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Blood on the Ohio Contents 1.0 Background��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 2.0 Game Board�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3 3.0 Game Pieces������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 4.0 Playing the Game������������������������������������������������������������������ 7 5.0 Special Actions���������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 6.0 Operations��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 11 7.0 Expedition Check���������������������������������������������������������������� 13 8.0 Nation Check����������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 9.0 Leader Check���������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 10.0 US Supply Check�������������������������������������������������������������� 13 11.0 Winter Quartering�������������������������������������������������������������� 14 12.0 End of Turn Functions������������������������������������������������������� 14 13.0 Pass Through�������������������������������������������������������������������� 14 14.0 How to Conduct Combat��������������������������������������������������� 14 15.0 Retreating�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 16.0 Retreat Before Combat����������������������������������������������������� 17 17.0 Overrun����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 18.0 Ambush����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 19.0 Nonaligned Nations����������������������������������������������������������� 19 20.0 Structures�������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 21.0 Scouts������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 21 22.0 Artillery������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 23.0 British Arms����������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 24.0 Victory Points��������������������������������������������������������������������� 22 Appendix 1: The History Behind Blood on the Ohio������������������ 23 Appendix 2: Learning Scenario������������������������������������������������� 24 Appendix 3: Scenarios�������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Appendix 4: Setup Instructions�������������������������������������������������� 30 Appendix 5: Examples��������������������������������������������������������������� 36 Appendix 6: Designer Notes������������������������������������������������������ 37 Appendix 7: Glossary���������������������������������������������������������������� 38

Components 1 Rules Book 1 Game Board 3 Player Aids 2 Counter Sheets 1 Green Six-sided Die 1 Blue Six-sided Die 1 Special Event Die

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Little Turtle 1.0 Background

Blood on the Ohio centers on the conflict known variously as Washington’s Indian War, the Northwest Indian War, or Little Turtle’s War. One player controls the forces of the United States and a second player controls the forces of the Native American nations making up the Western Confederacy. Each player moves their forces across a map board depicting the area where Washington’s Indian War took place in an effort to perform actions that will result in the awarding of Victory Points (VPs). The amount of VPs a player earns decides the winner.

The Nations De Delaware Ki Kickapoo M Mingo Mi Miami Oj Ojibwa

Ot Ottawa Po Potawatomi Se Seneca Sh Shawnee W Wyandot

There are ten nations included in Blood on the Ohio. Each nation is a distinct Native-American culture differentiated by its own color and abbreviation. 1.1 Indian Nations In Blood on the Ohio, the Native Indian nations are referred to as nations. The allied nations that waged war are referred to as the Western Confederacy (WC). The nations that are not members are referred to as nonaligned nations. A nonaligned nation joins the WC through an alliance. A nation that signs a treaty with the United States (US) is a treaty nation. Based on the success of the United States, nations may be forced to leave the confederacy. These are referred to as withdrawn nations. 1.2 United States During Washington’s Indian War, the US organized three major military operations. These are referred to in the game as expeditions. Historically, each new expedition was formed after the failure of the previous. Based on the success of the WC forces, expeditions will be forced to either leave or enter the map board. These actions are called expedition withdrawal and expedition entry respectively.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794

2.0 Game Board

The edges of the game board are made up of several boxes used to record important information as the game progresses, to store game pieces during the game and to provide help text. The game map makes up the rest of the game board. It encompasses what is not only modern Ohio but also portions of what are now Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Michigan. Principal forts, settlements and villages are represented. Land to the north and west of the Ohio River is considered to be controlled by the nations. Land to the south and east of the Ohio River is considered to be controlled by the US. Assume 20-25 miles between spaces. On the game map, each circle that contains a color belonging to a nation is called a nation space. Land belonging to a nation extends as far as its colored spaces extend. A nation’s outer spaces form its approximate national boundary. Brown spaces are considered neutral spaces. 2.1 Turn Track The track recording the current game turn consists of 10 squares and is called the Turn Track. Each square is either a SpringSummer (SP/SU) turn, or a Fall-Winter (FA/WI) turn that span the years 1789 to 1794. 2.2 Turn Segment Track Each turn is made up of ten segments. The track recording the current turn segment consists of ten squares and is called the Turn Segment Track. Each square making up the track lists the actions that are performed during the turn segment.

2.4 VP Track VP stands for Victory Point. The VP track and associated chit markers keep a record of how many VPs a player has. The VP Track consists of numbered squares from 0 to 30. Both players begin the game with a set number of VPs based on the scenario being played. Some VP squares also serve special game related purposes.

2.3 Special Action Tracks Each player has a Special Action Track and associated chit marker. The markers are placed on one of the squares making up the tracks showing the number of Special Action Points (SAPs) the player has. A SAP allows a player to perform a special action (see 5.0 Special Actions).

Each time a player scores points his VP marker is advanced to the square equating to the VP gain. A half point is scored by flipping the marker used to record VP on the Track to its ½ point side and leaving it in place or if the ½ point side is shown, flipping it back to its whole point side and advancing it to the next box. A player’s points can never be reduced below “0”.

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Blood on the Ohio 2.5 Map Spaces

2.4.1 Expedition Squares VP squares containing a gray soldier icon are called expedition withdrawal squares. VP squares containing a blue soldier icon are called expedition entry squares. When a WC VP marker moves into or beyond one of these squares and an Expedition Check is made, the current expedition will withdraw from the game and/or the next expedition will enter the game (see 7.0 Expedition Check, 7.1 Expedition Withdrawal and 7.2 Expedition Entry).

2.4.2 Nation Squares VP squares containing a gray Native American icon along with a stripe in the bottom part of the square are nation squares. Each stripe is in the color of and contains the abbreviation of the nation it represents. Units that are available for the nation to use but are not yet active on the board are stored in these squares (see 5.1 Recruit Action). When the US VP marker moves into or beyond a nation square and a Nation Check is made, that nation withdraws from the game (see 8.0 Nation Check).

The circles on the map board are the spaces where pieces are placed and moved. Spaces that are a solid color are ground spaces. Spaces that have a water icon in their bottom half are river spaces.

2.5.1 Ground Trails A trail is a dotted line running between two spaces. Spaces linked by a trail are considered adjacent. A force that moves along a trail pays one movement point (MP) to travel from a ground space to an adjacent ground space.

2.5.2 River Routes A river is a large curving blue line containing river spaces. River spaces are adjacent if directly upstream or downstream from one another. A force that moves along a river pays 1 MP to travel from a river space to an adjacent river space. Movement of a force from a ground space to an adjacent river space costs 2 MP. It costs 0 MP when moving from a river space to an adjacent ground space. Pieces may never end their movement on a river space.

2.4.3 Entry Squares Entry Squares represent large areas of land located adjacent to the land depicted on the game board. WC entry squares are only available to the WC and likewise US entry squares are only available to the US. They are not considered a space for movement purposes, only an entry or exit point. Not all nations have an entry square. US entry squares are blue and contain the letters US. There are four US entry squares. The Ojibwa, Pottawatomi and Kickapoo nations were drawn into the fight from outside the map area. Their units enter the map from their nation’s entry square. The Miami have an entry square that may be used to bring in new units or for their units to exit the map. Units exiting the map are placed in their nation space or box on the VP Track.

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2.6 Map Structures Some ground spaces contain structures when the game begins. These include Fort Washington and Fort Harmar (see 20.4), principal villages (see 20.5) of the nations and US settlements (see 20.6).

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 3.2 Nation Pieces Most nation pieces are color-coded based on the nation it belongs to. The abbreviation for the nation also appears on the piece.

2.7 US Builds Box The box labeled US Builds on the game board is used to hold the pieces the US player is allowed to build based on the scenario being played.

2.8 Historical Battle Sites There are 18 historical locations on the map where battles were fought between 1778 and 1794. These locations are shown for historical purposes and do not affect game play.

3.0 Game Pieces 3.1 Chits Most pieces in Blood on the Ohio are small two-sided square chits that represent military units or markers. Military units either engage in or support combat and are moved across the game map on spaces along trails and rivers. Markers are used to record information on the game tracks or on the game map. Military units are broken down into either pieces belonging to the nations (see 3.2), or the US (see 3.3). Some chits have a tactical rating used in battle. This is shown on their chit by a white number called a tactical point (TP).

3.2.1 Key Leader Unit These personalities were historical war chiefs who represented the Miami, Shawnee, Delaware and Ottawa nations. Key leaders have a tactical rating and a portrait of the leader.

3.2.2 Subordinate Leader Unit These were chiefs of lesser renown belonging to the ten nations included in Blood on the Ohio. The nations had many other leaders who are not represented in this game. Subordinate leaders have a single force point used in combat and are depicted in silhouette.

3.2.3 Girty Simon Girty has a portrait but is a subordinate leader for the Wyandot, not a key leader.

Some chits have a combat rating used in battle. This is shown on their pieces by a black number called a force point (FP). Each FP represents approximately 50 men. 3.1.1 Military Units An individual that leads their units is called a leader. One side of a leader chit is its healthy side. Its flip side is its wounded side. Warriors, regulars and militia chits are organized groups of men on foot or horse. These chits have a full strength side and a reduced side. Scouts, supply wagons, artillery and British arms are support units. These units have special rules that differentiate them from other military units. 3.1.2 Containers Two containers that are not supplied with the game will be required. One container is used to blindly draw US military chits and is referred to as the Recruitment Cup. The second container is used to blindly draw raid chits and is referred to as the Raid Cup. 3.1.3 Dice Three six-sided dice are supplied. Two of the dice are called faction dice, one of which is blue and used by the US player and the other is green and used by the WC player. The third is a special white die called the event die which is used in combat.

3.2.4 Warriors Unit Warrior units represent WC fighters.

3.2.5 Village Markers Nations use a village marker to show the location of villages on the map board. If a nation’s village is reduced during battle, it is flipped to its damaged side and relocated. Larger nations have a Principal Village that is printed on the map board. Larger nations have two principal villages (see 20.5 Villages). 3.2.6 British Arms British ams represent munitions given to the WC by the British (see 23.0 British Arms).

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Blood on the Ohio 3.3 US Pieces US regular chits are blue. US militia chits are brown.

3.3.1 Key Leader Unit These were Regular Army expedition commanders who historically displayed decidedly different qualities. Key leaders St. Clair and Wayne have a tactical rating used in battle.

3.3.2 Subordinate Leader Unit These were secondary officers. Subordinate leaders represent both regular and militia officers who participated in the three campaigns; there were many prominent officers who are not represented in this game. Subordinate leaders have a single force point rating used in battle.

3.3.3 Supply Units These units represent wagon trains containing arms, ammunition, food, medicine - all the necessities required for a military campaign (see 10.1 Supply Wagons).

3.3.6 Scouts Scouts were small bands of allied Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians whose knowledge of the land, the culture and language proved invaluable to US Forces. That is as long as they decided to not suddenly switch allegiances returning to the cause of their native brethren (see 21.0 Scouts).

3.3.7 Artillery Unit Artillery units are made up of a few small bore cannons. Artillery units are handled differently from other military units (see 22.0 Artillery).

3.3.8 Fort and Settlement Markers These markers are used to mark on the map board the location of forts and settlements the US player constructs with the Build Action (see 5.3).

3.3.4 Regular Infantry and Cavalry Units Well-trained, regular infantry units were more of a danger to the nations than unsteady frontier militia. Regular cavalry represents mounted and trained US soldiers.

3.3.5 Militia Infantry and Cavalry Units Frontier militia was notoriously undisciplined and unwilling to follow orders. Some militia units were made up of veterans of the French and Indian War and the Revolution, but many were not. Militia cavalry units are mounted frontier settlers and were every bit as unreliable and troublesome as the militia infantry unit.

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Blue Jacket

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 4.0 Playing the Game

Both players pick a side to play, either the US or the WC. The British were largely neutral but supplied some aid to the WC. Choose a scenario to play and then set up the game according to the scenario’s instructions (see Appendix 2 and 3). The game length and the victory conditions needed to win the game are based on the scenario chosen. 4.1 Turn Structure Blood on the Ohio is played in a series of turns until the end of the scenario is reached. The current game turn is recorded on the Turn Track by placing the game turn marker in the appropriate square of the track. Game turn square information includes the season (FAll/WInter or SPring/SUmmer) along with the year. On SP/SU turns the square contains a reminder to add Raid Chits to the Raid Cup. The chits that need to be added are shown on the game board at the lower left. On FA/WI turns the square contains a reminder that a US Supply Check and Winter Quartering will occur during turn segment 10.

4.2 Turn Segments Each turn is broken down into ten turn segments labeled 1 to 10. The current turn segment is recorded on the Turn Segment Track by placing the turn segment marker in the appropriate area of the track. The marker always begins the turn in the ‘1’ area. Each area making up the Turn Segment Track contains the names of the procedures that need to be carried out during the segment. The following procedures may occur during a turn segment: •

Special Actions (see 5.0)

US Operations (see 6.0)

WC Operations (see 6.0)

Expedition Check (see 7.0)

Nation Check (see 8.0)

Leader Check (see 9.0)

US Supply Check (only during a FA/WI turn) (see 10.0)

Winter Quartering (only during a FA/WI turn) (see 11.0)

End of Turn Functions (see 12.0) Example: During turn segment 3, first the WC conducts operations, then an Expedition Check is made and last a Leader Check is made.

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Blood on the Ohio 5.0 Special Actions

Special Actions are performed during a Special Actions turn segment. Each player is given a number of Special Action Points (SAPs) at the beginning of each turn. The number of SAP the player has is recorded on the player’s Special Action Track. Players alternate taking actions starting with the US player. Each action costs 1 SAP. Some actions are available to both players and some are player specific.

When a Special Actions turn segment begins, make sure the Build and Raid markers are set to their ‘Allowed’ side.

During a Special Actions turn segment: •

If a player passes, the player may not use any more SAPs during the current turn segment.

If both players pass, the turn segment ends.

• If one player passes and the opponent does not, the opponent performs special actions until he elects to pass or runs out of SAPs.

Remember that SAPs do not reset after each Special Action segment. SAPs reset at the end of the turn. If a player uses all their SAP in the first special actions segment, he will have no SAP when the other special action segments of the turn occur.

5.1 Recruit Action The Recruit Action is available to both players. It allows a player to bring additional units onto the map board. The Recruitment Cup contains units that the US player may attempt to bring onto the game map. Nation squares on the VP track and the Reinforcement Box contain nation units that the WC player may attempt to bring onto the game map. 5.1.1 US Recruitment A number of chits are placed in the Recruitment Cup at the beginning of the game based on the scenario. Chits may also be placed into the cup from the map board as the result of battles and Winter Quartering. If the recruitment cup is empty, the US may not use the Recruit Action. Up to four recruitment checks are made by rolling the blue faction die. A roll of 1-4 means that no unit is recruited. A roll of 5-6 indicates that a unit is drawn from the Recruitment Cup and placed on the game board. If the Recruitment Cup becomes empty and there are still recruitment checks to be made, the remaining checks are ignored. Recruited units may be placed on any US Entry Square. In addition, militia units have the option of being placed in any settlement within 4 spaces of a fort. Scouts and regular units have the option of being placed in either Fort Washington or Fort Harmar. Supply units must use a US Entry Square.

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5.1.2 Nation Recruitment Each nation has units not currently active on the game map located in a nation square or reinforcement box of the VP Track (see 2.4). The WC chooses a nation that is currently a member of the WC that still has units available. If there are no WC nations with units available in the nation square or box, then the WC player may not use the Recruit Action. Two checks are attempted to move a unit from its nation space or box to the map board. Roll the green faction die for each check. A roll of 1-4 means that no unit is placed on the map board. A roll of 5 or greater means one unit is taken from the nation square or box and placed in any village within that nation’s boundary or in the nation’s entry square of the map board. Add +1 to the die when rolling for Miamis, Shawnees or Delawares. If a British Arms marker is available (see 23.0 British Arms), then instead of rolling both dice for units, the WC player may replace one die role with the automatic placement of a British Arms marker in any principal village. If no principal village exists, the option may not be chosen. Only one British Arms marker may be placed for each Recruit Action and no more than one marker may be placed in each nation.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 5.2 Negotiate Action Each player may use the Negotiate action. The US player uses it in an attempt to sign a treaty with a nation. The WC player uses it in an attempt to form an alliance with a non-aligned nation to bring it into the confederacy.

5.2.1 Sign Treaty In order to attempt to have a nation sign a treaty with the US, the following requirements must be met:

5.2.3 Alliance In order to attempt to have a nonaligned Nation join the WC, the following requirements must be met:

The attempt may not be with the Miami, Shawnee, or Delaware nations.

The US must have a key leader with 10 or more FPs adjacent to a principal village, or in case the nation has no principal village, any village belonging to the nation or the nation’s entry square.

The WC player must have a key leader in the nation’s principal village, or if the nation has no principal village, any village belonging to the nation or the nation’s entry square.

No more than 2 WC FPs may be within the nation’s boundary.

The US may not have a treaty with the nation.

The US must not already have a treaty or broken treaty with the nation.

When attempting to sign a treaty, the US player rolls a single die and adds the current US VPs to the die result. If the total is 10 or more in the 1st Expedition, 15 or more in the 2nd Expedition, or 20 or more in the 3rd Expedition, a treaty has been struck. If US VPs already exceed the number needed the Treaty is automatic. When a treaty is made, place a treaty marker in the center of the nation’s boundaries and remove all the nation’s warriors and leaders to its nation square on the VP Track.

When an alliance is made, the starting units of the newly allied nation are taken from the nation square on the VP track and placed no more than two in a primary village and one in a village. Leaders may be placed as desired.

5.2.3.1 Starting forces:

5.2.2 Broken Treaty A treaty can be broken if: •

The WC player rolls a single die and adds the current WC VPs to the die result. If the total is 10 or more in the 1st Expedition, 15 or more in the 2nd Expedition, or 20 or more in the 3rd Expedition, an alliance has been formed. If the WC VPs already exceed the number needed the alliance is automatic.

A battle occurs (including battles initiated by the WC) that results in the loss of any Indian FPs within the nation boundary of the treaty nation. Should the US player elect to build a settlement or fort in the treaty nation, the treaty is broken. Already established settlements or forts when the treaty is signed do not break the treaty.

When a treaty is broken, immediately flip the treaty marker to its broken side and move all the nation’s units in the nation square to its villages. Place one warrior unit in each of the nation’s villages. Place any remaining warrior units in the nation’s principal village. If there is no principal village, distribute warriors as evenly as possible amongst villages. The nation joins the WC.

Wyandot enters with 2 subordinate leaders and 4 warrior units, 4 units remain on the VP track.

Ojibwa enters with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the VP track.

Ottawa enters with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the VP track.

Seneca enters with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the VP track.

Potawatomi enters with 1 subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the VP track.

Kickapoo enters with 1 subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the VP track.

Once a treaty has been broken, a peace treaty is no longer possible with that nation.

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Blood on the Ohio 5.3 Build Action The US player may build one settlement or fort with each Build action unless no builds are allowed because of a successful raid or there are no markers in the US Build Box (see 5.6 Raid and 2.7 US Builds Box).

5.5 Harass Action The WC Player may attempt to interfere with the building of a structure or the repairs of a damaged structure.

The game begins with twenty settlements and two forts already established on the board. Based on the scenario, a number of settlement and fort markers are placed in the US builds box located on the game board. These are the builds allowed by the US player for the entire scenario. The Build action allows the US to take one new settlement or fort marker from the US Builds Box and place it, undamaged side up, on the map board.

Immediately following a US build or repair action the WC player may attempt to harass the fort or settlement that was built or repaired. For every WC FP within 3 MPs of the site of the action whose path does not pass through an existing settlement, fort, or space with US FP, roll one die. A roll of 1-3 results in a failure. A roll of 4-6 results in a success. For every 2 US FP in the build space, subtract 1 from the roll. For every success, reduce the fort or settlement on the site by one step. For each step lost by a structure, the WC player earns ½ VP.

When placing a settlement or fort marker:

5.6 Raid

Settlements must be within two spaces of a river space.

Settlements must be within four spaces of an existing settlement or fort. Settlements may be built adjacent to existing settlements.

The WC player may raid one settlement with each Raid action unless no raids are allowed because of a failed raid. The Raid action does not require any WC units.

Settlements and forts must be at least two spaces away from any village or warrior unit.

Forts must be placed within three spaces of another fort.

If a settlement or fort is built in a space occupied by a razed marker, remove the razed marker from the map board before placing the settlement or fort marker on the space. If the US elects to build in the nation boundary of a treaty nation, then the treaty with that nation is broken (see 5.2.2 Broken Treaty). If the US elects to build in the nation boundary of a non-aligned nation, then that nation immediately becomes an ally of and joins the WC (see 5.2.3 Alliance). Never return a settlement or fort marker that has been razed from the map board to the builds box. The marker is out of play for the remainder of the game.

5.4 Repair Action The US player may use a Repair Action to flip either a damaged settlement or a damaged fort to its undamaged side. A Repair Action may not be taken if a warrior unit is within two spaces of the damaged settlement or fort. The WC player loses ½ VP for each fort or settlement repaired. The WC player may never repair a relocated village.

Back

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

When the WC player commits to this action he selects any empty settlement on the map board and then draws a chit from the Raid Cup. There are five each of four different kind of raid chits labeled A - D. The raid chit drawn is returned to the Raid Cup after resolving the raid. 5.6.1 Adding Raid Chits to Raid Cup Raid chits are added to the Raid Cup during the end of turn phase prior to a SP/SU turn. The raid chits that are added each turn, which is also shown on the game board, are:

FA/WI 1789

3 A, 2 B, 1 C, 0 D

SP/SU 1790

1 A, 1 B, 1 C, 1 D

SP/SU 1791

1 A, 1 B, 1 C, 1 D

SP/SU 1792

0 A, 1 B, 1 C, 1 D

SP/SU 1793

0 A, 0 B, 1 C, 1 D

SP/SU 1794

0 A, 0 B, 0 C, 1 D

5.6.2 Raid Results The results of the raid are based on the raid chit drawn: (A) Success - The settlement is torched to the ground. The settlement marker is replaced with a razed marker. The WC player gains ½ VP for each step lost and the WC player may bring on one 2FP warrior unit from the nation square or recruitment box of the nearest WC nation whose nation boundary is closest to the razed village. The warrior unit is placed in any village belonging to its nation. No US Builds are allowed for the remainder of the turn segment.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 B) Outliers Burned: The settlement is reduced one step, either damaging it or razing it. The WC player gains ½ VP. C) Strong Defense: The raid is called off (No effect), D) Failure: the raid is defeated. The WC player loses ½ VP and may not perform a Raid action for the remainder of the turn segment. 5.7 Search The US player may perform a search action in an attempt to either locate abandoned artillery units or to reconnoiter to find raiding warriors. US units are not required to perform this action but may assist in doing so. 5.7.1 Search for Lost Artillery A search may be performed in a space where a lost artillery marker is located. Artillery can be lost or abandoned as a result of battle. The US player selects a lost artillery marker on the map board and rolls a die. The result is modified by +1 for every 4 US FP located within one space of the lost artillery. The result is modified by -1 for every 2 WC FP located within two spaces of the lost artillery. A modified roll of 6 or greater flips the lost artillery marker back to its artillery unit side returning it to US player’s control.

6.0 Operations

Each player has a turn segment where they conduct military operations on the map board by moving pieces and performing combat. The player conducting operations is called the active player. The Operations turn segment ends when the active player does not wish to conduct any more movement or combat. The US Operations turn segment always precedes the WC Operations turn segment. During a US Operations turn segment, the US player is the active player. During a WC Operations turn segment, the WC player is the active player. 6.1 Performing Operations Any number of pieces may occupy the same ground space on the map board. A stack is a single piece or group of pieces belonging to one player that is located in the same space. Movement is performed by creating a force from the counters in a stack. Combat is conducted during the movement of a force. There can only be one force in play at a time. It must complete all its movement and combat before another force is created. A counter that has moved in a force may not be used in any subsequent forces created during the turn segment.

5.7.2 Search for Raiding Parties A search may be performed to locate potential raiding parties by drawing a chit from the Raid cup. If an A or B chit is drawn, the search is considered a success and the chit remains out of the cup for the rest of the turn segment. If a C or D is drawn the search is considered a failure and the chit is returned to the cup.

The distance a force moves on the game map is determined by Movement Points (MPs) and the type of force moving. It usually requires 1 MP to move from one space to an adjacent space (see 2.5 Map Spaces).

Be sure to place chits removed from the cup due to searches back into the cup at the end of the segment.

6.2.1 Key Leader Force A force that is formed with a key leader and up to 10 FPs is a key leader force. The total FPs of a key leader force can be increased up to 16 FPs if an additional key or subordinate leader is included in the force when it is formed. Any FP showing on a subordinate leader piece is not counted in this total. Any combination of WC nation pieces may be used to form a key leader force as long as a key leader is present.

5.8 Strategic Movement The WC player may use a Strategic Movement Action to transfer one warrior unit (healthy or damaged) and one chief (if in the same location) between any two WC villages. A path must exist between the two villages that does not contain any US units.

6.2 Types of Forces There are three types of forces that can be formed from a stack: a key leader force, a subordinate leader force and a stray force.

A US key leader force has 4 MPs. A WC key leader force has 5 MPs.

5.9 Save Action Point If the scenario being played does not ask a player to reset his Special Action track to #5, the player may save an SAP into the following turn by subtracting one SAP and flipping his SAP Marker to its +1 side. When resetting the action track at the end of the turn, the player flips the marker back and adds one more action point. A track never holds more than 5 available actions.

6.2.2 Subordinate Leader Force A force that is formed with a subordinate leader and up to 6 FPs is a subordinate leader force. A WC subordinate leader force may only be formed with units belonging to the same nation. Any FP showing on the subordinate leader piece is not counted in this total. A US subordinate leader force has 4 MPs. A WC subordinate leader force has 5 MPs. 6.2.3 Stray Force A force that does not qualify as either a key leader force or a subordinate leader force is a stray force. A US stray force has 2 MPs. A WC stray force has 3 MPs.

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Blood on the Ohio 6.2.4 Support Units Any number of scouts, artillery units and supply wagons may freely accompany any force or move independently as a stray force. If moving independently as a stray force, artillery and supply wagons have 4 MPs and scouts have 5 MPs. 6.3 Forming Forces from a Stack Pieces in a stack may be split up into a force if the pieces have not moved. When a force is split from a stack, it must complete its movement and any combat it is involved with before another force can be formed. A player may never split a full strength military unit into two reduced strength military units and likewise may never combine two reduced strength military units into a full strength military unit. Any force may end its movement in a ground space containing any number of pieces. Care should be taken to not confuse units in a space that have moved with those that have not moved. Moved Markers may be placed on pieces if players feel it necessary. Remove all Moved Markers from the game board at the end of the Operations turn segment. Example: The US player has a stack consisting of one subordinate leader and 11 FP. The US player could form a stray force of the entire stack and move it two spaces. Instead, the US forms a subordinate leader force with the leader and 6 FP and moves it 4 spaces. The US then forms a stray force of 3 FP from the stack and moves it two spaces and conducts a battle with a WC stack. The US then elects to leave the remaining 2 FP in the stack where they are.

6.3.1 Forces and Rivers A maximum force of 8 FPs may enter any non-Ohio River space in order to move along the river. The US player may embark and move a force of up to 16 FPs along the Ohio River. A force of any size may cross any river. No force may ever end its movement on a river space. It costs a force 2 MP to move from a ground space to a river space. There is no cost to move from a river space to a ground space.

6.4 Picking Up Units A force may pick up friendly units that are in spaces it moves through. Units that are picked up must not exceed the FP capacity or break any rules regarding the force that Is moving. Units that have moved may not be picked up. A key leader force with a subordinate leader may not pick up more FP if the additional FP causes the force to exceed 16 FP. A subordinate leader force may not pick up more FP if the additional FP causes the force to exceed 6 FP, or in the case of the WC, the warrior being picked up belongs to a different nation than the force’s subordinate leader. Picking up a leader during movement may change the force type of the moving units. Doing so does not increase the MP of the moving force but may allow additional units to be picked up during movement. Picking up a Scout during movement does not increase the MP of the moving force. 6.5 Dropping Off Units Units may drop off pieces in spaces that the moving force pass through. Dropping off a unit must not break the rules of the force that is moving. A unit that is dropped off ends its movement for the Operations turn segment. A key leader force may not drop off its key leader. A key leader force may not drop off all of its other leaders if the remaining FPs of the force exceed 10 FP. A subordinate force may not drop off its subordinate leader. Important: The MP of a force is determined at the beginning of the force’s move and cannot be changed by picking up or dropping off of units during its move. 6.6 Army Any space containing more than 16 friendly FPs is an army. An army can be split up into smaller forces for movement. If an army wishes to move as a single force it moves as a stray force. Friendly units may not move through a space containing an army; they must stop in the space. 6.7 Encountering Opposing Forces When the moving force enters a space with enemy FPs, the owner of the moving force must choose one of the following options: Pass Through (see 13.0) Combat (see 14.0) Overrun (see 17.0) 6.8 Encountering Friendly Forces Any force may freely move through spaces containing a friendly force that is not an army. Any force entering a space occupied by an army ends its movement in that space (see 6.6 Army). Friendly units in the space a force entered may be able to join the force as it moves (see 6.4 Picking up Units).

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 7.0 Expedition Check

The US player checks to see if the current expedition must withdraw from the game or if a new expedition may enter the game. If the WC VP marker is in or beyond the expedition withdrawal square (see 2.4 VP Track) of the current expedition, that expedition is withdrawn from the game. If the WC VP marker is in or beyond the expedition entry square (see 2.4 VP Track) of an expedition that has not entered the game, that expedition enters the game. Should the WC VP marker bypass both the current expedition withdrawal square and is in or beyond the next expedition entry square, then the current expedition is withdrawn first and then the next expedition enters. Should the WC player lose VP and the marker slips below an entrance or withdrawal square after advancing beyond or to it, no withdrawal or entry occurs when the marker next reaches the expedition square. An expedition can enter and withdraw from the game only once. 7.1 Expedition Withdrawal All units return to forts or settlements as described in Winter Quartering (see 11.0 Winter Quartering). The current key US leader is removed from the game. Each US subordinate leader on the map board rolls a die. On a roll of 4-6 a subordinate leader remains in play; on a roll of 1-3 he too is removed from the game. The WC player receives no VPs for any pieces removed because of the withdrawal. 7.2 Expedition Entry Consult the scenario being played to determine the forces of the entering expedition. The US player places the pieces belonging to the expedition on any one or more US entry spaces.

8.0 Nation Check

The WC player checks to see if nation withdrawal occurs for any of the WC nations. If the US VP marker is on or beyond the nation square of a nation, it becomes a defeated nation and is withdrawn from the game. Remove the nation’s villages, leaders and warriors from the game board. The US player does not receive VP points for pieces removed in this manner.

10.0 US Supply Check

Both players make sure that US supply lines are established. This requires each stack of units to be able to trace a path no longer than 4 spaces to a fort or supply unit. The path must not pass through a space containing any enemy FPs. The path may pass through unoccupied villages but not an unoccupied principal village. WC units are always considered in supply and are not subject to supply checks. A fort may supply any number of stacks. A supply wagon unit may supply two friendly stacks of any size. When a supply unit is used to support one stack it is flipped to its 1/2 used side or if already flipped, removed and placed in the Recruitment Cup. Out of supply units are flipped to their reduced side. Already reduced units are unaffected. The WC player does not earn VP for units flipped because of being out of supply. The US Supply Check is not performed during SP/SU turns.

10.1 Supply Wagons Supply wagon units are necessary to build forts and to protect combat units from disintegrating if they stray too far from forts (see 10.0 US Supply Check). Each supply unit has two supply steps. When a Supply Unit is first used, it is flipped indicating that half of its supplies are exhausted. If a Supply Unit is used a second time, it is removed from the map and placed in the Recruitment Cup. A supply wagon unaccompanied by any US FPs is immediately captured if any WC FP moves through or ends its turn in its space. The WC force does not incur any MP cost for capturing the supply wagon. Supply units play no part in combat because they have no FP however supply wagon steps may be taken as casualties (see 14.8.1 US Casualties). The WC player receives +1/2 VP for each step lost resulting from combat or capture. Captured, used, or destroyed supply units are placed in the Reinforcement Cup.

9.0 Leader Check

Both sides make Leader Check rolls for every wounded leader. Each player rolls their faction die for every wounded leader they have. On a roll of 1-3 the leader is healed and flipped back to its healthy side. On a roll of 4-5 there is no effect – the leader remains wounded. On a roll of 6 the leader dies and is counted for VPs. © 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio 11.0 Winter Quartering

Forces were typically unable to perform operations during winter months. When winter quartering occurs, units return to their villages, settlements and forts for the winter. Units returning to structures for wintering may take any path to a structure regardless of distance even if the path includes spaces occupied by enemy units. Winter Quartering is not performed during SP/SU turns. 11.1 WC Winter Quartering All warrior units return to their respective villages. Each village must be used to house one warrior unit if possible. Any excess warrior units are placed in any principal village the nation may have. If a nation no longer has any principal villages, excess units are removed to their nation square or box. Off-map nations return their units to any principal village remaining in the WC, no more than one unit per principal village with any excess units removed to their nation square or box. British Arms accompany any warrior unit in their stack when the warrior is returned to a village. There are no restrictions regarding the number of WC leaders that may return to a single village in their nation.

11.2 US Winter Quartering All regular units, leaders, artillery, scouts and supply units on the map board return to and winter in forts. Fort Harmar and Washington will support up to 8 regular unit FPs and other forts will support up to 6 regular unit FPs. Each fort can support any number of leaders, artillery, scouts and supply units. Any excess regular FPs are removed to the US player’s reinforcement cup. Regular units, leaders, artillery and supply units may not winter in a settlement. Half of the current number of militia units on the map board (rounded down) are removed to the US Player’s reinforcement cup. The remaining militia units return to and winter in settlements. Each settlement will support one militia unit. Any excess Militia FPs are removed to the US player’s reinforcement cup. Militia units may not winter in a fort. There is no VP loss for removal of FPs to the cup. Reduced units removed from the map return as full strength units when drawn from the cup.

12.0 End of Turn Functions

During the End of Turn Functions turn segment, the markers on the special action track are reset, the Turn Marker is advanced and Raid Chits are added to the Raid Cup if indicated.

13.0 Pass Through

A moving force may move through a space containing enemy FPs without conducting combat with the enemy stack by using pass through. In order to pass through, the moving force must have more FP than the enemy force. Pass through costs 1 MP in addition to the MP required to enter the space. If the moving force has insufficient FP or MP then the pass through may not be performed. The enemy force in the space passed through may have the option of performing an Ambush on the moving force (see 18.0 Ambush).

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14.0 How to Conduct Combat

Combat may occur when friendly units occupy the same space as enemy units. Place the Battle Marker in the space where the combat will be conducted. This space is called the Battle Space. Remove the marker at the conclusion of the combat.

Combat is performed in a serious of steps.

Combat Steps 14.1 Attacker Declaration 14.2 Defender Declaration 14.3 Determine Event 14.4 Determine Militia Morale 14.5 Determine Artillery Shock 14.6 Wage Combat 14.7 Apply Casualties 14.8 Determine the Victor

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 14.1 Attacker Declaration The attacking player announces his intention to either conduct combat normally in which case the combat proceeds with Defender Declaration (see 14.2), overrun the space (see 17.0), or pass through the space avoiding combat (see 13.0). 14.2 Defender Declaration The defending player must choose one of three options. 1) Defend The player may elect to Defend in which case the combat proceeds with the next step: Determine Event (see 14.3). 2) Ambush The player may attempt an Ambush if the defending player has at least 1/2 VP, the stack has not already performed an ambush this turn segment and the attacking force is not five times the defending force (see 18.0). If the ambush was not an overwhelming success, the combat proceeds with the next step Determine Event (see 14.3), otherwise the combat is concluded. 3) Attempt to Retreat Before Combat The player may attempt to retreat before combat if the defending stack has not performed an ambush (see 15.0). If the attempt to retreat fails,the combat procedure continues with the next step Determine Event (see 14.3), otherwise the combat is concluded 14.3 Determine Event The event die is used to determine if an event occurs influencing the combat. There are five possible events. Battle There is a 2 in 6 chance that the battle is conducted normally.

Delay There is a 1 in 6 chance that the battle is canceled (due to weather, morale, indecision, etc). Retreat the attacker.

US Confused There is a 1 in 6 chance that the US forces involved are confused. The US subtracts 2 from his combat strength when calculating the total.

WC Confused There is a 1 in 6 chance that the WC forces involved are confused. The WC subtracts 2 from his combat strength when calculating the total. Reinforcements There is a 1 in 6 chance that the players have an opportunity to call for reinforcements. Immediately following the event roll, either or both sides may reinforce the battle with all of one force located within 3 MP of the battle space. The reinforcing force must not have moved or been in combat during the segment. A force that reinforces is considered to have moved after it reinforces. Both sides identify any one qualifying force to act as reinforcements with the US player choosing first. A player does not have to bring reinforcements if he does not want to. In the event both players are bringing reinforcements the force with the lower tactical rating moves to the combat space first. If tied, the force with the lower FP moves to the combat space first. If still tied, the defending player moves his force first. Normal movement rules apply to the reinforcing units when moving to the combat space. The path a reinforcing force takes may bring the force adjacent to enemy forces and be ambushed, pass through an enemy space, or even overrun an enemy space (see 6.7 Encountering Opposing Forces). Reinforcements may not be ambushed by the defending stack. Note that because the reinforcement event is carried out immediately prior to calculating combat strength, reinforcing militia is not subject to a courage die roll, an artillery reinforcement does not trigger artillery shock and reinforcing scouts are present but may only be used to satisfy casualties resulting from the battle. Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio 14.4 Militia Morale Militia were poorly led, often disputed and even disobeyed orders. As such, prior to any battle where militia are present, a single die morale check roll must be made (only one roll is made for all militia infantry and cavalry present). The US player rolls his faction die. The number rolled represents the maximum number of militia FPs that can be counted in the US force when calculating combat strength. A roll of 6 means all militia FPs participate. Any FP present but not contributing FP to the battle may still absorb casualties. 14.5 Artillery Shock The WC player makes an artillery shock courage roll if the US force contains artillery. Based on the die roll, some WC FPs may be affected and will not participate in the battle. Subtract 1 if a WC key leader is present. Die Roll Affected FPs 0 0 FPs 1 0 FPs 2 1 FP 3 1 FP 4 2 FP 5 2 FP 6 3 FP Any FPs present but not contributing FP to the battle may still absorb casualties. The 1FP of an undefended principal village is subject to artillery shock. 14.6 Wage Combat Add the number of FP for both sides. Remember to not add any WC FP suffering artillery shock. Remember to not exceed the maximum number of militia FP when adding militia FP. Combat is considered to occur simultaneously. The US player rolls his faction die and consults the Combat Result Table (CRT) to determine the casualties suffered by the WC player in the combat. The WC player rolls his faction die and consults the CRT to determine the casualties suffered by the US player in the combat. The defender adds 1 to the roll if attacked from a river. Example: The US player has 2 regular FP and 4 militia FP. The militia morale roll determined that a maximum of 3 FP of militia would participate. The US combat strength is 5 FP. The WC player has 1 subordinate leader with 3 FP of warriors. There is no artillery present so there was no artillery shock roll to apply. The WC combat strength is 4 FP. The US rolls a 4 on the blue die and looks up the results using the 5-6 column on the CRT. The WC receives 1 casualty in the combat. The WC player rolls a 5 on the green die and looks up the results using the 3-4 column on the CRT. The US receives 1 casualty in the combat.

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14.7 Apply Casualties Casualties are applied to the military forces involved in the battle. Flipping a unit to its reduced / wounded side satisfies one casualty. Removing a unit that is already flipped from the map board satisfies one casualty. Leaders, forts, settlements, villages, scouts and supply wagons may be used to satisfy casualties.

14.7.1 US Casualties Most casualties will be removed as regular/militia FPs. The first casualty taken is always from a regular unit unless all regular units are reduced and there are still healthy militia units in the force. All regular or militia units present in the battle space must be showing their damaged side before any other piece may be used to satisfy a casualty. US militia, regulars, supply wagons and scouts that are removed from the map due to casualties are placed in the Recruitment Cup. Artillery units may not be taken as a casualty. They are treated differently (see 20.0 Artillery). Leaders removed as casualties are permanently out of play.

14.7.2 WC Casualties Most casualties will be satisfied by reducing or removing warrior units. If more than one nation is in the battle space, the first casualty is always satisfied by the nation with the largest number of FPs present. If contingents are of equal strength roll a die to determine which force loses the first casualty. Thereafter alternate losses between the represented nations. Within these constraints, all warrior units present in the battle space must be showing their damaged side before any other piece is used to satisfy a casualty. Warrior units and leaders that are removed as casualties are permanently out of play (exception 17.0 Overrun).

14.8 Determine the Victor The player that inflicts the most casualties in the battle defeats their opponent. If both sides inflict the same amount of casualties, the WC player is the victor. The defeated player retreats their surviving units (see 15.0 Retreating). The units are called the retreating force. The victorious player’s surviving units remain in the space. If the combat took place in a fort space, defeated US units that defended the fort do not retreat. Defending US forces that screened the fort do retreat (see 20.1.1 Screening). The victor receives +1/2 VP. Either or both sides receive +1/2 VP if they inflicted more than 3 casualties. Example: Both sides scored the same number of hits. Since this is tied, the WC is the victor and receives + 1/2 VP. Neither side inflicted more than 3 casualties so no further VP is awarded.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 14.9 Tactical Advantage Add the total number of TPs in both forces. The player with the greater amount of TPs has the tactical advantage. This gives the player the option of asking for a re-roll of the Event Die roll or asking for a re-roll of the Wage Combat die roll, not both. If both players have the same number of TPs, then neither player may ask for a re-roll. Once the Event is determined, the player with the tactical advantage must decide if the Event Die should be re-rolled before any further steps are performed.

15.3 Retreating into an Enemy Force Each time a retreating stack is forced into a space with any enemy FPs, the retreating stack loses one FP and must fight another battle. The trapped force continues to do so until it is either annihilated or finds itself in a space without enemy FPs as a result of combat or retreat. The retreating stack is the attacker in these cases. 15.4 Retreating From Cavalry If a WC force retreats for any reason from a US force with cavalry, then the WC units lose one FP.

If the Event Die is not re-rolled, the player with the tactical advantage must decide if the Wage Combat result should be rerolled before casualties are applied.

16.0 Retreat Before Combat

If a die is re-rolled, the new result must be used.

If either player has a unit or units with a TP, the player may use the TP of one unit to modify the result of the roll. If a player has more than one unit with a TP he must choose which unit to use. The unit used may not contribute its TP again for any purpose during combat if the retreat fails. A player may decline to use a TP to modify the die roll.

15.0 Retreating

Units retreat as a result of losing a combat (see 14.7 Determining the Victor), as a result of successfully managing to conduct a retreat before combat (see 16.0), as a result of being Ambushed (see 18.0 Ambush), or as a result of the battle being canceled due to an event (see 14.3 Determine Event). Artillery units have special retreat rules (see 22.0 Artillery). 15.1 Conducting a Retreat The Player retreats his units by moving all surviving pieces one space. Retreating units may be ambushed but not by the stack causing the retreat. 15.1.1 Attacker Retreat If the retreating units belong to the attacker, then the retreat space must be the space the attacker advanced into the battle space from. 15.1.2 Defender Retreat If the retreating force belongs to the defender, then the retreat space must not contain any enemy FPs unless there is no other space available (see 15.3 Retreating into an Enemy Force). The retreat space must not be the space from which the attacker advanced. 15.1.3 WC Retreat WC units may not retreat into an occupied fort space nor a US settlement space that has 1 or more FP in it. 15.1.4 Retreat Direction Within these restrictions, if there is more than one retreat direction available, the player retreats all units to the space that is closest to a friendly settlement, friendly fort, or friendly village. If retreat spaces exist that are equidistant to the friendly spaces, the retreating player may split up the retreating units if desired moving them to any of the equidistant spaces. 15.2 Retreating and River Spaces If the retreat space is a river space, then the retreating stack loses one FP and is placed on the ground space on the opposite side of the river. If forced to retreat as the result of an Ambush, the ambushed party must retreat back the way it came to the nearest land space on the opposite side of the river from which the ambush came. 

Retreating before combat is never a certainty. In order to see if the retreat is successful, the retreating player rolls a die.

First the attacking player must state if he is using a TP, then the defending player. This must be done before the die is rolled. The attacking player subtracts 1 from the roll if he uses a TP. The defending player adds 1 if he uses a TP. If the roll is 5 or greater, the retreat succeeds. If the roll is less than 5 the retreat fails. 16.1 Successful Retreat Before Combat A successful retreat cancels the combat. The defending force conducts a retreat (see 15.1). No VP award is given to either side. The attacking force ends its movement in the battle space.

16.2 Failed Retreat Before Combat A failed retreat allows the combat procedure to continue with the Determine Event (see 14.3). Place the -1 Failed Retreat marker on the defending force and use it when calculating the defender’s force strength during the Wage Combat step (see 14.6). Remove the marker from the board at the end of the combat. Example of Retreating Before Combat: A key US leader and 8 FPs of militia (7 infantry and 1 cavalry) move adjacent to a key WC leader and 3 FP of warrior units. The WC player passes on the opportunity to ambush hoping the US force will not attack. They do. When the US force enter the WC held space the US declaration is for combat. The WC declaration is to attempt to retreat before combat. He will succeed on a modified roll of 5-6. He rolls a “4” and adds +1 for his key leader TP making it a modified roll of “5.” Success. He retreats his force one space away from the battle space ending the combat before it takes place. However, since the WC player retreated from a force containing US cavalry, the WC player receives 1 casualty.

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Blood on the Ohio 17.0 Overrun

In some cases, a moving force may overrun an enemy force in the space it moves into. A successful overrun allows the moving force to continue its move. US casualties from an overrun are placed in the Recruitment Cup like any other US casualty but WC casualties are placed in their Nation Square or Reinforcement Box on the VP track. WC units are not removed from the game as a result of an overrun. A force conducting overrun may not be ambushed by the force it is attacking. An overrun, regardless of its success or failure, is never worth any combat victory VPs to either side. A player is not compelled to choose overrun if it is available to him. The player may opt for regular combat (see 14.1 Attacker Declaration). 17.1 Requirements for Overrun An overrun may be attempted if: •

The moving force has 5 times the number of FPs than the enemy stack has.

The force has enough MPs to conduct an overrun: it needs at least the normal cost of 1 MP to enter the battle space, 1 MP to conduct the overrun and the normal cost of 1 MP to move to the next space.

The space being overrun does not contain a fort, settlement, or principal village.

17.2 Performing an Overrun Once the overrun has been declared, the defender must attempt to retreat before combat (see 16.0). If the defender succeeds in retreating, then no combat occurs and the moving force ends its movement in the battle space. If the retreat before combat fails, the attacker rolls the event die. If the result is Delay the overrun does not take place and the attacking force returns to its previous space. Any event other than Delay is ignored. If the overrun is successful, the enemy units are casualties and the overrunning force pays 1 MP for performing the overrun and continues its move. 17.2.1 Villages and Overrun An undamaged village is reduced and relocated when it is overrun. A damaged village is razed if it is overrun. In either instance, place a razed marker in the space where the village was. Forts, settlements and principal villages can also be bypassed using Pass Through (see 13.0). 17.2.2 Militia and Overrun If militia are in the moving stack and the overrun is successful, 1FP of militia are taken as a casualty (think of this not as casualties but as undisciplined troops looting or having gotten their revenge breaking off from the main force and returning home).

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18.0 Ambush

An opponent may attempt an ambush when the active player moves a force adjacent to or into a space containing the opponent’s stack. The movement of the force is temporarily stopped to resolve the ambush. Units may be ambushed when moving along a river. If more than one stack is eligible to ambush a force in a space, the ambushes must be resolved one at a time individually as determined by the ambushing player. A stack may only conduct one ambush during the movement of an enemy force. Because several ambushes may occur during the movement of a force, particularly if the reinforcement event occurs, players may optionally use Conducted Ambush Markers if they feel the need to indicate a stack that has performed an ambush. When the enemy force concludes its move, remove all the Conducted Ambush Markers from the board. 18.1 Requirements for Ambush A player must have a minimum of 1/2 VP to conduct an ambush. A stack may not conduct an ambush if it has already conducted an ambush during the current enemy force’s movement. A stack may not ambush a force five or more times its own FP strength. Reinforcements moving into a battle space may be ambushed, but not by the units currently in the battle space. An undefended primary village may conduct an ambush if it meets the ambush requirements. Units that do not move may not be ambushed. A stack defending a fort may not conduct an ambush. A stack screening a fort may conduct an ambush (see 20.1). 18.2 Performing an Ambush The ambushing force is never moved from its space during an Ambush. The ambushing player rolls two dice,  their faction die and the event die. If the result of the event die is Delay, the ambush does not occur. Any other result is ignored. If the ambush is not canceled, then use the faction die and consult the Ambush Results Table to determine casualties. Calculate the TPs for both sides. If the ambushing side has more TPs, then 1 is added to the faction die roll. If the ambushed side has more TPs, then 1 is subtracted form the faction die roll. If the ambushed force is on a river, add 1 to the faction die roll. A modified roll of 1 or less results in a catastrophic failure. The ambushing force loses ½ VP. A modified roll of 6 or more results in an overwhelming success that ends the movement of the ambushed force and forces it to retreat if it is in the same space as the ambushing force.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 18.3 Ambush From Primary Village An undefended primary village may conduct an ambush if it meets the ambush requirements. It is considered to have 1 FP regarding force size so it may not ambush a force of 5 FPs or more. If the CRT calls for more than 1 FP as a casualty when an undefended primary village performs an ambush, then the number of casualties is reduced to 1 FP. All other ambush rules apply.

19.0 Nonaligned Nations

A nation that is not yet a part of WC and does not have a treaty marker is said to be nonaligned. A nonaligned nation will allow pieces belonging to the WC within its national boundary but no more than 2 WC FPs and one key leader may enter a non-aligned principal village in order to attempt an alliance (see 5.2.3 Alliance). The US player may enter the national boundary but risks causing war with that nation. For every space a US force enters that belongs to a nonaligned nation, the US player and the WC player roll their faction die and they sum the result. If the total is less than the total number of US FPs within the national boundary of the nation, then the nation automatically joins the WC. Follow the same procedure as is done with an Alliance when adding the nation’s pieces to the map board (see 5.2.3.1 Starting Forces).

20.0 Structures

Settlements, Forts and villages are collectively referred to as structures.

20.1 Defending and Screening Structures A stack located in a space containing a fort is either defending and/or screening the structure. All other structures may only be screened, not defended. When a force ends its move on a space containing a fort, the force must be distributed into a screening stack and a defending stack. The US player may freely redistribute units between a fort’s screening stack and defending stack at any time during the US Operations Turn Segment. Care should be taken to not mix units that have moved with those that have not. Use Moved markers if necessary. Defending units are placed under the fort marker, or in the event of forts Harmar and Washington which do not have a marker, pieces are placed under a Defend marker. Screening units are placed adjacent to the fort marker, or in the case of Forts Harmar or Washington, the pieces are placed under a Screen marker. If there is both a screening stack and a defending stack in a fort space, the screening stack must be removed from the space before the defending stack in the fort can be attacked. The only time the defending force may be attacked when there is a screening force is as a result of overrun. A screening stack may be overrun after which point the overrunning force may conduct combat against the fort defenses or continue movement.

20.1.1 Screening A screening stack is patrolling the surrounding area outside the structure. In combat, the stack screening the structure does not receive any defensive FPs from the structure in battle. If the combat occurs screening a fort, neither the fort nor any of its defending occupants may be used to absorb casualties. Normal combat results apply: The attacking force may remain in the space if it wins the battle and it must retreat if it loses the battle. If a defending stack is in the space and loses the battle, it must retreat. 20.1.2 Defending A stack is defending the structure if its units occupy the fort. There are limits to the number of FPs that can occupy a fort. Leader FP do not count toward the maximum. A structure can hold any number of leaders, scouts, supply wagons and artillery. The maximum number of FPs allowed in a structure are: •

Fort Washington and Harmar: 8FP

Built Forts: 6FP

If the stack defending a fort loses the battle, it does not retreat. It instead remains in the space under siege (see 20.2 Siege). The structure may not be used to absorb any losses unless it is the only remaining friendly unit in the space. The black number on the fort represents the number of FP that is added to the defending force. Forts Washington and Harmar cannot be attacked but units in them may be placed under siege. 20.2 Siege It is possible that an enemy force may find itself on a fort space after a victorious combat. When this occurs a siege occurs. Place a siege marker on the space. Defending units may not move from a structure under siege until the enemy force in its space is destroyed or moves away. Friendly units may not enter a besieged structure using pass through (see 13.0) but may use pass through to move through the besieged space. 20.2.1 Relieving Force If the besieging force is attacked by an outside force moving into the space, the besieged units and structure may not contribute any FPs to the battle. If the relieving force loses the battle, it may not retreat into the structure. 20.2.2 Breaking Out Some or all units inside the structure may attack the besieging force once per segment. When doing so they do not receive any FPs from the structure they are in. If the force attempting to break out loses the battle, then they may retreat back into the structure or elect to retreat to an adjacent space. If they elect to retreat to an adjacent space, the structure is razed unless it is Fort Washington or Harmar.

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Blood on the Ohio 20.3 Forts There are two forts that have already been established when a scenario starts, Fort Harmar and Fort Washington. These are preprinted on the map board and have special rules. Other forts have markers that are placed on the boards when they are built. Unless the rule specifies Fort Harmar or Washington, the term fort may apply to either the preprinted forts or a fort marker. Forts are built using the special action Build (see 5.3) during a turn segment.

Constructed Forts (not Harmar and Washington) may be razed and used to take casualties. These forts have three steps, 1) Healthy, 2) Reduced, 3) Razed. Each time a casualty is applied to a fort, it loses one step which earns the WC player 1/2 VP. The WC player loses 1/2 VP if a reduced fort is repaired (see 5.4). Forts offer defensive protection to units defending them (see 20.1). Forts act as rendezvous points at the end of FA/WI turns (see 11.2 US Winter Quartering).

Villages have three steps, 1) Healthy, 2) Reduced, 3) Razed. Each time a casualty is applied to a village, it loses one step.

20.5.1 Relocation of Villages When a healthy village receives a casualty, it is reduced. A razed marker is placed in the village space and the village marker is flipped to its reduced side and placed adjacent to a river space in the nation’s boundary. A reduced village marker must be placed within 5 MPs of its original position. This is called relocation. A primary village that is reduced requires bringing a reduced primary village marker onto the map. The reduced primary village marker must be placed adjacent to a river space within ten MPs of its original location. A relocated village may not be placed on a razed marker unless there are no other eligible spaces available. If this occurs, remove the razed marker.

Fort spaces may be moved through by the Indian player if the fort does not have a screening force. A fort space may not be retreated into by Indian forces.

When a reduced village receives a casualty it is razed. The village is removed from the game and a razed marker is placed in its space. The US player receives +1/2 VP for reducing a village and +1/2 VP for razing a reduced village.

If an attack fails to destroy a fort and the attacker is not required to retreat, then the attacking force remains in place on top of the fort and a state of Siege exists (see 20.2 Siege).

If all of a nation’s villages have been razed, then the nation withdraws all its leaders and warriors from the game board; this nation is conquered and out of the game.

20.4 Forts Harmar and Washington Units defending these forts and the forts themselves, may not be attacked. Units screening the forts may be attacked normally.

A healthy principal village adds 1 FP to any defending WC FP in battle. A reduced principal village and villages receive no defensive benefits.

The forts and defenders may be placed under siege at which point units defending the forts must break out in order to move and US units may not enter the forts until the sieging force is removed.

An undefended principal village that has not been reduced may still ambush a US force moving into its space (In this case the US casualties may not be greater than 1 FP).

20.5 Villages The people of the nations lived in communities called villages. These were small communities usually consisting of 30-60 wigwams and long houses. Larger villages are referred to as principal villages. Although not exactly capitals, these were more or less national cultural centers.

When a nation’s reduced principal village(s) is razed and removed from play, its reinforcing units arrive in any of its nation’s villages with no more than 2FP entering each village. Any remaining FPs remain in the nation square of the VP track or reinforcement box. A nation whose principal village(s) have been destroyed may not host units from off-board nations during FA/WI turns.

Principal villages are preprinted on the map-board. Unless the rule specifically specifies principal village, the term village may apply to either village type. Most nations have a principal village. The Shawnee and Miami nations have two. Destruction of these villages is a US objective. The US player may move through an undefended village without stopping if he does not wish to attack it or if he overruns it but may not move through or overrun an undefended principal village unless performing Pass Through (see 13.0).

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20.6 Settlements Settlements are both preprinted on the map board and also have markers used to show where a settlement is built on the map board during the game. Other than the fact that one is preprinted on the map board and the other is a marker, there is no difference between them. Both are referred to as settlements. These are usually small unauthorized multifamily farming settlements. Homes were built to withstand attacking war-bands, but not a concentrated siege. Raids against settlements were common and persistent.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 21.0 Scouts

Scouts were small bands of allied Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians whose knowledge of the land, the culture and language proved invaluable to US Forces. Settlements have three steps, 1) Healthy, 2) Reduced, 3) Razed. US units screening a settlement add 1FP to their total when attacked. A reduced settlement affords no defensive benefits. A razed counter replaces the settlement counter when its damaged side receives a hit. The WC player earns +1/2 VP when a settlement is reduced and when it is razed. The WC player loses 1/2 VP if a reduced settlement is repaired (see 5.4).

A scout may assist in movement or in combat. Before a scout can be used in any capacity, a Scout Fickleness Check must be made. 21.1 Scout Fickleness Check Scouts were not always treated well as their loyalty was suspect. The loyalty of a Scout must be checked before it can use its movement or combat abilities. Roll the blue faction die. 1 = Traitor! The scout unit turns traitor. Subtract 1 FP from the force if in combat. Place the scout unit in the Recruitment Cup. 2 = Second Thoughts The scout unit reconsiders its loyalties and runs away providing no support to the US player. Place the scout unit in the Recruitment Cup.

20.7 Fort Miamis In 1794 the British built Fort Miamis to forestall US Gen. Anthony Wayne’s advance on Britain’s Fort Detroit, and to encourage the WC in their war with the US. When playing a scenario that includes Fort Miamis, place the Fort Miamis counter on the Maumee River space that has a British flag. If the fort is present, the WC may leave a stack of no more than 4FP in the space. This is an exception to the rule that states units may not end their turn on a river space. Any number of WC leaders may be in the fort. US units may not enter or attack the Fort Miamis space. The fort blocks US river movement. When retreating from the battle of the Fallen Timbers, the British did not allow the fleeing warriors safe haven in the fort for fear of starting another war with the US. Because of this, the WC may not retreat into the Fort Miami space.

3 - 6 = Loyal The scout unit remains loyal and assists the US player. 21.2 Scout Movement Scouts may be used to give one additional MP to the force it accompanies. If the only scout in the force is dropped off in a space during movement, the moving force does not receive the additional MP. The MP of a supply wagon may not be increased. If a Scout is used for movement, it must undergo a Scout Fickleness check. Example – Scout Movement: The US player has a Scout unit accompanying a force under key leader St. Clair. He wishes to move the entire force five spaces. Since the Scout’s ability is used, a Scout Fickleness check is made. The scout remains loyal and the US force which normally moves only four spaces may now move five.

21.3 Scouts in Combat During combat, a Scout may be used to add 1 TP to the US tactical rating or add 1 FP to the US force point total, not both. The US player may elect to not use the Scout at all in combat. The US player must declare how the Scout is being used at the beginning of combat. If a Scout is used in combat, it must undergo a Scout Fickleness check.

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Blood on the Ohio

22.0 Artillery

Each regular artillery unit represents a three gun battery of either 3 or 5 pounders and the men to service them. Artillery is supported when accompanied by any number of regular, cavalry, or militia units. Casualties are not applied against artillery units. 22.1 Artillery in Battle Artillery units have no FP. Artillery units play no part when involved in an Ambush. In an Attack, artillery units have a variable artillery shock value (see 14.5). 22.2 Abandoned Artillery Lost artillery remains in the space it occupies as an end result of battle and plays no part in any future battles in that space. The WC may not move or use lost artillery in any manner. When an artillery unit is lost, it is flipped to its lost side. The US player can recover lost artillery using the Search special action (see 5.7). Artillery is considered lost at no cost to the WC player when any number of Warrior units occupy a space that contains an unsupported artillery unit. If the US retreats and suffered at least 1 casualty, the US player must roll a die. On a roll of 6 the artillery unit is considered lost and is flipped to its lost side. It remains in the battle space. When an artillery unit finds itself in a river space because of a failed attack or at any point when retreating the artillery is always lost. Flip the artillery unit to its lost side and place it in the space where the WC units that took place in the battle are located.

23.0 British Arms

There are six British Arms Markers. Based on the scenario being played, they either start on the marked squares of the VP Track or already in play on the map board. When the Indian VP marker reaches or passes a square containing a British Arms marker, the markers can be brought into play using the Recruit Action (see 5.1). Arms counters are not combat units so they may not move on their own. However they do enhance the units they accompany. Each British Arms marker adds +1 combat strength In battle. British Arms markers may be moved between national units occupying the same space. British Arms Markers may be dropped off in a village or Principal Village containing no warrior force points. It may not be left by itself in any other space not occupied by a warrior unit. When an Indian force is destroyed any British Arms markers it contained are removed from play. British Arms markers accompany warrior units back to their villages during Winter Quartering. British Arms may be discarded to satisfy 1 FP Casualty. A nation may never have more than one British Arms marker.

Artillery is not lost when a force on a river space is ambushed and retreated.

24.0 Victory Points

Victory Points are awarded as follows: + 1/2 WC VP for each settlement step lost + 1/2 WC VP for each fort step lost - 1/2 WC VP when a structure is repaired + 1/2 WC VP for each supply wagon step lost in combat or captured - 1/2 WC VP if a raid results in failure + 1/2 US VP for each village step lost + 1/2 VP for the victor of a combat + 1/2 VP when inflicting more than 3 casualties in a combat (note this may be received by the attacker, defender, or both) - 1/2 VP for ambusher if ambush is a catastrophic failure

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 25.0 Optional Rules 25.1 Revised Nation Check On a modified ”6” the nation remains in the confederation but must check its loyalty during each new Nation Check phase. The die roll is modified by +1 if the tribe has suffered no casualties and by +1 if one or more WC key leaders are within 10 spaces of the nation’s principal village. If the nation’s principal village has been damaged or destroyed the nation does not make a loyalty roll but is automatically removed from the map. 25.2 Examination of Stacks WC may look at US stacks. US may not look at WC stacks.

Appendix 1: The History Behind Blood on the Ohio

On November 4th, 1791 the United States Army suffered its greatest defeat at the hands of Native-American warriors. Nearly 1000 casualties fell in the wake of St. Clair’s defeat during what came to be known as “President Washington’s Indian War” also the “Northwest Indian War” or “Little Turtle’s War.” Before this war ended an untold number of Indians and settlers would cut each other down in a seemingly endless series of revenge killings. As with most European/Native American confrontations, conflict grew from the seeds of broken treaties and land grabs. Indians west and north of the Ohio River were frequently blamed for raids on peaceful white settlers and hunting bands. However, such attacks were often at the hands of outraged Indians who saw their ancestral lands being stolen by an endless stream of encroaching settlers who often shot Native Americans for sport. Through the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, established by the British in 1768, the Ohio River became the recognized boundary between the English and the numerous Indian Nations of the Ohio River territory. However, hard feelings continued to smolder following the French and Indian War, and hard on its heels, the American Revolutionary War. In both conflicts, Indians were encouraged to take sides but wound up the losers regardless of which side they took. Revenge-minded folk on both sides perpetuated the violence while peaceful folk on both sides suffered depredations. Among such incidents is the tale of a Cayuga (some say Mingo) chief John Logan who advocated cooperation until treacherous frontiersmen, guests in his own home, slaughtered his entire family. Logan then went on the warpath igniting what came to be known as Lord Dunmore’s War just prior to our War for Independence. In 1789 a series of Indian raids into Kentucky and Ohio territorial settlements, led to Brigadier General Josiah Harmar’s expedition up the Great Miami River. There he destroyed five Indian villages only to be drawn into a trap where his force sustained 27% casualties and forced him to retire. A second expedition was raised later that year and led by then commanding general of the US Army General Arthur St. Clair. His ignominious defeat, previously described, at the headwaters of the Wabash River led President Washington to replace St. Clair with General ‘Mad’ Anthony Wayne, a hero of the Revolutionary War. A loose confederation of Nations headed by the Shawnee and Miami Nations under the capable leadership of Little Turtle, Blue Jacket and Buckongahelas (of the Delaware) held in check further US expansion into the Ohio territory. Furious over US failure in the region, President Washington ordered General Wayne to enlarge the regular army and lead a third expedition to defeat the Ohio Indian confederation once and for all. This he did in the summer of 1794 at the battle of Fallen Timbers. Thereafter, in the summer of 1795, leaders of various Nations gathered in southwest Ohio to sign the Treaty of Greeneville, ceding two-thirds of Ohio and portions of what is now Indiana and Illinois in exchange for peace and promised trade goods valued at $20,000, thus ending President Washington’s Indian War – but not US expansion. Between 1802 and 1809 a new series of treaties ceded further Indian land sparking renewed fighting. By 1807 a new Indian leader and veteran of the Northwest Indian War, Tecumseh, began forming a new Indian coalition which would later ally with the British against the US in what came to be known as the War of 1812. © 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio Appendix 2: Learning Scenario

The Blood on the Ohio learning scenario is designed to introduce new players to Blood on the Ohio. It is made up of three tiers. Each tier adds more of Blood on the Ohio’s basic rules to the learning scenario.

St. Clair’s Advance Background General Arthur St. Clair marched out of Fort Washington to link up with General Richard Butler in hopes of destroying Miami villages and ultimately Kekionga. Little Turtle defended the Miami villages while Blue Jacket and his Shawnee warriors raided white settlements in support of the Miami. Special Scenario Rules: This is a learning scenario. It is split into three tiers. The first tier is the simplest using only the most basic of rules. Each subsequent tier uses more rules. Scenario only uses spaces that belong to the Miami, Shawnee, or are neutral (brown). Each tier begins with the US at 4 VP and 4 APs and the WC at 5 VPs and 5 APs. Set-up Instructions For Each Tier The US player sets up first. The WC player sets up second. US Pieces

x1 x1 x2 x2 x2 Place fort four spaces from Ft. Washington in Miami territory. Place units in a screening stack and/or a defending stack in Ft. Greenville.

x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 Place units in a screening stack and/or a defending stack in Ft. Washington.

WC Pieces

x1 x1 x4 Place in Shawnee primary village of Chalakatha.

x5 x1 x1 x5 Place 5 Miami villages 3-4 spaces away from Ft. Greenville within Miami Territory and within two spaces of a river. Place units in any one of the Miami villages.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794

Learning Tier 1 Scenario Length:

1 full turn - FA/WI 1790

Victory Conditions:

Player who inflicts the most structure step losses wins. Automatic victory if the US relocates Kekionga or the WC player inflicts 5 settlement step losses. Any other result is a draw.

Special Rules:

US Casualties are removed.

Only use the following three turn segment procedures: - US Operations - WC Operations - Leader Check

Learning Tier 2 Scenario Length:

1 full turn - FA/WI 1790

Victory Conditions:

Same as Tier 1.

Special Rules: Additional Set Up:

Same as tier 1. Add the Special Actions turn segment procedure Recruit Action. Use only two southern Entry squares allowing two checks for each square. Add US Search Action but only for lost artillery. US casualties are now placed in Recruitment Cup.

x4 x2 Recruitment Cup

x6 Nation Square

x5 Nation Square

Learning Tier 3 Scenario Length:

2 full turns - FA/WI 1790 to SP/SU of 1791

Victory Conditions:

Use victory points to determine winner (see 24.0). Tied VPs result in a draw.

Same as tier 2. Special Rules: ` Add the rules for Scouts. Add US Supply Check turn segment. Add Winter Quartering turn segment. Add End of Turn Function turn segment. Additional Set Up:

x1 x1 Recruitment Cup Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio Appendix 3: Scenarios

1) The Harmar Campaign

The First Expedition under General Josiah Harmar Background By 1790, the Constitution had been ratified and the Revolution against Britain was fading. However, treaty considerations regarding English forts remaining in ceded lands and English meddling in Indian affairs to the West continued. British arms flowed into Indian hands and British encouragement to act against US settlers forced President Washington to act. Josiah Harmar commanded the US army in the Northwest Territory which then included the Ohio territory. He and the bulk of his army resided in the Fort Washington bastion – what is Cincinnati today. Harmar’s assignment was to quell Indian attacks in western Ohio as ordered by Henry Knox, the then Secretary of War. Harmar embarked with 320 regulars and approximately 1,100 militia, most hailing from Pennsylvania and Kentucky. His target was the principal Miami village of Kekionga. Many of his regulars were hardened veterans; the militiamen were not. Poorly trained and poorly armed, the militia entered into battle with low morale and great fear of the Indians they faced. Despite supply problems, Harmar initially destroyed a number of Indian villages near what is now Fort Wayne, Indiana, hoping to bring Miami, Shawnee and Delaware forces into battle. In his wake, the Indians retreated then gathered under the command of Miami chieftain, Little Turtle. On October 20, Little Turtle ambushed a detachment of Harmar’s army. Colonel John Hardin, commanding several hundred militiamen and a handful of regulars found himself soundly defeated as his militia fled leaving the regulars to make an ineffective last stand. Many of the cowardly militia ran all the way back across the Ohio River. Two days later Harmar sent another detachment to punish Little Turtle. Ambushed in a much more punishing confrontation, this time the hesitant militia was slaughtered. Harmar retreated back to Fort Washington having lost 183 men killed or missing and 106 wounded. His expedition now carried the ignoble brand of Harmar’s Defeat. The following year Harmar faced a court-martial in which he was accused of multiple wrongdoings including drunkenness. Although exonerated, he nonetheless retired from the army in 1792. Encouraged by Harmar’s Defeat, Indian attacks against settlers on both sides of the Ohio increased. Scenario Length: Beginning of FA/WI 1789 through end of SP/SU 1790. The US player takes the first action. Special Rules: At start, the WC consists of the Miami (Mi), Shawnee (Sh), Delaware (De) and the Mingo (M). The US player subtracts 1 from his ambush die rolls. Delaware Leader Buckanghelas (Breaker), remains active even if the Delaware withdraw from the fight Victory Conditions: The Western Confederacy obtains an immediate automatic Victory if the First Expedition is forced to withdraw. If an automatic victory is not obtained, the WC wins if it has more points than the US and it has not had more than two principal villages reduced. The WC receive 1/2 VP for each settlement in the Allowable Builds box at game end. The US obtains an immediate automatic victory if two principal villages (one must be Kekionga) are reduced and five additional villages are razed. If an automatic victory is not obtained, the US wins if it has more points than the WC and has built Fort Steuben. Any other result is a draw.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794

2) War on The Wabash

The Second Expedition under Major General Arthur St. Clair Background Following Harmar’s Defeat, Washington organized a new expedition to deal with Little Turtle. Major General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory and a Continental Army veteran led the new force. His army included the First American Regiment, a second regiment of infantry, 800 six-month volunteers organized into two regiments of levies, Kentucky militia and a few cavalry, which brought the strength of the army to 1,400 men. Many believed St. Clair unfit to command, ill and indecisive; Washington remained stoutly convinced of his abilities. St. Clair, like Harmar marched out of Fort Washington in September 1791, as with his predecessor, bound for the principal Miami village of Kekionga. Unlike Harmar, he ordered forts built as he advanced north. Slowed by the construction, St. Clair had traveled only ninety miles by November. By then his force, made up mostly of volunteer militia, experienced increasing desertion. Early winter beset the army as did constant supply problems. His army demoralized, St. Clair halted beside the Wabash River to send the First American Regiment in search of their delinquent supplies. On November 4, 1791, Little Turtle took this opportunity to ambush St. Clair who had prepared no defense works. The militia reacted much as they did under Harmar, fleeing in the face of Little Turtle’s warriors. The regulars managed to hold for a while with St. Clair bravely commanding in the thick of the fight. St. Clair even led his regulars in a bayonet charge, having two horses shot out from under him. After the battle he discovered several bullet holes in his clothing and even had a lock of hair shot away. Artillery was present and employed but had negligible effect as the guns were aimed too high. In no time the artillerymen were overwhelmed and cut down. St. Clair held out for four hours. Victims in the fight included Major General Richard Butler, commanding the levy regiments, died in his tent (the first of four American generals killed in battle against the Native Americans) and most of the women and dependents who had tagged along with the army. The survivors did manage to break out, abandoning their camp and what supplies they had along with their wounded. The battered remainder made for Fort Jefferson. Those left behind faced a gruesome fate. Of the 1,400 regulars, levies and militia, 918 were killed. Two hundred and seventy-six wounded escaped their fate. Almost half of the entire US Army was now either dead or wounded. President Washington raged when he received the news demanding St. Clair’s resignation. Congress ordered an investigation. St. Clair was eventually cleared. His defeat blamed on inadequate training and a broken supply system and continued to act as Governor of the Northwest Territory. In early 1792, Congress authorized an increase in the size of the Army and the creation of the Legion of the United States. Scenario Length: Beginning of FA/WI 1790 through end of SP/SU 1792. The US player takes the first action. Special Rules: At start, the Western Confederation consists of the Miamis (Mi), Shawnees (Sh), Delawares (D), Mingos (M) and the Senecas (Se). The US player subtracts 1 from his ambush die rolls but the presence of a scout ignores this penalty. Delaware Leader, Buckanghelas (Breaker), remains active on the map even if the Delaware withdraw from the fight. Victory Conditions: The Western Confederacy obtains an immediate automatic Victory if the Second Expedition is forced to withdraw. If an automatic victory is not obtained, the WC wins if it has more points than the US. The WC receive 1/2 VP for each settlement in the Allowable Builds box at game end. The US wins if it has more points than the WC and has built Fort Recovery. Any other result is a draw.

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Blood on the Ohio 3) Legion of the United States

The Third Expedition under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne The defeat of Harmar and St. Clair pointed out necessary army reforms if the new republic was to defend itself. Army reorganization had begun in 1784 under Baron von Steuben, who helped train the novice Continental Army, advocating a legion form of organization. In 1792, Congress approved the creation of The Legion of the United States to be divided into four sub-legions of 1,280 men commanded by a brigadier general. Each sub-legion consisted of two battalions of infantry, one of riflemen, one of artillery and one company of dragoons. Implementation of the term “Legion” revealed the founders attachment to the early Roman Republic. “Light Horse Harry” Lee and Daniel Morgan were considered as Legion commanders, but Washington chose Anthony Wayne and immediately promoted him to major general. After the two previous frontier defeats, Wayne was in no hurry to rush into battle. He intended to provide his Army two years of intensive training before deploying them. Meanwhile, negotiations with the various Indian nations continued but after their recent victories Little Turtle was in no mood to treat with the Americans. Beginning his training program near Fort Pitt, Wayne faced too many distractions for his troops so he ferried his operations 22 miles downriver to a settlement he named Legionville. There Wayne disciplined into his raw troops. Using von Steuben’s drill manual his officers instructed his regulars in close-order drill and in the construction of field fortifications (which St. Clair had sadly neglected). His troops were trained in marksmanship and practiced bayonet drills. Wayne increased morale when he differentiated sub-legions through distinctive cap ornaments and uniform facings: white for the First Sub-legion, red for the Second, yellow for the Third and green for the Fourth. Once trained, the Legion moved to Fort Washington exactly where the last two expeditions were launched. Unfortunately, recruitment of regulars was slow so Wayne had to backfill his ranks with Kentucky militia. Based on past experience, these he did not trust. He marched north and established a new encampment, Fort Greeneville, named for Nathanael Greene. Like St. Clair he emphasized the building of forts along his route. On Christmas Day, 1793, he sent a detachment to the sobering scene of St. Clair’s defeat where hundreds of skeletons remained unburied. Wayne built Fort Recovery on the site. Some men remained there. The rest wintered in Fort Greene. In the spring of 1794, the Legion was reinforced by another 1,000 mounted Kentucky militia under the command of Brigadier General Charles Scott. Wayne carefully advanced, building Forts Defiance, Adams and Deposit along the way. By mid-summer, the Legion was camped on the Maumee River, close to the British Fort Miamis. Indian warriors under the Shawnee Chief, Blue Jacket (By then, Little Turtle seemed to foresee little hope in continued resistance) waited in ambush near what is now the city of Toledo. He chose a forest site devastated by a tornado years before. The area, called Fallen Timbers, augured an excellent Indian ambush. Unfortunately for Blue Jacket, Wayne delayed his advance after scouts discovered the ambush and this weakened the waiting warriors who were fasting in anticipation of their battle. On the morning of 20 August, the Legion advanced into the fallen timbers on two fronts.

4) Little Turtle’s War

(Full Campaign)

Scenario Length: Beginning of FA/WI 1789 through end of SP/SU 1794. Victory Conditions: The Western Confederacy obtains an automatic Victory if the Third Expedition is forced to withdraw. If an automatic victory has not occurred, the WC wins if it has more points than the US at game end. The WC receive 1/2 VP for each settlement in the Allowable Builds box at game end. The US wins an immediate automatic victory if it reaches 30 VP. If an automatic victory has not occurred, the US wins if it has more points than the WC at game end. Any other result is a draw.

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Special Rules: Use the Harmar Campaign scenario special rules and setup. Entry of Second Expedition: Remove all US units from the board. Distribute nine regular units (artillery is considered a regular unit) and three militia units between the existing forts. Distribute three more militia units no more than one per settlement. Place in a recruitment cup six militia infantry, two militia cavalry and one supply. Place the Second Expedition consisting of one scout, St. Clair, Darke, Wilkinson, one regular cavalry, three regular infantry, four militia infantry, two militia cavalry and three supply units on two or more of the US reinforcement spaces. Add to the Available Builds Box six settlements, Forts St. Clair and Hamilton.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 Brigadier General James Wilkinson commanded the right, Colonel John Hamtramck, commanded the mounted Kentuckians on the left. The Legion’s cavalry defended along the Maumee. Wayne held Scott’s men in reserve. Initially the attack stalled but once Wayne reckoned horsemen would be useless in the rubble strewn field he ordered a bayonet charge. Wayne’s disciplined troops startled the Indians who had expected the regulars to be the ones breaking and running. Instead, it was Blue Jacket who retreated and he retreated so fast even the flanking mounted troops were unable to keep up with him. The battle lasted less than an hour. It was decisive but decidedly less bloody than expected. Wayne’s losses came to only 40 killed and about 100 wounded. Blue Jacket’s defeat cost him 33 killed and about the same number wounded. Blue Jacket’s warriors rushed to the British at Fort Miamis, the same British who had promised them support and protection, but who now refused to open their gates to them. Abandoned by their English allies, Blue Jacket’s warriors scattered. Wayne considered assaulting the illegal fort but instead opted to deploy his army into the countryside where he destroyed Indian villages and crops. In the end, the Legion’s campaign resulted in a renewed treaty with the British as well as the Treaty of Greeneville with hostile Indian nations. The threat of British involvement in American Indian affairs had been quashed and the Ohio territory opened to a new flood of American settlers. Scenario Length: The scenario begins in the SP/SU turn of 1792 and concluding at the end of SP/SU turn of 1794. Special Rules: The Western Confederacy consists of the Miamis (Mi), Shawnees (Sh), Delawares (De), Senecas (Se), Kickapoos (K) and Wyandots (W). The Mingos (M) have made a Treaty with the US. They will be withdrawn during the first nation check. US subordinate leaders may command up to 8 force points. Delaware Leader, Breaker (Buckongahelas), remains active on the map even after his nation withdraws from the fight. Wayne’s cautious strategy relied on fort building. For this reason he needs only one supply step instead of an entire supply unit to build a fort. When building a fort during Wayne’s campaign the US player needs only flip a full supply unit or remove a damaged supply unit to build a fort. In addition, Wayne’s influence was such that his supply was more stable. During this third expedition the US player may if he wishes redraw any of his successful reinforcement rolls in hopes of getting additional supply instead of militia. Victory Conditions: The Western Confederacy obtains an immediate automatic victory if the Third Expedition is forced to withdraw. If an automatic victory has not occurred, the WC wins if it has more points than the US at game end. The WC receive 1/2 point for each settlement in the US Builds Box at game end. The US wins an immediate automatic victory if it reaches 30 VP. If an automatic victory has not occurred, the US wins if it has more points than the WC. Any other result is a draw.

Entry of Third Expedition: Remove all US units from the board. Distribute 12 regular units (artillery is considered a regular unit) and four militia units between the existing forts. Distribute five more militia units no more than one per settlement. Place in a recruitment cup seven militia infantry, remaining militia cavalry and all two supply. Place the 1st part of the Third Expedition consisting of one scout, Wayne, three regular infantry, one regular cavalry, one artillery (if available), one militia infantry, one militia cavalry and two Supply units. Place the 2nd part of the Third Expedition consisting of one scout, Butler, four regular infantry, one regular cavalry and two militia infantry on the FA/WI 1792 turn track space. Enter on any one or more of the US reentry squares.

Place the 3rd part of the Third Expedition consisting of one scout, Scott, four regular infantry and two militia infantry and two Supply units (if available in recruitment cup), on the SP/SU 1793 turn track space. Enter on any one or more of the US reinforcement spaces. Add to the Allowable Builds Box ten settlements, Forts Greenville, Defiance, Recovery and Randolph are available for building. The US suffers no ambush penalty during the third expedition. During the Third Expedition the US require only one supply step to build a fort. Fort Miamis: At the beginning of the SP/SU 1794 turn, place Fort Miamis on the Maumee river in the space with the British flag. Optional Sudden Death: WC Automatic Victory if Commander Wayne is killed. US. Automatic Victory if Little Turtle, Blue Jacket and Buckanghelas (Breaker) are killed.

© 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio Appendix 4: Setup Instructions 1) The Harmar Campaign and 4) Little Turtle’s War Game Markers

Turn Box Turn Segment FA/WI 1789 Square #1

US SA Square #4

WC SA Square #5

SA Box

SA Box

VP Square #3

VP Square #5

VP Square #6

VP Square #7

VP Square #8

VP Square #4

Raid Chits

x3

VP Square #0

VP Square #0

Place Raid Chits into the Raid Cup.

x2

x1

During each End of Turn segment that is prior to a SP/SU turn, additional Raid Chits are placed into the cup as indicated on the game board and in section 5.6.1 of the rules.

NATIONS OF THE WESTERN CONFEDERACY Miami

x4

The WC setup first.

x2 South of Pickawillany

x5

x5 Nation Box

Shawnee

x4

x2 South of Chalakatha

x5

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When placing warrior units, place as desired in their nation’s villages including their primary villages no more than one per village. When placing leaders, one or more leaders may be placed per village of their nation.

Mingo

Delaware

x3

x5 Nation Box

When placing villages, each village must be placed on a space controlled by their nation no more than two spaces away from a river space controlled by that nation.

x3

x3 Nation Square

x2

x2

x1 Nation Square

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794

UNITED STATES

x4

The US take the first action.

x1 US Builds Box

x4

x3 Recruitment Cup

x2 x1 x2 Screening/Defending Fort Washington

x1

x2 x1 x1 Screening/Defending Fort Harmar

x4 x1 x3 1st Expedition - Place on two or more US Entry Squares.

NONALIGNED NATIONS

x1

x1

At start, all nonaligned pieces are placed in their nation square on the Victory Point Track.

Wyandot

Ojibwa

x5 x8 Wyandot enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 4 warrior units, 4 units remain on the Nation Square.

x6 Ojibwa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the Nation Square.

Ottawa

Kickapoo

x4 x6 Ottawa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the Nation Square.

x4 Kickapoo enter with 1 subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the Nation Square.

Seneca

Potawatomi

x4 x6 Seneca enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the Nation Square.

x4 Potawatomi enter with subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the Nation Square. Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio 2) War on the Wabash Game Markers

Turn Box Turn Segment FA/WI 1790 Square #1

US SA Square #5

WC SA Square #5

Raid Chits

SA Box

x3

x4

x2

x1

x2

x3

x1

x1 Pickawillany

x4

x3

x2 Nation Box

x2

x2

x1

x1 Chalakatha

x4

x2

x3 Nation Box

x1

x1

x1

x1

The WC setup first.

x3

Delaware

Mingo

VP Square #9

During each End of Turn segment that is prior to a SP/SU turn, additional Raid Chits are placed into the cup as indicated on the game board and in section 5.6.1 of the rules.

NATIONS OF THE WESTERN CONFEDERACY Miami

Shawnee

VP Square #7

Place Raid Chits into the Raid Cup.

x4

x3

SA Box

x1

x1

When placing villages or razed markers, each piece must be placed on a space controlled by their nation no more than two spaces away from a river space controlled by that nation.

x1 Gekelmurpechunk

x1

Seneca

x1

x2

x1

x4

When placing warrior units, place as desired in their nation’s villages including their primary villages no more than one per village.

x3 Nation Square

x3

When placing leaders, one or more leaders may be placed per village of their nation. x3 Nation Square

A nation may not have more than one British Arms marker. x1 Any Miami Village

x1 x1 Any Shawnee Any Delaware Village Village

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x1 Any Mingo Village

x1 Any Seneca Village

Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 UNITED STATES

The US take the first action.

x2 x1 x2 Screening/Defending Fort Washington

x1 x1 x1 Screening/Defending Fort Harmar

x1

x1

x6

x2 Recruitment Cup

x2

x6

x1 US Builds Box

x1

Locate Fort Steuben within 4 spaces of Fort Washington. x1 x1 x1 x2 Screening/Defending Fort Steuben

x2

x2 x2 x2 Settlements North of Ohio River East of Ohio River

Second Expedition - Place on one or more US Entry Squares.

x5

x2

x2

x1

Wyandot

x4 x6 Ottawa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on Nation Square.

x5 x8 Wyandot enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 4 warrior units, 4 units remain on the Nation Square.

Ojibwa

Kickapoo

x6 Ojibwa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the Nation Square.

X1 Any Wyandot Village

Potawatomi

x4 x4 When the Kickapoo or Potawatomi enter , they do so with 1 subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the Nation Square.

Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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x1

At start, all nonaligned pieces are placed in their nation square on the Victory Point Track.

NONALIGNED NATIONS

Ottawa

x4

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Blood on the Ohio 3) Legion of the United States

GREAT BRITAIN

Game Markers

Turn Box Turn Segment SP/SU 1792 Square #1

US SA Square #5

WC SA Square #4

Raid Chits

SA Box

SA Box

VP Square #16

VP Square

British space on Maumee River

Place Raid Chits into the Raid Cup. During each End of Turn segment that is prior to a SP/SU turn, additional Raid Chits are placed into the cup as indicated on the game board and in section 5.6.1 of the rules.

NATIONS OF THE WESTERN CONFEDERACY Miami

x1

Shawnee

x3

x5

x5

x1

x1 Pickawillany

x4

x4

x1

x3

x3

x1

x1 Chalakatha

x5

x3

x1

Delaware

x1

x1

x3

Kickapoo

Entry Squae

Wyandot

x5

x1

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x1 Gekelmurpechunk

x2

x2

x1

x2 Nation Square

x4

x4 Nation Square

x1

x1

x2 Nation Square

x1

Seneca

Mingo

When placing villages or razed markers, each piece must be placed on a space in their nation no more than two spaces away from a river space in that nation.

34

The WC setup first.

x1

x4

x1

x1

x3

x1

When placing warrior units, place as desired in their nation’s villages including their primary villages no more than one per village.

When placing leaders, one or more leaders may be placed per village of their nation. Place British Arms with a warrior unit.

Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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T N

Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 UNITED STATES

The US take the first action.

x2 x1 x2 x1 Screening/Defending Fort Washington

x7

x1 x1 x1 x1 Screening/Defending Fort Harmar

x2 x1 Screening/Defending Fort Steuben

x2

x6

Locate Fort Steuben within 4 spaces of Fort Washington. Locate Fort St.Clair 3-4 spaces from an existing fort.

x2 Recruitment Cup

x2

US Builds Box

x1 x2 Screening/Defending Fort St. Clair

x3

x4 x2 Settlements North of Ohio River East of Ohio River

x3 x1 x1 x1 x1 x1 1st part of Third Expedition - Begin the game on one or more US Entry Squares.

x4

2nd part of Third Expedition enters on the FA/WI 1792 turn. x4 x1 x2 x1 x1 x1 2nd part of Third Expedition - Place on one or more US Entry Squares.

3rd part of Third Expedition enters on the SP/SU 1793 x4 x2 x1 x1 3rd part of Third Expedition - Place on one or more US Entry Squares.

NONALIGNED NATIONS

At start, all nonaligned pieces are placed in their nation square on the Victory Point Track.

Ottawa

x4 x6 Ottawa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the VP track.

Ojibwa

x6 Ojibwa enter with 2 subordinate leaders and 3 warrior units, 3 units remain on the Nation Square Š 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Potawatomi

x4 Potawatomi enter with 1 subordinate leader and 2 warrior units, 2 units remain on the Nation Square.

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Blood on the Ohio Appendix 5: Examples

Movement with Combat

Turn Segment 1: Special Action Phase

It is the second turn. The US player always has the first opportunity to perform a Special Action. The US elects to build a Settlement. He places a Settlement marker on an empty ground space that is one space away from a river and 2 spaces from a settlement. The US Special Action marker goes from 4 to 3. The WC player can now use a Special Action or pass. The WC player sees that he cannot perform the Harass Action because there are no WC units within 3 MPs of the newly built settlement. The WC player elects to perform a Raid and selects a healthy settlement that has no US units in it. The WC could have chosen any settlement, healthy or reduced, as long as no US units are in it. The chit drawn is a B Chit (Success, Outliers Burned). The WC places a Reduced Settlement Marker in the space and flips the ‘Builds Allowed’ marker to its ‘No Builds’ side in the Special Actions Box. The WC gains 1/2 VP because the settlement was reduced. The WC Special Action marker goes from 5 to 4. The US player passes. His Special Actions are finished for this turn segment. He has 3 SAPs left. He flips the ‘No Builds’ marker back to its ‘Builds Allowed’ side. Since the US player passed, the WC player can continue to take actions until either he passes or runs out of SAPs. The WC player performs another Raid. This time the C Chit (Called Off, No effect) is drawn. The WC Special Action marker goes from 4 to 3. The WC player performs a Recruit Action choosing the Delaware. He rolls a 2 on his faction die. He adds 1 to the result because the Delaware are one of the three central members of the WC. The resulting 3 is still not enough to receive a unit from the Delaware Nation square on the VP track. The WC player can elect to make one more recruitment roll or forgo the roll and receive one of the two British Arms markers that are available. The WC elects to take the British Arms marker from the 2 VP square on the VP track and places the marker in a Shawnee village. The WC Special Action marker goes from 3 to 2.

The US moves a key leader force two spaces to a Miami village. The village is occupied by 7FP of Miami warriors and Little Turtle (strength of 7FP with +1 tactical ability). The US has a force of 4 regular infantry FPs, 2 regular cavalry FPs, 4 militia infantry FPs, a key leader and a scout (possible strength of 11FPs – with +2 tactical ability). The WC player elects to not ambush the force when it is adjacent to the village because he anticipates the attack and will want to try to retreat before combat. A player may not attempt to retreat before combat if their force performed an ambush during the movement of the enemy force. The US force does not have sufficient FP to overrun the units in the village. It does have enough FP and MPs to pass through the village, but the US wishes to attack and declares that regular combat will commence. The Battle marker is placed in the space. The WC force must now decide which option to take. The WC still has the ambush option available along with retreat before combat and stand and defend. The WC player decides to attempt to retreat before combat. The WC rolls his faction die and gets a 2. The retreat attempt fails. The failed retreat marker is placed on the WC units. The WC cannot use their tactical ability because the US force has 2TP and the WC force has 1TP. The WC must defend the space and now suffer a minus 1FP penalty for the failed retreat attempt. They have 6 FPs now. The US Player rolls the event die. The result shows Reinforcements. Neither player can bring units to the battle because there are no units within 3MPs of the battle space. The US player rolls a die for Scout Loyalty and rolls a 2 indicating that the scout runs away, reducing the US TP in battle by 1. The scout is placed in the Reinforcement Cup. Tactical ability is now tied one to one, therefore neither side may employ tactical ability for the remainder of the combat.

The WC player passes. He has 2 SAPs left. The Special Action Phase ends and the Turn Segment marker is moved to the Turn Segment 2 space.

The US Player now rolls for Militia morale. The die result is 2. This means that only two of his four militia FPs may participate in this battle. The militia FPs that do not participate may be used as casualties. With the loss of the scout and militia FPs, the US now attacks with 8FPs.

Movement with Ambush

There is no artillery present so an artillery shock roll is not made.

The US moves a subordinate leader force with two regular infantry units (4FP) and one militia infantry unit (2FP) two spaces where they find themselves adjacent to Blue Jacket and three healthy warriors (6FP). The WC announces an ambush and rolls on the ambush column of the CRT. The roll results in a 3. The roll is modified by a +1 because of the key leader Blue Jacket resulting in a modified 4. The ambush is successful and the US force loses 1 FP which must be taken from a regular unit (the first US FP casualty in an ambush or in battle must be from a regular unit). The US decide not to continue moving the force even though it still has 1 MP remaining and the Ambush did not force the end of movement for the force. If the roll resulted in a 6, the US force would have been forced to end its movement.

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The final forces facing each other are: 8 US FPs to 6 WC FPs. Both players now roll their faction dice. The US roll yields a 4, the WC roll yields a 6. The Combat Results table is consulted. The US roll of 4 in the 7-8FP strength column indicates the WC must lose 2FPs. The WC player flips two WC units to their 1FP sides. This leaves a total force of 5 Miami FPs and Little Turtle. The WC roll of 6 in the 5-6 FP strength column indicates the US must lose 2FPs. The first US casualty must always be a regular unit if regulars are present. The US flips 1 healthy regular infantry to its 1FP and then flips one militia unit to its 1FP side.

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 The winner of the battle is the side that inflicted the most FP losses. In this case, both sides inflicted 2FPs on their opponent. The WC win battles that end in ties. The WC player receives 1/2 VP. The US player must retreat to the space it attacked from.

Appendix 6: Designer Notes In 2010 one of my earliest designs, King Philip’s War went to print. As yet this New England native-American conflict had no game treatment. Adam Starkweather was assigned to the project. It was the first time I had met the gracious award-winning designer. Together we produced an enjoyable historical glimpse into a segment of our history often ignored in our classrooms. My motives were misinterpreted and the project caused a surprising amount of push-back from the Native American community. Led by a Connecticut activist, street protests and on-line protests sought to ban the game. AP picked up the story and it went worldwide. News articles on the project were published as far away as Myanmar and beyond. I met with the Associate professor who instigated the anti – KPW campaign on a Rhode Island radio show where we “buried the hatchet.” In the midst of the brouhaha, I discovered a great deal of support for further designs regarding Native American focus. It was suggested that I do something on Tecumseh or on Little Turtle. I pondered that for several years until I found myself – completely by accident – booking a hotel on the outskirts of the Fallen Timbers Battlefield. After that, the conflict for control of the Ohio Territory would not leave me alone. I began reading on the subject. The more I read the more I had to do this design. It is yet another hidden segment of our history revealing the rapacious nature of our “settling” what was then, the American Northwest. It revealed to me the bravery of the settlers themselves and skill with which Native-Americans defended their land and their homes. I knew of Paul Rohrbaugh’s Dark and Bloody Ground design published with ATO in 2004 but only as a rumor. I did not seek to buy and study it until after my project was well underway. I was surprised and chagrined to see that I covered much of the same ground as Paul. I was impressed by his historical research and the detail he included in his magazine approach. And, I might say, a little intimidated. At the same time my design has a different approach in that my aim was to entice new war-gamers to the hobby through a simple, fast system that still retained historicity. Nevertheless, I encourage those of you that enjoy BLOOD ON THE OHIO to try out DARK AND BLOODY GROUND to better grasp the ruthlessness of the conflict. Every design has to make historical exceptions for game play purposes. I would like to explain a few. The time span may seem odd as the Northwest Indian War spanned 1785 to 1795. I chose only to include the period between 1789 (the appointment of President Washington and the establishment of the Harmar Treaty reestablishing the boundaries set by the Treaty of Fort McIntosh) and 1794 the final chapter in the Northwest Indian War – the battle of Fallen Timbers. The National borders shown on the map are approximate and vary widely from map to map. Forgive me if I have minimized or enlarged what some might consider traditional National boundaries. The Nations included are the primary Nations involved. The Miami and Shawnee were those in the forefront of the conflict, however several smaller Nations have been neglected as these would have been difficult to include on this scale, specifically the Sauk, Wia, Piankashaw and Kaskaskia. The inclusion of Simon Girty as an Indian chieftain may be controversial but he was feared and respected by both sides. As a historical figure of note I found him worthy of representation. Born a Scots-Irish colonial, Girty was captured and raised by Indians. He fought for the colonials but later defected to support the British and finally the Indians. Although raised by the Senecas, he fought for and with the Wyandots which explains his status in the game. Finding US leaders to represent was an easy matter, but war chiefs for the less prominent Nations were difficult to determine. So if the names I provide are of individuals who may not have warranted the honor: Tarhe, Shabbona, Elkswatawa and Okia, the mistake is entirely mine. I did decide to drop Cornplanter of the Seneca, a prominent warrior and chief whom I identify as the Seneca war chief because he is at the forefront of much history through the Revolutionary War where he sided with the British. However, I learned that his conciliatory nature at the time of Little Turtle’s War made him a pariah within his Nation and for that reason I replaced him with his rival Red Jacket. Another difficulty I encountered was the cultural identity of the Mingo. Like the Seneca, the Mingo were considered Iroquois and yet culturally set apart from their fellow Iroquois and other surrounding Nations. I entered into my research imagining them to be far more important than they were. Apparently during this period the Mingo were much reduced and although shown to have influence over a fair portion of what is now southeastern Ohio, they had only a few small villages. I assigned Yellow Creek as their Principal village because of the role it played in the fascinating legend of Mingo Warrior, John Logan, but ultimately removed it from the map because it did not have the same cultural importance as the other principal villages here represented. I hope you enjoy the game and more importantly, I hope it whets your appetite to learn more about our early history regarding our relations with Native – Americans. Also, regardless of the side you play, I wish you good hunting. John Poniske © 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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Blood on the Ohio Appendix 7: Glossary

Active Player: The player that moves pieces and conducts combat during an Operations turn segment (6.0, 18.0).

combat strength. Each FP represents approximately 50 men (3.1).

Alliance: When a nonaligned nation joins the WC (1.1, 5.2.3, 19.0).

Forts: Stockade fortification able to protect bodies of troops from most attacks, also a supply warehouse (20.3).

Ambush: Combat attempt to disrupt enemy movement or combat (14.2, 15.1, 15.2, 17.0, 18.0).

Fort Miamis: British fort built in the Northwest territory on the Maumee River (20.7).

Army: A force in excess of 16 FP (6.6).

Friendly: Any unit used by your faction.

Artillery: Likely 4 or 6 pound smooth bore, muzzle loaded cannons (3.1.1, 3.3.7, 5.7.1, 6.2.4, 14.5, 14.8.1, 22.0).

Harass: A special action available to the WC used to delay or prevent the building of settlements or forts (5.5).

Battle Space: A space on the map board occupied by opposing forces which is the sight of a combat. Designated with the Battle Marker (14.0).

Healthy: Any piece that has not yet been flipped to its bottom side.

British Arms: Represents the arms provided by the British to the Nations during the conflict (3.1.1, 5.1.2, 11.1, 23.0). Broken Treaty: Former treaty nation that joins the WC after US actions within the treaty nation boundary break the treaty (5.2.2). Build: US Special Action allowing the player to build a settlement (5.3, 5.6). Cavalry: A body of mounted soldiers whose advantage was running down fleeing troops. Combat: Attempting to engage the enemy by moving into an enemy space (14.0). Damaged: Indicates a unit that has been hurt and flipped to its lowerstrength side.

Indians: Misnomer applied to Native-Americans. interchangeably today with Native or First Americans.

Used

Key Leaders: Historical personages who led US and WC forces during the war. These leaders possess tactical abilities (3.2.1, 3.3.1, 6.2.1). Militia: US civilian soldiers; volunteers who fought to protect their settlements from Indian raids. Often undisciplined and unreliable (3.11, 3.3, 3.3.5). Movement Point (MP): An increment of movement in the game (2.5.1, 2.5.2, 6.0). Nation: A distinct Native-American culture, differentiated by color and abbreviation, with distinct geographic boundaries (1.1).

Enemy: Any unit used by your opponent.

Nation Boundaries: A Nation’s influence extends as far as its colored spaces extend. Some national boundaries extend off of the map (2.0).

Entry Square: one of eight squares on the edges of the map allowing entry of either WC or US units (2.4.3).

Nation Check: Turn segment action that determines if a WC nation should be withdrawn from the game (8.0).

Event Die: The white die that determines the random event that may occur to influence or prevent a battle (3.1.3, 14.3).

Nation Space: Each nation’s color identifies the spaces on the map board it controls (2.0).

Expedition: One of three major US military operations during the war (1.2).

Nation Square: A square on the VP track with the nation’s color and abbreviation used to hold units not yet in play on the map board (2.4.2). Also signifies when a nation withdrawal occurs.

Expedition Check: Turn segment action that determines if the current US expedition should be withdrawn from the game or if the next US expedition should enter the game (7.0). Expedition Entry: VP square containing blue soldier icon indicating the entrance of an expedition into the game when the WC VP marker reaches or passes it during an expedition check (1.2, 2.4.1, 7.2). Expedition Withdrawal: VP square containing gray soldier icon indicating the withdrawal of an expedition from the game when the WC VP marker reaches or passes it during an expedition check (1.2, 2.4.1, 7.1). Faction Dice: The brown six sided die used by the US player and the green six-sided die used by the WC player (3.1.3). FA/WI: Fall / Winter game turn (4.1). Force: A single group of counters formed for movement and combat. Based on its makeup a force can be a Key Leader Force, Subordinate Leader Force, or Stray Force (6.1). Force Points (FPs): The black numbers on a counter representing

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Nation Withdrawal: Nation Square that indicates the withdrawal of a Nation from the game when the US VP marker reaches or passes it during a nation check (8.0). Negotiate: Special Action that allows the US player to attempt to forge a Treaty with a nonaligned nation and allows the Nations player to attempt to form an Alliance with a nonaligned nation (5.2). Nonaligned Nation: A nation that does not have a treaty with the US and is not a member of the WC (1.1). Neutral Space: Brown space signifying either land claimed by the US or the spaces between neighboring nations. Outliers: Settlers who built on the fringes of settlements receiving little protection from their neighbors. Overrun: The ability for a larger force to crush a smaller force and continue movement (6.7, 17.0). Principal Villages: Large villages. Although not exactly capitals, these were more or less National cultural centers (20.5).

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Washington’s Indian War 1789 - 1794 Raid: Special Action that allows the Nations player to conduct a raid against a settlement (5.6). Raid Cup: Container used to hold the chits used by the WC player for raids (5.1, 5.6.1, 12.0). Razed: A structure that has been destroyed is said to be razed. Villages are razed when they lose a step and are relocated and also when they lose a step after being relocated. Settlements and forts are razed only after losing their last step. Recruit: Special Action that allows the player to bring in additional counters through recruitment die rolls (5.1). Recruitment Cup: Container used to hold the units the US may attempt to recruit (3.1.2, 11.2, 14.8.1).

the map board (2.5.1). Treaty: US Special Action whereby the US player may convince a nation to withdraw from the fight (5.2.1). Treaty Nation: Any nation that has signed a treaty with the US (1.1, 5.2.1). Turn: There can be up to 10 turns in the game. Each turn consists of 10 turn segments (2.1, 4.1). Turn Segment: A turn is comprised of 10 turn segments. In each turn segment activities are carried out based on the content of the current turn segment square (2.2, 4.2). Unit: A military unit as opposed to a marker.

Reduced: A damaged settlement, village, fort, or non-leader unit.

US: The United States.

Regulars: Soldiers trained by, supplied by and in the service of the United States government (3.3, 3.3.4).

US Builds Box: Game board box containing the settlements and forts that may be built (2.7).

Reinforcement: Force Points within three MPs of a battle and which may become participants themselves. Triggered by an event on the event die (14.3).

US Operations: Turn Segment where the US Player conducts movement and battles (6.0).

Reinforcement Box: Area to the right of the VP track that holds Miami and Shawnee units not yet in the game. The Miami and Shawnee do not have nation squares because they never withdraw from the game based on US VP (2.4.2, 5.1.2). Repair Buildings: Special action that allows US player to flip a settlement or fort counter from its reduced side (5.4). River: A river is a large curving blue line containing river spaces (2.5.2). Scouts: Small bands of Choctaw or Chickasaw Indians who assisted US forces against enemy Nations. These warriors were familiar with the land, the language and the culture of their enemies but are not entirely loyal (21.0). Search: Special Action that allows the US player to attempt to find artillery that was previously lost in battle or to locate WC raiding parties (5.7).

Victory Points (VPs): Players perform actions that result in the awarding of Victory Points (24.0). The amount of VPs a player earns decides the winner based on the scenario being played (Appendix 2 and 3). Villages: Small Indian communities – usually 30-60 wigwams or long houses (20.5). Western Confederacy (WC): The nations allied against the United States are known as the Western Confederacy (1.1). WC Operations: Turn Segment where the WC player conducts movement and battles (6.0). Winter Quarters: WC and US forces retire to villages, settlements and forts during the winter months (11.0). Wounded: A leader unit that has been flipped tp its bottom side.

Settlement: A white community, often illegal and often raided by Nations upon whose land they settled. SP/SU: Spring/Summer turn (4.1). Special Actions: Activities performed by players during a special actions turn segment (2.3, 5.0). Special Action Points (SAPs): What a player spends to perform a Special Action (5.0). Stack: A single piece or group of pieces belonging to one player that is located in the same space. A stack is not a force; it is stationary (6.1). Strategic Movement: Special Action allowing WC player to move units during the Special Actions Turn Segment (5.8). Subordinate Leaders: Secondary historical leaders who led US and WC forces during the war (3.2.2, 3.3.2, 6.2.2). Tactical Points (TPs): The white number on a counter representing tactical ability which is used for various game functions (3.1, 14.9, 21.3). Trails: A path connecting two land spaces or a land and river space on © 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

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CREDITS Game Design John Poniske Special Thanks Linda Jensen, Curtis Milbourn, Matthew Morgal, Marc Rodrigue Components and Box Design Bill Morgal, Brien Miller Play Testers Wendell Albright, David Bluestein II, Michel Boucher, Rod Coffey, Rob Doane, Jeff Gringer, Jim Lawler, Curtis Milbourn, Dan Nichols, Jake Plume, Randy Plume, Terry Rooker, Mike Webb, Lucas Welty Produced by Ken Dingley and Bill Thomas for Compass Games, LLC Compass Games, LLC P.O. Box 271 Cromwell CT 06416 U.S.A. http://www.compassgames.com

BOO V1 Rulebook 10pt.indd 40

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Blood on the Ohio Rules Booklet  

Blood on the Ohio Rules Booklet. Copyright 2018 Compass Games, LLC.

Blood on the Ohio Rules Booklet  

Blood on the Ohio Rules Booklet. Copyright 2018 Compass Games, LLC.