Copenhagen Cleantech Journal #5

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Issue #5




Excess industrial heat will soon keep Frederikssund warm Page


NYC: 20 billion $ investment in climate adaptation


How cities use private investments to finance their climate plans Page




The real climate heroes?





lobal climate negotiations have so far not been able to find a common ground. With few tangible global results local actors take the lead in the transition to a greener economy.


IN THE forefront of this development cities stand

out as proactive actors. Cities have no choice but to react. The strong globalization trend means that most of the world’s population now lives in cities and the trend continues. A city like Dhaka is estimated to grow with almost half a million people - per year! - for the next 10 years. THIS is an overwhelming challenge to many cit-

ies that leads to increased pollution, congestion, overloaded infrastructure, depletion of resources etc. But it also represents an unprecedented opportunity for cities to adopt greener solutions and

generally embrace a more resource efficient development to offset these challenges. MANY cities have indeed taken on the role as the

new natural centre of the green economy. Ambitious climate plans are produced from Aberdeen to Zürich, but are the cities really delivering on their promises? Have they managed to move beyond the political speeches and ambitions? And if so, how?


CITIES are the topic of this issue of the Copenha-

gen Cleantech Journal. We will explore further why cities have become the new green focal points and how they deliver on their promises. We will also look into how cities unlock private funding for their climate plans and spice it up with several inspirational examples from around the world. Enjoy!

If you have other cases you would like to call our attention to, please join the Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Group at LinkedIn.


CONTENT EDITOR Samantha Le Royal

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PAPER CCJ is printed on 100% recycled 170g Cyclus Offset paper. The cover is printed on Chromolux 700.

Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) is at the core of the cleantech eco system in Denmark with a mission to foster cooperation between cleantech companies, research institutions and public organizations worldwide. Join us for a green future – together!


EXECUTIVE EDITOR Marianna Lubanski



CITIES: CATALYSTS FOR GREEN DEVELOPMENT Is the climate change battle being lost or won in cities? Page 04

INTERVIEW WITH SETH SCHULTZ Decoding the roles and duties of cities and mayors Page 10

CITIES IN TRANSITION Global snapshots of green cities’ actions Page 13

FINANCING THE GREEN CITY How do cities attract private investment? Page 18


The need for clean urban development calls for localized solutions Page 22

Photo: Michael Bocchieri

HARNESSING THE HEAT OF INDUSTRY Reusing industrial excess heat can be a good business case in cities Page 24


The ‘Big Apple’ invests billions to protect the city against climate change Page 28



Illustration: Benny Box

How to measure city performance – the green city index Page 34

THE CITIZEN’S FOOTPRINT A broader perspective to climate change impact Page 36

Issue #5 · 2013 |




Catalysts for Green Development For centuries cities have been hubs of economic and social development. Now many also look at cities as solutions to the global climate change challenge. But cities are facing their own serious challenges as a consequence of urbanisation. They need tangible solutions to tackle uniquely urban problems. So the question is: Are cities also the new climate heroes?

Illustration: Benny Box

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3.5 billion


oday, we speak of cities at a larger scale than ever before. Major cities already consume nearly 80 percent of the energy produced globally, and generate 70 percent of the global GDP. Megacities, cities with populations over 10 million, use more than 60 percent of the world’s resources and account for over 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. The World Bank predicts that continued urbanization will result in 4 billion people living in megacities by 2030, that’s over half of the predicted world population. The UN also estimates that by 2050 the world population will increase to 9.3 billion, with the population in urban areas reaching 6.3 billion. Global sustainable development is highly dependent on transitioning cities into resilient hubs of sustainable development and environmental stewardship. There is a growing call to consider cities as future catalysts of sustainable development. Urban areas are expected to absorb most of the population growth over the next four decades.

Number of people living in urban areas in 2010 In particular, Asia is projected to see its urban populations increase by 1.4 billion, Africa by 0.9 billion, and Latin America and the Caribbean by 0.2 billion in the next 40 years (2011-2050) according to the UN. Cities also offer a potential remedy to unambitious national policies and to the failures of global climate negotiations. Many cities are embracing their title as the new climate heroes while many environmentalists are also putting the hopes in the hands of sustainable urban transition. However, the large majority of cities are not equipped with the resources or infrastructure to adopt green solutions and adapt to climate change. Can cities tackle the massive challenges of increasing populations, and lead the global transition to a green economy at the same time? Looking into the future Migration into cities has a massive impact on individual cities and the planet as a whole. Nonetheless, it can be seen as an opportunity to grow green and to adopt better technologies and systems for catalyzing global sustainable development. “Cities today have a choice of doing things sustainably or inefficiently, the answer is obvious,” says Neelabh Singh, Head of Complex

50% Percentage of people living in cities in 2010

6.3 billion

Number of people projected to live in urban areas in 2050

Issue #5 · 2013 |


Catalysts for Green Development

Cleantech Solutions at Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC). CCC is dedicated to promoting holistic solutions to the complex challenges faced by cities and city segments, such as waste handling and water management. Singh adds, “But we must consider that cities around the world are in different stages of accepting sustainability.” A report by Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster and Quartz & Co. identifies cities by their needs and the potential for cleantech solutions. Cities such as Lagos and Dhaka, where there is rapid urbanization but low GDP growth, require affordable green solutions. “MAJOR CITIES ARE LOOKING These cities need to inFOR ONE THING ABOVE ALL: crease housing ECONOMIC GROWTH” and infrastrucCONNOR RIFFLE ture first. Investing in green solutions immediately can lower the capital barrier for sustainable waste, water and energy systems. Very large cities in developing countries such as Mexico City, Mumbai, and Sao Paulo are considering upgrades to their existing infrastructure to meet international standards. The report classifies them as Comfort Evolution Cities. Finally, at the highest end of the spectrum, are cities such as London, Copenhagen and Amsterdam. They are the frontrunners, with ambitious GHG reduction targets. These cities seek to attain economic growth by

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developing green industry, creating high value jobs in the sector, and branding themselves as green. The economic growth will continue to be concentrated in urban areas, with the top 30 cities driving the 20 percent of the global GDP growth from 2010-2020. City populations of emerging economies are expected to double from 2 billion to 4 billion people between 2000 and 2030. With more than 70 percent of generated energy now consumed in cities, and as much as 80 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions attributed to urban residents, cities need sustainable growth (World Bank, 2013). “This means that politicians and policy makers cannot look at green economic growth and cleantech in isolation, but as an integrated and necessary element to capture future growth,” states Singh. He explains that the national and city political agenda have few choices but to embrace cleantech as part of the development. He draws on the Danish model, where economic growth and energy consumption are inversely proportional. Singh notes, “This means creating frameworks and conditions for a good business case, which should include financial, social and environmental gains.” Rising Megacities “Developing countries, and their major cities, are looking for one thing above all: economic growth, as fast as possible” says Connor Riffle, Head of Cities at Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). To guard social and economical development, megacities require climate secure solutions matching the scale of their needs for energy, food, and

Eco city types compared to maturity stages water. He explains that with growth come higher standards of living, less disease and poverty, and fewer deaths. Riffle adds, “Clean energy and the switch to a low-carbon future presents a oncein-a-lifetime opportunity for cities to enable significant economic growth.” The CDP provides a voluntary climate change-reporting platform as a first step for managing GHG emissions. Building and improving cities with the aim of continued sustainable growth will require a range of considerations, including energy supplies, efficient buildings, waste management capacity and innovative water systems. Singh comments, “We observe that there is not so much an issue of a lack of capital or a lack of political will, but more an issue of being able to take a certain technology and apply it at a grand scale.” He mentions that successful solutions cannot be transferred from city to city. When it comes to megacities, the need for scale is enormous, applying solutions that currently work in Copenhagen to cities like Beijing is complex. However, new megacities in developing nations can also leapfrog to cleantech. “Developing cities have the opportunity to avoid the carbonintensive infrastructure choices that developed countries made in the past. For example, developed cities like Los Angeles made major investments in roads just after World War II. Today, not coincidentally, the largest share of Los Angeles’ GHG emissions arises from transport. Developing cities can immediately invest in low-carbon infrastructure. For instance, many developing cities in Latin America and Africa are skipping expensive investments in subways in favor of Bus Rapid Transport,” says Riffle.

Quality of life/ city GDP





low low


Sustainability “index”

1 Affordable greening Accomodating for many households at lowest cost Building Eco + using smart technology can save Capex for water, electricity and waste

2 Comfort evolution Provide greater comfort and efficiency for inhabitants. Reduce the basic problems of pollution and waste at lowest capex/opex

3 Green comfort and branded city Make the city attractive for people and companies Issue #5 · 2013 |


Catalysts for Green Development

From Measures to Action Matt Prescott, Founder of the Environmental Rating Agency (ERA), explains that due to their scale, cities also have the ability to deliver measurable change through integrated systems. “City infrastructure is much more geared to take the measurements. Basically, if you make changes you can follow the consequences through systems. The more efficient the upgrade is, the bigger incentive to make interventions.” He adds, “Mitigating environmental impacts is obvious in urban areas, as the larger the group of people, the larger the impact and the economies of scale.” ERA develops risk models that help various sectors, such as finance sectors. ERA’s flagship report rates nations according to 12 environmental indicators including energy, CO2 emissions per kWh generated and per capita, national protected areas, and deforestation rate; other important indicators they consider are water, air quality and human consumption. “We found that the global conversation about the environment has become stocked in relation to climate and energy, but there are other issues and opportunities we should look at. From our assessment, it turned out that issues like water and air quality were neglected aspects of environmental impact. There are some countries that are significantly outperforming others, where there is an opportunity to learn rather than arguing about the 1 percent improvements here and there. There are opportunities to make 50 percent improvements just by looking at the best in the world and learning from them” says Prescott.

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Rapid industrialization poses many challenges in developing nations. Megacities in China and India seeking to develop institutions that can cope with the population growth need affordable and environmentally conscious solutions at a large scale. Prescott says, “We shouldn’t believe that upcoming megacities in developing nations have to make all the mistakes of developed nations. Here rating and benchmarking is a great way to create valuable knowledge and harnessing it to achieve desirable goals. There are many cities that share similar difficulties of waste and energy security, each city is creating a myriad of different ideas. This experimentation is generating new solutions that can be broadly applied without being politically driven.” Cities, such as Mexico City and Sao Paolo, picked negative features of developed cities, such as urban sprawl. Now it’s time to repair damages and upgrade to green. Cities in Transition The reality is that cities are limited by budget and day-to-day problems. Riffle says, “Every city government I’ve ever met with is feeling the pinch of tight budgets. So city governments are constantly looking for ways to save money and create efficiencies. Cutting carbon —regardless of its benefits for the earth’s atmosphere— provides a tried and tested, cost-effective method for cities to improve their efficiency and save money, through activities like building retrofits and fuel switching. The promise of saving money is a great motivator for cities to undertake green urban planning.” The problems associated with


migration into urban areas also create challenges for expanding the capacity of systems to cope with waste, water and energy needs. Besides job creation and economic growth on the daily agenda, cities also have to adapt to climate change. Riffle shares his view on these issues. “Traffic, especially in developing cities, brings the business to a halt. Megacities like Sao Paulo, Mexico City, and Shanghai routinely face traffic bottlenecks that extend cross-town journeys from one hour to three hours. The daily nature of this traffic is a major driver for city governments to think about different, often greener, urban planning and development.” He continues, “City governments, whether they like it or not, are the firstresponders to weather-induced catastrophes like flooding. These weather catastrophes have been on the increase over the last decade. Every year now megacities like New York, Jakarta, and Rio de Janeiro make the front page of international newspapers for massive weather-related disasters. Watching local citizens and businesses suffer— is a powerful motivator to accelerate the

pace of investment in green urban planning and development.” Thinking of cleantech in terms of economy efficiency is already delivering results. “We need to decouple growth in GHG emissions from growth in GDP. Economic efficiency gives us a metric by which to measure progress in decoupling. The metric encourages cities to begin thinking about how they can produce more economic output per ton of GHG” states Riffle. Urban residents need clean air, potable water, and affortable energy. They also need efficient buildings, a reliable power grid and capable mobility solutions. The complexity requires taking a holistic view of sustainable solutions for cities. Megacities occupy about 2 percent of the world’s land; compact and wellconnected growth can make a huge difference in the amount of investment needed for driving green urban development. Singh states “The fight against climate change will be won or lost in cities, so it’s crucial we make our urban habitats more efficient, cleaner and better to live in —not only for ourselves, but for future generations. Technologies are major levers and base for further sustainable city development. An effective infrastructure contributes to economic prosperity and improving quality of life.”

Issue #5 · 2013 |


Q& A

Seth Schultz SETH SERVES as the Director of Research at the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40). Prior to this role, he served as the Director of the Climate Positive Development Program at the Clinton Foundation developing a program to help large-scale urban projects reduce their on-site CO2 emissions. Previous to his nonprofit work, Seth has been a consultant on environmental issues for more than 10 years.


WHAT challenges do cities face in devel-

oping green projects?

One of the main challenges for cities is funding -- finding the capital required to “green” a city. Importantly, funding can’t simply be taxed-based, and it’s also influenced by factors beyond the city borders. Financing green projects requires expanding the capital base for improvement projects. Since city infrastructure is large, projects often need financial support from national or regional governments as well. The interesting thing is that cities are getting more and more creative in figuring out ways to pay for projects, either by privatizing or forming public-private partnerships. Engaging stakeholders is another challenge. Cities are increasing in size, and they are becoming more diverse economically and culturally. It can be difficult to communicate effectively to citizens what needs to be done and why – but many of our C40 Cities have developed best practices in this area.

Illustration: John Wilson

Long term planning is also a real challenge. In developing cities, a rapid influx of people moving into urban areas forces cities to provide the necessary services and infrastructure at a pace that may impede comprehensive planning. The result can be costly. There is a need for both long term planning and immediate action. I think cities are getting better and better at doing both.

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The climate challenges confronting cities may be similar, but they require different, localized approaches and solutions

GIVEN THESE challenges, to what extent

MEASURING GHG emissions, is this ap-

are cities already catalyzing their expansion towards green development?

proach really helping Mayors to move forward in the right direction?

What we see is that cities around the world are taking more action on climate change issues than other types of government. They are moving very quickly in terms of clean, green development. In a report that we released earlier this year, we found that by taking action on climate change mayors were actually creating healthier and wealthier cities. It is a mayor’s responsibility to provide a safe and profitable environment for citizens. Cities are very competitive, and seek to attract people and businesses. So, cities are finding it very important to provide the best quality of life, the best living environment and truly vibrant places to live and to work.

Yes, this is a fundamental issue and one that our C40 Chair, New York City Mayor Bloomberg has driven home repeatedly. He has often said “if you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it.” And that means that if you understand where your GHG emissions are coming from, then you can begin to address and prioritize them, eventually tracking progress over time. This holds true for a variety of policy interventions, regardless of whether they are climate related or not. So the smarter and more detailed cities are about data collection and measurement, the smarter and more efficient their policy interventions can be. In our 2013 CDP Cities survey of C40 Cities, more than 64 percent of respondents reported that they are creating greenhouse gas emissions inventories at the citywide level. This commitment to data-driven action will be one of the key legacies of Mayor Bloomberg’s chairmanship.

Concerns about climate resilience are also driving the green agenda forward. Resilience is an important issue, 90% of the world’s large cities are coastal making them very susceptible to rising sea levels and the impacts of extreme weather events. This is a critical issue for cities, regardless or whether they are located in the southern or northern hemisphere. What we see is that a need for adaptability becomes a driver for developing green infrastructure which, in turn, will also make cities more resistant to climate change impacts.

Issue #5 · 2013 |


ABOUT C40 The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) is a network of large and engaged cities from around the world committed to implementing meaningful and sustainable climate-related actions locally that will help address climate change globally. C40 was established in 2005 and expanded via a partnership in 2006 with President William J. Clinton’s Climate Initiative (CCI). The current chair of the C40 is New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. To learn more about the work of C40 and our Cities, please visit

HOW ARE CITIES benefiting from collabo-

rating with each other?

Mayors are responsible to the public for delivering results and driving innovation. Increasingly mayors are looking to one another for ideas and solutions to common problems. The value of this kind of exchange is a key tenet of C40: it is really beneficial – and more efficient – for cities to have a forum in which to share information, including both their failures and successes . As a result, cities can save their peers from making the same mistakes – and can provide examples that serve as proof points in proposing new initiatives to their constituents. And this is critical for success. C40 Mayors understand this, and are helping each other. What’s really interesting is that there is a tremendous amount of learning and sharing between developed and developing cities. For instance, there is a valuable interaction between London and Johannesburg, and between Rio de Janeiro and Stockholm. All kinds of learning and fruitful exchanges are happening. The really exciting thing is that when cities get together to work on problems we are able to “circle the wagons” around specific issues and work to develop solutions in a collaborative fashion. Or as London’s Mayor Johnson is fond of saying to the members, and I am paraphrasing, “I have every intention of stealing your good ideas.”

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HOW IS C40 helping cities to measure

greenhouse gas emissions and create climate action plans? C40 is helping cities measure their greenhouse gas emissions by developing a common approach, or standard, for city-level measurement. The Global Protocol for Community Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC), developed in partnership with WRI and ICLEI is specifically designed for cities. It identifies sectors, emissions and boundaries to measure. Currently C40 is piloting this initiative with 35 cities around the world, and will launch the final version in 2014. The protocol will serve as a global tool bringing much needed consistency to measuring GHG emissions in cities. This will help cities access financing; allow comparisons between cities over time; and demonstrate the global impact of collective local action. C40 is also developing a methodology to assess the level of control that a mayor has over the GHG emissions in their cities. It includes 4 different dimensions of power, breaking the emissions problem into categories, and surveying affiliated cities on the type of power they have based on their local governance structure. What this research shows is that Mayors have direct authority over the most important sources of emissions. At C40 we rely on this research to identify the potential areas of intervention both where mayors have the greatest degree of control and where action would have the greatest impact on greenhouse gas emissions or climate risk. It is in these high impact areas where C40 focused on connecting cities with similar governance structures in order to transfer and scale actions more rapidly.


CITIES IN TRANSITION Cities are the places where challenges and solutions meet. But today, cities are growing at an unprecedented and challenging speed. City leaders are concerned about creating jobs and making their cities competitive. They also worry about the quality of life for citizens, and how cities can lower their carbon trajectories. These are examples of cities in transition towards green development.


Curitiba’s Green Revolution

Photo: WHL travel/Creative Commons


NOW RECOGNIZED as one of the world’s greenest cities, Curitiba, Brazil began its sustainable transformation in 1970. Led by its former mayor, Jaime Lerner, a team of city planners, engineers, and sociologists worked together. They developed a plan for efficient transport, community friendly public spaces, and waste systems.

Every citizen has around 52 square meters of nature to enjoy in the city. Programs like the “Green City Exchange” incentivize low-income families to exchange rubbish for bus tickets and food. About 70 percent of all waste is recycled, the city’s efforts to recycle paper save 1200 trees a day. These transformations have also contributed to economic growth, the GDP per capita in Curitiba is 66 percent above the average in Brazil. Issue #5 · 2013 |




Science Tower GRAZ, THE SECOND largest city in Austria, will host the smart city centre for urban technologies in the new Science Tower. The 60 meters tall tower will become the landmark of the city, and a home for scientists and companies involved in innovative cleantech solutions. It will also house its employees while remaining open to the general public.

On the roof, there will be a relaxation zone with a botanical garden, emphasizing the quality of life and openness that Graz wishes to accommodate as a part of a sustainable community. With a round outer shell its own glass skin will also gather its energy.

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A Future Eco-city GRENOBLE is set to demonstrate how a post-carbon city will

look. The EcoCité project aims to develop energy positive and carbon neutral cities by combining clean and renewable sources, including biomass, solar and hydraulic power. Buildings will be retrofitted, heating and cooling systems will be integrated to the smart grid, and transportation will be shared using electric or hybrid power. Moderately priced mobility passes will allow citizens to use electric vehicles, self-service bikes, car sharing programmes and electric public transport. Other improvements include, the re-use of rainwater, wood constructions, and geothermal heating systems. Environmentally sound performance and quality life will be linked with design features, such as vertical gardens.

Grenoble is located at the foot of the French Alps, in an urban area with 700,000 inhabitants. This project is the biggest of the 13 districts in France set to develop into Ecocities. It will promote green and sustainable development, as well as improve community awareness.


Urban Biodiversity IN CAPE TOWN, the city’s urban expansion threatens the city’s habitats, flora and fauna. Responding to these threats and the need for rapid action, Cape Town has identified, prioritized and begun the implementation of a Biodiversity Network, which protects critically important remnants of vegetation.

The resulting network presently protects representative components of all remaining vegetation types within the municipal area. Of 23 nationally recognized vegetation types in the city limits, 10 are considered ‘Critically Endangered’, four are ‘Endangered’ and four are ‘Vulnerable’. Six of these 23 vegetation types are endemic to the city. These conservation measures establish ecological corridors, which remain accessible to the citizens of Cape Town and visiting tourists. Issue #5 · 2013 |




Urban Innovation PORTLAND HAS A LONG history in sustainability action. The city has long pursued innovative approaches to urbanism, beginning with the urban growth boundary in the 1970s to the pioneering of EcoDistricts today. Portland is the first U.S. city to enact a comprehensive plan to reduce CO2 emissions. It also runs a comprehensive system of light rail, buses, and bike lanes to help keep cars off the roads, and it boasts 37.23 hectares of green space and more than 119 kilometers of hiking, running, and biking trails.

Portland was hit hard by the current economic downturn. In response, the city has redoubled its efforts to invest in sustainability as a major part of its economic development strategy. Portland’s strategy includes building upon its urban sustainability investments.

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Public-Private Partnerships


PANGKALPINANG MUNICIPALITY in Indonesia formed an innovative public-private partnership by converting spoilt land into The Bangka Botanical Garden. The idea came from a local firm and by partnering with the government, the transformation of this land became an ecologically important area, formerly used for mining.

The botanical garden, as well as providing recreational opportunities to the community, supplies clean water to the municipality and it has become a significant wildlife habitat. Furthermore, its creation has led to the development of the Bangka Goes Green movement. With its implementation came a greater sense of responsibility and interest in preserving the local environment.


Education for Sustainability


THE BARCELONA School Agenda 21 is a pioneering environmental education program for schools within Barcelona and a source of inspiration for similar initiatives beyond the city. The entire community around each school is involved in providing solutions and making commitments for a more sustainable city, for the environment and for the school itself.

Over the years, more than 80,000 pupils, 7,500 teachers, 1,400 supplementary school staff members and over 60,000 families have taken part. The School Agenda 21 Program unfolds in a conceptual space somewhere between the educational sphere and the environmental dimension of the Barcelona Local Agenda 21. It has served as a model for many other cities in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Argentina, Mexico and Cuba.


9 Mithi River WITH AN ECOSYSTEM in disruption, the Mithi river in Mumbai is host to extreme rainfalls and waste water. Nonetheless, the river is vital for local communities. The Mithi River Development and Protection Authority and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region have a goal of finding cleantech solutions for restoring balance to the river’s ecosystem.

Local authorities are exploring several solutions to handle the complex challenges the river faces. They are collaborating with a Danish group of companies specialized in water improvement and waste treatment to apply a holistic approach, and will carry out a pilot project to apply their shared solutions and experience. Issue #5 · 2013 |


FINANCING THE GREEN CITY Ambitious climate plans are often designed to be good investments for cities in the long run. While the cities make considerable upfront investments in these plans, private investments often play a crucial role as well. In Copenhagen, the climate plan requires that for every 1 DKK invested by the city, 80 DKK come from private investors. With limited powers of enforcement what initiatives are cities taking to incentivize private investment?


hen drawing up climate plans, cities will naturally include the sectors that contribute the largest share of GHG emissions. In cities like Hong Kong, where 89 percent of the emissions come from buildings it makes sense to invest most effort on that sector. By contrast, 40 percent of emissions in Toronto are attributed to mobility (Climate Group, 2010). Cities often have the powers to implement changes in few of the sectors relevant to

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ambitious climate plans, for example transportation and waste management. However, the energy and building sectors – often privately controlled – are also large contributors to green house emissions. As a consequence private investments in infrastructure are paramount for climate mitigation and adaption plans to succeed. Copenhagen serves as an example. The city has heating and cooling plants from waste and seawater, high capacity windmill parks, and highways for bikes. A decade ago Copenhagen embarked on a very ambitious journey of becoming the first carbon neutral capital by 2025. Even for a front-runner city like Copenhagen, the extra mile is neither easy nor cheap. “To reach this goal we have identified 14 target areas and plan to invest DKK 2.7 billion (EUR 362 million) by 2025” says Jørgen Abildgaard, Climate Director for the City of Copenhagen. In addition the climate

plan needs an investment of DKK 25 billion (EUR 3.4 billion) by 2025 to be successful. He explains that private investment must come onboard to reach these milestones. “For every krone we invest ourselves, we need DKK 9 from our utility companies and DKK 82 from private investors”. He explains that this model proves challenging when it comes to buildings, because 95 percent of the existing buildings are privately owned. As the city has limited power to enforce retrofitting, it is left in need of creative solutions.

‘THINKING OUT OF THE BOX’ “Instead, we use our excellent overview of the buildings. Based on building type and ownership, we are able to group buildings suitable for retrofitting, allowing private owners to tender together on several buildings at once, which brings scale and lower the prices for retrofitting. We help create a better business case for private owners to retrofit their buildings, making it a win-win

Municipal emissions reduction actions focused on efficiency % of actions. Only the most common actions are shown, altogether 20 types of actions

Smart lighting 3% ESCO financing 3% Improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 from bus and/or light rail operations 4% Building performance and reporting 7%

Building codes and standards 8%


Renewables on into energy generation 9%

LED / CFL / other luminaire technologies 12%

Improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 from motorized vehicles 15%

Energy efficiency / retrofit measures 21%

Reported annual energy efficiency savings By city ($USD). Chart shows energy efficiency projects for which cities reported quantifiable financial savings. Sydney Sao Paulo

$800.000 $1,400,000









Las Vegas


Washington, DC


Los Angeles


Source: Carbon Disclosure Project, 2013, C40 Cities

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situation for building owners and the city” says Abildgaard. Copenhagen is a good example of how cities often catalyze the private investments needed: by making the ambitions of climate plans good business for both the city and the investors. “We have to remember that retrofitting for example is often already a good business case. If cities can make it even better by using their assets in new ways, it should be a no-brainer” says Abildgaard. Other cities use similar thinking to nurture investments in privately owned buildings. In San Jose, California, a GreenPoint rating system was introduced to green 4.5 million square meters of buildings by 2025. In Sao Paolo, the city granted USD 1.2 billion (EUR 880 million) in building rights for additional floor space on top of existing buildings, to avoid the inefficiencies of urban sprawl. Tokyo created the most advanced cap and trade system for buildings, contributing to the city’s goal of cutting CO2 emissions by 25 percent. In New York, buildings are benchmarked against each other and are required to publicly disclose their energy use. Amsterdam’s Green Lab is a publicprivate partnership with the city’s financial sector, academia and local government stakeholders cooperating to finance the green transition of the city. Additionally, as a part of the climate plan, the city created The Amsterdam Investment Fund with of EUR 70 million capital available for loans to sustainable projects in the city.

FOCUS ON THE INDUSTRY Kalundborg, Denmark, is known for their ‘Symbiosis’ –using waste streams from one

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company as input to production for others. There, industry accounts for 71 percent of the energy used and 41 percent of CO2 emissions. To reach the GHG reductions in the city’s climate plan, industry is needed . Per Møller, Project Manager, Kalundborg Municipality shares his experience, “In the City of Kalundborg we spend a lot of time with the companies to understand their business. The general overview we get from this, helps to develop new forms of company cooperation”. With a CO2 emission reduction goal of 20 percent by 2020, this city is focusing on collaboration with industry. “By facilitating a process of better cooperation between companies, we ensure both green growth and lower emissions. This approach is required if the aim is to reach large emission reduction targets, largely through commercially viable investments by private companies” says Per Møller. The collaboration model in Kalundborg ensured 277.000 tons of CO2 cuts in 2008 alone.

THE GREEN CITY GUIDES C40 reports that 62 percent of actions taken to cut GHG emissions by its member cities have also made green projects more attractive for businesses. Cities’ role as “climate heroes” are often to set clear carbon reduction goals, and to bring change by facilitating the private investments and seeding a new mindset. “It’s great when cities can actually be climate heroes and at the same time make good investment cases for investors. This is what green growth is really about,” concludes Abildgaard.

OECD FACTS (2012) Greening urban spaces in C40 cities is estimated to be 3 trillion USD. • The global infrastructure needs are huge and estimate to require 40 trillion USD or 2,5% of the global GDP per year in road, rails, electricity and water. • The congestion charges cost the city of London 244 million USD and bring anannual GHG emissions reduction of 120 tones. • A solar center station in Seville cost the city 41 million USD and saves the cityof 110 tones of GHG emissions annually.

OECD (2012): There are several existing financial instruments that cities apply to attract private finance for urban green infrastructure: • Private sector involvement in urban green infrastructure can take the form of publicprivate partnerships (PPPs), in which the long-term risk is transferred to the private sector. This can be the example of retrofitting government buildings through an ESCO project. • Through tax increment financing, as an alternative instrument for future tax revenues is used to attract private finance. • Real estate developers may also pay for the infrastructure that is needed to connecttheir new development to existing infrastructure in the form of development charges (impact fees) and value capture (taxes that capture the value increases ofreal estate due to new infrastructure development nearby). • Finally, loans, bonds and carbon finance are instruments used to attract private finance in well-functioning capital markets.

Emissions reduction actions that will make cities more attractive to business % of actions. Only the most common actions are shown, altogether 27 types of actions were reported.


Improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 from bus and/or light rail operations 4% Waste prevention policies or programs 4% Transportation demand management 5% Green space and/or biodiversity preservation and expansion 6% Recycling or composting collections and/or facilities 7%

Improve accessibility to public transit systems 8%

Improve fuel economy and reduce CO2 from motorized vehicles 10%

Infrastructure for non-motorized transport 11%

Energy efficiency/retrofit measures 13%

Source: Carbon Disclosure Project, 2013, C40 Cities

Issue #5 路 2013 |



“Affordable Green” They need very cost efficient sustainable infrastructure and energy solutions to cope with their massive population growth.

Estimated annual population growth to 2025

Lagos 500,000 Karachi 400,000 Delhi 300,000

Illustration: BENNY BOX

FUTURE GREEN CITIES UNFOLDED CITIES are increasingly the new epicentres of the green transition. Targetting solutions to cities are hence a key priority for many cleantech solution providers. But cities are not just cities. We take a closer look at four archetypes with very different needs and challenges.

“Smart Cities” Cities leading cleantch development with climate plans leading to ambitious CO2 reduction targets.

Share of renewable energy (country level)

Copenhagen 19% Vancouver 17% Melbourne 4% Yearly CO2 emission reduction

Copenhagen 6.5% Vancouver 2.5% Melbourne 5.5%

Population Growth

“LeapFrog Cities” Cities with the capital to invest and infrastructure needed to leapfrog to state-of-the-art cleantech.

Estimated GDP growth 2010-2025

Beijing 399% Guangzhu 292% Shanghai 342% Sao Paolo 108 %

GDP Growth

“Eco-Evolution Cities” World metropolitans seeking green development and able to catalyze economies of scale in cleantech

GHG emission metric tonnes

New York 53 million London 44 million Tokyo 61 million

Issue #5 · 2013 |


Photo: Ministry of Transport

HARNESSING THE HEAT OF INDUSTRY Manufacturers interested in recycling their excess industrial heat have long been confronted with practical and financial barriers. But now an energy partnership in the Danish Capital Region has managed to reach an agreement that can warm up a whopping 50% of Frederikssund city’s homes while saving the environment from 6,000 tons of carbon dioxide and 2.5 tons of mono-nitrogen oxides. The process took a lot of time and ingenuity – and some extra taxes. 24 |

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More cleantech solutions and infrastructure underway in the Danish Capital Region.

per unit of product has been fallingsteadily for the past five or six years. Moreover, we have an agreement with the Danish Energy Agency to carry out any energy-saving project with a payback time of less than four years.” A HEATED BUSINESS


s a manufacturer of catalysts that reduce air pollution and energy consumption worldwide, the Danish company Haldor Topsøe A/S had long had its eye on the pollution-reducing potential of the excess heat generated by its own factory in Frederikssund. But until recently, it had been impossible to harness that heat. And so every year, massive amounts of ‘free’ energy had simply gone to waste. Haldor Topsøe’s Technical Director Vegard Hetting admits that this waste of energy is not exactly in the spirit of the company. “We’ve wanted to do something about this problem for years,” he says. “Every year we do what we can to reduce our own energy consumption, and even though our production has increased, our energy consumption

Making catalysts is a heat-intensive business. One of the hottest manufacturing steps is a spray-drying process used to extract a substance called alumina from a solution of 20% solid matter and 80% water. To transform the alumina slurry into a fine powder that can be used by other production units, the spray dryers take in a total of 30,000 m3 of very hot (700 degrees C) air per hour and leave behind a cloud of water-saturated air with a temperature of 125 degrees C. Part of this byproduct is used by the company itself to heat up its buildings. But once this heat has been extracted, there’s still a cloud of damp air with a temperature of about 75 degrees C to be dealt with. “Until now, we’ve just been sending it through a glass tube heat exchanger to cool it down,” says Vegard. “But we would much rather see the heat being used by someone else.” And that heat could certainly be put to good use. On a yearly basis, the excess heat from Haldor Topsøe A/S represents some 30-35 GWh. That’s enough energy to heat up about 1,700 single-family homes for a year – or half of the 3,500 households in the cityof Frederikssund. UP THE CHIMNEY

Meanwhile, the local district heating company E.ON had been looking for

new, stable alternatives to the heat created by its gas boilers. Pairing up E.ON and Haldor Topsøe A/S would seem to be an obvious, win-win solution, and both parties had in fact been trying to find common ground for years. But doing that wasn’t as simple as it sounds. The main problem was that E.ON needed a higher outflow temperature than Haldor Topsøe could deliver. Another problem was the Danish tax system. By law Danish manufacturers are required to pay a 38% tax on the sale of their excessheat. This law is actually about to change (see box) – but it has long been a barrier for many businesses interested in this type of agreement, says industry sector executive Hans Peter Slente of The Danish Energy Industries Federation. “Transferring heat from one place to another requires some investments,” he notes, “and to make these investments profitable, the tax needs to be reduced. Otherwise, businesses will just continue letting their fires go up the chimney.” Despite the tax burden, Haldor Topsøe A/S was prepared to move forward on the project – if the temperature problem could be solved. And it finally was, thanks to E.ON’s own evolving technology. Adjustments and improvements made in the company’s district heat distribution system at last enabled them to reduce the temperature requirement for the hot water they needed from Haldor Topsøe A/S. “On really cold winter days, we will have to raise the temperature a bit, but it’s not a problem that Issue #5 · 2013 |


Photo: Municipality of Frederikssund)

Private-public partnership discussions underway at Haldor Topsoe Park & Vinge, Frederikssund.

can upset the project,” Vegard Hetting says. The company is now busy establishing the infrastructure that will transfer their excess heat to E.ON’s district heating network. Once the heat-sharing project takes effect in December, it will save the environment from 6,000 tons of carbon dioxide and 2.5 tonsof nitrogen oxides. A HUGE DIFFERENCE

E.ON has also made some investments related to the long-awaited connection. But the plant’s managing director Henrik Rasmussen, who is also chief operating officer of the Danish E.ON organization, expects that the new arrangement with Haldor Topsøe A/S will soon pay for itself. “The new setup provides significant benefits and is a sound investment for both parties,” he says. “Going forward, it will also make our heat production even more environmentally friendly than it is today. We are extremely pleased with this solution. ”Apart from the fact that excess industrial heat is less expensive than many other energy sources, the agreement will also make a huge difference to E.ON’s to heat supply. According to Henrik, the heat from Haldor Topsøe A/S will represent about 50 percent of the total heat production at the E.ON plant. Having an additional source of heat also gives the plant an extra production option to supplement its exist-

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ing gas-fired boilers, gas engines and electrical boilers. Dependingon shortterm market conditions, the plant can now choose between four different production methods to provide customers with the least expensive form of energy at any given time. “All in all, it means a more stable business for us, with a large, predictable supply of heat and stable prices that will enable us to retain existing customers and attract new ones,” Henrik says. Henrik is hesitant to predict how the new agreement will affect the average heating bill of his customers. An analysis of the project by the engineering consultancy firm COWI, however, puts the potential savings at about 300 euro per year for the owner ofa 130 m3 home with a yearly heat consumption of 18,1 MWh. THE POWER OF EXAMPLE

Henrik Rasmussen and Vegard Hetting agree that the partnership between their two companies is an example with great potential for others. Another strong believer in the power of this example is Frederikssund’s Director of Planning, Environment and Business Claus Steen Madsen. “This is a fantastic example of how two businesses have been able to work together as neighbors to find a mutually beneficial solution. It’s a great story that paves the way for others,” he says. “The role of our municipality must be to showcase these stories and

possibilities, bring parties together and facilitate new partnerships.” “I also believe that this type of symbiosis has potential not only for large companies but for small and mediumsized ones,” Claus adds. Before coming to Frederikssund, Claus Steen Madsen worked with the idea of industrial symbiosis for many years in the Danish municipality of Kalundborg (see box), and he believes it can help define how businesses and society in general will operate and survive in the future. GREAT POTENTIAL

One thing appears to be certain: there is a great, immediate and untapped potential for symbiosis when it comes to using excess industrial heat in district heating systems. Especially in view of the fact that over 60% of all Danish households have district heating, making Denmark a world leader in this area. Hans Peter Slente of the The Danish Energy Industries Federation explains the specifics: “A number of analyses point to a significant potential for utilizing excess industrial heat. A conservative estimate puts the unused potential in Denmark at between 1,388 and 2,222 GWH, corresponding to the yearly heat consumption of 70,000 – 110,000 households. “Whether or not a manufacturer can sell the excess heat from production depends on many factors, includ-

ing heat temperature, the size and proximity of the local district heating plant and seasonal differences in the amount of excess heat that is generated,” he adds. MORE GROWTH IN FREDERIKSSUND

Back in Frederikssund, there’s also a potential for further growth, thanks in part to thenew partnership between Haldor Topsøe A/S and E.ON. “Our new source of heat enables us to expand our capacity and deliver heat to new customers and new neighborhoods,” says Henrik Rasmussen. “We are following the general procedure for this kind of project, and the development will take some time. ”This could dovetail nicely with production plans at Haldor Topsøe A/S, where the turnover will increase significantly in the coming years. The manufacturing plant in Frederikssund currently consists of eight production units, and a ninth is under construction. Whether this will mean more excess heat deliveries to E.ON will depend on whether Haldor Topsøe A/S is able to use the heat for its own purposes. Technical Director Vegard Hetting’s first priority is to seek out ways for the company to re-use its own waste products. But whatever the case, it’s a safe bet that in the future there will be a lot less excess industrial heat from Haldor Topsøe A/S going up a useless chimney.

DANISH PARLIAMENT WILL PROMOTE THE USE OF EXCESS HEAT By 2015, the 38% tax on the sale of excess industrial heat could change because of a new ‘growth package’ adopted by the Danish parliament last April. As part of the package, a yearly fund of 15 mio EURO was established to promote the usage of excess industrial heat. It is uncertain whether the money will be used to offset lost revenues if the tax is abolished or reduced. An analysis of how to make better use of excess industrial heat is expected in 2015, and specific steps will not be taken until the analysis is released. The The Danish Energy Industries Federation is lobbying to lower or completely remove the tax. Meanwhile, Claus Steen Madsen of the municipality of Frederikssund suggests a new tax structure in which the highest taxes are levied on waste products that cannot be recycled.

INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS: FROM WASTE TO RESOURCE The energy-sharing between Haldor Topsøe A/S and E.ON is an example of what’s known as industrial symbiosis – a collaboration in which waste products from one industry become valuable resources for another. But the potential for this type of waste-sharing is not limited to excess heat. The first example of industrial symbiosis involves many other kinds of waste products as well. Since 1961, the project known as Kalundborg Symbiosis in the Danishmunicipality of Kalundborg has evolved into an intricate network of flows between public and private companies in which organic waste becomes fertilizer, smoke becomes gypsum, yeast slurry becomes animal fodder and so on. Other elements in this network can include steam, dust, gases, heat or any other waste product that can be physically transported from one enterprise to another. Learn more at Issue #5 · 2013 |





NEW FACILITY FOR WASTEWATER THREATMENT Kalundborg opens algae facility for a resource efficient wastewater treatment. A microalgae based research, test, and demonstration facility equipped with ten 4m3 photobioreators, has emerged at Kalundborg Utilities to clean industrial residual streams rich in nutrients. water consumption and costs in wastewater treatment. The project has brought together the water sector and chemical industry, as well as a number of technology providers within production of new biomass and in pre- and posttreatment of residual streams, biomass and freshwater. By showcasing the entire “food chain” of related industries in a innovative wastewater treatment concept, individual companies and spin off consortia can get a unique and early access to new markets, within e.g. sustainable biomass production, water technologies and eco-efficient process optimization.

On the 8th of October Kalundborg opened its newest research, test, and demonstration facility at Kalundborg Utilities, where residual streams from industry will be cleaned through the activity and of selected microalgae. The algae facility is a showroom for new innovative technologies that can reduce

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On the opening day the first preselected microalgae were pumped into the large-scale reactors in front of an audience of partners, industry and cleantech representatives. The photo-bioreactors are designed to track the sun thereby allowing the algae to grow most efficiently on natural sunlight. A mixture of air and CO2 is introduced from below to ensure gentle but through mixing of nutrients and algae, to balance pH, at the same time, driving the liquid flow via an “air-lift effect”. In the process microalgae are removing and incorporating e.g. nitrogen, phosphorous and CO2-related carbon leading to a cleaning of the freshwater resource and creating added value through the production of a higher value renewable biomass resource (e.g.

plant oil, protein, carbohydrates, enzymes and pigments). “Realization of this test and demonstration facility in Kalundborg is mainly based on funding through the EU-FP7 project E4WATER but very important also through the pro-active involvement of Kalundborg Municipality, and Kalundborg Utilities and their dedicated staff. Kalundborg Utilities have allowed the construction of the facility on their premises. We owe much of the openness and willingness to engage in this type of innovative projects to the unique cooperative spirit in the Kalundborg Symbiosis”, says Project Manager Per Møller from Cluster Biofuels Denmark, a cluster organization under the Municipality’s Development Department in Kalundborg. The test and demonstration facility will gradually scale up activities over the next 12 month. The E4WATER project will run for an additional 3 years, but already on October 1st a new GUDP project (FIMAFY) on dewatering technologies and fish feed production has been added to a list of planned new initiatives, in the pipeline. In the Water Bio Solution Concept partners and new companies are entering into test and demonstration activities of wastewater treatment in the facility and new product design. Per Møller says, “We are hoping that new partners can see this project as an opportunity to test existing products and also to co-develop new design to support this method of utilizing micro-algae in going commercial solutions”.

“Giant thermos jug” stores and provides “wind power on demand” in the Frederiks­sund district heating system.

Photo: Municipality of Frederikssund


WIND POWER ON DEMAND One of the key challenges to reaching the ambitious 2020-climate goals of the Danish government is solving the problem of how to store the excess energy from large offshore windpark farms. When excess energy is produced by wind-turbines, a risk of imbalance in the overall electricity grid occurs. What if we could store wind power and use it when we need it? What if we could have wind power on demand?

E.ON, a major energy company, has built a large facility in collaboration with the grid system owner, Energinet. dk, which enables storage of excess wind energy. A large cylinder filled with water and a boiler element is connected to the grid and when the windmills are producing too much energy, driving the price of electricity down, E.ON turns on the boiler element heating up the water. This enables a better balance within the energy grid. Issue #5 · 2013 |






ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY STREET LIGHTING ALL OVER COPENHAGEN More than 8.500 of the iconic streetlights in Copenhagen have now been replaced, and in the next few years another 20.000 will be replaced. This will reduce the street light power consumption and carbon emission by 50 percent. The streetlights in Copenhagen are worn down and require a lot of unnecessary maintenance. Lampposts all over Copenhagen are therefore being replaced with environmentally friendly LED lighting. Since 2011, the Municipality of Copenhagen has put up 8.500 new environmentally friendly lampposts, and this has already had a positive effect on the power expenses and the climate account. “With the new street lighting, we will reduce our consumption of electricity and our carbon emission by 50 percent. At the same time better light increases the safety of the streets. 8.000 lamp posts will be replaced, and in the next few years another 20.000 street lamps will be substituted with new lamps,” says Ayfer Baykal, mayor of technology and environment. The new lampposts will altogether give a power-spending cut of almost 10 gigawatt hours a year, which reduces the power consumption and carbon emission by 50 percent from 2010 to 2016. It is Copenhagen’s ambition to be the first carbon-neutral capital in 2025. As street lighting makes up about 15 percent of Copenhagen’s municipal power consumption the replacement of all streetlights will be a considerable contribution towards reaching the goal.

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One of the greatest challenges in our society is aging populations. By 2020, the elderly will be a significantly larger proportion of the population in western cities. Elderly need adequate care and support in their daily lives, with tasks such as washing clothes, cleaning, and grocery shopping, etc. In the case of washing clothes, the processes are energy and water consuming – two resources that are becoming increasingly scarce. On the peninsula of Hornsherred, Zealand, there is a whole new approach to sustainability in eldercare services. Providing their services in eleven municipalities on Zealand, Trasbo, a major provider of eldercare services, radically reinvented and rebuilt their workflow and business processes. Through the rebuilt it significantly lowered energy and water usage and eliminated the use of chemicals. For over 40 years, Trasbo has had a great focus in improving services for elderly by offering best in class services in Denmark. These include an environmental friendly approach to resources leading the path to greener social services

CLEANTECH ACHIEVEMENTS AT TRASBO • Reduced water usage from 34L to 6L pr. kg washed clothes • 60% reduction in the annual energy consumption • New environmentally friendly fleet of cars


STATE-OF-THE-ART TEST AND DEMONSTRATION FACILITIES As Denmark push the limits of green technologies to be competitive and to maintain a position of cleantech first mover, an extensive range of test and demonstration facilities plays a vital part. That is when it comes to innovating, developing and deploying the cleantech solutions of tomorrow. Scion DTU is addressing this need with a broad range of activities. Scion DTU’s emphasis on test and demonstration facilities does not come out of the blue. Reports show that test and demonstration of products is one of the highest priorities for Danish cleantech companies, in order to keep product development and commercialization on track. Furthermore, the companies point out that there is a need for more facilities and a strong framework. Accommodating the increasing demand for facilities where tested or demonstrated products become part of a larger system. Especially for SME’s this increasing testing products is a costly affair.

DEVELOPING AND MAPPING FACILITIES Scion DTU address this development by facilitating better access to the growing amount of facilities in Denmark. The facilitation is put into action by the webportal, Cleantech Facilitator. Whether you are looking for the most advanced and innovative test and demonstration facilities for offshore wind energy, globally approved water testing facilities, or a demonstration partner from the scientific field in Denmark, the Cleantech Facilitator is a good place to start.

In addition Scion DTU is launching a network aiming to establish a more coherent supply of test and demonstration facilities and to foster business relations, thereby strengthening Denmark’s position as a world leading lab for green technologies. For more information see

HANDS-ON FOCUS A new Green Entrepreneur House with hands on focus on concept and prototype development was officially launched in September. The house offers green start-ups business consultancy, mentoring, lab-facilities and it bridges the gap between entrepreneurs and the world leading test and demonstration facilities at DTU Risø Campus. Scion DTU is the lead partner of the project, which is a result of a strong partnership within business development, network creation, prototyping incubation environments, and between entrepreneurs who are working with green solutions. For more information please see Issue #5 · 2013 |


After Sandy: NEW YORK LOOKS FOR INSPIRATION IN COPENHAGEN Climate adaptation: The City of New York is ready to invest almost 20 billion dollars to protect the city against climate changes and provide green infrastructure for the future. At the same time the city wants to learn from Copenhagen. This provides big market potentials for Danish companies. But how should the big apple be approached?

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he flooding and damages in New York after the hurricane Sandy has accelerated the American focus on new climate adaptation solutions to avoid similar catastrophes in the future. Sustainable buildings and management of huge water masses are but a few of the areas the city is looking out for. The American needs for new solutions provide remarkable market potentials for Danish companies. HUGE INVESTMENTS

According to a city plan presented by NYC mayor Michael Bloomberg in June 2013, New York is ready to invest almost $ 20 billion (112 billion Danish Kroner) to protect the city from hurricanes, rising sea levels and warm summers. At the same time New York looks to other cities for collaboration and partnerships, not least Copenhagen, which is highly respected for its climate solutions and heading the C40 Green Growth Network.

Photo: Michael Bocchieri


In January Lord Mayor of Copenhagen and Mayor Michael Bloomberg of New York City had an official meeting where they discussed visions and solutions within the field of climate adaption for both New York City and Copenhagen. The purpose of this strong political partnership was to build more concrete projects beneficial for both cities. The Mayor dialogue was followed in May with a study trip to New York spearheaded by the Confederation of Danish Industries (DI), Copenhagen Municipality and the Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster with assistance of the consultancy firm of Quercus Group. The purpose was to identify New York’s most pressing needs within energy and climate adaptation technologies, hereby gaining insight into which central gaps that Danish core competences can fill out and how Danish companies can approach the market in New York. EIGHT FINDINGS

On the basis of more than 20 meet-

ings and interviews with companies, organisations and high level officials from New York City a number of key findings and recommendations were revealed. “ The trip confirmed that Danish core competencies are highly relevant within eight areas of climate adaptation and green infrastructure in New York, most particularly within “water” and ”buildings”, comprising storm water protection and management, coastal protection, building resiliency and energy efficiency”, states Special Advisor Tue Robi Jensen, DI. Other areas of high relevance are; smart grid solutions, waste management and hot water based district heating as well as decentralized power back up solutions. “Furthermore New York showed special interest in integrated solutions in general, e.g. “complete streets” and intelligent buildings”, Robi Jensen points out. HOW TO ENTER

ly, a matchmaking conference in New York will take place in the spring of 2014, where Danish and American companies and key actors meet to discuss business and green partnerships in concrete terms.

NEW YORK´S NEEDS FOR DANISH CLIMATE ADAPTATION EKSPERTISE: 1. Storm water protection and management - buildings and streets 2. Coastal protection - especially near coast protection, not offshore

In spite of Denmark´s core competences in all these areas it is not easy for Danish companies to enter the New York market. The study highlights a number of barriers for entering the market. “New Yorkers tend to want to make their own solutions and, as a general rule, you have to establish both a name and contacts at high level to get access to the market”, says CEO Nicolai Sederberg Rottbøll, Quercus Group. On this background the study revealed a number of entry recommendations for Danish companies: Entering partnerships with local companies, establishing physically in the city to build up network and trust, getting approved on the city’s pre-qualification list and providing integrated solutions rather than single solutions.

3. Buildings - resiliency, building supply and energy efficiency


• Entering partnerships with local companies

Several official events are being planned to forge closer links between the two cities and establish green partnerships. DI hosts a conference on the 23. of October,where high level U.S. representatives will talk to Danish companies about the U.S. plans and needs at both the federal level, state level and city level. Subsequent-

4. Smart grid solutions - collaboration, consortium and education 5. Waste management - e.g. recycling, waste to energy and gasification 6. Hot water based district heating – instead of steam based solutions 7. Power back up - decentralized back up solutions 8. Integrated solutions in general - e.g. “complete streets” Source: Quercus Group


• Establishing physically in the city to build up trust and fame • Getting approved on the city’s pre-qualification list • Providing integrated solutions rather than single solutions Issue #5 · 2013 |



Kurt Othendal Nielsen City Account Manager at Siemens Copenhagen



inspired by best practice while learning from each other’s measurement and ratings.


growing number of cities around the world are establishing ambitious goals for the reduction of their carbon footprint, and thus surpassing climate related targets set by national governments. However, there is a significant challenge with benchmarking environmental goals set by cities. This is due to the fact that the setting up GHG emissions reduction targets differs from city to city. The lack of plausible and scalable data is a challenge when comparing city climate plans and carbon reduction targets on a like-for-like basis. To put it up very simply; if you don’t know where the most of GHG emission in your city are coming from, your won’t be able to create powerful climate action plans. A guiding principle for this activity is the mantra of the chairman of C40, the mayor of New York, Michael Bloomberg - “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it” At Siemens we experienced the varying data quality at firsthand. In cooperation with the Economist Intelligence Unit, we carried out a benchmark analysis of more than 120 cities around the world. Completing the Green City Index was, in most cases, no easy task due to the differing availability and quality of data. A Green City Index The overall aim of the Green City Index was to measure and rate leading cities around the world through approximately 30 indicators touching on a wide range of environmental areas –from energy and water consumption to air quality and GHG emissions. One of the goals for creating such unique comparison was to motivate cities to learn from each other through best practice sharing. In order to provide a scalable platform for cities we started a new collaboration with the Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40). The partnership has two pillars: a technical partnership focused on greenhouse gas (GHG) measurement and planning, and a global prize competition to highlight excellence in urban sustainability.

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The Initiative will support joint problem solving by peer cities that are currently working to develop GHG emissions inventories and climate action plans and can benefit from shared approaches to data collection, analysis, and strategic planning. The second pillar is the C40 Climate Leadership Awards. This comprehensive award recognizes city innovation that accelerates city actions to combat the sources and impacts of global climate change. Awards are granted annually in ten categories and provide global recognition for cities that are demonstrating climate action leadership. Cities’ Best Practice An independent, seven member judging panel consisting of former city Mayors, architects and representatives of the World Bank, C40 and Siemens selected the award finalists and winners. Among others, the former Lord Mayor of Copenhagen, Ritt Bjerregaard was the jury member, which selected Awards 2013 winners. Competition results are pretty impressive. Twenty-nine cities from Tokyo to Mexico City representing a total of 37 projects across the ten categories have been nominated as 2013 finalists. The ten city award winners were announced at the beginning of September at the awards ceremony at the Crystal in London. Copenhagen was on the spotlight as the city won the Carbon Measurement & Planning category with its project CPH 2015 Climate Plan for its aim to become the first carbon neutral capital city by 2025. On that day Lord Mayor Bjerregaard put this prestigious city’s recognition in the right perspective by saying: “All, the city council and many inhabitants of Copenhagen really see Copenhagen as a forerunner on climate change. So when we are looking for solutions we are going to find them in cities.” And just before the 2014 City Climate Leadership Awards competition is about to be launched, it makes the right occasion to reflect on the importance of joining forces in making significant progress in tackling global climate change.

Green City Index’s seven key lessons to become a greener city: • Good Governance needs to start at the metropolitan level, so city autonomy is key. • A Holistic Approach, recognizing that categories are linked to each other. • Wealth is important, but policies matter more –simple steps can make a difference. • Civil Engagement is key, because the citizens are the end users of any initiative. • Technology is the way forward and implementation can drastically improve any city. • Green and brown go hand in hand, a good environment will influence quality of life. • Informal sector inclusion remains a key aspect, especially in developing cities.

Issue #5 · 2013 |


What is the GHG footprint? The greenhouse gas emissions of any activity for which the footprint is accounted for, also beyond the boundaries of an organization or a city.

Citizens’ Footprint

Illustration: Rasmus Juul

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Climate impact is often expressed through a single output indicator like greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. While such single indicators are essential indicators to measure progress, they sometimes limit the scope of ratings. Considering consumption-related GHG emissions and citizen lifestyles helps to broaden the picture of carbon emissions in cities. Susanne Krawack comments “We did a study on four Danish families, a family with two kids living in a flat in Copenhagen owning one car, a student living in a dormitory, an affluent couple approaching retirement and owning three cars, and again, a family of four with a car. The last two families were living in houses. We found out that their footprint varies from 13 to 33 tones of CO2 emissions per year, which is relative to their financial status. But, air travels and eating meat is what splits them, and in these cases, it largely was the cause of a higher footprint”. Ms. Krawack is Chief Consultant at CONCITO, a Danish think thank that provides analysis and information on the best low-cost transitions toward a climate-neutral society in Denmark and elsewhere. Urban citizens can have a large impact on climate through their lifestyle, even when they have a low impact from an energy or production perspective. Krawack explains, “It is certain that people living in urban places have a lower direct energy consumption, because they live in closer, often smaller

spaces and with easy access to public transportation. In Denmark, the carbon footprint of energy consumption accounts only for 25 percent, leaving the remaining 75 percent to lifestyle consumption.” “Even if cities reduce their energy impact to zero by renewable sources, there is still a greater share, which is the lifestyle consumption of their citizens, and that’s very difficult to predict in climate reduction targets”, states Susanne. Accounting for the citizen’s footprint can be challenging. It varies largely according to city infrastructure and population density. It also depends heavily on what is produced within the city. Even within the borders of a single city, the differences are surprising. For example in Toronto, a citizen’s footprint differs enormously depending on where they reside, in an inner city neighborhood the average annual emissions are 1.3 CO2 tons, compared to 13 CO2 tons in a suburb. Cities and its citizens have a vital role in reducing their footprint and impact on the climate, therefore, it’s essential to also take a closer look into lifestyle consumption of inhabitants.

IT IS POSSIBLE to divide the combined greenhouse gas emissions of the entire world (50 billion tons of CO2e) by the global GDP, resulting in emissions of approximately 1125 g/Euro. This corresponds to the 7.5 tons per world citizen, and if this is applied to the Danish GDP/citizen, the resulting emissions amount to 33 tons/Dane. This is thus a very simple model, in which emissions are directly proportional to financial consumption. (CONCITO, 2010)

Issue #5 · 2013 |


Jaime Lerner Arquitetos Associados

JAIME LERNER was elected Mayor of Curitiba in 1971 and re-elected two more times. Lerner has won a number of awards including the United Nations Environment Award (1990); Child and Peace Award from UNICEF (1996); World Technology Award for Transformation (2001); the Prince Claus Award; and the Thomas Jefferson Foundation Medal in Architecture. Lerner is principal of Jaime Lerner Associated Architects.

Jaime Lerner shares his vision “What brings life to a city are its citizens. The better the quality of life of the city, the better it will be for its citizens and the more livable and lively it will be. I see cities not as problems, but as solutions”


I would argue that any city with a vision could be transformed in a relatively short period of time, in less than three years. The more generous the vision of a city is, the sounder the equations, and the more good practices multiply. Then, the more rapidly a city’s vision constitutes gains in quality of life. Only when we understand cities’ structures for living, working, moving together, then we can work more effectively. In some cases, we have to start with what I call “Urban Acupuncture,” small interventions that can bring new energy to a city. These interventions provide assistance during the process of long-term planning. We have to understand that applying innovation is about moving fast while leaving room for ideas to be improved, because sometimes, solutions need improvement over time. A SUSTAINABLE EQUATION

Sustainability is an equation between what we save and what we waste. A lot of people are talking about new materials, or new sources of energy, or wind turbines, or recycling. They are really important, but not enough in isolation. We can be more effective when working with the concept of the city. It’s through a holistic approach to cities that we can have better results. Understanding cities as a collective dream is fundamental. Building that dream is vital. Without it, there won’t be the essential involvement of its inhabitants. It is crucial for successful projects that the majority of the population commits to it.

38 |

Copenhagen Cleantech Journal


As far as sustainability concerns, we identified three fundamental issues that are key to quality of urban life: sustainability, mobility and socio-diversity. In Curitiba we started applying some key tenets for cities: using less cars, and separating organic and recyclable garbage. We started at schools, teaching children during six months on how to separate their garbage. And afterwards, the children taught their parents. In favelas, back in 1989, we also exchanged garbage backs for bus tickets and football tickets. Since 20 years, Curitiba has the highest separation rate of garbage in the world: 70 percent. In terms of mobility, giving priority to public transport and use all modes available in the best and most efficient way is key. When we came up with the first bus rapid transition system in the world, in 1980’s, we didn’t have money for a complete new fleet. Then, we said to the private sector, we will invest in the itinerary and public infrastructure, as long as you invest in the fleet. They agreed and we paid them by kilometer, without any subsidies. The system pays itself. I also believe that “private” vehicles without private ownership, for example sharing car schemes, will increasingly play a larger role in urban commutes. To make this happen you need creativity. If you want creativity, cut a zero off your budget. If you want sustainability, cut off two. If you want solidarity, make your identity count while respecting diversity.


Issue #5 · 2013 |


DENMARK has a long tradition for producing and developing clean energy and environmental technologies, solutions and businesses. Alongside this tradition a robust ecosystem around sustainability has emerged. Danish universities have a strong focus on environmental, climate and energy research, our businesses produce many strong global brands within cleantech and the regulatory framework in Denmark is supportive of green and sustainable ways of thinking and doing. AS A RESULT the Danish cleantech industry generates just over EUR 40 billion in revenue a year and employs 120,000 people. No other country in the world exports more cleantech relative to GDP than Denmark. THE COPENHAGEN CLEANTECH CLUSTER (CCC) is at the heart of the cleantech ecosystem in Denmark with a mission to foster cooperation between cleantech companies, research institutions and public-sector organisations. We facilitate partnerships, build test & demo facilities, boost innovation and entrepreneurship, host events, conduct analyses, support internationalisation activities and much more to underpin our goal of becoming the most innovative cleantech cluster in the world.

FROM THE OUTSET, CCC has sought a strong international outreach. As the initiator of the International Cleantech Network, we work closely with like-minded clusters in Germany, Austria, Singapore, the U.S.A, Italy, Norway, France, Spain and many other international partners. THROUGH OUR international network, we can introduce Danish cleantech stakeholders to companies and universities outside the region. We can also bring you closer to the cleantech players in the greater Copenhagen region and beyond. COPENHAGEN CLEANTECH CLUSTER is looking forward to introducing you to our unique cleantech community! FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT WWW.CPHCLEANTECH.COM Find this issue and additional reading online


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