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ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

Published by

Cradle Coast NRM May 2016

Maps, photos and text by Vishnu Prahalad Design and layout by Michael Helman


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

INTRODUCTION TO THE ATLAS Coastal saltmarshes in subtropical and temperate Australia (including Tasmania) have been listed in 2013 as a vulnerable ecological community under Federal environment legislation (EPBC Act 1999). This listing acknowledges that these wetlands have suffered habitat fragmentation and loss of community integrity coupled with threats arising from human activities, invasive species, climate change and sea level rise. In Tasmania, studies show that close to a half of these important coastal ecosystems have already been lost due to the above threats. The apparent vulnerability of Tasmanian saltmarshes is further underscored by a lack of broad awareness of the important values provided by these habitats. Saltmarsh wetlands perform important ecological functions that support a range of ecosystem services and biodiversity values in our coastal landscape, though they remain underappreciated and in many cases lack baseline mapping information. In the case of the Cradle Coast Region of Tasmania, several areas of saltmarsh wetlands had remained unmapped including in the Rubicon, Mersey, Don, Forth and Leven Rivers. Mapping these wetlands is hence an important activity and also needs to be accompanied by products aimed at both communicating the mapping results and providing tools for better understanding and engagement in conserving these habitats and their ecological functions. This booklet provides a visual summary of the mapping undertaken as part of the Coastal Saltmarsh Wetland Asset Mapping in the Cradle Coast Region project (completed in May 2016). The information presented in this booklet is drawn from the GIS mapping layer that records the location and extent of saltmarshes and the accompanying database that contains information on a range of attributes pertaining to these mapped natural assets. Detailed information on the mapping methodology used and the data collected in available in the mapping report produced as part of this project. Both the report and GIS dataset are available through Cradle Coast NRM. While this project has collected as much information within the limits of this first pass assessment, there are still some information gaps to be filled. The mapping report highlights areas where further data can be collected in the future. If you are interested in an area of saltmarsh where you are able to facilitate the collection of information or be involved in on-going monitoring of saltmarsh values, please contact Cradle Coast NRM. This project is supported by Cradle Coast NRM, through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Programme and University of Tasmania.

CONTENTS Introduction to the Atlas

Saltmarsh wetland - yellow polygon

p. 2

Cradle Coast NRM study area

Reserve areas - white hatched polygon

Sample of saltmarsh photos

Public road access - gold line

p. 5

Saltmarsh distribution map

Flooding areas* - blue polygon

p. 6

Saltmarsh complexes map

Text Text

Place name - white text

pp. 7-34

Individual saltmarsh complexes

Text

Wetland cluster name - purple text in rounded box

Anna Wind & Mark Wisniewski (CCNRM) Jamie Kirkpatrick (UTAS)

CRADLE COAST NRM

Base data used in the maps are from theLIST and TASMAP Š State of Tasmania

NRM NORTH

NRM SOUTH

For more information and resources about coastal wetlands in Tasmania please visit the Living Wetlands site: http://www.livingwetlands.com SALTMARSH BIRDS POSTER AND CHECKLIST

a GUIDE TO THE PLANTS OF TASMANIAN SALTMARSH WETLANDS

SALTMARSH matters app

pp. 3-4

Acknowledgements:

Similar online mapping summaries of coastal saltmarshes in other Tasmanian regions are available through the web pages of NRM North and NRM South.

SALTMARSH COMPLEX Map Legend

p. 1

pp. 35-38 Spartina anglica (rice grass)

Natural Resource Management of Saltmarsh WetlandS in TASMANIA

Text

Geographic location name - gold text

Text

Reserve name - black text in box

SCIENCE COMMUNICATION AND INTERPRETATION MATERIAL

saltmarsh.eskmapping.com.au

*Flooding areas indicate low lying land subject to flooding under a sea level rise scenario of 1.1m in the year 2100 prepared by the Tasmanian Department of Premier and Cabinet in 2012.

Page 1 of 38

Grassy saltmarsh with succulent fringe in Forth River Page 2 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

A SNAPSHOT OF TASMANIA’S CRADLE COAST SALTMARSH WETLANDS

Saltmarsh types

Life in saltmarsh wetlands

In Tasmania, saltmarshes are formally defined and mapped by two vegetation community types as outlined by the Tasmanian Vegetation Monitoring and Mapping Program (TASVEG).

Succulent saltmarsh

Grassy saltmarsh

Left: Shrubby Glasswort (Tecticornia arbuscula) and Creeping Brockweed (Samolus repens) in Sea Elephant, King Island Right: Sea-Lavender (Limonium australe) in Boullanger Bay. Succulent saltmarsh (TASVEG code: ASS) on the West Coast of King Island, dominated by Shrubby Glasswort (Tecticornia arbuscula) and Beaded Glasswort (Sarcocornia quinqueflora).

Grassy saltmarsh (TASVEG code: ARS) near Cat Island in Macquarie Harbour, dominated by a monospecific stand of Sea Rush (Juncus kraussii).

Great Egret (left), Red-necked Stints (middle) and Red-capped Plover (right), all on Sarcocornia herbfield margins in Circular Head saltmarshes.

Aerial view of Montagu Island succulent saltmarsh in Robbins Passage area, in Circular Head.

Aerial view of Forth River grassy saltmarsh in Turners Beach area, adjacent to Bass Highway.

Crabs are among the largest and most abundant invertebrates in saltmarshes (left), marsupials are occasionally seen (centre), while insects and spiders can be harder to spot and are not well studied (right).

King River grassy saltmarsh, Macquarie Harbour Page 3 of 38

Page 4 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

DISTRIBUTION OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS

INDEX OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLAND COMPLEXES 0 5 10 Kms

Boullanger Bay Robbins Passage Big Bay Duck Bay

LEGEND Saltmarsh Wetland Coastal Complexes

12

Cradle Coast NRM Coastal Saltmarsh

10

1. Port Sorell-Rubicon River Coastal Complex (pp. 7-9)

King Island

2. Mersey-Don Rivers Coastal Complex (pp. 10-11) 3. Forth-Leven Rivers Coastal Complex (pp. 12-13) 4. Blythe-Cam-Inglis Rivers Coastal Complex (pp. 14-16)

Circular Head 0 5 10 Kilometres

0

5

5. Detention-Black Rivers Coastal Complex (pp. 17-18)

11

10 Kilometres

6. East-West Inlets Coastal Complex (p. 21) 7. Big Bay-Duck Bay Coastal Complex (pp. 22-23)

LEGEND Local Government Area

8

<2 2 - 10

Saltmarsh Area (ha)

10 - 20

East Inlet

20 - 40

9. Macquarie Harbour Coastal Complex (pp.29-30)

7

10. Sea Elephant River Coastal Complex (p.32)

6

11. Big Lake Coastal Complex (p. 33)

5

> 40

12. King Island West Coast Complex (p. 34)

4

Bakers Beach Narawntapu National Park Circular Head

8. Boullanger Bay-Robbins Passage Coastal Complex (pp. 24-28)

3

WaratahWynyard Burnie

2

1

Devonport Latrobe Central Coast

Data from theLIST, © State of Tasmania

Kentish 0

5

10 Kilometres West Coast

9

NRM North

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania West Coast

0 5 10

20 Kilometres

0

5

10 Kms

0 5 10

20 Kilometres

NRM South

Size class distribution of Cradle Coast NRM coastal saltmarshes (not including Spartina marshes - see pp. 35-38). The Bakers Beach and East Inlet saltmarshes have been highlighted for being the second and third largest in extent at 82 ha and 78 ha respectively. The inset map of Circular Head sub-region shows the other large marshes measuring above 40 ha in area. These marshes are in: Robbins Island (x4); Perkins Island; Montagu Island; Kangaroo Island; Deep Creek Bay; Swan Bay; Welcome Inlet; and Shoal Inlet. The largest marsh is in the eastern end of Robbins Island, measuring 95.2 ha in extent. Page 5 of 38

Coastal saltmarshes tend to occur in ‘clusters’ of more than one patch to up to several patches. These clusters are identified at a scale of 1:25,000-1:100,000 and is usually named after the landscape feature that defines the cluster. Saltmarsh clusters are further aggregated at larger spatial scales of 1:100,000-1:250,000 within 12 ‘coastal complexes’ with each complex made up of a minimum of one cluster to up to several clusters. Click on each complex title to navigate to saltmarsh wetland clusters within the complex.  Page 6 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

0.5

1

2 Kilometres

Milldam

0

1(A). RUBICON RIVER, FRANKLIN RIVULET Road

PORT SORELL-RUBICON RIVER LEGEND Coastal Saltmarsh Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

0

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

et rles Stre

Cha

Squeaking Point

Eagle

Point

Road

Eagle Point

Rubicon River - Port Sorell Cluster

Public Reserve

kford

Fran Road

South East Arm - Franklin Rivulet Cluster

Public Reserve

Ro

ad

Ba

ord

rs

nkf

ke

Fra

Be ac h

Ro

ad

Franklin Rivulet Conservation Area

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

the LIST &copy State of Tasmania

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

An overview of the extent and distribution of saltmarsh wetlands mapped within the Port Sorell-Rubicon Estuary area. For Spartina marshes, see page 37.

Municipality: Latrobe Saltmarsh Area: 39 ha Associated Waterways: Rubicon River, Franklin Rivulet, Branchs Creek, Greens Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, mixed with few patches of succulent saltmarsh dominated by Sarcocornia Page 7 of 38

Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Crown Land, Private Land, Conservation Area Saltmarsh Clusters: Rubicon River-Port Sorell Saltmarsh Cluster (33 ha) South East Arm-Franklin Rivulet Saltmarsh Cluster (6 ha) Page 8 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

1(B). PORT SORELL, pANATANA RIVULET, NORTH EAST ARM

2(A). MERSEY RIVER Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

rs ke Ba

North East Arm - Bakers Beach Cluster

1 Kilometre

Stony Rise Road

Reserve area Street Charles

Flooding area

Flooding area

Fra nkfo rd R oad

Bass Highway

Mersey River - Spreyton Cluster Public Reserve

the LIST State of Tasmania

ad Ro er Riv

in ey Ma Mers

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Road

Spreyton

oad Main R

Fr og m or e

La ne

Mersey

Mersey River - Latrobe Cluster

de Para Bells

Municipality: Latrobe Saltmarsh Area: 115 ha Associated Waterways: Rubicon River, Panatana Rivulet, Sheepwash Creek, Browns Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely succulent saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia, with several patches of grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus Dominant Land Tenure: National Park, Conservation Area, Private Land, Public Reserve Saltmarsh Clusters: North East Arm-Bakers Beach Saltmarsh Cluster (95 ha) Port Sorell-Panatana Rivulet Saltmarsh Cluster (20 ha)

Sheffield Ro ad

0.5

Saltmarsh wetland

Milldam Road

ad Ro

0.25

LEGEND

Reserve area

ay hw Hig ss Ba

d or sF er rk Pa

0

Narawntapu National Park

Figure of Eight Creek Cluster

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Saltmarsh wetland

Bass Highw ay

De vo np ort Ro ad

Port Sorell Conservation Area

LEGEND

Po rt So re ll R oa d

William Street

Public Reserve

Middle Roa d

Wilmot Street

Steele Street

Wright Street

ad Ro

Vic toria Par ade

h ac Be

Devonport

Public Reserve

Port Sorell

Kilometre 11 Kilometre

Springlawn Lagoon

Ri ve rR oa d

ad t Ro Poin ers Bak

0.25 0.5 0.5 0.25

Formby Road

Port Sorell - Panatana Rivulet Cluster

00

Gilbert Street

Latrobe

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipalities: Devonport, Latrobe Saltmarsh Area: 102 ha Associated Waterways: Mersey River, Ballahoo Creek, Cockers Creek, Figure of Eight Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, with some patches of succulent saltmarsh dominated by Sarcocornia Page 9 of 38

Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Public Reserve, Crown Land Saltmarsh Clusters: Mersey River-Spreyton Saltmarsh Cluster (78.4 ha) Mersey River-Latrobe Saltmarsh Cluster (23.3 ha) Figure of Eight Creek Saltmarsh Cluster (0.2 ha)

Page 10 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

2(B). DON RIVER

3(A). FORTH RIVER 00

125 125

250 250

500 Metres Metres 500

0

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Don Heads

Don Heads Conservation Area

Turners Beach

nade Espla

Don River Cluster

rn Drive Blackbu

LEGEND

ad

ads Ro

ad

Public Reserve (Gables Park)

Bass Highway

Forth River Cluster

Public Reserve

Braddon s Lookou t Road

Saltmarsh wetland

ads Ro

Don He

Turners Beac h Road

Bass Highway

Don He

Leith

Reserve area Flooding area

d

oa

d oaey R y Rerl rle av ve W Wa

Braddons Lookout

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland

Public Reserve

Don

Reserve area

Road

Road

Flooding area

Braddon s Lookou t Road

Don

Forth R oad

Bass

Ro ad Ki nd re d

ad Ro

ad

rth

Ro

Fo

rth

Fo

d Roa Leith

ad adRo Roise se R Ri y y y ton wy a on S gha iw gHh sHsi Bssa Ba

Don

St

High way Bass High way

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Forth the LIST State of Tasmania

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Devonport Saltmarsh Area: 3.2 ha Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Crown Associated Waterways: Don River Land, Conservation Area Dominant Vegetation Type: Mainly grassy saltmarsh Saltmarsh Clusters: dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, with Don River Saltmarsh Cluster (3.2 ha) seaward patches at Don Heads comprised of succulent saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia

Page 11 of 38

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Municipality: Central Coast Saltmarsh Area: 34 ha Associated Waterways: Forth River Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, with fringing patches of Samolus repens

Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Crown Land, Conservation Area Saltmarsh Clusters: Forth River Saltmarsh Cluster (34 ha)

Page 12 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

0.5

1 Kilometre

West Ulverstone

Myrtle Creek Cluster

Road

200 Metres

LEGEND

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Ba ss Hi gh wa y

Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area

Ba ss Hi gh wa y

Flooding area

bs

ob H

River Road

100

e

ad

r Pa

Blythe River Cluster

sH

s Ba

River Park

y

wa

igh

Public Reserve Circuit Crown

et

st We

ad

Ro

Ad

aih

iS

Ga

slo

n

wle

He

s we

tre

et

rR

Public Reserve

oad

Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

oad

Public Reserve

LEGEND

Bas s Hig hwa y

d oa aR nn Mi

Bass Highway

Henslowes Park

Mannings Creek Cluster

Bass H ighwa y

ler R

reek

ter C

50

Queen Street

Leven River Fringing and Island Marshes Cluster

Public Reserve Lobs

0

Lovett Stre

0.25

4(A). BLYTHE RIVER

Gaw

0

South Road

3(B). LEVEN RIVER

Gawler River Cluster

River Avenu e

Heybridge

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania 0

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipalities: Burnie, Central Coast Saltmarsh Area: 1 ha Associated Waterways: Blythe River Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, with one small patch of Samolus repens Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve Saltmarsh Clusters: Blythe River Saltmarsh Cluster (1 ha)

Municipality: Central Coast Saltmarsh Area: 24 ha Associated Waterways: Leven River, Gawler River, Mannings Creek, Myrtle Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, mixed with some Phragmites along the Gawler River, and a large (4 ha) marsh near River Park dominated by Tecticornia Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Crown Land Saltmarsh Clusters: Leven River Fringing and Island Marshes Cluster (17.3 ha) Gawler River Saltmarsh Cluster (5.3 ha) Mannings Creek Saltmarsh Cluster (0.5 ha) Myrtle Creek Saltmarsh Cluster (0.5 ha)

Page 13 of 38

Page 14 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

4(B). CAM RIVER 50 50

100 100

200 Metres 200 Metres

0

125

250

500 Metres

Saltmarsh wetland

Road

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

LEGEND

ape Table C

0 0

4(C). INGLIS RIVER

d oa rR ve i R

Bass Hig hway

Reserve area Flooding area

Golf Links Road

Bass Highway

ay ighw on H chis Mur

Inglis River Cluster Public Reserve

Scarf e Str eet

t tree rs S nde Sau

Cam River Cluster

et Stre ldie Go

Inglis Street

Wynyard

Old Bass High way

Camp Creek Cluster Public Reserve

Public Reserve

Martin Street

Somerset

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Waratah-Wynyard Saltmarsh Area: 0.3 ha Associated Waterways: Inglis River, Camp Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, mixed with Deschampsia in Camp Creek Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve Saltmarsh Clusters: Inglis River Saltmarsh Cluster (0.2 ha) Camp Creek Marsh Cluster (0.1 ha)

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipalities: Burnie, Waratah-Wynyard Saltmarsh Area: 0.4 ha Associated Waterways: Cam River Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve Saltmarsh Clusters: Cam River Saltmarsh Cluster (0.4 ha)

Page 15 of 38

Page 16 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

5(A). DETENTION RIVER 0

High

way

Pin eA ve nu e

Bass

125

5(B). BLACK RIVER

250

500 Metres

00

125 125

250 250

500 500 Metres Metres

Honey Ric

Hellyer

hea Road

Peggs Beach Conservation Area

Drive

Melaleuca

Drive

Boobyalla

Public Reserve

Public Reserve

loc

Wilsons Creek Cluster

al

Bass Highway

loc

al

roa

d

roa

d

Black River

Detention River Cluster

Detention

Ba

Black River Bridge Conservation Area

ss

Black River Cluster

Hig

hw

ay

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

Public Reserve

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 17 ha Associated Waterways: Black River, Peggs Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mainly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, with some patches of succulent saltmarsh dominated by Sarcocornia Dominant Land Tenure: Conservation Area, Private Land, Public Reserve Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast Important Bird Area Saltmarsh Clusters: Black River Saltmarsh Cluster (17 ha)

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Municipality: Circular Head Private Land, Crown Land Saltmarsh Area: 10 ha Recognised Values: Part of North-west Associated Waterways: Detention River, Wilsons Creek Tasmanian Coast Important Bird Area Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh Saltmarsh Clusters: dominated by Juncus, mixed with patches of succulent Detention River Saltmarsh Cluster (9.6 ha) saltmarsh dominated by Sarcocornia Wilsons Creek Saltmarsh Cluster (0.2 ha)

Page 17 of 38

Page 18 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

CIRCULAR HEAD COASTAL COMPLEXES LEGEND Coastal saltmarsh

0

1.5

3

6 Kilometres

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

An overview of the extent and distribution of saltmarsh wetlands mapped within the Circular Head coastal area between East Inlet, near Stanley, and Shoal Inlet, near Woolnorth. For Spartina marshes, see page 38. Page 19 of 38

Page 20 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

6(A). EAST AND WEST INLETS 00

0.5 0.5

11

7(A). DUCK RIVER, DEEP CREEK BAY 0

22 Kilometres Kilometres

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

Kemps Bay - Duck Bay Cluster

LEGEND

LEGEND

Deep Creek Bay Cluster

Saltmarsh wetland

Duck Bay - Morgans Bay Cluster

Reserve area

Deep Creek Bay

Flooding area Duck Bay Conservation Area

d adoa Rrof R arhf a WhW

M Ma ain in Ro Ro ad ad

Stanley

Public Reserve

West Inlet Conservation Area

Mo

nta

Roa

Roteract Park

an

lic

d

Lees Point Conservation Area

Pe

gu

ay ay ighw ighw s Hs H BasBas

treet

East Inlet Cluster

Public Reserve

Smithton Lee Park

Gibson S

treet

Circular Head Lawn Cemetary

Wiltshire

Nelson S

S St tanl an ey ley H Hi ighw gh a wa y y

d

oa

tR

in

Po

West Inlet Cluster

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land Municipality: Circular Head Recognised Values: Part of North-west Saltmarsh Area: 152 ha Tasmanian Coast, Robbins Passage & Associated Waterways: Grays Creek, Wiltshire Creek Boullanger Bay Important Bird Areas Dominant Vegetation Type: Mainly grassy saltmarsh Saltmarsh Clusters: dominated by Juncus, with several patches of succulent East Inlet Saltmarsh Cluster (102 ha) saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia West Inlet Saltmarsh Cluster (50 ha)

Page 21 of 38

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 109 ha Associated Waterways: Duck River, Deep Creek, Fentons Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mainly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, with some patches of succulent saltmarsh dominated by Sarcocornia Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Conservation Area, Public Reserve Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast, Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Areas Saltmarsh Clusters: Deep Creek Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (53.3 ha) Kemps Bay-Duck Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (35 ha) Duck Bay-Morgans Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (20.7 ha)

Page 22 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

7(B). BIG BAY, PERKINS PASSAGE Stony Point

0

0.5

1

2 Kilometres

0

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Big Bay - Cades Bay Cluster

Acton Bay Cluster

Perkins Island

Old Po

rt Road

8(A). BOULLANGER BAY, Robbins Island 1

2 Kilometres

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Perkins Island Cluster

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland

Boullanger Bay - Robbins Island Cluster Perkins Island Conservation Area

Big Bay Conservation Area

0.5

Reserve area Flooding area

Boullanger Bay

Duck Bay Conservation Area Davy Poin

Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area

Mon

tagu

Road

Bolduans

LEGEND

Road

t Road

Flooding area Lees Point Conservation Area

Perkins Channel - Bolduans Bay Cluster

Robbins Island

Public Reserve the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Wallaby Islands Cluster

Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 251 ha Associated Waterways: Scopus Creek, Barcoo Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely succulent saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia, with several patches of grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Conservation Area, Crown Land Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast, Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Areas Saltmarsh Clusters: Big Bay-Cades Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (77.4 ha) Perkins Island Saltmarsh Cluster (65.5 ha) Bolduans Bay-Perkins Channel Saltmarsh Cluster (64 ha) Acton Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (44.3 ha)

Wallaby Islands Conservation Area

0

0.5

1

2 Kilometres

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Municipality: Circular Head Conservation Area, Crown Land Saltmarsh Area: 110 ha Recognised Values: Part of Robbins Passage Associated Waterways: Big Creek, Little Creek & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Area Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly succulent Saltmarsh Clusters: saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Boullanger Bay-Robbins Island Saltmarsh Sarcocornia, with few patches of grassy saltmarsh Cluster (76.5 ha) Wallaby Islands Saltmarsh Cluster (33 ha) Page 23 of 38

Page 24 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

8(B). MOSQUITO INLET (ROBBINS ISLAND) Walker Island

00

8(C). ROBBINS PASSAGE

0.25 0.5 0.5 0.25

LEGEND

Kilometre 11Kilometre

Saltmarsh wetland

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Reserve area

00

0.5 0.5

11

Kilometre 2 Kilometres

Robbins Island

Flooding area

Robbins Passage - Robbins Island Cluster LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland

Brick Islands Conservation Area

Reserve area Flooding area

Boullanger Bay

Robbins Island

Montagu Island Conservation Area

Mosquito Inlet Cluster

Montagu Island Cluster

ad d Ro Road Islan Island s bins Rob Robbin

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 41 ha Associated Waterways: Eel Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, mixed with patches of succulent saltmarsh

Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land Recognised Values: Part of Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Area Saltmarsh Clusters: Mosquito Inlet Saltmarsh Cluster (41 ha)

Page 25 of 38

Robbins Passage - Montagu River Cluster

Montag

Old Po

Montagu Beach Conservation Area

Big Bay

rt Road Old Po rt Road

Stony Point

u Road

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 327 ha Associated Waterways: Montagu River, Brooks Creek, Bens Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely succulent saltmarsh dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia, with several patches of grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Conservation Area Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast, Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Areas Saltmarsh Clusters: Robbins Passage-Robbins Island Saltmarsh Cluster (186 ha) Robbins Passage-Montagu River Saltmarsh Cluster (80 ha) Montagu Island Saltmarsh Cluster (61 ha)

Page 26 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

8(D). SWAN BAY, HARCUS RIVER, KANGAROO ISLAND 0

0.25

0.5

8(E). SHOAL INLET, WELCOME INLET Shell Islets Conservation Area

1 Kilometre

0

0.25 0.5

1 Kilometre

Boullanger Bay

Boullanger Bay

Shoal Inlet - Clump Island Cluster Kangaroo Island Cluster Kangaroo Island Conservation Area

Swan Bay - Short Island Cluster

oad

rth R

lno Woo

Welcome Inlet Cluster

Harcus River - Harcus Island Cluster

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Reserve area

Harcus Island Conservation Area

Flooding area Welcome River State Reserve

LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland Reserve area Flooding area

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

the LIST State of Tasmania

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Circular Head Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Saltmarsh Area: 173 ha Coast, Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Associated Waterways: Harcus River, Swan Creek Bird Areas Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy Saltmarsh Clusters: saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Swan Bay-Short Island Saltmarsh Cluster (76.2 ha) Gahnia, mixed with patches of succulent saltmarsh Harcus River-Harcus Island Saltmarsh Cluster (56.7 ha) Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Kangaroo Island Saltmarsh Cluster (39.8 ha) Conservation Area, Crown Land Page 27 of 38

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: Circular Head Saltmarsh Area: 138 ha Associated Waterways: Welcome River Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, Austrostipa and Gahnia, with several patches of succulent saltmarsh

Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, State Reserve, Crown Land Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast, Robbins Passage & Boullanger Bay Important Bird Areas Saltmarsh Clusters: Welcome Inlet Saltmarsh Cluster (81.3 ha) Shoal Inlet-Clump Island Saltmarsh Cluster (56.6 ha) Page 28 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

9(B). LONG BAY (STRAHAN)

Public Reserve

Oce an B eac hR oad

Meredith Street

a Road Lowan

Cat Island

Macquarie Harbour Fringing Marshes LEGEND Saltmarsh wetland

Harvey Street

Strahan

Esplana de

King River - Lettes Bay Cluster

Andrew Street

Public Reserve

Ocean Beach Conservation Area

Ly ell Hi gh wa y

500 500 Metres

St re et

250

Re id

125

Harold Street

0

Long Bay

Henty Road

Mac quar ie He ads Road

9(A). MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Public Reserve

Reserve area Permanent Timber Production Zone Land

Flooding area

Long Bay Cluster

LEGEND

Green S treet

Saltmarsh wetland

na wa Lo

0

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Flooding area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

ad Ro

Reserve area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE

Municipality: West Coast Saltmarsh Area: 27 ha Associated Waterways: King River Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, mixed with Apodasmia in areas to the west of Cat Island Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Conservation Area, Crown Land Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast Important Bird Area Saltmarsh Clusters: King River-Lettes Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (18.6 ha) Macquarie Harbour Fringing Marshes (8.4 ha)

Municipality: West Coast Saltmarsh Area: 3.4 ha Associated Waterways: Manuka River, Botanical Creek Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus, mixed with Apodasmia in areas along Mill Bay at the mouth of Manuka River Dominant Land Tenure: Public Reserve, Crown Land Recognised Values: Part of North-west Tasmanian Coast Important Bird Area Saltmarsh Clusters: Long Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (3.4 ha)

Page 29 of 38

Page 30 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

KING ISLAND 0

10(A). SEA ELEPHANT RIVER 2.5

5

0

10 Kilometres

0.25

0.5

1 Kilometre

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Lavinia Nature Reserve Ramsar Site

LEGEND Counsel Hill Conservation Area

Saltmarsh wetland Lavinia State Reserve

Reserve area Flooding area

LEGEND Ramsar Site

Sea Elephant River Cluster

Coastal Saltmarsh Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Boggy Creek

Sea Elephant

Sea Elephant Road

Sea Elephant Conservation Area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Dominant Land Tenure: State Reserve Municipality: King Island Recognised Values: Part of King Island Saltmarsh Area: 56 ha Important Bird Area, and occurs entirely Associated Waterways: Sea Elephant River, Saltwater Creek within Lavinia Ramsar Site - Wetland of Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely succulent saltmarsh International Importance dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia, with grassy Saltmarsh Clusters: saltmarsh dominated by Juncus in the upper river sections Sea Elephant River Saltmarsh Cluster (56 ha)

An overview of the extent and distribution of saltmarsh wetlands mapped in King Island. Apart from the tidally influenced saltmarshes that have been mapped, there are several other areas along the coast, especially the west coast, where saltmarsh plants occur in herbfields on the spray zone, e.g. Boggy Creek. These areas are represented in TASVEG as: SSZ Spray zone coastal complex.

Page 31 of 38

Page 32 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

11(A). BIG LAKE 0

125

250

12(A). KING ISLAND-WEST COAST 0

500 Metres

0.5

1

2 Kilometres

Yellow Rock Lagoon Cluster

North Yellow Rock Road

So ut h

Ye llo w

Ro ck

Public Reserve

Ro ad

Muddy Lagoon

Big Lake Cluster

Colliers Swamp Conservation Area

Bungaree Lagoon

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Saltmarsh wetland

Saltmarsh wetland

Reserve area

Reserve area

Flooding area

Data and image from theLIST, TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

Flooding area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: King Island Dominant Land Tenure: Saltmarsh Area: 12.5 ha Conservation Area, Private Land Associated Waterways: Colliers Swamp Recognised Values: Part of King Dominant Vegetation Type: Mostly Island Important Bird Area grassy saltmarsh dominated by Juncus Saltmarsh Clusters: and Deschampsia Big Lake Saltmarsh Cluster (12.5 ha)

Bungaree Road

Bungaree Point Cluster

North Roa d

LEGEND

LEGEND

Porky Beach Conservation Area

the LIST State of Tasmania

SALTMARSH PROFILE Municipality: King Island Dominant Land Tenure: Private Land, Saltmarsh Area: 4.4 ha Public Reserve, Conservation Area Associated Waterways: Yellow Rock River, Bungaree Creek Recognised Values: Part of King Island Dominant Vegetation Type: Largely grassy saltmarsh Important Bird Area dominated by Juncus, mixed with succulent patches Saltmarsh Clusters: dominated by Sarcocornia, except for Bungaree Point Yellow Rock Lagoon Saltmarsh Cluster (4 ha) Saltmarsh which is dominated by Tecticornia and Sarcocornia Bungaree Point Saltmarsh (0.4 ha)

Page 33 of 38

Page 34 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

Spartina anglica

DISTRIBUTION OF RICE GRASS

(RICE GRASS OR COMMON CORDGRASS)

Duck BayBig BayPerkins Passage

Spartina anglica (rice grass or common cordgrass) is an introduced and highly invasive grass found in coastal tidal flats and in saltmarshes. It is large, erect (about 1m high), spreading with horizontal mass of roots and forming dense clumps (Figure 1) and often as expansive colonies (Figure 2, 4). They are mapped separately as Spartina marshland (TASVEG code: FSM). The stems are cylindrical, unbranched, and covered with flat green leaves arranged on two opposite rows (leaf sheaths overlapping). The upper leaves are better developed and are either erect or drooping. The flower head is distinctive, arising from the top of the stem as a long erect spike with tiny yellowish green flowers (Figure 3). The habitat range of Spartina can extend up to the high tide mark and compete with native saltmarsh, mainly Sarcocornia quinqueflora (beaded glasswort) (Figure 2). The distribution of Spartina is restricted in Tasmania, though dominates much of the Tamar Estuary in NRM North region and the Rubicon and Duck River Estuaries in Cradle Coast NRM region (see pp. 36-38).

Port SorellRubicon Estuary

0

2.25 4.5 Kilometres

0

2

4 Kms

LEGEND Local Government Area < 1 ha 1 - 2 ha

Rice Grass Area (ha)

2 - 5 ha 5 - 10 ha > 10 ha

Rice Grass Point Locations Circular Head

Figure 1. Dense Spartina clumps, Duck Bay area.

WaratahWynyard Burnie

Figure 2. Spartina competing with native saltmarsh.

Devonport Latrobe Central Coast

Data from theLIST, Š State of Tasmania 0

1

Kentish

2 Kms

NRM North

Mersey Estuary

West Coast

0 5 10

20 Kilometres NRM South

Figure 3. Spartina flower head.

Figure 4. Expansive colonies of Spartina in Rubicon Estuary.

Page 35 of 38

Size class distribution of Cradle Coast NRM Spartina marshes. The three main areas of concern are highlighted in the inset maps of Port Sorell-Rubicon Estuary (total mapped area of 226 ha), Duck Bay area (27 ha), and the Mersey Estuary (0.6 ha). The mapping was partly derived from previous work by Mark Wisniewski and Owen Walker, with acknowledgements to DigitalGlobe for their satellite imagery data, and to local community groups (especially the Circular Head Landcare Group), and to contractors Mark Hedditch and Kevin Brown for their mapping and point location data. Page 36 of 38


Cradle Coast NRM

ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

PORT SORELL-RUBICON RIVER: RICE GRASS LEGEND

Saltmarsh

0 0 0.50.5 1 1

CIRCULAR HEAD: RICE GRASS LEGEND

2 Kilometres 2 Kilometres

1.25 2.5 2.5 0 0 1.25

Kilometres 55 Kilometres

Saltmarsh

Ricegrass

Ricegrass

Robbins Island

Image from TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

the LIST &copy State of Tasmania

Image from TASMAP, © State of Tasmania

the LIST &copy State of Tasmania

the LIST State of Tasmania

RICE GRASS PROFILE Port Sorell-Panatana Rivulet Saltmarsh Municipality: Latrobe Cluster (20 ha) Rice Grass Area: 226 ha South East Arm-Franklin Rivulet Associated Saltmarsh Complex: Port Sorell-Rubicon Saltmarsh Cluster (6 ha) River Coastal Complex (see pp. 8-10) Associated Waterways: Rubicon River, Associated Saltmarsh Clusters: Franklin Rivulet, Sheepwash Creek, North East Arm-Bakers Beach Saltmarsh Cluster (95 ha) Browns Creek, Branchs Creek, Kermode Rubicon River-Port Sorell Saltmarsh Cluster (33 ha) Creek, Greens Creek, Panatana Rivulet Page 37 of 38

the LIST State of Tasmania

RICE GRASS PROFILE Perkins Island Saltmarsh Cluster (65.5 ha) Municipality: Circular Head Bolduans Bay-Perkins Channel Saltmarsh Rice Grass Area: 27 ha Cluster (64 ha) Associated Saltmarsh Complexes (right-left): Acton Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (44.3 ha) Detention-Black Coastal Complex (pp. 17-18) Robbins Passage-Robbins Island East-West Inlets Coastal Complex (p. 21) Saltmarsh Cluster (186 ha) Big Bay-Duck Bay Coastal Complex (pp. 22-23) Robbins Passage-Montagu River Boullanger Bay-Robbins Passage Coastal Complex (pp. 24-28) Saltmarsh Cluster (80 ha) Associated Saltmarsh Clusters (right-left): Montagu Island Saltmarsh Cluster (61 ha) Black River Saltmarsh Cluster (17 ha) Harcus River-Harcus Island Saltmarsh West Inlet Saltmarsh Cluster (50 ha) Cluster (56.7 ha) Deep Creek Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (53.3 ha) Associated Waterways: Duck River, Deep Duck Bay-Morgans Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (20.7 ha) Creek, Scopus Creek, Montagu River, Kemps Bay-Duck Bay Saltmarsh Cluster (35 ha) Harcus River, Black River

Page 38 of 38


ATLAS OF COASTAL SALTMARSH WETLANDS IN THE CRADLE COAST REGION OF TASMANIA

CONTACT Anna Wind Coastal Coordinator Cradle Coast NRM PO Box 338 Burnie, Tasmania 7320 Ph: (03) 6433 8400 Email: awind@cradlecoast.com Website: www.cradlecoastnrm.com Vishnu Prahalad Geography & Spatial Science Discipline School of Land and Food Private Bag 78 University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 Ph: (03) 6226 7674 Email: nvishnup@gmail.com

Succulent saltmarsh in East Inlet, near Stanley

Disclaimer – Cradle Coast NRM and University of Tasmania use reasonable means to verify the validity and accuracy

of the data contained herein at the date of this publication, however to the extent allowed by law, it does not warrant or represent that the data will be correct, current, fit/suitable for a particular purpose or not-misleading. Cradle Coast NRM and University of Tasmania, and all persons acting on their behalf preparing data that has been used in this report, accept no liability for the accuracy of or inferences from material contained in this publication, or for action as a result of any person’s or group’s interpretation, deductions, conclusions or actions in relying on this material.

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