GBU Project Indonesia

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( Mn ) Manganese

GBU Project The processing of manganese ore fines for the recovery of manganese metal and thallium

Project

FEBRUARY 2019 EUROPA ENGINEERING


GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM INTRODUCTION

PT GBU is owner of hydrothermal manganese ore in indonesia, located at Romang Island.

PT GBU goal is to ďŹ nd the best technological solution to recover the minerals contained in this material.

The following presentation shows a technical and industrial solution for the processing of this Mn ore through the use of a 12 MVA Clean Tech EAF combined with a rotary kiln, which production capacity is:

GBU Project

GBU Project

GBU Project

225 t/d processed Mn ore

120 t/d of FeMn (90% Mn) ingots

19 kg/d of Thallium

225t/d

120t/d

19kg/d 81

TI Thallium

204.4

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( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS BLOCK DIAGRAM

C1

B2

B A B1

A

C C

Manganese and Reagents storage silos - Handling system.

B

AIT Clean Tech Technology Electric Arc Furnace.

Rotary Kiln Furnace. Baghouse AIT Electric Arc Furnace.

C1 B1

Mixer. B2 Baghouse Rotary Kiln Furnace.

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GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM INTRODUCTION

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS MASS ENERGY BALANCE

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( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS MASS ENERGY BALANCE

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GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM EXPLANATION

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS MASS ENERGY BALANCE

Kiln BH dust TI Zn Pb As Sb

Mn Oxide

12 t/d

Thallium Dust

% 2 9 9 15 2

800 kg/d

AIT BH dust P K Na Mn

Mn Mn Ore Mn Fe2O3 Cu SiO2 CaO BaO MgO Al2O3 Cr2O3 TiO2 K2O Na2O P2O5 S O H2O TI Zn Pb As Sb

% 53.08 3.68 0.04 1.40 0.29 1.97 0.34 1.11 0.0 0.04 3.47 0.11 0.06 0.07 23.2 10.33 0.086 0.35 0.34 0.56 0.09

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Mn Ore Fines

225 t/d

Reactants

39 t/d Coke Reactants

5 t/d Soda ash 7 t/d Lime 42 t/d Coke

Mn Metal

120 t/d

Metal Mn Fe C Si P S

% 90 5 5,6 0,04 0,02 0,13

Slag

51 t/d

Slag MnO FeO SiO CaO BaO MgO

% 23 0,0 25 10 9 1,5

% 0,2 33 1 21


( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS PROCESS FLOW

Mn ore fines 225 t/d

Hot Gas (1200 °C max)

Handling System

Soda ash 5 t/d

Handling System

Lime

7 t/d

Handling System

Coke fines 42 t/d

Handling System

Co2 Rich Gas

Bag House 1

Thallium Dust 800 kg/d

Bag House 2

Mn Oxide Dust 12 t/d

MIXER 279 t/d

ROTARY KILN (1200 °C)

Hot Calcine 200 t/d

Manganese GBU Project Process-Flow

Coke fines 39 t/d

Flow-diagram depicting the processing of PT GBU manganese ore fines for the ricovery of manganese metal and thallium

Reactants & Mn ore fines

Rotary Clean Furnace

FURNACE 12 MVA (1500 °C)

AIT Furnace

58 Treated End-Products

Slag 51 t/d

Mn Metal 120 t/d

Co2 Rich Gas

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GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM EXPLANATION

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

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( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

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The ore arrives at the smelter site in the form of grit, having a moisture content of less than 5%. Weighed quantities of soda ash, lime and coke fines are blended in a mixer before being charged to the kiln.

At start up, the kiln needs to be pre-heated up to the operating temperature. This pre-heating phase could last up to 6 hours, in order to get the refractory lining sufficiently hot to be able to accept the cold charge entering the kiln at its feed end. As the charge slowly moves down towards the centre of the slightly inclined kiln(3° to 5° to the horizontal), it heats up to 1200 °C whereupon solid-solid reactions take place between the carbon and the Mn3+ and Mn 4+components of the ore, so reducing them to their Mn2+ valency state and, in so doing, releasing carbon monoxide gas into the kiln chamber. This carbon monoxide then, itself, becomes the fuel for the generation of considerable heat inside the kiln chamber. After a few more hours of operation, the temperature of the system will increase above 1200 °C limit – as indicated by a thermocouple situated in the gas off-take duct located just above the feed point to the kiln – whereupon the gas can be throttled down; eventually reaching zero flow, but still retaining the air rate at its maximum required rate. This point is known as steady-state operating condition.

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GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM EXPLANATION

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

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The hot calcine coming out of the kiln will fall directly into the electric furnace, together with additional coke fines. The feed material falling into the arc zones created by the 3 electrical arcs on the tips of the 3 suspended graphite electrodes of the furnace, will have all its Mn2+ content reduced into Mn0 metal. The molten bath temperature will be set at 1500 °C. Note: our furnace does not require the feed material to be pre-agglomerated. Also, no additional slag-modifying fluxes will be required.

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As Mn exhibits a fairly substantial vapour pressure, which increases exponentially as temperatures rise above 1550 °C, the operating temperature of the bath will need to be kept to the recommended set point of 1500 °C as much as possible, which temperature should still ensure the thermodynamics of the process are remaining intact. In any case, the formation of manganese fumes will be unavoidable where, in this case, we can expect some 2 to 3 per cent of the total manganese being recovered to the product metal being vapourized; eventually to be collected as MnOx powder in the adjoining baghouse (Baghouse No. 2). However, because one can expect a fairly high quantity of potassium to be also volatilized, the baghouse dust will comprise a mixture of K2O and MnOx, which two compounds could be the precursors to manufacturing valuable potassium permanganate (KMnO4). EUROPA ENGINEERING


( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS ECONOMICS

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GBU PROJECT - INDONESIA

THE PROCESSING OF MANGANESE ORE FINES FOR THE RECOVERY OF MANGANESE METAL AND THALLIUM EXPLANATION

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( Mn ) Manganese

Project

THE GBU MANGANESE PRODUCTION PROCESS ECONOMICS

GBU Project REVENUES (US$)

GBU Project COSTS (US$) Cost per t of processed ore Cost per kg of TI Cost per t of FeMn (90% Mn) ingots Cost per t of Mn

SELLING FeMn AND THALLIUM EBITDA (USD/y) 59.680.958 Capex +- 15% 18.000.000 ROI 332%

446 1.889 531 594

ONLY SELLING FeMn EBITDA (USD/y) 36.662.614 Capex +- 15% 18.000.000 ROI 204%

ROI

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

332% Selling FeMn

204% Only Selling

and Thallium

FeMn

1 2

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