservation assessment of beach nesting and migratory shorebirds in Tasmania. Natural Heritage Trust Project No NWP 11990. Nature Conservation Branch, Department Primary Industries Water and Environment Buchanan, A.M. (2009), A Census of the Vascular Plants of Tasmania, Tasmanian Herbarium website, www.tmag.tas.gov.au/Herbarium/TasVascPlants.pdf Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management Committee (2008), Coastal Weed Strategy for the Cradle Coast NRM Region. Cradle Coast Authority, Burnie. DPIW (2005), Threatened Native Vegetation Communities List (Version 6.0). Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart, November 2005. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (2009), Guidelines for Natural Values Assessments, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, (2005) Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Strategy. Greening Australia (Tasmania) and the Cradle Coast Regional Weed Management Steering Committee, Burnie. Guidelines for the Listing of Species under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995. www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/LBUN-59X7G2?open Harris, S and Kitchener, A (2005), From Forest to Fjaeldmark: Descriptions of Tasmania’s Vegetation. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Printing Authority of Tasmania. Hobart. Kirkpatrick, J.B. and Gilfedder, L.A. (1999), Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lawrence, N. (2004), Nature Conservation Branch Brief for Consultants. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart. Lee, D., (2003), A Guide to Rehabilitation of Little Penguin Habitat. Wildlife Marine Conservation Section, Biodiversity Conservation Branch DPIW, Hobart. Marker P. and Wind A., (2003, revised 2008), Guidelines for Works in Areas of Little Penguin Habitat. Department of Primary Industries Water and Environment, Tasmania Marker P (2011) 2011 Little Penguins – Stanley (Population estimation) Report to CCNRM Muyt, A., (2001) Bush Invaders of South East Australia: a guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South East Australia. R.G and F.J. Richardson PO Box 42 Meredith, Victoria 3333 Australia Natural Values Atlas, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart. www.naturalvaluesatlas.dpiw.tas.gov.au

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Page L. and Thorp V. (2010) Tasmanian Coastal Works Manual: A best practice management guide for changing coastlines. Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment Tasmania Parks and Wildlife Service (2003). The Nut State Reserve Management Plan 2003. Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts, Hobart. Pemberton D., Pryor H. and Halley V. (2001), Tasmaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Offshore Islands: seabirds and other natural features, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart Rudman T. 2003. Tasmanian Beach Weed Strategy for Marram grass, Sea Spurge, sea wheatgrass, pypgrass & beach daisy. Nature Conservation Report 03/2, Nature Conservation Branch, Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Tasmania Sharples, C., 2006: Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise: Explanatory Report (Second Edition); Consultant Report to Department of Primary Industries & Water, Tasmania, 173 pp., plus accompanying electronic (GIS) maps. Stevenson, C., and Woehler, E. (2007), Population decreases in Little Penguins Eudyptula minor in southeastern Tasmania, Australia, over the past 45 years. Marine Ornithology 35: 61-66. Thorp, V. (2003), Community Coastcare Handbook â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Caring for the Coast in Tasmania. Coastcare Tasmania Watts D. (1999), Field Guide to Tasmanian Birds. New Holland Publishers, Sydney

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8 Appendices Appendix 1. Vascular plants recorded in Stanley penguin habitat study area Habitat assessment conducted by Bushways, 10th and 11th May 2011. Major vascular plants only surveyed. Family






Species name Common name Status Dicotyledonae - broad leafed plants Sambucus nigra elder i Agave americana century plant i Cordyline australis New Zealand i cabbage tree Carpobrotus rossii native pigface Tetragonia implexicoma bower spinach Aloe maculata soap or zebra aloe i Apium prostratum creeping sea-celery Conium maculatum hemlock i Vinca major Blue periwinkle i Ilex aquifolium holly i Hedera helix ivy i Aloe maculata soap aloe i Actites megalocarpa dune thistle Cirsium vulgare spear thistle I Delairea odorata Cape ivy i Gazania linearis gazania i Osteospermum fruticosum trailing daisy i Senecio elegans purple groundsel i Senecio hispidissimus coarse fireweed Senecio pinnatifolius dune groundsel Silybum marianum variegated thistle i Raphanus raphanistrum wild radish i Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum two-row watercress i Atriplex cinerea grey saltbush Atriplex prostrata creeping orache i Chenopodium glaucum pale goosefoot i Rhagodia candolleana coastal saltbush Dichondra repens kidneyweed Crassula sieberiana rock stonecrop Cupressus macrocarpa macrocarpa i Astroloma humifusum native cranberry Leucopogon parviflorus coast beardheath Poranthera microphylla small poranthera Euphorbia paralias sea spurge i Cytisus scoparius english broom i Genista monspessulana canary broom i Psoralea pinnata Blue butterflybush i Ulex europaeus Gorse i Fumaria muralis common fumitory i Geranium potentilloides mountain cranesbill Pelargonium australe southern storksbill Goodenia ovata hop native-primrose Marrubium vulgare white horehound i

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Species name Common name Status Malva dendromorpha tree mallow i Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae coast wattle Acacia melanoxylon blackwood Acacia terminalis sunshine wattle Acacia verticillata prickly moses Paraserianthes lophantha cape wattle i MYRTACEAE Melaleuca ericifolia coast paperbark OXALIDACEAE Oxalis sp. i PASSIFLORACEAE Passiflora tarminiana banana passionfruit i PITTOSPORACEAE Bursaria spinosa prickly box PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago coronopus buckshorn plantain ni PRIMULACEAE Anagallis arvensis scarlet pimpernel i PROTEACEAE Banksia marginata silver banksia RHAMNACEAE Pomaderris apetala common dogwood ROSACEAE Acaena echinata spiny sheepsburr Acaena novae-zelandiae common buzzy Rubus fruticosus blackberry i RUBIACEAE Coprosma repens mirrorbush i RUTACEAE Correa alba var. alba white correa SCROPHULARIACEAE Verbuscum thapsus common mullein SOLANACEAE Lycium ferocissimum African boxthorn i TROPAEOLACEAE Tropaeolum majus nasturtium i URTICACEAE Urtica incisa scrub nettle Gymnospermeae - conifers ARAUCARIACEAE Araucaria heterophylla norfolk pine i Monocotyledonae â&#x20AC;&#x201C; narrow leafed plants AGAVACEAE Phormium tenax new zealand flax i Agave americana century plant i CYPERACEAE Ficinia nodosa knobby clubsedge Lepidosperma gladiatum coast swordsedge IRIDACEAE Diplarrena moraea white flag-iris Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora montbretia i LILIACEAE Allium triquetrum triangular garlic i Agapanthus praecox agapanthus i Dianella brevicaulis shortstem flaxlily POACEAE Agrostis capillaris browntop bent i Ammophila arenaria Marram grass i Austrodanthonia sp. wallaby grass Distichlis distichophylla australian saltgrass Holcus lanatus yorkshire fog i Lagurus ovatus harestail grass i Pennisetum clandestinum kikuyu grass i Poa labillardierei silver tussockgrass Poa poiformis coastal tussockgrass Stenotaphrum secundatum buffalo grass i Thinopyrum junceiforme sea wheatgrass i XANTHORRHOEACEAE Lomandra longifolia sagg Pteridophyta - ferns DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Pteridium esculentum bracken

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Appendix 2. Threatened fauna known or possible on site Species that have been recorded within 5 km of the site (*) or are possible under habitat mapping (Natural Values Atlas, May 2011). Species recorded within 500m (NVA) or known on site are in bold. Habitat comments are based on those by Bryant and Jackson (1999).

Common name

Scientific name

Tas. status TSPA 1995

Cwth status EPBC 1999

Recorded on The Nut

Accipiter novaehollandiae


Aquila audax fleayi



Astacopsis gouldii







Galaxiella pusilla



Lathamus discolor Limnodynastes peroni



Green and gold frog

Litoria raniformis


*Stanley snail

Miselaoma weldii Numenius madagascariensis


*Grey goshawk *Wedge-tailed eagle Giant freshwater crayfish *Spotted-tailed quoll *Leathery turtle *White-bellied sea eagle Eastern dwarf galaxias *Swift parrot *Striped marsh frog

*Eastern curlew *Eastern barred bandicoot

Australian grayling *Tasmanian devil

*Keeled snail Masked owl (Tasmanian)

Dasyurus maculatus subsp. Maculatus Dermochelys coriacea Haliaeetus leucogaster


Prototroctes maraena Sarcophilus harrisii Tasmaphena lamproides Tyto novaehollandiae castanops



Perameles gunnii

VU v




r e


No nesting habitat, may hunt here No habitat on site. Sighted on The Nut April 2011 by Peter Hefferon

Recorded in area â&#x20AC;&#x201C; marine animal Potential habitat on The Nut No habitat on site Recorded in Stanley Recorded on site No habitat on site, possible in farm dams and creeks nearby Recorded on The Nut Possible habitat on site sand spit East Inlet Known on site and bandicoot diggings found No habitat Recorded on The Nut Recorded on The Nut No nesting habitat, may hunt here

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Appendix 3. Summary of Management Zones Protection and Rehabilitation High priority - The Nut north face (Cemetery, quarry reserve, slope behind NPWS building) Condition of native vegetation and habitat

Poor - Coastal Scrub and Weed infestation >50% woody weeds Almost continuous vegetation cover from foreshore, through quarry reserve, to The Nut north facing slopes – good penguin habitat. Artificial burrows here, some used, some vacant, some overgrown.

Issues for management

Loss of penguin habitat to weeds and erosion Eroding steep hillside in old quarry – mostly Gorse and box thorn, many Penguins using this, likely that penguin movement and wind is maintaining bare ground Open foreshore areas vulnerable to active erosion Penguins crossing roads

Many Penguins evidently accessing this habitat area.

Unauthorised camping on grassy area on foreshore near cemetery– impacts from grey water disposal, pets, lights.

No native habitat in cemetery,

Pets and feral cats potential threats to wildlife

Penguins crossing road to adjacent urban habitat in gardens where they utilise wood piles, shrubs, buildings.

Penguin viewing – under NP permits

Bandicoot diggings in open grassy areas. Effects of sea level rise, storm surges and severe erosion evident (washed out new board walk, large rocks, big weedy shrubs etc)

Many weeds – foreshore and slopes - Boxthorn, Mirror bush, Cape ivy, Gorse, thistle, Blue periwinkle Threatened fauna habitat protection – Eastern Barred bandicoot

Recommendations and Actions (all revegetation to use native plants)

Revegetate gaps in foreshore vegetation with tough soil binding plants (Poas, sedges) and on slopes with penguin friendly plants shrubs, climbers, sedges and grasses. Revegetation on slopes with penguin friendly native plants following weed control. Control weeds: Target isolated individuals and clumps and woody weeds in native vegetation. (see Appendix 5 Weed control table) PWS to continue feral cat control, weed control program, and native vegetation care. Maintain main grassy track for penguin viewing - mowing May-July. Ensure that penguin viewing is responsible and not impacting Penguins i.e. not walking in amongst the Penguins as they come ashore, use of red lights, dark clothes, small groups and people quiet and still. New interpretation signage to exclude camping due to wildlife habitat, include advice on penguins, native habitat, rehabilitation program, responsible behaviour and pet control.

Visitors to Stanley unaware of habitat values Re-direct overnight campers to Godfreys Beach with conditions on pet control, lights, grey water disposal etc

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Protection and Rehabilitation - The Nut reserve (east and south, restricted zone and quarry reserve at wharf) Condition of native vegetation and Issues for management Recommendations and Actions habitat (all revegetation to use native plants)

Very weedy, very few native species present. Penguins nesting beneath weeds, especially Gorse, rocks etc.behind the bund for containing rock fall.

Lack of good quality native vegetation Weed invasion very established with highly invasive weeds Weed control and revegetation limited by difficult access, dangerous cliffs, rock fall and steep slopes

Aerial weed removal required i.e. use expert climbers/abseilers with plant ID and weed control skills Native revegetation with penguin friendly habitat plants into accessible areas where possible (on lower ground and into areas where weeds not too inhibitive) Strategic weed control of safe accessible areas

Threatened species habitat â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Stanley and Keeled snails and Grassland paperdaisy

Raise awareness of garden escapes and environmental weeds with Stanley residents, especially near The Nut.

Campervans use the wharf area, could become an issue with pets, lights etc

Redirect campers to Godfreys Beach Norfolk pine area Keep dogs on leads evening, night and early morning

No sign of penguin presence

Protection and Rehabilitation - The Nut reserve (west slope) Future refuge area for sea level rise Raise awareness of garden escapes and environmental weeds with Stanley residents, especially those near The Potential future penguin habitat and habitat for Nut other fauna including threatened fauna Maintain grassy habitat Bandicoot diggings â&#x20AC;&#x201C; potentially threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot Revegetate upper slopes away from houses with low growing understorey species such as Correa, Coast Native grassy areas to maintain for habitat Wattle, White Beardheath and include penguin friendly plants (bandicoot foraging, raptor hunting)

Potential threatened species habitat

Very weedy, highly invasive weeds in the reserve

Very weedy, regenerating native species present Native and introduced grassy habitat for hunters and foragers Some habitat value for birds, invertebrates, reptiles etc

Highly invasive species in adjacent gardens

Contain main weedy areas until resources are equal to an achievable control and rehabilitation effort Then undertake staged weed removal and further revegetation

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Condition of native vegetation and habitat

Poor â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Coastal Scrub - 45% weeds Very narrow strip of coastal dune vegetation, weakened by weeds, mowing and slashing intrusions, some informal tracks, foredune erosion. Occasional patches of intact native vegetation, wind pruned and fewer weeds. Bandicoot diggings on open grass, shore birds on beach. Little evidence of Penguins using dunes - a few tracks and feathers at northern end of dunes. Effects of sea level rise, storm surges and severe erosion evident.

Fire management zone as proximal to Stanley and Treat patches of weeds and revegetate with natives adjacent to residential area Revegetation - Godfreys Beach (dunes) Issues for management Recommendations and Actions (all revegetation to use native plants) Many weeds - Marram grass, Buffalo grass throughout dune vegetation, Sea wheat grass on foredune. Scattered Mirror bush and Boxthorn. Many other woody weeds include Blackberry, Century bush, NZ Flax, Cape ivy (mainly on the back dune and very dense in places). Foredune erosion all along beach, more severe at northern and southern ends. Low number of informal tracks, some clearly wildlife paths. Mowing and slashing intruding into native vegetation. Threatened species habitat - Sea Bindweed recorded on dunes - Shore bird habitat on beach - Bandicoot diggings potentially threatened Eastern Barred Bandicoot - Striped Marsh frog recorded on creek Pet control and feral cats â&#x20AC;&#x201C; cat tracks found all along foredune edge, likely to be hunting. Informal camping occurs on grassy area, potential disturbance to wildlife and other issues such as greywater disposal, lights, roaming pets.

Revegetate gaps in native vegetation on dune. Spot spray and plant into Marram and Buffalo grass. Revegetate mown grassy back dune to strengthen coastal vegetation (see revegetation table) Cease mowing close to the edge of the dune vegetation. Do not slash tops of dune vegetation. No burning of coastal vegetation. Retain some grassy open areas for bandicoot foraging and other wildlife, and for short stay informal camping. Threatened species habitat requires protection (from campers, pets, clearing) and awareness raising to reduce impacts. Allow native plants present in the mown back dune to regenerate. Sea Spurge monitoring and control is a priority. Target Mirror bush and Boxthorn for control as there is little here, cut and paint, remove small tops, leave large ones to grow over with natives. Bag and remove all fertile material. Strategic Weed control of other weeds Cape ivy, Blackberry, NZ flax Interpretation signage for responsible use of the area by campers, walkers, fishers etc. Bushways Environmental Services Tasmania


Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan August 2011

Condition of native vegetation and habitat

Provide training workshop for council staff to identify and manage native vegetation and to plan revegetation. Revegetation - Godfreys Beach (north end foreshore and creek) Issues for management Recommendations and Actions (all revegetation to use native plants)

Very little penguin nesting habitat, paddock and pines.

Penguins crossing road to access habitat in box thorn on private land and in roadside vegetation.

Narrow strip of land between beach and road.

No native habitat on northern foreshore area or between beach and road (mostly private land).

Fence (and paddock behind) being impacted (gradually destroyed) by sea level rise, evident from debris and erosion.

Sea level rise evidently impacting foreshore â&#x20AC;&#x201C; debris on fence and in paddock Lack of foreshore native vegetation exacerbating erosion from sea level rise

Creek very degraded .

Car park mown, weedy, introduced pines planted, no native habitat, no shade, vehicles can access beach Creek water outfall on beach poor water quality evidenced by bad smell and appearance. - Impacted habitat for threatened species Striped Marsh Frog - Has this affected AHS? - Old tip site â&#x20AC;&#x201C; potential for leaching pollutants? - are Sewerage ponds leaching into creekwater?

Liaise with landholders to raise awareness of native habitat values, the benefits of revegetation and potential programs for assistance. Revegetation of the foreshore area to reduce the effects of erosion and provide habitat. At the car park revegetate the foreshore, dune and creek areas with grasses, sedges and shrubs to provide habitat an shade. Monitoring of water quality, investigate and identify cause of the pollution, treat for improved water quality and habitat Restore water quality to creek with revegetation to improve threatened species habitat Raise community awareness of habitat values here and involve community in rehabilitation works.

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Maintain and enhance - Godfreys Beach (CHC land and CMW sewerage ponds) Condition of native vegetation and Issues for management Recommendations and Actions habitat (all revegetation to use native plants)

Only large patch of native vegetation (other than The Nut) within the surrounding cleared (rural and urban) landscape Weedy but good native vegetation present Some revegetation evidently undertaken on sewerage farm

No native vegetation on foreshore Penguins nesting under houses and in gardens

Native vegetation is habitat in a mostly converted landscape Potential important refuge considering climate change and sea level rise Slopes facing coast likely to become foreshore over time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; high erosion risk

Liaise with landowners to place proposed fence only around sewerage pond and allow vegetation to be used for habitat. Provide for wildlife requirements in fence design â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fences with regular holes for animal movement avoiding bottlenecks and blockage potential.

Marram and Buffalo grass well established throughout

Monitoring of water quality, investigate and identify cause of the pollution, treat for improved water quality and habitat

Patches of native vegetation - good habitat

Revegetation to strengthen native vegetation

Proposed exclusion fence around property will close this habitat area to ground dwelling fauna (Penguins, wallabies, bandicoots, native hens)

CHC land potential for nature walking track, retain area for habitat/recreational/education and training use

Urban revegetation (Alexandra Terrace and Wharf) Penguins good for tourist trade Plant mown grassed foreshore area with penguin friendly plants Penguins not always welcome under houses â&#x20AC;&#x201C; can be smelly and noisy Involve the community in habitat creation projects

Penguins crossing roads to find nesting sites

Install artificial burrows as alternative nesting sites

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Appendix 4. Plants suitable for revegetation Plants in bold are those which should form the bulk of any planting, due to their high suitability for coastal conditions, Penguin habitat and erosion control. Other plants are important for diversity. Key to planting sites: 1. Foreshore 2. Foredune 3. Back dune (includes CHC land and CMW sewerage ponds) 4. Slopes 5. Creek/moist sites Species name SHRUBS

Common name

Rhagodia candolleana

Coastal Saltbush

Tetragonia implexicoma

Bower Spinach (ice plant)

Correa alba

White Correa

Correa backhouseana

Velvet Correa

Dodonaea viscosa


Leucopogon parviflorus

Coast Beardheath

Goodenia ovata

Hop nativeprimrose




Excellent Penguin habitat understorey plant. Excellent Penguin habitat understorey plant. Hardy shrub once established. Excellent Penguin habitat. Hardy shrub once established. Excellent Penguin habitat. Hardy shrub, best on rocky sites and hinddunes. Hardy once established and provides abundant fruits for birds and people. Worth persisting with â&#x20AC;&#x201C; monitor planting success to learn its preferred sites.

1,2,3 2,3 2,3 3,4 2,3,4


Hardy shrub best on slopes

LARGER SHRUBS AND TREES Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

Coast Wattle

Myoporum insulare

Common Boobialla

Eucalyptus ovata

Black Gum

Eucalyptus viminalis

White Gum

Eucalyptus globulus

Blue Gum

Eucalyptus obliqua


Melaleuca ericifolia

Coast Paperbark

Acacia melanoxylon


Acacia terminalis

Sunshine wattle

Acacia verticillata

Prickly moses

Allocasuarina verticillata


Excellent shelter. Scattered individuals useful in penguin habitat as an essential component of coastal vegetation and especially valuable in harsh, sandy, dry sites. Excellent Penguin habitat, but should not be planted everywhere to the exclusion of understorey plants. Not as quick as Coast Wattle. Excellent habitat tree for council land and Sewerage ponds - especially poorly-drained sites and heavier soils (deeper soils only). Excellent habitat tree for The Nut, Urban foreshore and Godfreys Beach, CHC land and Sewerage ponds. Excellent habitat tree for The Nut, Urban foreshore and CHC land and Sewerage ponds. (deeper soils only). Excellent habitat tree for The Nut, CHC land and Sewerage ponds. (deeper soils only). Suitable for all damper sites and creekbanks. Moist sites, CHC land and Sewerage ponds, creek banks. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas and rocky sites. Does not provide Penguin habitat, but is an important nearcoastal tree. Moist sites, CHC land and Sewerage ponds, creek banks Hardy small tree, suitable foreshore. Does not provide Penguin habitat, but is an important coastal tree.






3,4,5 3,5 3,5 3,4

3,4,5 1


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Species name

Common name

Banksia marginata

Banksia / honeysuckle

Bursaria spinosa

Prickly box

Pomaderris apetala


Comments Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas. Habitat for many birds (but not Penguins); is an important near-coastal tree. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune areas and rocky sites. Does not provide Penguin habitat, but is an important nearcoastal tree. Hardy small tree, most suitable for hind-dune, slope and creek areas. Habitat for many birds (but not Penguins); is an important nearcoastal tree.

Sites 2,3,4,5



GROUNDCOVERS Carpobrotus rossii

Native Pigface

Lomandra longifolia


Dune plant, excellent ground cover. Be sure to propagate Native Pigface, not the larger weedy Pigfaces. Hardy sedge, probably best on heavier soils. Excellent Penguin habitat. Suitable for damper hind-dune areas or swales. Hardy ground cover plant for erosion control Hind-dune plant or heavier soils, excellent ground cover. Good Penguin habitat. Excellent groundcover in moister sites. Hardy almost anywhere, especially swales between dunes.

Astroloma humifusum

Silver tussockgrass Native cranberry

Dianella revoluta

flax lily

Dianella tasmanica

Forest flax lily

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Austrostipa stipoides and Poa poiformis

coast speargrass and coast tussockgrass

Fore-dune plants, excellent ground covers. If available, use to replace foredune weeds

Spinifex sericeus

Beach Spinifex

An important trailing grass of the front of the dune, present in low numbers on site. Not easily propagated; if available it should be planted on foredune.

Poa labillardierei


3,4,5 3,4,5 4 3,4,5 3,4,5 1,2,3,5 1


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Appendix 5. Some native species that resemble weeds It is important to be sure of the identification of a plant before removing it as a weed. Below is a selection of native species that are sometimes mistaken for weeds. The Tasmanian Herbarium can assist with plant identification. Plants known to be on site are in bold. WEED Angled Pigface (Carpobrotus aequilaterus) - is bigger in all parts (leaves 4-10cm) - pink/purple flowers - stamens usually >250 Yellow Pigface (C.edulis) - is bigger in all parts (leaves 4-10cm) - yellow (to pinkish) flowers - stamens >400 African Box-thorn (Lycium ferocissimum) - spines robust, very sharp - red berries Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.) - ripe fruits are black - large leaves and large spines. Canary/Montpellier Broom (Genista monspessulana) - ridged, hairy stems - trifoliate leaves English/Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and White Broom (Cytisus multiflorus) - usually very few leaves. Sydney Coast Wattle (Acacia longifolia ssp. longifolia) Often sold as a “native” in nurseries, can become invasive. - Phyllodes (“leaves”) longer (80-200mm) and pointer. - Pod straight when mature. Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) - has underground, long, smooth rhizomes - very long, pointed ligule (membrane where leaf comes away from stem)

NATIVE PLANT Native Pigface (Carpobrotus rossii) - leaves 4-6cm. - pink/purple flowers - stamens 100-250

Prickly Box (Bursaria spinosa) - spines delicate and thin, very sharp - flat brown capsules Native Raspberry (Rubus parvifolius) - ripe fruits are red - slightly smaller, softer leaves and spines. Goldentip (Goodia lotifolia) and other bushpeas - not currently any on site. - leaves and flowers similar to broom. e.g. Drupe Bush (Leptomeria drupacea) and Broom Spurge (Amperea xiphoclada) - not currently any on site. Coast Wattle / False Boobialla (Acacia longifolia ssp. sophorae) - Phyllodes (“leaves”) shorter (50-100mm) and rounder. - Pod twisted when mature Most wattles here are the native one. Coast Fescue (Austrofestuca littoralis), Coast Speargrass (Austrostipa stipoides), Coast Tussockgrass (Poa poiformis), Silver Tussockgrass (Poa labillardierei), Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) - most are tussocks, Spinifex has creeping stems. Coast Fescue has a scaly, short, branching rhizome. Some have small ligules. Obtain advice. Coastal Spinifex (Spinifex sericeus) - greyish green leaves, silky hairy - long creeping stems above ground - male flowers in clusters, female clusters almost spherical “tumbleweeds” Australian Saltgrass (Distichlis distichophylla) - fine leaves arranged tightly in opposite rows Dune Thistle (Actites megalocarpa, was Sonchus megalocarpus) - perennial with stolons

Sea Wheat Grass (Thinopyrum junceiforme) - greyish green leaves - strong underground rhizomes - flower spike on fragile stalk, breaks readily

Twitch, couch, buffalo grass and other creeping lawn grasses.

Sow thistle (Sonchus asper) - annual, with taproot - sticky white sap (can irritate skin & eyes)

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Appendix 5. Weed control recommendations (Rudman 2003; Tasmanian Bushcare Toolkit 2006; Marker and Wind 2003; Muyt 2001) Herbicides include non-selective Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup®, Weedmaster®, etc) and broadleaf-specific Metsulfuron Methyl (e.g. Brush Off®, Brush Kill® etc). Some herbicides come already mixed with a wetting agent (surfactant); others may need a wetter to be added so that the herbicide is absorbed by the plant. Marker dyes can also be useful. Targeted control methods such as cut-and-paint are preferable to foliar spraying which may affect Penguins. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL BEFORE USING HERBICIDES AND FOLLOW LABEL INSTRUCTIONS. ALWAYS FOLLOW BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES. Weed Treatment alternatives Follow-up Hand pull / dig out small seedlings. Follow-up control of seedlings will be English and Canary Cut-and-paint larger plants (with Glyphosate). necessary for many years. Broom Bag and dispose of any seeds responsibly off site. Regrowth of mature plants after treatment ® Blue butterflybush If necessary, clumps may be sprayed with selective herbicide such as Brush Off , will need follow-up control. For best results ® avoiding off-target damage to any native shrubs. spray with selective herbicide (Brush Off ) before the regrowth turns woody. Cut-and-paint with herbicide, or drill-and-fill larger plants. Mirror bush Check every year and continue control until Large plants providing Penguin habitat should be left to die in-situ. all are eradicated. Seedlings can be hand-pulled or cut-and-painted. Plant Bower Spinach to climb over dead Mirror bushes. Hand-pull or spray with glyphosate before seed set. Take care with removal not to Common mullein Regular checks for seedlings and hand-pull. disturb soil too much as disturbance encourages germination. Hand-pull plants. Dig out, ensure removal of all roots. Foliar spray with herbicide Nasturtium Monitor and pull or treat emerging plants. Cut-and-paint. Dig up root stock. Pride-of-Madeira Follow up by removing re-growth. English Ivy

Cut at base and allow the tops of the plant to die in-situ. Locate all the places where ivy may have taken root along the stems. If roots cannot be removed cut and paint stumps (with gylphosate).

Check every year and continue control until all are eradicated.

African boxthorn

Hand pull / dig out small seedlings. Treat larger plants with the cut and paint method using (with Glyphosate). Bag and dispose of any fruiting bodies. Smaller plants which are highly branched and dense patches may need to be foliar ® sprayed with selective herbicide such as Brush Off .

Regrowth from mature plants and seedling germination. Will need follow up control. For best results spray with selective herbicide ® (Brush Off ) before the regrowth turns woody. Plant Bower Spinach to climb over dead African boxthorn. Dig up new seedlings while small. Cut-and-paint or spray regrowth.


Cape ivy

Cut-and-paint or stem-scrape-and-paint large vines and those intertwined with native vegetation and leave to die hanging. Do not allow stems to contact soil. Spray (if clear of native vegetation) or paint foliage with herbicide. Beware of drips. Broadleaf-specific herbicides (e.g. those containing metsulfuron methyl) tend to have better results and do not affect grasses. Dig up smaller plants, including roots, rhizomes and all tubers. Bag and remove seeds and tubers and dispose of safely.

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Cut-and-paint (with glyphosate). Leave to die standing where they are providing habitat and wind protection etc.

Continue to follow-up where needed every year.


Foliar spraying: Brush Off is an effective herbicide to use for blackberry growing within grasses (which will not be affected by this broadleaf herbicide). Take every care to use away from any wet area and do not risk any run off or spray drift into water or onto native plants. Mallow Holly Fennel Banana passionfruit Blue periwinkle

Cape wattle Trailing Daisy Radiata pine Stinging nettle Agapanthus Arum lily Montbretia

Pull out small plants, or cut-and-paint with glyphosate.

Check for seedlings and re-growth every year and control.

Cut and paint climbing vines and leave tops to die or for small plants dig or hand-pull roots in Winter/Spring. Bag and remove any fruit.

Check for seedlings regularly and follow up.

Seedlings can be hand-pulled or dug-out, ensuring all roots are removed to prevent regrowth. Larger plants should be sprayed with non-selective herbicide (i.e. glyphosate) in autumn. Surfactant may be necessary in herbicide. Hand-pull small plants. Large plants may be ringbarked close to ground or cut-andpaint with glyphosate. Dig up and remove. Or foliar spray with herbicide

Well established infestations will require treatments over 2 - 4 years before all material is destroyed.

Hand-pull small plants. Fell, cutting below lower branch, if falling trees will not cause damage. Ringbark and leave will still provide shelter. Foliar spray with glyphosate

Monitor area for seedlings and hand-pull.

Dig up if possible and remove, ensuring all corms / rhizomes are removed. Alternatively, spray or wipe with herbicide (wetting agent will be necessary). Bag and remove corms/rhizomes and seeds.

Control any regrowth.

Hand pull seedlings, follow up regrowth. Continue every year until eradicated.

Follow up by spraying emerging plants.

NB Agapanthus parts and sap are poisonous and a skin irritant. ALL PARTS OF ARUM LILY ARE VERY POISONOUS


Dig up if possible and remove, ensuring all corms / rhizomes are removed. Alternatively, foliar spray or wipe with herbicide

Control any regrowth


Dig out individual plants. Plants with seed heads should be collected and burned. Foliar spray rosettes with herbicide.

Dig out any emerging plants. Follow up foliar spray on new emergents


Hand-pull small plants. Cut-and-paint larger plants with glyphosate. Drill and fill with glyphosate.

Hand-pull emerging seedlings.

Purple groundsel

Hand-pull plants, bag and remove all fertile parts

Follow up by pulling seedlings.

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Century plant

Cut leaves low at base and paint with herbicide. Sap is a skin irritant.

Follow up with removing surfacing roots or cut and paint new plants over time.

Soap aloe

Dig out individuals and burn or bury deeply to prevent resprouting. High concentrations or herbicides are needed if spraying as waxy coating on leaves hard to penetrate.

Follow up with removing surfacing roots or new plants over time.

White horehound

Dig out individual plants ensuring complete removal of root system. Spray new growth with herbicide.

Spray new plants with herbicide yearly until infestation eradicated.

Sea Spurge

Protective clothing (e.g. gloves) must be worn to protect skin and eyes from the milky sap, which is toxic. Do not allow sap to enter eyes.

Pull out any plants that appear annually before they seed. Substantial declines in density of Sea Spurge can be achieved by this method but it may take 3 or 4 years of concerted effort. Occasional seedlings may reappear.

New Zealand flax

Start with isolated clumps and eradicate in stages. Small Sea Spurge infestations can be eradicated by manually removing the plants. Small plants hand pull easily; large plants will need to be dug out. Seedlings may be present in large numbers. These can be left until large enough to pull, but before flowering, or they may be raked or buried. An effective herbicide treatment is available where disturbance from hand pulling is unacceptable. Consult PWS and DPIWE if contemplating herbicide use. Three cornered garlic (angled onion)

Spray with herbicide at bulb-exhaustion phase, i.e. just before or early in flowering period (mid-winter to early spring). Take care to avoid spraying native groundcovers.

Control regrowth annually. Will require at least 2 - 5 years of follow-up.

Three cornered garlic can be pulled or dug carefully, ensuring all bulbs are removed. Sea Wheat Grass

Marram grass Buffalo grass Kikuyu, Capeweed and other pasture weeds

Digging out the rhizomes can control small areas of sea wheatgrass. Care must be taken to remove as much as possible and monitor regularly for re-emerging plants. Effective aquatic registered herbicides are available for use on sea wheatgrass. Contact NPWS or DPIPWE for advice. Do not attempt control large areas. Control any small infestations in otherwise native areas. Dig out small area of rhizomes to a depth of 50 cm if possible before planting native plants into Marram grassland.

Monitor annually for germinating seedlings until no further plants are found for a few years running Pull up any Marram grass invading revegetation plant guards until native plant is well established.

Control these as necessary before revegetation with native species. Spot-spray with glyphosate an area of 1m diameter for each plant to be planted, or larger areas before mass revegetation. Do not attempt large-scale control without a revegetation and follow-up plan. Avoid creating bare areas which will be invaded by these weeds.

Spray around plant guards in spring until native revegetation has established. Handpull grass and weeds that grow inside plant guards.

Handpull or carefully spot-spray infestations in otherwise good native vegetation.

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Appendix 6. Some useful resources Some useful references include: Tasmanian Coastal Works Manual: A best practice management guide for changing coastlines. by L. Page and V. Thorp 2010 Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment – Tasmania www.environment.tas.gov.au Community Coastcare Handbook – caring for the coast in Tasmania, by Veronica Thorp (2003). Tasmanian Environment Centre, Hobart. (Excellent for all coastal management questions.) Growing Australian Native Plants from Seed - for revegetation, tree planting and direct seeding. By Murray Ralph, 1997. Published by Bushland Horticulture, ph (03) 9517 6773. Very useful, comprehensive but simple propagation info. Grow Local – a guide to local native plants suitable for gardens in the Cradle Coast Region (2nd edition), by the Australian Plants Society Tasmania North West Group (2009?). Tasmania’s Natural Flora, by J. Whiting et al, 2004. ($70 many bookshops, or PO Box194, Ulverstone, 7315). Identification of heaps of plants, and cultivation hints. Understorey Network database for propagation and seed collection info: www.understorey-network.org.au Cradle Coast NRM – for advice and assistance. Ph: 6431 6285.

Some useful weed references include: Various pamphlets, usually available from council or Natural Resource Management/Landcare organisations. E.g. Coastal Weeds of Tasmania. Environmental Weeds – A field guide for SE Australia. By Kate Blood, CRC Weed Management Systems, 2001. Publ. CH Jerram & Assoc., Mt Waverley. Bush Invaders of SE Australia. By Adam Muyt, 2001. Publ. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Meredith. (About $65, but worth it – includes control methods) DPIPWE Weeds site For comprehensive weed control information sheets, declared weeds etc: www.dpipwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/ThemeNodes/LBUN-5MC2R8?open Cradle Coast NRM Weeds Officer – ph: 6431 6285 Tamar Valley Weed Strategy - another excellent Tasmanian weed website http://www.weeds.asn.au

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Profile for Cradle Coast Authority

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan  

Penguin Habitat Management Plan for Stanley. Bushways Environmental Services - Helen Morgan and Anna Povey. August 2011.

Stanley Penguin Habitat Management Plan  

Penguin Habitat Management Plan for Stanley. Bushways Environmental Services - Helen Morgan and Anna Povey. August 2011.