Issuu on Google+

St'รกt'imc Education & Training Education Outcomes, Labour Market Research & Program Recommendations 2012


Table of Contents Section 1: Overview Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................................. 6 Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................. 8 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 10 Background ............................................................................................................................................. 11 St'รกt'imc Nation Overview ...................................................................................................................... 12 Methodology .......................................................................................................................................... 14

Section 2: Aboriginal Education Outcomes BC Aboriginal Educational Outcomes: Studies and Implications ........................................................... 18

Section 3: Labour Market Information (LMI) What is Labour Market Information (LMI)? ........................................................................................... 38 St'รกt'imc Labour Market Supply .............................................................................................................. 40 Key Challenges ........................................................................................................................................ 46 St'รกt'imc Labour Market Demand ........................................................................................................... 50

2


Table of Contents Section 4: Program Design Recommendations Suggestions for Action ............................................................................................................................ 64 Recommendations .................................................................................................................................. 66

Section 5: Appendices Appendix 1: Charts-Aboriginal Student Education Outcomes, BC and Districts 74/48 .......................... 70 Appendix 2: Interview Guide .................................................................................................................. 90 Appendix 3: List of Interviewees............................................................................................................. 98 Appendix 4: St'รกt'imc BC Hydro Education & Training Program Committee Terms of Reference ....... 100 Appendix 5: List of Sources ................................................................................................................... 102 Appendix 6: Photo/Petroglyph images credits ..................................................................................... 104

3


4


St'รกt'imc Education & Training Section 1: Overview

5


Acknowledgments Vero Management would like to thank all those who contributed to this Project: The St’àt’imc Chief’s Council for having the leadership and vision to plan for future generations. The St’at’imc BC Hydro Education and Training Committee Co-Chairs Sally Thorpe and Ernest Armann for their direction, support and their critical contributions including time, ideas, opinions, and most importantly their demonstrated commitment to a collaborative process. To the researchers from St'át'imc Government Services, Stacey Austinson and Nora Greenway, for their critical contributions including research, interviews and community background information. The BC Hydro Team including Elaine Connell and Akemi Siu for their unfailing support and assistance through the development of this paper. To the vast number of community members throughout St'át'imc who took the time to participate in the interviews and add their knowledge and perspective to this project (please see Appendix 3 for a full list of the community members who participated in and supported this project) Judy Kirk and the team at Kirk and Co. for their invaluable assistance in facilitating a planning workshop. Finally, the Vero Project team, Gail Murray, Candace Dennis and Bree Gillis, Ian Whitley and Eulala Mills would like to thank St'át'imc Government Services, the St'át'imc communities and BC Hydro for the opportunity to work and learn in the beautiful St'át'imc territory. We have gained immeasurable experience and understanding by working on this engaging and important project. We wish the Education and Training Committee, the St'át'imc people and BC Hydro all our best as they move forward to implement these critical actions as determined by the communities.

6


7


Executive Summary The information gathered through this project is extensive. This report is presented in three sections: Education Outcomes, Labour Market Information, Program Recommendations and Suggested Actions. Whether looking at the key actions that create successful learning environments or the areas of potential economic expansion, it is clear from the research and the community interviews that the success of the education and training plan will largely depend on the extent to which it creates cohesiveness and overarching support throughout St'át'imc. All of St'át'imc need to work together to overcome existing challenges and barriers. The community interviews indicate that St'át'imc community values can include a work/life balance tendency for part time work. It is also true that in many cases part time and seasonal work reflects challenges in either opportunity or educational attainment for St’át’imc members. This is exacerbated by the reality that many employers in the region have seasonal business and/or use a part time help to reduce costs. These part time workforce dynamics enable community members to both work and pursue cultural and traditional practices that are often seasonal in nature too. This duality influences what economic success looks like both for individuals and for St'át'imc as a whole. The information collected through the community interview process demonstrated what appears to be a clash between cultural values and economic development opportunities throughout St'át'imc. This creates a substantial challenge and potential for conflict between and among community members. This may require a new definition of both economic success and cultural values for St'át'imc. Like many Aboriginal communities across Canada, the St'át'imc have a very large youth population (1/3 of the St'át'imc population is under 25). This relative youth presents a major opportunity to create and target job related training to those areas of the local economy that present the greatest opportunity.

While it is true that overall average growth in labour demand is forecast to be relatively low (Thompson Rivers College Region is currently the lowest in province, at 1% per annum, which includes the urban centre of Kamloops). Despite the rather low expectation for economic growth, there are still several areas where there is anticipated to be a number of job openings in St'át'imc, over the next several years. There will be openings created by attrition (due largely to retirement) in St'át'imc territory in areas such as: Band administration (e.g., band management, bookkeeping, clerical support) Health services (e.g., nurses, home support workers, elder care) Forestry, including logging and wood processing (e.g., Aspen Mill employs around 30 St'át'imc) Graymont lime plant on Ts’kw’aylaxw reserves (employs around 30 St'át'imc) The research also identified several areas of anticipated expansion demand (due to economic growth). These included: Band administration and services (especially health care) Mining Independent power production and renewable energy Finally the research identified some areas of emerging industries and development opportunities that included: Pellet production Renewable energy Agriculture, including vineyards The research reviewed was emphatic on the need for parents and or guardians to have a strong connection to the learning environment of their children. It was clear that energy must be made to create welcoming, open, culturally relevant learning environments from pre-K through to post-secondary. Where parents and or guardians engaged actively in their children’s learning , the children were greatly enabled to succeed in schooling.

8


The education outcomes for Aboriginal students in BC and in St'át'imc (both in provincial and in Band managed schools) is a direct and significant barrier to transition to employment. Students who are performing below grade level, tend not to take the required levels of Mathematics or Sciences for trades or other apprenticeships, tend not to complete High School and tend not to participate in postsecondary education. More than 1/3 (37%) of the St'át'imc population over age 15 do not have any school or training completion certification, while 8% of the over 15 population have some kind of a postsecondary certification. One of the results of lower educational outcomes and the lack of both school completion and the attainment of certain critical skills (Math, Science) is that many of the working aged St'át'imc are qualified for relatively lower skilled jobs that tend to be more part-time, seasonal or temporary in nature. These learning choices, often made by students as young as 12, have a long term and significant impact on the opportunities available to them in later life. Current BC Hydro education and training programs have not created the anticipated employment or met St'át'imc expectations. This is largely related to the challenges for St'át'imc in developing the required mathematics and science skills necessary for entrance into the programs and/or the trades training. The reality is that much of the

needed training programming is not offered in or near most of the St'át'imc communities. BC Hydro’s conditions for many job classes require individuals to be mobile and able to work throughout the province. The Education and Training Program is a tremendous opportunity to make significant and lasting changes. This program is able to use its 20 year time frame to address some longer term issues such as increasing Math and Science skills, parent/guardian involvement, which could change the education outcomes entirely. The program also has the ability to look broadly at workforce development and expand on the skills of the existing workforce. This program now has a starting point from which to build a strong program based on the St'át'imc vision. This plan if supported can help to generate a long term sustainable economy that benefits the whole of St'át'imc. Many of the mid and senior level positions in Band Management, Health Services, Industry and BC Hydro will be vacated due to retirements in the next 5 to 10 years. Currently, many of these full time and well paid position are filled by non-St'át'imc. The Education and Training Program has the opportunity to gather comprehensive information that identifies where and when these opportunities will arise and to develop programs that support the development of these higher level skills in the current St'át'imc labour force.

9


Introduction This project has focused on gathering the best available qualitative, anecdotal and quantitative information through the various research activities undertaken. This report provides an independent view of the labour market conditions of the St'át'imc at a snapshot in time, 2012. The report presents as holistic a picture as possible by examining the labour market information as well as the economic development activities currently underway and also those that are anticipated in the future. The intent is to provide material that can support St'át'imc in developing the critical labour force to meet the needs of the St’át’imc, BC Hydro and the Agreement commitments. As well, the aim is to uses this information in a way that can enable St'át'imc to take advantage as existing and emerging business opportunities that can create jobs in the region.

for St'át'imc . This report looks at where opportunities for growth exist, new and emerging industry. The labour market research identified skills and gaps within the St'át'imc communities and where the need for workers and the skills of workers exist. Finally, the report offers nine recommendations for action drawn from experience, research and areas of demonstrated success. These recommendations are offered as areas for discussion that can support St'át'imc to develop a local, targeted Education and Training Program that meets the priorities and expectations of St'át'imc.

The expected long term outcome of this report and its findings, is that it will act as a support for St’át’imc to develop the Education and Training Program outlined in the St'át'imc BC Hydro Agreement. The intention is that by using this material and local expertise the The project team focused on three areas, first the report has an exami- Education and Training Program can tie into the economic opportunation of recent student performance measures in BC and where nities of the region. By virtue, this will encourage and foster sustainapossible in St'át'imc. This is paired with an overview of the current ble economic development for St’át’imc. The St'át'imc are well posithinking and research related to the conditions needed to create a tioned and able to realize the great potential of this region through successful learning environment in Aboriginal communities across increased opportunities for St’át’imc members and ultimately, the Canada. fulfillment of the St'át'imc declaration. Second, it is an extensive examination of the labour market conditions

10


Background On May 10, 2011, St’át’imc, BC Hydro, and the Province of British Columbia signed a landmark agreement to address grievances related to the construction and operation of existing BC Hydro facilities. In addition to financial benefits, the agreement provides for: Long-term environmental mitigation plans to help restore land, water, fish, wildlife and vegetation; A heritage and culture plan to preserve, protect, and promote St’át’imc culture; A relations agreement to assist in developing a long-term sustainable relationship between the St’át’imc and BC Hydro; and included in that is an education and training component to build capacity within the Communities. Section 8.11 of the Relations Agreement outlines the scope of the Education & Training commitment, which calls for formation of an Education & Training Committee to oversee the development and implementation

of an Education & Training Program. The St'át'imc are the original inhabitants of the region which extends north to Churn Creek and to South French Bar; northwest to the headwaters of Bridge River; north and east toward Hat Creek Valley; east to the Big Slide; south to the island on Harrison Lake and west of the Fraser River to the headwaters of Lillooet River, Ryan River and Black Tusk. St’át’imc is largely a resource-based economy. Recent years have seen an overall downturn in the regional and local economies impacting greatly on all St’át’imc communities. The St'át'imc way of life is inseparably connected to the land. The St'át'imc use different locations throughout the region of rivers, mountains and lakes, planning trips with the best times to hunt and fish, harvest food and gather medicines. The teachings of living on the land are a large part of the inheritance passed on from St'át'imc elders to their children.

11


St’át’imc Nation

St’át’imc Vision “We are the St’át’mc, self governing, self sufficient, and responsible for maintaining and enhancing everything that the creator has provided us. We are St’át’imc !”

Overview St'át'imc Nation is arguably the most stunningly spectacular and beautiful region of this country. St'át'imc territory reaches from the steep and majestic coastal mountains, encompassing many mountain ranges, lakes and valleys through to the Southern Cariboo with its own unique and arid climate. Vast waterways span the territory including the mighty Fraser River as well as the series of lakes and trails that provided the link to the Gold Rush in the 1800’s. Hot springs can be found throughout the territory as can fascinating rock formations and unique mineral deposits. The resources are rich and have provided the St'át'imc with an ability to thrive for millennia. The St'át'imc have always inhabited this territory and have never left or abandoned it. Long before there were roads into the territory, the land was widely travelled by the St'át'imc in their trade with other nations. The diversity amongst the St'át'imc communities is as diverse as the geography. The St'át'imc statement, Ci wa lh kalth ti tmicwa, meaning this land is ours, asserts that the St'át'imc are ‘the rightful owners of the territory and everything pertaining thereto’.

12


2010.”

St’át’imc Chiefs Council Mission Statement

Current Situation The St’át’imc Chiefs Council (SCC) is the primary governing body for St’át’imc is comprised of all eleven St’át’imc Chiefs. St’át’imc are also affiliated through the In-shuck-ch Nation; Skatin, Samahquam & Xa’xtsa7 (Douglas) to a more limited extent. Further, the Lower St’át’imc Tribal Council represents the southern Bands and the Lillooet Tribal Council represents the northern Bands. However, the overall representation as a unified group is through the St’át’imc Chiefs Council. (SCC) “Since 1998, the St’át’imc Chiefs had formalized themselves… and continue to work collectively advocating for the People and the Land on various political topics and issues. Matters relating to the St’át’imc-BCH Agreement, Fisheries, Health, Forestry, Education, Mining, Nation Building, and Constitutional Development have been prevalent issues to date. Other relevant development activities in the area include Agriculture, Road Building, Telecommunications and Railway operations and maintenance. Each St’át’imc band has its own leadership, Council and community objectives. These are, at times, not aligned throughout the communities and can create difficulties between the communities. The SCC is not a power or authority unto themselves and political mandates and directives are given by each St’át’imc community for their Chief to work with other St’át’imc Chiefs to create alignment and resolution. To support this coordination St’át’imc Government Services was formed to work on behalf of the SCC. As well, the SCC signed a Unity Declaration in 2010 that affirmed their commitment to work together on common interests to the St'át'imc.

“Under the guidance and direction of the St’át’imc , the St’át’imc Chiefs Council will develop and implement a governance structure for self determination that will maintain social, traditional, economic and territorial Growth in the demand for workers is the lowest in integrity (which includes province,( at 1% per annum) in the Development Reecological and cultural susgions that contains much of the St’át’imc territory tainability) as stated in the (Thompson Rivers College Region ). Many St’át’imc Declaration of the Lillooet continue to live from the resources generated by the Tribe, dated May 10, 1911 and land. However there are also several industries at work in the St’át’imc Unity in the region. Most if not all of these are resource Declaration based. These industries include tourism, mining and forestry. However community government offices genSignificant erate the majority of the employment in communities Community Events through their operations in healthcare, education, Annual St'át'imc Declaration administration, management or economic development. Other employment is found in highway mainte- Celebrations - May 10th nance, telecommunications and the railway. St'át'imc Unity RideToday, it is estimated the total St’át’imc population is approximately 6,492 people, and of that total, it is estimated only 3,737 of these individuals reside on reserve. Individuals residing on reserve represent an estimated 1,727 in the Upper St’át’imc and 2,010 in the Lower St'át'imc.

BC Hydro transmission lines and generating facilities have a significant presence throughout the territory. As a companion to the BC Hydro facilities, many new models and forms of energy production are presenting emerging opportunities for St’át’imc to consider. These opportunities include: Run of the River, Bio fuels, Wind and Geothermal energy production.

April 27th– May 7th 2012 Annual International Indigenous Leadership Gathering-

June 21st Annual St'át'imc New Years Pow Wow- Dec 31st Northern St'át'imc Elders Health Forum The Annual Apricot Tsaqwem Festival -July 3rd

13


Methodology This report is made up of three sets of research and each had slightly different methodologies. In general the material in this report attempts to reflect the St'át'imc territory and in some aspects, does not differentiate between those living on or off reserve. For example the aboriginal students in the Gold Trail School District are not differentiated as on or off reserve. See Appendix 1 for District 74 & 48 Aboriginal student results. Where this differs is in the Labour Market Information (LMI) data. In that case much of the demographic and labour force data that could be used came from sources that reflected information for only those St'át'imc living on reserve. Where this is the case it is noted in the text.

The research review also examined a wide range of current documentation, studies and forums that focus on Canadian Aboriginal Education reform and achievement. The sources used here have been included as they are seen as formative to the current thinking and meet the following criteria:

Overall it is important note that the St'át'imc territory is represented in 2 different development regions (Thompson Rivers and Mainland Southwest) and in two school districts (Gold Trail, 74 and Sea to Sky, 48). This creates challenges for the research in that these regions also cover communities that are not in the St’át’imc territory and so can’t be merged. The research team made every effort to create as clear a picture of St’át’imc as possible from the available data and used an extensive community based interview process to augment and validate its findings. It is important to note that the research team has tried to ensure anecdotal data presented reflects the input of multiple interviewees. It became clear, as the research evolved, that much of the needed data does not exist. This document then is the first attempt to bring all of the best available information together and therefore should be treated as a beginning. It will be essential to the validity and flexibility of the education and training program that St'át'imc work together to improve and expand on this beginning.

Process and or structure of research is driven in part or whole by First Nations experts in education policy or delivery

St'át'imc Education Outcomes and Research: Educational performance data came from two sources, the Province of BC’s published performance information and data sets including the Foundation Skills Assessments and the Exams program along with the First Nation School Associations School Measures and Data Collection Report. The data is from the 2010/11 school year as that was the most recent year available at the time the research was con-ducted. Where possible the information most relevant to St’át’imc is included in the analysis.

Most current thinking (sources are from 2009 forward with a few relevant exceptions) towards education systems and reform Process and or structure of forum or study is generally accepted and endorsed by the Aboriginal community

Labour Market Information: The information was gathered from several sources including Statistics Canada, BC Stats, the labour force survey and the 2006 census (the relevant 2011 data was not available). More importantly this information relied heavily on local on-the-ground knowledge and was validated and augmented through a series of focused interviews done with several members in most communities. These interviews, conducted between March and June 2012, added much of the community perspective and substantively enhanced the data sets. Please refer to Appendix 2 for the community interview guide and Appendix 3 for the list of Interviewees. Several issues impact the quantity and quality of labour market information available to this study. These influenced the approach taken to gathering and presenting labour market information. Boundaries / Data Sets: The geographic boundaries of the St’át’imc territory do not exactly align with any other political or development boundaries, such as municipalities, regional districts, development regions, college regions, school districts, forest districts or local health areas. As such, secondary data on employment and labour demand forecasting data is drawn from a variety of potentially overlapping sources. As such, there is a risk that data has been double-counted or that there are gaps in the data, albeit relatively small.

14


Aging / Missing Data: This research has benefitted from the development of the Aboriginal Data Portal by the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, which provides access, at a community level, to demographic, employment and income data. However, while population data is reported from the 2011 Census, other data is either missing (Statistics Canada will not report labour and income data if the census population is too low, as with some of the St’át’imc communities, in order to preserve confidentiality) or relies on the 2006 Census. Data on factors such as employment and income is reported more recently at a broader level, e.g., for the Thompson Rivers University College Region, and the Mainland / Southwest Development Region. However, applying broader regional estimates to the St’át’imc territory is problematic due to the vast difference in sectoral make-up across the regions, and the scale and relative isolation of the communities. Lack of Quantifiable Data: The above two issues are exacerbated by the absence of rigorous measurement of labour market participation at the local level. The findings of this research are heavily reliant on anecdotal data in the absence of quantitative data, especially in regard to projected labour market de-

mand. As such, this research is mostly limited to articulating the direction of demand for broad labour categories, identifying specific occupations where there is sufficient supporting data, and only in cases where there is a broad consensus among the many who were interviewed. Seasonal: There is an emphasis toward seasonal employment in the territory (e.g., funded project work, construction, forestry). While the rate of full-time employment can be estimated from census data, the data available to measure employment at a sectoral level is not broken down to identify full-time, part-time and seasonal workers. This is a further challenge in establishing a baseline for moving seasonal and part-time workers to full-time employment. No Integrated Economic Development Strategy: There is no documented, unified economic development strategy for the territory to provide direction to a territorial labour market analysis. Each community and tribal council has its own economic development resources, plan and function. This presents a challenge in identifying an integrated direction for future labour market demand from a territorial perspective.

15


16


St'รกt'imc Education & Training Section 2: Aboriginal Education Outcomes

17


Education Outcomes Aboriginal Student Outcomes in British Columbia (2010-11) For St’át’imc to develop a strong education plan it is essential to build an understanding of the challenges and successes experienced by Aboriginal students in BC as a whole and in the schools, districts and post-secondary programs that serve St’át’imc students. There are clearly overarching systemic issues broader than the St'át'imc education system, that greatly impact on the lives of the St'át'imc members. The provision of education in Aboriginal communities on and off reserve or territory is extremely diverse. Communities across the country acknowledge the need for Aboriginal driven, culturally defined systems that promote Aboriginal identity while balancing federal and provincial funding requirements, policy and curriculum. The difficult truth is that regardless of the model used (provincial or First Nations managed) Aboriginal students struggle to achieve in the K12 education system and, though to a lesser degree, in the post-secondary system. This is true for Canada as a whole, BC and St’át’imc. The information presented below paints a challenging picture, and while in some areas St’át’imc students are outperforming the BC average for Aboriginal students; they are not yet nearing the overall provincial level of performance. The information below is an overview of the most recently available grades K -12 student outcome information. It is generated from the data sets of the Province of British Columbia (See appendix 1), as well as a long term, ongoing surveys done for the First Nations Schools Association (FNSA), a non-partisan organization that collaborates with First Nations schools and currently has 127 schools across BC as members.

18


Provincial K-12 Programs British Columbia’s Ministry of Education requires that schools ask students to decide whether to identify themselves as Aboriginal. On the basis of this self-identifying, volunteered information, the ministry counted 63,899 Aboriginal students among a total of 579,115 students registered at British Columbia’s public schools at the beginning of the 2010/20111 school year, 11% of the total population self-reported as Aboriginal. In Gold Trail (District 74) 58% (786) of the students self-reported as Aboriginal and in Sea to Sky (District 48) this figure was 15% (617). Data available from the Provincial Ministry of Education provide information that can be used to assess the performance of students and schools both between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students but also, and perhaps more importantly, among the provinces Aboriginal learners. All students in public schools are required to write the Foundation Skills Assessments (a set of uniform examinations in reading, writing, and numeracy) during grades 4 and 7. In addition, mandatory provincial examinations are administered in the following grade 10, 11, and 12 subjects: English 10 Foundations of Math 10 Apprenticeship Math 10 Science 10 Social Studies 11 Civic Studies 11 BC First Nations Studies 12 English 12: First Peoples English 12 Communications 12 Along with the Foundation Skills Assessment’s measurement of the extent to which students have acquired the key skills required at their grade level. The likelihood that students will annually progress from grade to-grade until they receive their secondary school diploma is a central measure of success. Once a student fails to progress from one grade to the next their likelihood of completing school falls dramatically. The difficult reality is that the province’s Aboriginal students continue to lag behind their non-Aboriginal classmates and there has been very little change since 2005. On FSA tests all subject areas at both grade levels, there is a considerable and persistent gap in achievement between Aboriginal and Non Aboriginal Students and the gaps continue to widen.

1

The 2011/12 Data will not be available until the fall of 2012

19


Education Outcomes Grade 4 Reading Performance Aboriginal Students Not Yet Meeting Expectations 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 2007/08

2008/09

Gold Trail (74)

2009/10

Sea to Sky (48) Province

2010/11 Province

Source: BC Ministry of Education

For Students in St’át’imc, at the grade 4 level, Numeracy performance lags slightly behind the performance of all Aboriginal students while writing performance is slightly higher and reading comprehension about the same. By grade 7 all three subject areas in District 74 show performance below and in the case of reading, significantly below the performance of Aboriginal students throughout the province. In Grades 10-12 required examinations, results show an ongoing gap between the two student groups in their average performance. Looking at the English 10 results for 2010/11, for the province as a whole 89% of Aboriginal students passed the exam but only 45% achieved at or above a C+. For the St’át’imc students, District 74 87% of Aboriginal students passed and 36% achieved a C+ or better and in District 48 while 95% passed the exam only 31% achieved a C+ or better.

20


Source: BC Ministry of Educa-

Aboriginal students continue to fail the provincial exams at a substantially higher rate than that experienced by the general student population. This is a significant factor in the graduation results for Aboriginal Students and therefore their employment prospects in the longer term. In 2010/11 54% of Aboriginal students in grade 10 in School District 74 did not complete their mathematics course and 39% did not complete their science program. Participation in senior level math and science courses is a particular area of concern. These courses are usually a requirement for entry into apprenticeships and other trades and are certainly a requirement for many areas of the labour market in St’åt’imc. When examining Graduation Rate and the successful transition grade to grade towards Graduation over the five school years from 2005/2006 to 2010/2011, Aboriginal students have enjoyed no statistically significant improvement, their departure is significantly higher each year and Aboriginal students are still more than twice as likely as the student population as a whole to require one or more additional years to complete their secondary school program. Of the Aboriginal students entering Grade 8 in 2005/06 54% graduated on time in 2010/11. For non-Aboriginal students the proportion completing on time is 83%. The proportion of 2005/06 Aboriginal Grade 8 students completing school on time in 2010 in District 74 was the same as for the province as a whole, while is District 48 it was slightly higher at 56%.

21


Education Outcomes

Source: BC Ministry of Education

Aboriginal Schools, K-12 Programs Aboriginal schools, those that are serving students eligible for INAC nominal roll funding, do not participate in or report the results of the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) or Provincial exams programs. However they are surveyed annually by the First Nations Schools Association. Much of the survey is focused on community support and educator capacity but the report does include some assessments of student performance. In five of the last six years (including 2010/11) for both reading and math there is a consistent pattern of performance linked to grade level. Generally, students perform well in the early grades (in 2010/11, 5% of grade one students were performing 2 or more years below grade level in math). Then, performance drops in the middle years where over time you see a large percentage of students leaving the school system. Many individuals who have struggled through elementary school often leave the system in their early high school years. For students in grade nine, 43% are performing 2 or more years below grade level in math. For students who continue with their studies, performance tends to either improve in later years or remain relatively stable (in 2010/11, by grade 12, 36% are performing 2 or more years below grade level in math).

22


Source: Seventh Annual FNSA School Measures and Data Collection Project 2010/11 — FINAL REPORT

Aboriginal Student Attendance Students are also measured by the number of days a student is late in a school year. Tracking attendance demonstrates both commitment and attachment too schooling. In the elementary grades, many (over 50% in pre-K through grade 7) students are late up to 10 days. In Grades 8-12, 68% are late 11 days or more with 54% late over 21 days. Across the province, this shows a consistent grade level trend that is consistent to where the students are demonstrating they are struggling in school.

Aboriginal Students in BC Post-Secondary Programs In 2009/10, 21,852 Aboriginal students were reported to be in the public post-secondary system. In 2005/06, 40% of Aboriginal high school graduates made an immediate transition to a British Columbia public post-secondary institution, compared with 51.3% of non-Aboriginal high school graduates. By 2010/11 a further 23% of the 2005/06 Aboriginal graduates had entered a Post-Secondary Program.

23


Education Outcomes

Source: BC Ministry of Education

The most recent Provincial study of Post-Secondary Outcomes for Aboriginal Students examines those who were registered in 1995, ‘97 and ‘99. While it is acknowledged that this is relatively dated information, it was agreed that it remained relevant for the purpose of this report. The study revealed that students who identified themselves as Aboriginal were more likely to be female; their median age was 29 while for nonAboriginal former students it was 25. Unemployment rates have been higher for Aboriginal former students and their full-time employment rates lag behind those of non-Aboriginal former students. Aboriginal former students were much more likely to have children and to be single parents. Almost half (45 percent) of Aboriginal respondents reported taking some prior post-secondary education, 56 percent of these respondents said they had already received a credential, that is a diploma, certificate, associate degree.

24


Implications of the Research St’át’imc students face real and significant challenges in the education systems whether they are Government (provincial public schools) or St'át'imc led. What is clear from the student performance information, be it K-12 or post-secondary is that the concerns about the support for Aboriginal student success nationally and provincially are equally if not more significantly true for those living on reserve in St’át’imc. While this is a serious problem for St’át’imc and these issues in enabling successful learning set the stage for future challenges in the labour market, the reality is that it is not a new problem and neither is it unique to St’át’imc. The challenges for Aboriginal learners throughout Canada are the subject of much intensive research. In the last two years alone there have been substantial in depth studies sponsored by the Canadian Senate, a National Panel of Review and the Assembly of First Nations to name a few. An overarching framework defined in the Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education (SAFE) study, Sharing Our Success in Aboriginal Education 2004, 2007 identifies ten key critical success areas for Aboriginal education. Each success factor has been explored and expanded from the documentation review to draw evidence to its application or validity within the Aboriginal early learning to Post-Secondary context. The 10 critical success factors are: Governance Leadership Parent Partnerships Teacher Quality Assessment

Literacy and Language School Climate and Environment Programs and Services Aboriginal Languages and Culture Schools and Communities

25


Education Outcomes Governance Many of the current issues Aboriginal students face today are residual effects of the previous residential school system. With the disgrace and dissolution of the residential school system little or no provision was made for the necessary support structures required to deliver First Nation education. There was no clear funding policy, service provision, or legislation, standards or regulations to set an education governance and accountability framework. No consideration was given to the connections and inter-relationships to provincial systems, and no accountability was put in place for transitions of students between provincial and First Nation schools (Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples 2011). There is still no system of education for Aboriginal elementary and secondary education in Canada. Many of the studies reviewed (Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples 2011; Assembly of First Nations 2010; National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve 2011) advocate that a fundamental reform of the Aboriginal education system need to occur that will see: The co-creation of legislation in the form of a First Nations Education Act that outlines the responsibilities for each partner in the system, and recognizes and protects the First Nation child’s right to their culture, language and identify, and a quality education Statutory funding that is needs based, predictable and for the purpose of education Aboriginal control of First Nation education through the establishment of primary, secondary and third level supports structures that are designed and delivered by First Nations

“Some communities hold IPP water licenses and construction phases of existing plants provided employment for community members.”

This position doesn’t necessarily advocate the creation of a separate Aboriginal educational model removed from the provincial delivery of education. The focus is more on the creation of a system where there is broad agreement on the requirements for education services, programs and supports that enable the delivery of a standard of education for First Nations children comparable to that provided to other Canadian children. While advocating for systematic reform of the Aboriginal education system as a whole, there is broad acknowledgment of the complexity of this reform. The focus is on the development of education structures, and agreements that are relevant and specific to the local community or territory. It is also recognized that when driven in partnership, educational reform must be based in accountability by all key participants. There are First Nation communities throughout Canada where educators and their communities are together establishing innovative relationships with Federal and Provincial governments. These programs range from reciprocal tuition agreements to more extensive arrangements for teacher certification and culturally relevant curricula development.

26


The SAFE 2004, 2007 report entitled “Sharing our Success: Ten Case Studies in Aboriginal Learning” provides evidence that Aboriginal schools can achieve student success through each of these different governance structures. What the study found more important to success than the educational model is that they (learners and schools) are supported by systems of strong leadership and commitment of the “child first” philosophy. Overcoming widespread Aboriginal cultural alienation toward formal education requires engaging Aboriginal communities in school management. This emphasis on community driven governance is evidenced by the IAHLA Data Collection Project 2010/2011 report by Tindall Consulting that states that “the mission of Indigenous higher education is empowerment where First Nations higher learning institutes are founded upon unique governance structures that are community driven; and based upon community leadership and responsibility.” The C.D. Howe Institute 2011 report entitled Aboriginal Education of Quebec: A Benchmarking Exercise furthers this assertion in stating that: “A dual responsibility exists. At all levels, provincial school authorities need to provide opportunities for Aboriginal organizations, parents and citizens to participate meaningfully in school governance. Simultaneously, Aboriginal leaders have a responsibility to engage with the provincial education system and address education goals beyond cultural preservation.” These structures are based upon ‘whole learning’, which includes personal learning, cultural learning, and academic learning. For St’át’imc the central message of the research seems to be that good governance is important however many governance models are successful. While, from a policy perspective there are many arguments for Aboriginal controlled education systems, the research is clear that Aboriginal students can be successful in any model. The research also indicates that success must reach beyond the goals of cultural preservation and also address personal and academic achievement.

Leadership In Aboriginal communities, and thus Aboriginal led schools, leadership has seen the development of Aboriginal education systems without a formal systematic legislated system of education for Aboriginal elementary and secondary education in Canada. Communities have had to take a leadership role in the absence of having a formal system in place. “According to Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC, formerly INAC) there are 518 on-reserve schools that are responsible for delivering programs and services for students from Kindergarten to grade 12 using First Nations pedagogies. Many of these First Nations controlled schools are led by First Nation principals and administrators with qualified and certified First Nations teachers... sixty percent of all First Nations students, approximately 70,000 individuals, attend First Nations elementary and secondary schools. In many communities, there are also locally controlled early childhood education and preschool programs that feed into the K-12 programs” (Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples 2011). In considering actions for St’át’imc , what is clear from the research is that successful schools have a common vision and clear set of priorities despite any formal system that is in place through legislation. Successful leadership welcomes ideas for improving student achievement and seeks ways to make people feel they can change things that aren’t working (SAFE 2004, 2007).

27


Education Outcomes Parent/Guardian Partnerships The research clearly shows strong partnerships between parents/guardians and their children's schools improve student achievement. “Many studies have shown that strong working partnerships between schools, parents/guardians, and communities exert a powerful positive influence towards improved school performance. Leveque (1994) found that parental/guardian involvement in the design and implementation of programs was the greatest factor linked to Aboriginal student success. Another study showed that the support of a mother with strong traditional values and practices improved students’ academic and social school performances (Coggins, Williams, & Radin, 1996)” (SAFE 2004, 2007). The establishment of effective working partnerships between schools, parents/guardians, and communities is dependent on the formation of a climate of trust. Part of the important work of school staff is to create an environment in which trust between home and school can develop and grow. In the SAFE 2004, 2007 study, high levels of trust were evident in the profiles of successful schools. All schools exerted special efforts to bring parents/guardians into the school and fostered trusting relationships with parents/guardians and community to overcome the lingering multigenerational intention of schools as instruments of assimilation. A sense of community ownership of the schools also appeared to be associated with higher levels of support for education thus removing the oppressive nature and ill intent of previous school systems that have been a barrier for so many. Aboriginal parents/guardians and communities look to actions when evaluating relationships. Successful practices of engagement and partnering with parents/guardians include: Contact initiated by the school to relay compliments about a student’s behaviour or accomplishments Non-threatening opportunities for school visits, including sports events, concerts, plays, and celebrations Cultural celebrations with the sharing of food with staff, students, and families St’át’imc has an opportunity to grow and enhance the parental/guardian relationships in its schools, both band and provincially led. On the whole this one element has the potential to make great change and it is wholly in the control of the individuals and communities throughout St’át’imc . If there is any one factor that individuals can influence and make change it is that Parent/guardians and their community can work together and change the education outcomes of St'át'imc students.

28


Teacher Quality Many researchers see teacher quality as the single most important factor in improving student success (SAFE 2004, 2007; FNESC 2008). Personal qualities such as being friendly, accepting, respectful, and fair are particularly desirable for teachers who work with Aboriginal students. These teachers are better able to develop trust with parents/guardians and good partnerships between home and school. (National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve 2011; C.D. Howe Institute 2011) There is some evidence that teachers who come from small communities and attended colleges were better able to work in remote communities. The value of teachers who can relate with the students and vice versa the students who can culturally relate with the teacher cannot be understated. (C.D. Howe Institute 2011) Across the review of studies the following characteristics were viewed as critical for effective teachers of Aboriginal students: Ability to create a warm, accepting, and supportive learning environment Commitment to student success that includes the belief that each student can learn Flexibility to adapt and experiment to find optimal educational programs and methods for each student Commitment to performance-based education and willingness to use appropriate assessment tools Attitude of solving problems Understanding and respect for local culture Involvement of parents/guardian in learning partnerships In developing and expanding education services in the communities, St’át’imc can re-emphasize the importance that band-operated schools must ensure that their teachers are certified to teach in the band’s province and that the school follows the provincial curriculum, adapted to reflect the First Nation’s language and culture (Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples 2011). This is furthered by the finding that, “the employment of up to 85% certified and highly qualified Aboriginal teachers from their own communities was a source of considerable pride at the schools” and further contributed to the successful outcomes of students. (SAFE 2004, 2007)

29


Education Outcomes Assessment Currently, there is a lack of system wide student information tracking and monitoring and limited context for evaluating success, or for regularly making improvements, through ongoing assessment of student achievement. (Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples, 2011) That said however, Aboriginal schools have embraced the need for, and benefits resulting from, routine and formalized assessment of student performance. While schools have real and valid concerns about using tests that were developed in different cultural groups and contexts, they understand that assessment can help them learn more about their students. This knowledge can then guide the schools, teachers and Parents/ guardians to better align support for students and adapting to meet their specific needs. Assessment is considered an important part of continuous improvement. Schools that measure performance maintain high expectations for both staff and students. Their teachers believed that each student has the potential to learn and to rise to the expected level of achievement. Staff members demonstrated a dedication to improving the quality of teaching and learning through ongoing professional development and research. (SAFE 2004, 2007) The Assembly of First Nations, ‘First Nations Control of First Nations Education Final Report 2010’ calls for comprehensive learner systems that include learner outcomes. It asserts that, First Nations’ developed and controlled comprehensive data, management and evaluation systems are critical to measuring outcomes and ensuring opportunities for continuous improvement. Data analysis is a critical component for planning and improving learning outcomes. St'át'imc may want to examine ways in which a to implement consistent measurements and assessment tools across St'át'imc schools , despite the varying governance/educational models .

30


Literacy and Language “Literacy is a core competency required to open doors to future success” Whether it be for pre-school children, adult learners, or anywhere in between, Aboriginal educators deem that increasing literacy is fundamental to their students’ and schools’ success. “Literacy is arguably the most important foundational skill required for academic success, and its acquisition is an issue of paramount concern in the context of Aboriginal schooling” (SAFE 2004, 2007). The National Panel on First Nations Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve 2011 report recommends that “First Nations develop and launch, or expand existing early literacy programs in the 2012/13 school year that will focus on preparing First Nation students in the early years for success in reading.” The National Panel believes that an emphasis on helping First Nation students to read at level by Grade 3 would be significant in improving education outcomes for this generation of First Nation learners. For students already attending school, administrators are adopting different strategies to increase literacy to include: reducing their primary class sizes, adding resource staff to allow for small-group reading instruction, implement reading recovery programs for special needs students or those experiencing difficulty learning to read should be supported For older students, intervention can include tutors, computer-assisted programs, access to special materials and small-group corrective reading. Aboriginal post-secondary institutes generally provide English language and language comprehension instruction. Improving literacy skills has proven vital to improving the success rates of adult Aboriginal learners (FNESC 2008). The SAFE 2004, 2007 study states that successful schools emphasize early childhood intervention, which results in a greater number of children entering grade one ready to read. St’át’imc already has several strong pre-K literacy programs and its learners can only be further supported if they are able to expand and grow. By creating programs that support broad access to literacy programming for learners of all barriers of employment for individuals are reduced and opportunities for the younger generations as well are expanded.

31


Education Outcomes School Climate and Environment School climate strongly influences the education a student receives. In schools with a good climate, everyone takes care to create and maintain a positive learning environment. This could be characterized by safety, mutual respect, pride, focus on learning, and celebration of success. Successful schools carefully monitor attendance, behavioural expectations for students are high, and rules are well communicated in a positive way. Misconduct is addressed immediately by staff and administrators and parent/guardian complaints are addressed quickly. The physical structure of the school contributes significantly to school climate. Existing school facilities and the building of new facilities needs to ensure a safe and healthy learning environment. Facilities need to be well-equipped, well maintained, environmentally and culturally appropriate, and reflect Indigenous knowledge in the physical structure of the building. Including traditional designs, including space in schools for parents/guardians, Elders, the physically challenged, community engagements, and early childhood learning .(Assembly of First Nations 2010) Aspects of this that the St’át’imc community can consider and act on relate to having an open-door policy and use celebrations to bring families and community members into the school. A successful school noted in a case study focuses on bringing in resource people from the community and has included singers, drummers, dancers, carvers, story tellers, and elders. (SAFE 2004, 2007)

Programs and Services Aboriginal led schools are unique in their structure and service delivery. It is recognized, however that across the board there is a need to provide programs to overcome the many social barriers to children’s learning (National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve 2011). Along with academics there may be additional cultural and language teaching, a focus on life skills development including: building students’ self-esteem, coping skills, and resiliency, as well as meeting basic needs through meal and health programs (SAFE 2004, 2007, Assembly of First Nations 2010). In addition to in school programs and services many successful schools incorporate early childhood services, support for adults and families, and transition services for youth moving to the next level of training or education. (SAFE 2004,2007) These additional services are extremely costly. In some cases, these services are, or could be, purchased through service arrangements with provincial school boards to include, but not limited to: specialized counseling services, psychological and learning diagnostic services, special learning tools, supports for children with special needs, and student assessments (National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve 2011). These services can also be attained through service agreements with other community health or counseling services. It is important to note that these needs are not restricted to the K-12 sector, as a relatively large proportion of the students enrolled in Aboriginal Post-Secondary Institutes also deal with considerable challenges while attending school.

32


Aboriginal Culture and Language Overwhelmingly, the forums and studies reviewed emphasize that to achieve student success the Aboriginal education and school environment must be embedded within the culture and language of the community. It can be found in programming for the youngest of children, with Head Start programs based in culturally relevant materials and language that carry on the teaching of parents (National Panel on First Nations Education for Elementary and Secondary Education on Reserve 2011), It can be continued on to post-secondary where Aboriginal Institutes that integrate cultural activities and values into the fabric of the environment,. Educators agree that an education with strong cultural foundation is critical for student success and community growth (FNESC 2008). This is not to say that the need for cultural and language learning should supersede that of the importance of academic programming, but that a successful system will balance and integrate the two into its day-to-day operations. Some aspects of cultural learning have to be done with and on the land. Efforts to bring language and culture into learning environments must consider both the hands on nature of cultural learning and the need for a strong focus on academic achievement. The SAFE 2004, 2007 study articulates that successful schools achieve a balance of these needs, through honouring and affirming students’ pride in their identity with activities such as drumming at Morning Circle, to teachings of the bison hunt and the Bannock Feast. The study further stated that “every school offered instruction to all classes in the Aboriginal language of the community, and most used the local language to exchange greetings, and for ceremonial purposes, or to supplement instruction.” (SAFE 2004, 2007). As with early learning programs, St’át’imc has a legacy of success to build on in creating and supporting strong language and cultural programs. “Language is the outward expression of an accumulation of learning and experience shared by a group of people over centuries of development. It is not simply a vocal symbol; it is a dynamic force which shapes the way a man looks at the world, his thinking about the world and his philosophy of life. Knowing his maternal language helps a man to know himself; being proud of his language helps a man to be proud of himself.” (Assembly of First Nations 2010)

33


Education Outcomes Schools and Communities Some schools have developed productive partnerships with local businesses, community service organizations and other agencies for the integration of a wide range of student support services. Schools have also benefited from the skills of community members when they hire teachers from within the community, or employ local Aboriginal support staff that fills a critical community liaison role .(SAFE 2004, 2007) School and community partnerships benefit schools in subtle ways, for example, partnerships can result in diverse resources becoming available to the school. For example, this is seen when industry supports the provision of sector related training in a community. There is also a very strong community component to Aboriginal Post-Secondary Institutes. The institutes contribute to both individual and community capacity building and they are able to respond directly to priorities and training needs identified by communities. Respectively, Aboriginal communities also contribute greatly to their institutes, including specific activities such as involvement in student support services, the preparation of teaching materials, and program planning. (FNESC 2008) Generally all of these factors for success point to the level of support and active participation by the St’át’imc communities in the education system. It is clear that The greater the community support and participation, the more enabled the learners are for success. As the Education and Training program is developed and expanded over time St’át’imc will enable greater success by keeping community involvement and commitment at the forefront of its efforts.

34


Summary of Current Thinking Aboriginal education and school structure is as diverse and varied across the country as is the Aboriginal culture and tradition. Yet despite the vast differences there are some consistently successful schools in Aboriginal communities. These are schools who emulate the ten critical success factors. Successful schools are responding to their community’s geographical, cultural and political dynamics; determining governance structures that are relevant to their needs, as well as reflective of their interdependent relationships with provincial / territory policy and delivery requirements and federal funding structures. Aboriginal School systems that are achieving success are embracing a strong vision of whole life learning and a child centered instructional methods for the development and teaching of its students. Leaders are holding true to this vision and are balancing an Aboriginal community driven education model with critical partnerships agreements. The provincial curriculum requirements are integrated with culturally relevant programming and based, were possible, in First Nations language. School systems are acknowledging the need to take education into the home with early learning programs, whereby parents/guardians and children can experience learning together. Thus increasing literacy for the whole community and preparing their children for their educational experience while also building awareness and trust relationships based on mutual objectives with parents/guardians. Strong, consistent leadership and well trained culturally sensitive teachers are critical to student outcomes and ultimately student retention. Post -secondary institutions and Aboriginal Post-Secondary Institutes realize the need for Aboriginal teacher training and are effectively creating programming to achieve it. Programming, support services, school climate and environments that are needs based, culturally specific, based in values of mutual respect and realistic expectations are seeing increased levels and breadth of learner success. Which in turn, through acknowledging the need for assessment, better enable student laddering through their school careers. This review has shown that while the challenges are significant, communities with strong leadership, focused determination and consistent direction focused on the ‘whole learning’ of their next generation can develop school systems that will lead to individual, school and community success. The research and the educational outcomes information underline the potential for action in several areas that can enhance the learning and employment opportunities for the St’át’imc communities. As St’át’imc develops their Education and Training Plan this information can act as a strong guide for action and areas of critical focus.

35


36


St'รกt'imc Education & Training Section 3: Labour Market Information (LMI)

37


Labour Market Information What is Labour Market Information (LMI)? A properly functioning labour market is vital to a modern economy. A robust LMI system facilitates the matching of people and jobs both in times of labour shortages and in periods of high unemployment. Reliable LMI is necessary to make sure that good policy and program decisions are made to improve the economy’s performance and reduce joblessness. Alternatively, in an ‘under-supplied,’ or ‘tight,’ labour market, accurate LMI will identify occupations with shortages and help to channel new entrants to the labour market into high-demand occupations. Accurate information in the form of accessible LMI can lead to better labour planning and that, in turn, can create the competitive edge necessary to capture a growing portion of the trade coming to and going from North America. Labour market information may include but is not limited to: vacancies, expectations of the impact of economic growth or contraction, skills required for an occupation, number of individuals who possess the required skills, types of training available and certifications granted, retirements expected, demographic changes, current jobs filled, mobility of workers in and out of the region, and large projects beginning or ending. Labour Demand: Is a combination of economic expansion and the introduction of large scale projects combined with changes in the labour supply due to retirement and other attrition (such as movement out of the labour force and death).

Labour demand is defined as the number of positions (full time equivalent) available in each occupation per year.

38


Labour Supply: Is the number of workers who are trained and or certified to work in an occupation, whether or not they currently are working in that occupation. Supply is generated by demographic drivers such as birth and death rates, school completion, inter provincial migration and immigration.

39


Labour Market Information Labour Market Supply Population and Labour Pool Total St'át'imc population in territory is estimated to be 6,492 in 2012 (not including Samahquam community.) Registered population living on-reserve (all figures March 2012 except Samahquam, which is 2006 Band total and thus likely an overestimate of on-reserve population):

Northern

Population

Ts’kw’aylaxw Bridge River Xaxl'ip Cayoose Creek T'it’q'et N'Quatqua Seton Lake

277 218 389 88 200 208 347

Northern Total

1,727

Southern Mt. Currie Skatin Samahquam Douglas

1,483 134 303 90

Southern Total

2,010

Total On Reserve

3,737

Insufficient data is available to determine how many off-reserve members are residing in St’át’imc territory.

40


Age breakdown is estimated1 :

Age Breakdown

# of Persons

0-4 years 5-18 years 19-24 years 25-54 years 55-64 years 65+

270 1157 721 3133 654 558

Total

6492

Based on these figures, the core labour pool (individuals aged 24 – 54) is estimated to increase by at least 23% over the next 5 years, and will continue to grow as the number of members entering the core labour pool exceeds the number that leave. However, it has been noted by community respondents that younger members

“Managerial and supervisory occupations will be most impacted by the coming wave of retirements”

disproportionately leave to find work in urban areas, so the impact on the “in territory” core labour pool will likely be smaller but nevertheless positive. Median age is 29.7 years; compared with BC median age of 40.5 years.

1

Only 3 communities provided demographic data by age (Bridge River, Xaxl’ip, T’itq’et). The estimates across the territorial population are based on average ratios derived

from this data.

41


Labour Market Information Workforce Participation and Unemployment Rates Workforce participation of on-reserve community members ranges from 47% to 71%:

Workforce Participation % Northern

Total

Unemployment %

Male

Female

Male

Female

Ts’kw’aylaxw

47.4

60

25

33.3

100

Bridge River

51.6

56.3

50

33.3

25

Xaxl'ip

67.6

65

66.7

23.1

25

59

68.4

55

30.8

18.2

Southern

Total

Male

Female

Male

Female

Mt. Currie

54.6

56.4

53.4

22.6

19.1

70

71.4

66.7

40

0

71.4

75

66.7

66.7

0

Cayoose Creek

N/A

T'i'tq'et N'Quatqua

N/A

Seton Lake

N/A

Skatin Samahquam Douglas

N/A

Lil’wat Nation, by far the largest community, has workforce participation of 54.5 By comparison: BC’s on-reserve workforce participation is 57.1% (2011, BC Stats) BC’s overall workforce participation rate is 66% (May 2012, BC Stats) BC’s overall unemployment rate is 7.3% (May 2012, BC Stats) No data is available for off-reserve workforce participation for community members, although Lillooet LHA (including 1,590 Aboriginal people, and non-Aboriginals) has a participation rate of 64% Note that community respondents estimated significantly lower levels (varying) of workforce participation for their members

42


Employment Information Relatively little full-time, year-round work, mostly in band administration and service delivery. Most employment is part-time; community members do not typically hold more than one part-time job. Employers reportedly prefer to hire part -time employees to maintain flexible operations, and part-time work is more readily available.

Relative employment by industry (2006 Census):

With the exception of ‘Other Services’, major industry sources of employment are ‘Manufacturing, Construction’ (believed to be mostly Construction) Health and Education’.

43


Labour Market Information Employment Information Relative employment by occupation (2006 Census):

Major occupational categories are Sales, Service (28%), Trades (22%) and Social Sciences, Government (14%). A 2011 study by the Lil’wat Nation, using 2006 Census data, found that most members are attaining jobs that require lower levels of education and training: Around 75% of members work in sales, service, trades, transport, equipment operation, and primary industry. Only 14% of members are involved in upper-level jobs pertaining to management, business, administration and finance. Most employment is seasonal, and peaks in the summer months, including: Forestry and logging Construction Tourism-related businesses Fisheries Funded projects, such as youth programs

44


Relative seasonality of work in the Northern St'ĂĄt'imc territory is validated by BC Stats Regional Statistics for Lillooet LHA:

Heavy reliance on project funding; communities report that 50 – 80% of employment relies on government funding.

45


Labour Market Information Key Challenges Unemployment / Barriers to Employment On reserve unemployment averaged more than 30% as reported in the 2006 Census (by available reported communities), although community stakeholders estimated significantly higher levels of unemployment for the members (30 – 100%). All communities reported that unemployment in the 19-24 age group is significantly higher than in the core labour pool (age 25-54). EI claims by 5.5% of the Lillooet LHA population 15+ (moving average at September 2010) are significantly higher than Howe Sound LHA (3.4%) and the provincial average (2.1%). EI claims among the young, i.e., 15-24 are significantly higher (7.1% in Lillooet LHA; 12% in Howe Sound LHA) reflecting the observation by community respondents above. Barriers to employment identified through community consultation are: Post-secondary education required for many skilled / semi-skilled positions Relatively low levels of literacy and numeracy Low affordability of education and certification Multiple certification requirements for many jobs Distance of communities to/from employment sources Lack of driver’s license (for both commuting and commercial driving opportunities) Lack of interest in some occupations, e.g., construction trades Lack of basic capacity, e.g., life skills, child care options Lack of motivation, and reluctance to work Discrimination in hiring (reported that one large employer in the region will only offer lowest labour jobs to St’át’imc – no visibility of Aboriginals in mid to high positions) Low availability of housing Social problems, e.g., drug and alcohol dependency, FAS “Anyone who wants to work is working” (Community representative).

46


Current Education Levels Education levels of the St'át'imc on-reserve population aged 15+ (2006 Census):

All respondents noted that the rate of high school completion by community members is higher for off-reserve than on-reserve members (e.g., T’it’q’et community reports 50+% on-reserve and 60+% off-reserve for attainment of Dogwood Certificate). School leavers typically transition to work (or income assistance if work is not available) from high school. Respondents anecdotally reported low rates of transition to university and trades education, although this does vary by community (e.g., Xaxl’ip reports 43 students are currently funded for university education). Respondents generally reported greater transition to trades training (including carpentry, electrician, plumbing) than transition to degree programs.

47


Labour Market Information Barriers to Education Identified barriers to participation in post-secondary education include: Lack of federal and provincial funding Term funding hinders continuity of educational offerings and planning Lack of transportation / driver’s license Lack of childcare options Funding for tutors to support learners Relatively low levels of literacy and numeracy Lack prerequisites for post secondary programs (parents and students lack of knowledge of significance of Dogwood for transition to post secondary and trades schools) Reluctance to leave home Lack of support networks in the urban centres, “culture shock” Lack of life skills Lack of career planning support Majority of students that graduate need to take upgrading/CAP programs to qualify for post secondary Teachers streaming of students into the “low stream pool” (non academic) and students willing to be in low stream Respondents noted that community members who pursue post-secondary education outside of the territory generally do not return. Reasons cited include: Low rate of pay in the community Lack of housing Lack of amenities Remoteness and isolation Slower pace of life

“Community members

who pursue post secondary education outside of the territory generally do not return.”

48


49


Labour Market Information Labour Market Demand-Replacement and Expansion Overall average growth in labour demand is forecast to be relatively low (Thompson Rivers College Region is lowest in province, at 1% per annum; Mainland / Southwest is equal to provincial average of 1.8% but this region includes Greater Vancouver). Identified sources of replacement demand (due to retirement) in St’át’imc territory are: Band administration (e.g., band management, bookkeeping, clerical support) Health services (e.g., nurses, home support workers, elder care) Forestry, including logging and wood processing (e.g., Aspen Mill employs around 30 St’át’imc ) Tourism-related businesses Construction/repair/restoration trades Education services Graymont lime plant on Ts’kw’aylaxw reserves (employs around 30 St’át’imc ) Managerial and supervisory occupations will be most impacted by the coming wave of retirements Anticipated sources of expansion demand (due to growth) are: Band administration and services (especially health care) Forestry and wood processing Fisheries Mining Independent power production Tourism, especially self-employment opportunities Construction Emerging industries and development opportunities include: Pellet production Renewable energy Agriculture, including vineyards

“Opportunities for occupations in tourism are expected to continue to grow in alignment with growth and promotion of the tourism industry in and around Whistler”

50


Governance and Band Administration Governance and band administration are significant employers in St’át’imc territory. In addition to the band administration offices for each of the communities there are three integrating governance organizations: Lower St'át'imc Tribal Council Lillooet Tribal Council St'át'imc Government Services Each of the government / community band administration offices employs workers full-time, part-time and seasonally. Government / Band Administration N’Quatqua Skatin Tsalalh Sew’el’was Xwisten St’át’imc Government Services

Full-Time

Part-Time

Seasonal

# of persons

# of persons

# of persons

16 2 42 9 15 6

21 5 9 2 5 6

Unknown Unknown 81 in 2011 10 – 30 at any time 10 – 60 at any time 10-14 at any time

Note: the other communities did not provide the relevant data. Services typically provided by community offices include: Management and Administration Finance Social Development Health Education Lands and Resources & Forestry Public Works/Infrastructure & Maintenance Housing Economic Development Registry (Land & Membership) Fisheries Technology Human Resources Recreation

51


Labour Market Information Health Care Health care is delivered by community departments in some communities, e.g., Lil’wat, Xaxli’p, Seton Lake, T’itq’et, Xwisten. Other communities receive service from Interior Health Authority or Vancouver Coastal Health Authority. The Health Authorities are responsible for acute care services, hospital services, and residential care. Currently, the interim First Nations Health Authority (iFNHA) is working with the Lower St’at’lmx Tribal Council (LSTC) Health Hub and the Northern St’át’imc Hub (as well as 130+ other hubs across BC) to prepare for the transfer of funding, administrative and program/services delivery for all Aboriginal people in British Columbia. Occupations expected to experience significant demand due to retirement and expansion demand in the next 5 years include: Community health nurses Health administrators (there may be 2 or more health support workers depending on the size of the community) Other occupations expected to experience expansion demand include alternative health care providers, such as massage therapists, traditional medicine and naturopathic providers The new T’it’q’et Health Centre will require at least 8 skilled/certified workers (e.g., nurse, home care worker, physiotherapist)

52


Forestry, Logging and Wood Processing The St’át’imc territory spans 3 timber supply areas (TSAs): Lillooet SOO Fraser Forestry has been in decline in the last 10 years: Demand-side: reduced demand for timber on world markets; global recession Supply-side: terrain is costly to log; distance from markets; protection of culturally important lands Most recent data from the Ministry of Forests (Lillooet Timber Supply Area) shows 100,000m3 of the allowable annual cut (AAC) of 500,000m3 was taken in 2009 However, respondents anticipate that the industry is set for growth Several communities manage, or have recently acquired, forest licenses, e.g. Xaxli’p community forest of 100,000ha with a 5,000m3 planned cut, supports a crew of 4 + 1 manager (note Xaxli’p were permitted 25,000 m3 cut). Awaiting approval of stewardship plan prior to cutting T’i’tq’et and Ts’kw’aylaxw have replaceable licenses (5-7,000 m3 cut each) also awaiting approval of stewardship plans Lillooet Tribal Council (200,000m3 license, primarily for harvesting dead pine for pellet production, but also permitted up to 50% cut of higher quality wood) In-SHUCK-ch has non-replaceable and replaceable forest licenses with total AAC of 71,378 m3 Lil’wat Nation has a variety of licenses with a total AAC of 65,280 m3

53


Labour Market Information Lil’wat recently commissioned a study to estimate how many jobs their AAC would support. All jobs would be seasonal and range from 4 to 6 months. The study estimated 26 jobs in total: Occupation Engineer

Forestry / Silviculture

Excavator Operator

Gravel Truck Driver Grader Operator Hand Falling

Yarding / Loading

Hauling

Number Months Training 2 4 2yr. Technical training (Vancouver Island University) or 4yr. Forestry Degree (UBC or UNBC) S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1) RISC Standards Training (GPS Technology) RoadEng software training ArcView training (GIS mapping program) WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training 1 6 4yr. Forestry Degree (UBC or UNBC) S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1) Species at Risk Training WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training 2 6 Heavy Duty Equipment Operators Program (any Technical Institution) Additional Training: WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1) 2 5 As above 1 6 As above 6 6 Faller Certification Training (BC Forest Safety Council) Additional Training: WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1) 2 6 Heavy Duty Equipment Operators Program (any Technical Institution) Additional Training: WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1) 6 5 Class 1 Driver’s License (with Air) Additional Training: WorkSafe Supervisor Safety Management Training S100 Fire suppression Occupational first aid (level 1)

54


Employment Demand Key Occupations 0811 8211 7411 8241 7312 8422 2223 8422 8616 9436

Primary Production Managers Supervisors, Logging and Forestry Truck Drivers Logging Machine Operators (e.g., loader operators, stacker operators) Heavy-Duty Equipment Mechanics Chain Saw and Skidder Operators Forestry Technologists and Technicians (e.g., cruiser) Silviculture and Forestry Workers Logging and Forestry Labourers Lumber Graders and Other Wood Processing Inspectors and Graders

Aspen Mill, a veneer mill, is the only remaining substantial processing facility in the territory. It re-opened in 2011 after several years of closure and reportedly employs around 30 St’át’imc . There are several portable mills also operating in the TSAs. 9215

Supervisors, Forest Products Processing Labourers in Wood, Pulp and Paper Processing

55


Labour Market Information Mining Mineral exploration and mining in the territory and surrounding area are anticipated to grow. Operating mines in Lil’wat traditional territory incude Birkenhead Platinum Mine, Mt Meager Pumice mine. Four granite quarries operating in the SLRD. Focused on local markets; steady growth expected in building and landscape stone materials. A mine reactivation is currently being proposed on the Birkenhead Forest Service Road, and has an exploratory permit. There are 30 active aggregate pits in the SLRD serving local markets. Bralorne Mine: Operating with a current staff of 55, including approximately 11 First Nations (unknown by respondent whether these are all St’át’imc ). Planning to double capacity in 2013, to a staff of 80 – 100 people.

Key occupations 2143 8221 8231 8411 8615

Mining engineers Supervisors, mining and quarrying Underground production and development miners Underground mine service and support workers Mine labourers

56


Independent Power Production Independent Power Production (IPP) is an established industry in the St’át’imc territory, largely through run-of-river hydro-electric power plants. Some communities hold IPP water licenses and construction phases of existing plants provided employment for community members. Several further run-of-river projects are either under development or under construction by independent power producers in the territory:

Project Upper Lillooet River (including North Creek and Boulder Creek) Northwest Stave River (under construction) Big Silver – Shovel Creek Tretheway Creek Jamie Creek Ryan River South Meager Creek Geothermal Gun Creek Hurley River Raffuse Creek

Independent Power Producer

Const. Time

Est. Const. Cost ($m)

Innergex Renewable Energy

2013 - 2016

260

Innergex Renewable Energy

2013

69.8

Innergex Renewable Energy Innergex Renewable Energy C-Free Power Corp. Regional Power Corp. Western GeoPower Corp. Creek Power Inc.. Hurley River Hydro LP Run of River Power Inc..

2013 - 2016 2013 - 2015 2012 - 2013 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

144.9 78.1 40 273 400 108 108 21

Combined construction employment estimated at 764 person years of employment over the 3 year construction period (for the Innergex projects under construction from 2013-2016) Estimated that 50% of these construction-related jobs could be filled locally, where skills are available (382 person years = average of 128 FTE per year)

Key Occupations (Construction) 6541 2263 7411 7521 7311 7271 7236 7252 7237

Security guards and related security service occupations Inspectors in public and environmental health and occupational health and safety Truck drivers Heavy equipment operators (except crane) Construction millwrights and industrial mechanics Carpenters Ironworkers Steamfitters, pipefitters and sprinkler system installers Welders and related machine operators

7243 Power system electricians 8616 Logging and forestry labourers (brushing and clearing) 7611 Construction trades helpers and labourers 2255 Technical occupations in geomatics and meteorology (avalanche technicians)

Key Occupations (Operations) 9241

Power engineers and power systems operators (estimated 4 – 6 long-term employees for each hydro-electric power plant)

57


Labour Market Information Residential / Commercial / Road Construction Construction-related trades are identified as a significant source of both replacement demand and expansion demand. While trade skills are applicable to the industries discussed above, a number of residential and commercial construction projects have been also been identified through stakeholder consultation: In-SHUCK-ch Forest Service Road project ($30 million) Rusty Creek subdivision in Xaxli'p T’it’q’et health care centre T’it’q’et community hall Continued construction in Whistler and the surrounding area also provide employment opportunities for construction trades.

Key Occupations 0711 7521 724 725 727 728 729

Construction Managers Heavy Equipment Operators Electrical Trades and Telecommunication Occupations Plumbers, Pipefitters and Gas Fitters Carpenters and Cabinetmakers Masonry and Plastering Trades Other Construction Trades

58


Tourism Opportunities for occupations in tourism are expected to continue to grow in alignment with the growth and promotion of the tourism industry in and around Whistler. The territory offers opportunities for: Cultural tourism (e.g., St’át’imc heritage) Eco-tourism (e.g., natural habitat tours) Adventure tourism (e.g., trail riding) Fishing tours These types of tourist activity are suited to small operations with low overhead, and provide self-employment/entrepreneurship opportunities. While much strategic planning appears to have been done by regional stakeholders to support destination-based tourism there appears to be little action to implement the strategy.

Fisheries Several communities operate fisheries and see opportunities for growth. For example, N’Quatqua has the opportunity to expand the existing trout farm to accommodate from 200,000 trout today, to 400,000 possibly more. The community has a slaughterhouse and is planning to build a packing facility and smoking facility. These facilities are expected to employ 5 – 10 people.

Key Occupations 9618 9463

Labourers in fish and seafood processing Fish and seafood plant workers

59


Labour Market Information Emerging and New Industries Pellet production Lillooet Tribal Council (LTC) is pursuing development of a pellet plant to process pine and other wood available through a recently granted 200,000 ha forest license. The pellet plant would provide for local employment in both the construction and operations phases, as well as provide the driver for harvesting activity within the forest license. LTC anticipates a number of jobs emerging from this initiative, including: Demolition and construction jobs to build the plant; 30 production jobs; and 50 jobs developing, harvesting and rejuvenating the fibre needed in producing the pellets.

Other renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, biogas) Several communities are exploring opportunities to produce renewable energy (other than hydro-electric). These include Lil’wat Nation, which is exploring development of South Meager Creek for geothermal business potential, and has found site has the “potential for 30 - 40 full time jobs and substantial revenue” and has also identified bio-energy production (i.e., from wood waste) as a potential economic opportunity. Other communities, such as T’it’q’et, are exploring opportunities for wind energy.

Agriculture / Vineyards Several communities are exploring opportunities to expand agriculture, especially grape production, in the territory.

60


Self-employment / Entrepreneurship The following identified opportunities for self-employment and entrepreneurship align with the anticipated growth industries above: Construction trades (applicable to many industries) Trucking Logging Cultural artisans / artists Mechanics Horticulture Agriculture (e.g., grapes) Tourism, e.g., guiding, cultural tours Health care service providers (e.g., therapists, geriatric care, etc) Respite care Fishing Bookkeeping On-line tutorial services GIS mapping Identified barriers to self-employment and entrepreneurship are: Limited access to capital Shortage of business/management/marketing skills Cultural attitudes to work and risk Lack of general support to start own business Local market is too small and fragmented Property rights

61


62


St'รกt'imc Education & Training Section 4: Program Design Recommendations

63


Program Recommendations Suggestions for Action The material in this report has been prepared to support St’át’imc in developing a strong Education and Training Program. The information provides a broad picture of the challenges and opportunities that surround learning, working and economic development for all of St’át’imc as well as for the specific needs of BC Hydro’s operations in St’át’imc. The Education and Training plan, which will be developed in and by the St’át’imc communities, and is supported with 5 years of funding generated from the St’át’imc BC Hydro Agreement, will be successful to the extent that it coalesces the community into strong and strongly supported action. The suggestions for action included here come from the experience of the research team working with communities, particularly in BC, that face similar challenges and opportunities to those in St’át’imc. They are aimed at addressing a wide range of challenges including basic skills development, literacy and numeracy, learner support programs, worker support programs, community mentoring and development programs and the retention and succession of the existing workers in the community. With funding of $400,000 per year, it is unlikely that the whole range of suggestions could be implemented in St’át’imc and, in fact, the research team would recommend the opposite. It is likely to be more effective for the education and training plan to focus on one or two key areas each year, develop the community support for them and a plan for the long term sustainment. Once each key area has a supported program in place then the next area can begin development. What follows is a framework of Recommendations for Action. The recommendations have been developed by the research team and are based on the information gathered here about the challenges and opportunities in St’át’imc and on the extensive experience of the research team developing and implementing comprehensive Education and Training Plans. Given the information in this report, again based on the experience of the research team, there appears to be three key areas that can have a strong and lasting impact in St’át’imc. Firstly it seems that a program aimed at developing strong, lasting and supportive parent connections with pre-school, K-12 and post-secondary schools has the potential to address many of the learning challenges uncovered in the research. This parental connection based on the overwhelming evidence in educational research, both in aboriginal communities and in general, is the key to student engagement in learning. Secondly, a mentoring program that pairs successful St’át’imc Grade 12 graduates with students in grades 6, 7 and 8 could have a strong impact on the retention of students to grade 12. Thirdly, the known opportunities for full time and well compensated jobs in St’át’imc communities are in the middle to senior management roles in Band management and Health and Social Services. It seems that a program aimed at identifying those who have the capacity to be trained and mentored into these roles could have a lasting, impact on the stability and strength of the St’át’imc communities and economies. In the end, what is critical is that the Education and Training Program will focus on areas that resonate with St’át’imc communities such that they create a coalescing drive to actions that will implement and support the Program. This is critical to the overall success of the plan both in the first five years when there is funding from the St’át’imc BC Hydro Agreement, but also, and perhaps more importantly, in the long term when the community drive and support for the program and its actions will be the force that enables long term success.

64


65


Program Recommendations Recommendation 1: Establish and support immediate & long term Education and Training planning infrastructure This is a necessary first step to the implementation and delivery of the overall strategies and actions Recommendation 2: Meet specific labour demand opportunities Inventory specific labour demands including specific certifications, training and experience necessary to each job. Establish baseline and update regularly (every 6 months) Supply side survey – develop a concise overview of the skills, certifications, interests and experience of the labour force, working and not working – match with demand inventory above Recommendation 3: Grow/improve education and skills base for St'át'imc Expand distributed learning opportunities in secondary and post-secondary examine ways to offer customized/targeted training programs specific to identified areas labour demand Identify specific long-term needs and certification opportunities Identify jobs/employers to pilot a summer internship/training program for students Enhance essential skills programs with emphasis on literacy, numeracy and workplace skills Enable/support St’át’imc language and cultural programs as part of graduation/certification programs Recommendation 4: Develop programs that will meet the growing gap in: Management and Administration Skills Health Care and Community Services Pilot a management/succession support program using a focused learning/adult education model including existing online and distance education programs (e.g., Harvard) Develop a comprehensive picture of current management including certifications, experience, career path and career plans Develop and pilot a core management skills program (e.g., HR, Payroll, computer skills, leadership and team management) Pilot a leadership and management skills certification program for mid-career professionals Provide access to management training programs and linkages at the diploma, degree and masters levels Pilot a management entry (rising star) program that includes: a candidate nomination drive, a mentorship program, an individual development plan Develop and pilot a mentor/shadow program that pairs experienced leaders/managers currently working with new hires Recommendation 5: Develop entrepreneurial and self-employment skills Develop a profile of mid-career workers and entrepreneurs to identify critical success factors and key skills and use to develop a model for training, job shadowing, development and attraction of new entrepreneurs. Develop and pilot a “how to get started in your own business” program. Develop a shared administration (e.g., back office, taxes, HST, payroll etc.,) service for small businesses. Set up a business incubation center (including mentoring, business case models, administration support and training) Review and customize existing entrepreneur training programs. Identify entrepreneurs planning retirement and match with new/potential entrepreneurs – job share/work to own Identify business mentors for new and aspiring entrepreneurs Peer micro-lending program for small start-up business

66


Create an entrepreneurism training program including co-op or internship with local business in K-12 system, including those in trades/apprenticeship programs Recommendation 6: Access/lever skills of underemployed workers Mentorship of near retired and retired experts across all areas including apprentices and trades Develop a database of retirement plans in the next 5 years to map labour demand/supply and training needs . Recommendation 7: Improve K-12 Outcomes and participation Develop secondary school apprenticeship/trades certification programs (including entrepreneurship skills and co-op or internship with local business) in identified areas of labour demand Develop a science, math, English tutoring program for grades 10-12, then expand to lower grades and then to out of school learners. Expand summer internship/training program for students. Re-introduce a grade 11/12-student mentorship program to support at risk grade 7/8 students. Establish a parent, teacher and leadership planning table to review and implement programs that support student achievement and reports progress to the community Enable strong connections between parents/guardians and the communities with the Schools in St’át’imc Enable/support St’át’imc language and cultural programs from pre-K to Graduation Recommendation 8: Develop pre K learner Support Programs Establish Pre K community planning team Assess viability of developing St’át’imc language and culture program to fit with pre-k programs Recommendation 9: Build linkages and partnerships between Aboriginal and non Aboriginal economic development activities and long term training programs and development including sources of funding and direct learner support Engage broader economic development leaders throughout St’át’imc region in annual planning and strategy sessions Identify and keep current programs available to provide support and funding for broad education and training Identify, keep current and make widely available a full listing of individual learner support programs including criteria for participation and on-going support

67


68


St'รกt'imc Education & Training Section 5: Appendices

69


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48

70


Appendix 1

71


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48

72


Appendix 1

73


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Lil'wat Population by Age 9%

4% 18%

10%

Age 0-4 Age 5-18

Age 19-24 11%

Age 25-54 Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

Lil'wat Workforce Characteristics

Male employment rate

13% 36%

15%

Female employment rate Male unemployment rate

36%

Female unemployment rate

Lil'wat Population Growth 1350 1300 1250 1200 1150 1100 1050

2001

2006

74


Appendix 1 Lil'wat Population Characteristics Males on reserve 16%

2%

Males on other reserves

35%

Males Off reserve Females on reserve

32%

2% 13%

Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

Lil'wat Workforce by Industry Other Occupations

20 55

Trades and Related

125 155

Social Services, Gov't

70 10

Management

75

160 Business Services

30

110 Wholesale, retail

40 100

Agriculture, resource based

50 0

50

100

150

Lil'wat Education Statistics

200

No Degree, Certificate or Diploma 6%

2% 36%

26%

High School Diploma or Equivalent only Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate University certificate below bachelor level

30%

University Degree (Bachelor level or Higher)

75


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 N'Quatqua Population Characteristics Males on reserve

17%

27%

Males on other reserves

6%

Males Off reserve Females on reserve

7% 25%

Females on other reserves 18%

Females Off reserve

N'Quatqua Population by Age 9%

4%

Age 0-4 17%

9%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 13%

Age 25-54 Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

N'Quatqua Worforce Characteristics 20% 46%

Participation rate

Employment rate 34%

Unemployment rate

76


Appendix 1 N'Quatqua Workforce by Industry Primary industry

20

Trades and Related

10

Sales and Service

15

Social Services, Gov't

10

Management

10

Other Services

20

Health, education

10

Agriculture, resource based

20 0

5

10

15

20

25

Samahquam Population by Age 4%

9%

18%

10%

Age 0-4

Age 5-18 11%

Age 19-24 Age 25-54 Age 55-64

48%

Age 65+

Skatin Population Characteristics Males on reserve 10%

9%

35%

Males on other reserves Males Off reserve

Females on reserve 8%

32% 6%

Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

77


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Skatin Population by Age 9%

4%

Age 0-4 18%

10%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 Age 25-54

11%

Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

Skatin Worforce Characteristics 28%

Participation rate

46%

Employment rate 26%

Unemployment rate

Skatin Workforce by Industry Primary industry

10

Trades and Related

15

Sales and Service

10

Other Services

15

Health, education

10

Manufacturing, construction

10 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

78


Appendix 1 Skatin Population Growth

76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67

2001

2006

Skatin Education Statistics No Degree, Certificate or Diploma 40%

60%

Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate

Xa'xtsa Population Characteristics Males on reserve

12% 10%

37%

Males on other reserves Males Off reserve Females on reserve

27% 6%

8%

Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

79


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Xa'xtsa Population by Age 9%

4%

Age 0-4 18%

10%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 Age 25-54

11%

Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

Xa'xtsa Workforce by Industry Primary Industry

10

Sales and Service

10

Other Services

15

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Xa'xtsa Population Growth

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

2001

2006

80


Appendix 1 Xa'xtsa Education Statistics

No Degree, Certificate or Diploma 50%

50%

Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate

Sek'wel'was Population Characteristics Males on reserve 28%

20%

Males on other reserves 4%

Males off reserve

4% 17%

Females on reserve

27%

Females on other reserves Females off reserve

Sek'wel'was Population by Age 11%

5%

6%

Age 0-4 12%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 19%

Age 25-54 Age 55-64 Age 65+

47%

81


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Sek'wel'was Workforce by Industry Primary industry

10

Sales and Service

10

Management

10

Other Services

10

Manufacturing, construction

20

Agriculture, resource based

10 0

5

10

15

20

25

T'it'q'et Population Characteristics Males on reserve 23%

26%

Males on other reserves

2%

2%

Females on reserve

24%

23%

Males off reserve

Females on other reserves Females off reserve

T'it'q'et Population by Age 11%

4%

18%

11%

Age 0-4 Age 5-18

Age 19-24 12%

Age 25-54 Age 55-64

44%

Age 65+

82


Appendix 1 T'it'q'et Workforce by Industry Other Occupations

10 20 20

Trades and Related

25 25

Social Services, Gov't

10 Management

25 45

Business Services

10

Wholesale, retail

10

20 20 Agriculture, resource based

15 0

10

20

30

40

50

T'it'q'et Population Growth

251 250 249 248 247 246 245 244 243 242

2001

2006

T'it'q'et Education Statistics 8%

No Degree, Certificate or Diploma

5% 39%

High School Diploma or Equivalent only

24%

Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate

24%

2001

2006

83


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Ts'kw'aylaxw Population Characteristics Males on reserve

20%

26%

Males on other reserves

8%

Males Off reserve

6%

Females on reserve

23%

17%

Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

Ts'kw'aylaxw Population by Age 9%

4%

Age 0-4 18%

10%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 11%

Age 25-54 Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

Ts'kw'aylaxw Education Statistics No Degree, Certificate or Diploma

10%

High School Diploma or Equivalent only 37%

53% Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate

84


Appendix 1 Tsal'alh Population Characteristics Males on reserve

20%

23%

Males on other reserves

8%

7% 18%

Males off reserve Females on reserve

24%

Females on other reserves Females off reserve

Tsal'alh Population by Age 9%

4%

Age 0-4 18%

10%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 Age 25-54

11%

Age 55-64 Age 65+

48%

Tsal'alh Workforce by Industry Primary industry Trades and Related Sales and Service Social Services, Gov't Management Other Services Business Services Health, education Manufacturing, construction Agriculture, resource based

10 20 25

20 20 30 10 25

20 10 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

85


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 X'wisten Population Characteristics Males on reserve

19%

23%

Males on other reserves

3% 5%

Males Off reserve 27%

23%

Females on reserve Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

X'wisten Population by Age

6%

8%

5%

Age 0-4 Age 5-18

23%

Age 19-24 Age 25-54 Age 55-64

10%

Age 65+

48%

X'wisten Workforce by Industry Primary industry

10

Trades and Related

10

Sales and Service

35

Social Services, Gov't

15

Other Services

45

Health, education

15

Wholesale, retail

10

Manufacturing, construction

10

Agriculture, resource based

10 0

10

20

30

40

50

86


Appendix 1 X'wisten Population Growth 216 215 214 213 212 211 210 209 208 207

215

210

2001

2006

X'wisten Education Statistics No Degree, Certificate or Diploma

6% 36%

29%

29%

High School Diploma or Equivalent only

Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate University certificate below bachelor level

87


Aboriginal Education Outcomes, BC and District s74/48 Xaxli'p Population Characteristics Males on reserve

14% 30%

Males on other reserves

7%

Males Off reserve 6%

30%

13%

Females on reserve Females on other reserves Females Off reserve

Xaxli'p Population by Age

8%

4%

Age 0-4 17%

11%

Age 5-18

Age 19-24 Age 25-54

9%

Age 55-64 Age 65+

51%

Xaxli'p Workforce by Industry 10

Primary industry

15

35

Sales and Service

30

15

Natural Sciences, health

20 25

Other Services

40 10

Health, education

20 10 10

Wholesale, retail

25

Agriculture, resource based

15

0

10

20

30

40

50

88


Appendix 1 Xaxli'p Population Growth 191 190 189 188 187 186 185 184 183 182

2001

2006

Xaxli'p Education Statistics No Degree, Certificate or Diploma 5% 5% 30% 30%

30%

High School Diploma or Equivalent only Trades/Apprenticeship or other non-University Certificate University certificate below bachelor level

89


Interview Guide St’át’imc Labour Market Information: Community Research Guide Community: Interviewee: Position: Date of Interview: Interview Conducted by: Labour Supply Information Note: we do not expect that we will be able to accurately/currently answer all of the following questions. Where we lack data we will rely on anecdotal evidence, as available, shared during stakeholder interviews. For all questions, please note source and age of data. Population What is the population of _____________________community? By location? On Reserve Off Reserve / In Territory Off Reserve / Outside Territory By age and gender? 0-4

F-

M-

5-18

F-

M-

19-24

F-

M-

25-54 (‘core labour pool’)

F-

M-

55-64

F-

M-

65+

F-

M-

90


Appendix 2 What was the population of _________________community 10 YEARS PRIOR TO MOST CURRENT DATA? By age and gender? If not available take anecdotal reports of population increase or decrease. By location (as above) On Reserve Off Reserve / In Territory Off Reserve / Outside Territory By age and gender (as above) 0-4

F-

M-

5-18

F-

M-

19-24

F-

M-

25-54 (‘core labour pool’)

F-

M-

55-64

F-

M-

65+

F-

M-

Education What pre-school programming currently serves the ______________community on and off reserve in the territory? How many are enrolled?

What K-12 schools serve the __________________community on and off reserve? How many are enrolled?

What supports are provided for __________________ community participation in K-12 schools? What are the barriers to participation?

What is the rate of high school completion by the ________________community on and off reserve? Dogwood School leaving certificate

91


Interview Guide What is the rate of transition of _________________community (on and off reserve) from high school to: University education Trades education Work Where do __________________community go to pursue post-secondary education? Include numbers where available What percentage of the ________________community (aged up to 64) hold post-secondary qualifications? University degree Diploma Trades certification For each of the above please provide any available information on common subjects of post-secondary education What supports are provided for ____________________community participation in post-secondary education? E.g., innovative approaches, distance learning, technology supports What are the barriers to participation in post-secondary education? E.g., internet connectivity What is the rate of transition to trades apprenticeship for ______________community on and off reserve? What supports exist? What are the barriers? What is the rate of apprenticeship completion by ____________________community on and off reserve? What supports exist? What are the barriers to completio What percentage of high school graduates who pursue post-secondary education outside the region do not return in the short-term? Expected to be anecdotal. What resources for education, employment, training and labour market services exist in St’åt’imc ? What programs do they provide? What resources for education, employment, training and labour market services exist in the community? E.g., HRDSC-funded programs and services Provincial government services Community government programs and services

92


Appendix 2 Community society programs and services Economic development programs Employment What regional industries have been or are the St’át’imc employed in? Please provide metrics where available. We also anticipate anecdotal evidence here. Currently 10 years ago 20 years ago What is the workforce participation rate of ______________community? By age and gender? 15-24

F-

M-

25-54 (‘core labour pool’)

F-

M-

55-64

F-

M-

65+

F-

M-

To what extent is the work that ______________community are employed in seasonal? Please elaborate on specific industries To what extent are jobs held by __________________community part-time vs. full-time? Do part-time workers typically hold more than one job? To what extent are _______________community reliant on project funding, i.e., at any given time, what % of the population are employed in project-funded work? Recognize that this may be higher in the summer. What is the unemployment rate among ________________community? By age group? (include anecdotal evidence where offered) 15-24

F-

M–

25-54 (‘core labour pool’)

F-

M–

55-64

F-

M–

65+

F-

M-

What are the barriers to employment for ____________________community?

93


Interview Guide Cultural Knowledge What industries in the territory are aligned with St’åt’imc culture and heritage? Who in the territory has particular knowledge that could be helpful to meeting future training requirements? BC Hydro Youth Trades Program at the Bridge Facility How many from the community have started the program? How many from the community have completed the program? Of those that completed the program, how many transitioned to employment at: BC Hydro? Other companies? Do you believe the youth trades program has been a success for your community? Why or why not? Labour Demand 1.

Existing Industries What are the major industries in ___________________community or in the immediate vicinity where members find employment? How have these industries evolved over the last 10 years? I.e., Growth or decline? Reasons? What is the outlook for these industries over the next 10 years? What specific plans/commitments exist? What are the occupations and critical skills required that enable these industries? What educational qualifications are required to fill these occupations (basic and job-specific)? What are your expectations of demand for these skills and occupations over the next 10 years? What are the (a) current and (b) anticipated supply challenges for each of these skills and occupations? What other challenges will these major industries face? What other existing industries are facing either (a) current or (b) anticipated labour supply issues?

94


Appendix 2 2.

Emerging Industries What industries have emerged in St’át’imc territory that were not substantially here 10 years ago? What is the outlook for growth of these industries over the next 10 years? What specific plans/commitments exist? What are the critical skills and occupations for these emerging industries? Specific qualifications and certifications? What are your expectations of demand for these skills and occupations over the next 10 years? Specific numbers where available What are the (a) current and (b) anticipated supply challenges for each of these skills and occupations? What other challenges will these industries face?

3.

New Industries What opportunities exist to create new industries St’át’imc territory ? What specific plans/commitments exist? What critical occupations would be required to enable these new industries? What are your expectations of demand? What are the anticipated challenges in filling these occupations? What other challenges are there to establishing these industries?

4.

Major Projects What large capital projects are proposed or planned for the region in the next 10 years? What occupations will be required? Project implementation Operations What are the anticipated supply challenges associated with these occupations?

95


Interview Guide 5.

Other Labour Market Dynamics What industries and occupations are expected to experience the greatest rates of retirement over the next 10 years? Why?

To what extent are workers from declining industries (if applicable) able to employ transferable skills in other industries in the region?

What opportunities exist to move part-time employees to full-time work, e.g., through multiple jobs? What needs to be done to enable these opportunities? What are the challenges?

What are the industries (existing, emerging or new) with the greatest potential for self-employment and entrepreneurial opportunities? What are the barriers to self-employment and entrepreneurship?

96


97


List of Interviewees Name

Community Affiliation

Christine Leo Chief Ralph Thevarge Julie Thevarge Karen Thevarge Melvin Patrick Susan James Cathy Narcisse Matt Manuel Marilyn Napoleon Geneva Quipp Chief Patrick Williams Gabe Williams Wallace B. Henry Xavier Williams Wendy Phair Dewey Jones Shawn Scotchman Lucie Scotchman Susan Napoleon Janice Whitney Doreen Whitney Lillian Saultier Sherry Kane Raquel Kane Crystal Branget Shannon Squire Karen Lougheed Joanne John Phyllis Peters Francine Billy Jqcquie Ledoux Nigel Protter Sharon James

N'Quatqua Admin N'Quatqua Chief N'Quatqua Councillor N'Quatqua Councillor N'Quatqua Councillor LTC Director LTC Education Advisor LTC Natural Resources SEA Member Skatin Administrator Skatin Chief Skatin Councillor Skatin Councillor Skatin Councillor T'it'q'et Administrator O & M Administrator Social Development Housing Education Coordinator PC and Poverty Action Ucwalmicw Centre Tskwaylaxw Admin Tskwaylaxw Pre School Tskwaylaxw Education Seton Band Admin Tsalalh Dev. Corp Social Development RCHC Healt Director Council and AHSOR Education Coordinator Skil Mtn. Principal LSTC Administrator Xwisten Membership Clerk

98


Appendix 3 Name

Community Affiliation

Bradley Jack Florence Jack Valerie Adrian Lillian Saul David Adolph Alice Saul Darrell Bob Trudy Rean Yvonne Larochelle Charmaine John Darryl Peters Kerry Mehaffy Dennis Callaghan Jack Ned Christine Galliazzo

Xwisten Administrator Xwisten Accountant/Economic Development Xwisten Education Coordinator Xwisten Education Coordinator Xaxli'p Former Community Leader Xaxli'p Membership Clerk Xaxli'p Former Chief Sekwel'was Administrator Sekwel'was Education Coordinator Sekwel'was Membership Clerk Xaxtsa7 Coucillor Lil'wat Director of Economic Development Northern Development Initiative Trust Employment Counsellor, Lilooet Friendship Centre ( lilooet Employment Centre) First Nations/Stewardship Forester, Lillooet Field Officer, Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Upper Lillooet River Hydro Project, INNERGEX Investor Relations Officer, Bralorne Gold Mines Vancouver Coastal Health Authority BC Stats Lillooet Tribal Council St’át’imc Government Services In shuck ch Nation BC Hydro BC Hydro

Liz Scroggins Jonathon Smith Peter Vlahos Dan Schrier Matt Manuel Ernest Armann Allen Gabriel Dave Pernell Jeannie Cranmer

99


Terms of Reference Role of the Education and Training Program Committee The role of the Education and Training Program Committee is as follows:  Report to the Steering Committee and oversee the governance and strategic development and implementation of the Education and Training Program.  Recruit and appoint the Education and Training Program Manager.  Report annually to the Steering Committee on program implementation and progress.  Conclude an agreement on the Education and Training Program.  Determine the key objectives of the Education and Training Program.  Oversee communications to St'át'imc and BC Hydro regarding the Education and Training Program.  Oversee annual (or bi-annual) evaluation of the Education and Training Program.  Oversee financial management of the Education and Training program.  Be accountable to the spirit and intent to the agreement.

Responsibilities of the Committee Co-Chairs The Committee Co-Chairs are the Implementation Managers from the St'át'imc and BC Hydro. The responsibilities of the Committee Co-Chairs are as follows:  Set the agenda for each meeting.  Ensure that agendas and supporting materials are delivered to members in advance of meetings.  Make the purpose of each meeting clear to members and explain the agenda at the beginning of each meeting.  Clarify and summarize what is happening throughout each meeting.  Keep the meeting moving by putting time limits on each agenda items and keeping all meetings to two hours or less.  Encourage broad participation from members in discussion by calling on different people.  End each meeting with a summary of decisions and assignments.  Follow up with consistently absent members to determine if they wish to discontinue membership.  Find replacements for members who discontinue participation.  Provide mentorship to the Education and Training Program Manager.  Ensure the Committee’s Terms of References are respected and followed.

Responsibilities of Committee Members Individual Committee members have the following responsibilities:  Understand the goals, objectives, and desired outcomes of the program.  Understand and represent the interests of program stakeholders.  Take a genuine interest in the program’s outcomes and overall success.  Act on opportunities to communicate positively about the program.  Actively participate in meetings through attendance, discussion, and review of minutes, papers and other Committee documents.  Support open discussion and debate, and encourage fellow Committee members to voice their insights.

100


Appendix 4 General The Education and Training Committee will consist of six members. Three members will be represented by St'át'imc and three members will be represented by BC Hydro. Members will be nominated by each organization’s Committee. The Implementation Managers from St'át'imc and BC Hydro will be the Co-Chairs of the Committee. The Committee members will have three-year terms. Their term can be renewed on for an additional three-year term for a maximum of up to six years. Membership to the committee will be staggered to ensure seamless integration. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 1) ST/BCH 2)ST/BCH 3)ST/BCH The Education and Training Program Manager will report to the Committee. Subject matter experts will be invited to provide insight and expertise. BC Hydro and St'át'imc will jointly develop and implement the Education & Training Program. An Education & Training Committee will be established to oversee the development and implementation of the program and the committee will appoint an Educations & training Program Manager. The current Education & Training Committee consists of six members, three from St'át'imc, three from BC Hydro (currently BC Hydro has one vacancy). Ernest Armann Sally Thorpe Akemi Siu Rodney Louie Darryl Peters

E&T committee Co-Chair, Implementation Manager, St'át'imc Government Services E&T committee Co-Chair, Implementation Manager BC Hydro Senior Implementation Specialist BC Hydro Director of Operations, St’át’imc Government Services Relations Manager, St’át’imc Government Services

Quorum A minimum number of four Committee members are required for decision-making purposes. The quorum must include a minimum number of two members from St'át'imc and two members from BC Hydro. The Co-Chairs shall agree that attendance can include conference calling and video conferencing.

Decision-Making Decisions will be reached by consensus, which is defined by lack of disagreement or majority agreement. However, dissent will be recorded.

101


Bibliography List of Sources St'át'imc Labour Market Information British Columbia Regional Employment Projections, Thompson Rivers College Region, 2010 to 2015, BC Stats District of Lillooet Corporate Strategic Plan, 2007-2017 Advantage Lillooet: The Land, The Community, The Opportunities, District of Lillooet, 2008 Economic Opportunity Assessment: District of Lillooet, Electoral Areas A & B, Northern St’át’imc, Squamish Lillooet Regional District, 2008 Community Tourism Foundations Program Tourism Development Plan, Lillooet, 2008 Squamish Lillooet Regional District Growth Strategy Upper Lillooet Hydro Project, Local and Regional Project Benefits, Creek Power Inc.. Village of Pemberton Strategic Plan, 2008 – 2010 School District 48 – Howe Sound, Statistical Profile, BC Stats, 2010 School District 74 – Gold Trail, Statistical Profile, BC Stats, 2010 Regional District 31 – Squamish-Lillooet, Statistical Profile, BC Stats, 2010 Local Health Area 48 – Howe Sound, Statistical Profile, BC Stats, 2010 Local Health Area 29 – Lillooet, Statistical Profile, BC Stats, 2010 Lillooet Tourism Development Plan, Community Tourism Foundations Program, 2008 Aboriginal Community Data Initiative, Lil’wat Nation, Statistics Canada, 2006 BC Stats Infoline, Issue 11-05, BC Stats, 2011 Major Projects Inventory, Ministry of Jobs, Tourism and Innovation, December 2011 In-SHUCK-ch and Harrison West Forest Service Road Improvements – Benefits, BC Ministry of Forests and Range, 2010 In-SHUCK-ch Nation, Annual Report, 2009-2010 Lil’wat Community Economic Profile, Lil’wat Nation, 2010 2006 Economic Dependency Tables for Forest Districts, BC Stats, 2009 First Nation Profiles. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, 2012 www.innergex.com (information on IPP projects) Recent Trends in the Off-Reserve, Aboriginal Labour Force Participation, BC Stats, 2011 British Columbia Statistical Profile of Aboriginal Peoples: Registered Indians Compared to the Non-Registered Population With Emphasis on Labour Market and Post Secondary Issues, BC Stats, 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Labour Force Survey, Statistics Canada and BC Stats, 2012

102


Appendix 5 St'át'imc Educational Outcomes Aboriginal Education in Quebec: A Benchmarking Exercise CD Howe Institute April 2011 Aboriginal Education: A Discussion Guide, Catherine Abraham and Joyce Gram, 2008 Aboriginal Student Transitions Project, Ontario Native Education Counselling Association, March 2011 British Columbia Ministry of Education, Foundation Skills Assessment Results 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 First Nations Control of First Nations Education, it’s Our Vision, It’s Our Time, Assembly of First Nations, July 2010 First Nations Education Steering Committee, Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education in British Columbia, A Place for Aboriginal Institutes: Policy Background Paper, May 2008 Fist Nations Control of First Nations Education, It’s Our Vision, It’s Our Time, Assembly of First Nations, July 2010 How Are We Doing? British Columbia Ministry of Education: Aboriginal Report 2005/06 - 2001/11 Indigenous Adult and Higher Learning Association: Data Collection Project 2010/11, Final Report, March 31, 2011 Indigenous Adult and Higher Learning Association: Data Collection Project 2009/10, Final Report, March 31, 2010 Indigenous Adult Higher Learning Association: Aboriginal-Controlled Post-Secondary Institutes in British Columbia: Issues, Costs and Benefits, November 2010 Ministry of Advanced Education, 2001 BC College and Institute Aboriginal Former Student Outcomes: Special Report on Aboriginal Former Students from the 1995, 1997, 1999, and 2001 BC College and Institute Student Outcomes Surveys Nurturing the Learning Spirit of First Nation Students: The Report of the National Panel on First Nation Elementary and Secondary Education for Students on Reserve, November 2011 Power of Place (POP): Integrating St’át’imc Knowledge Systems into Lillooet Area K-12 School Curricula & Pedagogy, Final Research Report, Scott Graham & Brenda Ireland, 2007 Reforming First Nations Education: From Crisis to Hope Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples December 2011 Report Card on Aboriginal Education in British Columbia 2011, The Fraser Institute, March 2011 Seventh Annual School Measures and Data Collection Project 2010/11, Final Report March 22, 2011,Tindall Consulting in association with Juniper Consulting Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education -Sharing Our Success: Promising Practices in Aboriginal Education Proceedings of a National Conference, Winnipeg Manitoba, November 23-24, 2007 Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education: Ten Case Studies in Aboriginal Schooling, David Bell, 2004

103


Photo and Petroglyph Images Credits Vero Management Inc. provided the following pictures: Vero Management Inc.. –pg.7 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.15 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.18 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.45 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.49 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.52 Vero Management Inc. –pg.53 Vero Management Inc. –pg.56 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.58 Vero Management Inc.. –pg.61 Vero Management Inc. –pg.65 Vero Management Inc. –pg.97 Dave Steers, of the Flickr Community, Provided the pictures corresponding to the following pages: Page’s 1,5,17,37,63, 69 BC Hydro, Provided the following pictures: BC Hydro– pg.11 BC Hydro– pg.32 BC Hydro– pg.59 St'át'imc Government Services, provided the following pictures & images: SGS– Pg.12 All petroglyph images were adapted from pictures taken at the T'it'q'et Community Hall.

104


Appendix 6

105


106


Labour Market Study