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PLANNING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH SURVEY RESULTS

COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH

ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS ASSOCIATION OF PLANNERS ASSOCIATION OF SURVEYING AND LAND ECONOMY ENGINEERS COUNCIL


Publisher: Commonwealth Association of Architects Publication date: June 2020 ISBN: 978-1-5272-6714-5 Authors: Peter Oborn, Joseph Walters Website: www.comarchitect.org Please direct all enquiries to the author Survey conducted jointly by the Commonwealth Association of Architects, the Commonwealth Association of Planners, the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy and the Commonwealth Engineers Council Design by Allies and Morrison, Architects and Urban Planners, London, UK With grateful thanks for the financial support received from The Prince of Wales’s Charitable Fund and the Commonwealth Secretariat, and to all contributors and participating organisations.


PLANNING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH


FOREWORD BY HRH THE PRINCE OF WALES 1 INTRODUCTION

14

2 KEY FINDINGS

16

7

2.1 Critical lack of capacity among built environment professionals 

16

2.2 Critical lack of educational capacity

29

2.3 Weakness in built environment policy

34

2.4 Challenges facing the built environment

38

2.5 Impact of the findings on the ground

42

2.6 Significance of the findings

46

3 SURVEY RESULTS

50

4 THE ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/INSTITUTE

54

4.1 Details of the National Association/Chamber/Institute 

54

4.2 Organisation of the National Association/Chamber/Institute

56

4.3 Membership numbers and growth rates 

58

4.4 Membership numbers by category of membership

61

4.5 Membership fees by category of membership

64

4.6 Membership of international and regional associations

70

4.7 Use of student competitions

73

5 THE PROFESSION

76

5.1 Regulation of the profession 

76

5.2 Licensing requirements 

78

5.3 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising

80

5.4 Number of registered professionals and graduates in each country

82

5.5 Mutual recognition agreements

90

5.6 Legal forms of association permitted in each country

92

5.7 Average annual salaries

94

5.8 Professional indemnity insurance requirements

96

5.9 Building permit requirements

98

5.10 Use of mandatory fee scales

100

5.11 Types of fee agreement permitted

102

5.12 Employment by sector

104

5.13 Full-time v part-time employment

108

5.14 Gender balance

111

5.15 Overseas working

115


6 EDUCATION AND TRAINING

118

6.1 Training required to become a professional 

118

6.2 Number and types of education establishments 

120

6.3 Reciprocal education agreements

125

6.4 National validation authority

127

6.5 Continuing professional development (CPD) requirements

129

7 THE MARKET

132

7.1 Construction market size 

132

7.2 Change in the market for professional services 

132

7.3 Recent events affecting the local market for professional services

134

8 GOVERNMENT CONTEXT

136

8.1 Government engagement

136

8.2 Professional advice to government

138

8.3 Public sector procurement

141

8.4 Design competitions

142

8.5 Planning legislation

144

8.6 Building codes

145

8.7 Health and safety

148

8.8 Sustainable development goals

150

8.9 Renewable energy

151

8.10 Other government policies

152

8.11 COP21 climate change

154

8.12 New urban agenda

155

9 CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

156

9.1 Summary responses 

156

9.2 Associated comments 

157

10 APPENDIX

169

appendix i. Built environment professions in the Commonwealth

170

appendix ii. The Commonwealth in numbers

172

appendix iii. Projected urban population growth in the Commonwealth

175

appendix iv. Small island states, land and population below 5m

176

appendix v. Status of building energy codes in the Commonwealth, 2019

177

appendix vi. Sustainable development goals index 

178


[Type here]

Many of you reading this survey will not be surprised to know that the pace of urbanization in many countries far outstrips the capacity within the built environment professions to plan effectively and sustainably for that growth. Yet the pressing need for well-planned towns and cities could not be greater in the context of the two other most critical and inter-related issues of our time – climate change and accelerating loss of bio-diversity. Rapid urbanization is especially concerning for the Commonwealth, where nearly half of the projected growth in the world’s urban population over the next thirty years is expected to take place. A large proportion of this growth will be concentrated on secondary cities and towns, where the lack of resources to deal with the intense pressures they face is even more acute. In this context, the detail and analysis provided by this survey, the first of its kind in the Commonwealth, could not be more crucial and timely. The seriousness and scale of the issues revealed – a critical shortfall in professional capacity compared to demand, insufficient provision of relevant education and a weakness in built environment policy – will require urgent action. However, the strong collaboration involved in creating this survey – particularly in sharing information, experience and solutions between associations of architects, engineers, planners and surveyors across the diverse regions and contexts of the Commonwealth – lays a platform for positive action. Access to this data and analysis will help to pin-point where, and how, to prioritise responses to these immense challenges, in which built environment professionals across the Commonwealth will collectively play such a vital role. Therefore, I can only congratulate the four Commonwealth associations for the leadership they have shown in collaborating to survey these issues. I am proud and delighted that my own Foundation has been able to support, in some small way, a growing and connected partnership of Commonwealth organisations – which, importantly, also includes the Commonwealth Local Government Forum and the Association of Commonwealth Universities – to focus efforts on ensuring genuinely sustainable urbanization that will directly help communities across the Commonwealth. I need hardly say that I look forward with great anticipation to the ground-breaking actions that will flow from this collaboration.


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


List of Tables

Table 1

List of Commonwealth countries projected to more than double their urban population by 2050

15

Table 2

List of Commonwealth countries projected to add more than 1m urban residents per annum to 2050

15

Table 3

Numbers of Town Planners and Architects required to achieve OECD averages

16

Table 4

Commonwealth countries lacking one or more key built environment institute

18

Table 5

Number of Commonwealth Cities, grouped by population size

19

Table 6

Ratio of Architects per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth

21

Table 7

Ratio of Town Planners per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth

23

Table 8

Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rates of urban growth

24

Table 9

Ratio of Surveyors per thousand head of population v rate of urban growth

25

Table 10 Ratio of Architecture Schools /1m population

29

Table 11 Ratio of Town Planning Schools/1m population

30

Table 12 Ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population

31

Table 13 Ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population

31

Table 14 Survey Respondents

50

Table 15 Details of the National Architectural Association/Chamber/Institute

52

Table 16 Details of the National Town Planning Association/Chamber/Institute

53

Table 17 Details of the National Engineering Association/Chamber/Institute

53

Table 18 Details of the National Surveying Association/Chamber/Institute

53

Table 19 Organisation of the National Architectural Association/Chamber/Institute

54

Table 20 Organisation of the National Town Planning Association/Chamber/Institute

54

Table 21 Organisation of the National Engineering Association/Chamber/Institute

55

Table 22 Organisation of the National Surveying Association/Chamber/Institute

55

Table 23 Membership numbers and growth rates (Architects)

56

Table 24 Membership numbers and growth rates (Town Planners)

57

Table 25 Membership numbers and growth rates (Engineers)

57

Table 26 Membership numbers and growth rates (Surveyors)

58

Table 27 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Architects)

59

Table 28 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Town Planners)

60

Table 29 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Engineers)

60

Table 30 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Surveyors)

61

Table 31 Membership fees by category of membership (Architects)

62

Table 32 Membership fees by category of membership (Town Planners)

63

Table 33 Membership fees by category of membership (Engineers)

63

Table 34 Membership fees by category of membership (Surveyors)

64

Table 35 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP)59, (Architects)

66

Table 36 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Town Planners)

67

Table 37 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Engineers)

67

Table 38 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Surveyors)

67

Table 39 Membership of international and regional Architectural associations

68

Table 40 Membership of international and regional Town Planning associations

69

Table 41 Membership of international and regional Engineering associations

69

Table 42 Membership of international and regional Surveying associations

70

Table 43 Use of Student Competitions, (Architecture)

71


Table 44 Use of Student Competitions, (Town Planning)

72

Table 45 Use of Student Competitions, (Engineering)

73

Table 46 Use of Student Competitions, (Surveying)

73

Table 47 Regulation of the Architectural Profession

74

Table 48 Regulation of the Town Planning Profession

75

Table 49 Regulation of the Engineering Profession

75

Table 50 Regulation of the Surveying Profession

75

Table 51 Licensing requirements, (Architecture)61

76

Table 52 Licensing requirements, (Town Planning)

77

Table 53 Licensing requirements, (Engineering)

77

Table 54 Licensing requirements, (Surveying)

77

Table 55 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Architecture)

78

Table 56 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Town Planning)

79

Table 57 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Engineering)

79

Table 58 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Surveying)

79

Table 59 Number of registered professionals and graduates in each country, (Architecture)

80

Table 60 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Town Planning)

84

Table 61 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Engineering)

87

Table 62 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Surveying)

87

Table 63 Mutual recognition agreements, (Architecture)

88

Table 64 Mutual recognition agreements, (Town Planning)

89

Table 65 Mutual recognition agreements, (Engineering)

89

Table 66 Mutual recognition agreements, (Surveying)

89

Table 67 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Architecture)

90

Table 68 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Town Planning)

91

Table 69 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Engineering)

91

Table 70 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Surveying)

91

Table 71 Average annual salaries, grouped by country, (GBP, PPP), Architects

92

Table 72 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Architects

94

Table 73 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Town Planners

95

Table 74 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Engineers

95

Table 75 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Surveyors

95

Table 76 Building permit requirements (Combined response)

68

96

Table 77 Use of mandatory fee scales by Architects

98

Table 78 Use of mandatory fee scales by Town Planners

99

Table 79 Use of mandatory fee scales by Engineers

99

Table 80 Use of mandatory fee scales by Surveyors

99

Table 81 Types of fee agreement permitted for Architects

100

Table 82 Types of fee agreement permitted for Town Planners

101

Table 83 Types of fee agreement permitted for Engineers

101

Table 84 Types of fee agreement permitted for Surveyors

101

Table 85 Employment by sector, Architecture

102

Table 86 Employment by sector, Town Planning

104

69


Table 87 Employment by sector, Engineering

105

Table 88 Employment by sector, Surveying

105

Table 89 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Architects)

106

Table 90 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Town Planners)

107

Table 91 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Engineers)

108

Table 92 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Surveyors)

108

Table 93 Gender balance, (Architecture)

109

Table 94 Gender balance, (Town Planning)

111

Table 95 Gender balance, (Engineering)

112

Table 96 Gender balance, (Surveying)

112

Table 97 Overseas working, (Architecture)

113

Table 98 Overseas working, (Town Planning)

114

Table 99 Overseas working, (Engineering)

114

Table 100 Overseas working, (Surveying)

114

Table 101 Training required to become an Architect

116

Table 102 Training required to become a Town Planner

117

Table 103 Training required to become an Engineer

117

Table 104 Training required to become a Surveyor

117

Table 105 Number of Schools of Architecture

118

Table 106 Number of Town Planning Schools

120

Table 107 Number of Engineering Schools

122

Table 108 Number of Surveying Schools

122

Table 109 Reciprocal education agreements for Architects

123

Table 110 Reciprocal education agreements for Town Planners

124

Table 111 Reciprocal education agreements for Engineers

124

Table 112 Reciprocal education agreements for Surveyors

124

Table 113 National validation authority for Architecture

125

Table 114 National validation authority for Town Planning

126

Table 115 National validation authority for Engineering

126

Table 116 National validation authority for Surveying

126

Table 117 CPD requirements for Architects

127

Table 118 CPD requirements for Town Planners

128

Table 119 CPD requirements for Engineers

129

Table 120 CPD requirements for Surveyors

129

Table 121 Change in the market for professional services

130

Table 122 Recent events affecting the local market for professional services

132

Table 123 Government engagement with the Architectural profession

134

Table 124 Government engagement with the Town Planning profession

135

Table 125 Government engagement with the Engineering profession

135

Table 126 Government engagement with the Surveying profession

135

Table 127 Extent of engagement between Government and the Architectural profession

136

Table 128 Extent of engagement between Government and the Town Planning profession

137

Table 129 Extent of engagement between Government and the Engineering profession

138


Table 130 Extent of engagement between Government and the Surveying profession

138

Table 131 How are Government projects procured?

139

Table 132 Use of public sector design competitions, (Architects)

140

Table 133 Use of public sector design competitions, (Town Planners)

141

Table 134 Use of public sector design competitions, (Engineers)

141

Table 135 Use of public sector design competitions, (Surveyors)

141

Table 136 Is Planning Legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively?

142

Table 137 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Architects)

143

Table 138 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Town Planning)

144

Table 139 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Engineers)

145

Table 140 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Surveyors)

145

Table 141 Has your government developed and implemented effective health and safety standards?

146

Table 142 Has your government developed SDG targets together with an effective implementation plan?

148

Table 143 Has your government developed an effective renewable energy policy?

149

Table 144 What is the status of other relevant national policies?

150

Table 145 Has your government developed climate change targets together with an effective implementation plan?

152

Table 146 Has your government embraced the New Urban Agenda and developed an effective implementation plan? 153 Table 147 Challenges and opportunities

154

Table 148 What are the five most important challenges facing the built environment in your country today?

155

Table 149 What are the five most important challenges facing the profession in your country today?

156

Table 150 What are the five most important challenges facing the training of built environment professionals in your country today?

157


List of Figures

Figure 1 Projected increase in the worlds urban population 2020-2050, (numbers in ‘000)

8

Figure 2 Emissions and expected warming based on pledges and current policies 9 5

Figure 3 Projected floor area additions to 206011

13

Figure 4 Location of cities most at risk from climate change impacts11

13

Figure 5 Number of Commonwealth cities, grouped by population size

19

15

Figure 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand population v rates of urban growth

16

Figure 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand population v rate of urban growth

18

Figure 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rate of urban growth

20

Figure 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand population v rate of urban growth

21

Figure 10 Proportion of professional associations requiring mandatory continuing professional development

23

Figure 11 Ratio of Architects/1,000 population v ratio of Schools of Architecture/1m population

24

Figure 12 Ratio of Town Planners/1,000 population v ratio of Planning Schools/1m population

26

Figure 13 Ratio of Engineers/1,000 population v ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population

27

Figure 14 Ratio of Surveyors/1,000 population v ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population

27

Figure 15 Effectiveness of planning legislation and building code

28

Figure 16 National built environment strategies 29 Figure 17 National built environment policies

29

Figure 19 Map of building energy codes by jurisdiction, 2018-19

31

30

Figure 18 CO2 per capita v rates of urbanisation

30

Figure 20 Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (Architects)58

60

Figure 21 Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (Planners)

61

Figure 22 Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (All professions)

61

Figure 23 Registered Professionals per thousand head of population (Architects)64

77

Figure 25 Registered Professionals and Total members (Architects, <10,000 members)

78

Figure 24 Registered Professionals and Total members (Architects, >10,000 members)

78

Figure 26 Professional and Membership Growth (>10%)

79

Figure 27 Professional and Membership Growth (<10%)

79

Figure 28 Registered Professional per thousand head of population (Planners)

81

Figure 29 Registered Professionals and Total members (Planners, >3,000 members)

81

Figure 30 Registered Professionals and Total members (Planners, <3,000 members)

82

Figure 31 Average annual salaries, grouped by country, (GBP, PPP) Architects

89

Figure 32 Average annual salaries, grouped by employment type, (GBP, PPP), Architects

89

Figure 33 Employment by Sector, Architecture

99

Figure 34 Employment by Sector, Town Planning

100

Figure 35 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Architects)

103

Figure 36 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Town Planners)

104

Figure 37 Gender balance, (Architecture)

106

Figure 38 Gender balance, (Town Planning)

107

Figure 39 Total Number of Architecture Schools 115 Figure 40 Number of Architecture Schools per 1 Million Population

116

Figure 41 Total Number of Town Planning Schools 117 Figure 42 Number of Town Planning per 1 Million Population

117

Figure 43 Is Planning Policy and Building Code fit for purpose and implemented effectively?

141


1 1

INTRODUCTION

An analysis of the most recent projections by UN Habitat1 reveals that the number of urban dwellers in the Commonwealth is predicted to increase by over 1 billion people by 2050; that’s nearly 50% of the total projected increase in the World’s urban population in the next 30 years2, (Figure 1). Managing this growth sustainably is vital not only for the citizens of the Commonwealth but for the entire world. Figure 1 Projected increase in the worlds urban population 2020-2050, (numbers in ‘000) 2,500,000 Total Commonwealth Rest of the world

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0 2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

This year’s ‘Survey of the built environment professions in the Commonwealth’ is therefore significant as many Commonwealth countries are already experiencing the impact of climate change and rapid urbanisation, a situation now compounded by the impact of Covid-19, and 2020 marks the start of a Decade of Action3 to achieve the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In 2017, the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) and the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) undertook the first surveys of their respective professions to have been carried out in over 30 years. The findings of those surveys revealed a critical lack of capacity together with weakness in built environment policy in many of the Commonwealth countries that are urbanising most rapidly and are among the most vulnerable.

1

https://population.un.org/wup/

2

See Appendix I for details

3

https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/decade-of-action/

14

CAA and CAP are delighted to have been joined this year by colleagues from the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) together with the Commonwealth Engineers Council (CEC). We are also pleased to have increased the level of participation from member organisations.

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


The findings of this year’s survey reveal that the issues first identified in 2017 have become more challenging and are even more widespread. Moreover, while the capacity gap continues to grow, rates of urbanisation are on the rise and levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have reached record highs, (Figure 2), requiring increasingly more urgent action in order to avoid catastrophic climate change4. The need to develop an effective response to these inter-related challenges has become even more urgent and the built environment professions have therefore been advocating for a ‘Call to Action’ on sustainable urbanisation in the Commonwealth. In an effort to help tackle the underlying issues, CAA, CAP, CASLE and CEC are also collaborating with the Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) and the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) to develop a programme of engagement based on inter-disciplinary, cross sector collaboration, working together with city leaders, built environment professionals and academia.

Figure 2

200

150

100

Global greenhouse gas emissions GtCO2e / year

Emissions and expected warming based on pledges and current policies5 Dec 2019 update Warming projected by 2100

Baseline 4.1 - 4.8°C

Current policies 2.8 - 3.2°C

50

Optimistic policies 2.8°C Pledges & Targets 2.5 - 2.8°C 0 2°C consitent 1.6 - 1.7°C 1.5°C consitent 1.3 °C -50 1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100

The Commonwealth of nations provides the perfect platform from which to engage with these issues, providing advocacy, sharing knowledge and resources, building capacity and capability, and the built environment professions represented here are fully committed to this important work6.

4

https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/emissions-gapreport-2019

5

Source: Climate Action Tracker, https://climateactiontracker.org/

6

https://wuf.unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/WUF10_final_

Mr Kalim Siddiqui President Commonwealth Association of Architects Ms Dyan Currie AM President Commonwealth Association of Planners Mr Joseph Ajanlekoko President Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy Prof Paul Jowitt CBE President Commonwealth Engineers Council

declared_actions.pdf (see page 6)

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

15


2 2

KEY FINDINGS

2.1 CRITICAL LACK OF CAPACITY AMONG BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS

There is a continuing critical lack of capacity in many of the Commonwealth countries which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable. While it is acknowledged that there is no specific target regarding the number of built environment professionals required in each country and that numbers alone are only one measure of capacity, it will be seen from the results of this survey that there is an acute imbalance between the number of built environment professionals in each country when compared with the rate of urban growth; a situation which is further aggravated when the results are correlated with levels of prosperity and vulnerability7. By way of example, the average ratio of architects per thousand head of population in Commonwealth countries which are members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ie Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, is 0.455 whereas in Uganda it is 0.005. Similarly, in the case of town planners, the average ratio of planners per thousand head of population in OECD countries is 0.215 whereas in Tanzania it is also 0.005. These figures are particularly concerning when one considers that the rate of urban growth in OECD countries is, on average, 1.55% whereas in Tanzania it is currently 5.1% and in Uganda 6.2%. The survey results also need to be considered in relation to the cumulative impact of continuous high rates of urban growth, eg Ugandaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban population is projected to quadruple by 2050, adding an additional 35million urban dwellers while Tanzania is expect to add a further 54 million urban dwellers in the same period (Table 1 and Table 2)8. 7

See Appendix II for further detail

8

See Appendix III for further detail

16

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 1 List of Commonwealth countries projected to more than double their urban population by 2050 Country

Projected urban population (‘000) 2020

2050

Projected urban population growth 2020-2050 ‘000

as %

Uganda

11,775

46,664

34,889

396%

Malawi

3,535

13,360

9,825

378%

Tanzania

22,113

76,542

54,429

346%

Mozambique

11,978

37,473

25,494

313%

Zambia

8,336

25,577

17,240

307%

Kenya

14,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Papua New Guinea

1,168

3,326

2,157

285%

Rwanda

2,281

6,483

4,202

284%

Nigeria

107,113

287,130

180,018

268%

Gambia

1,435

3,523

2,088

245%

14,942

36,415

21,474

244%

160

385

226

241%

Sierra Leone

3,454

7,725

4,271

224%

Namibia

1,403

3,116

1,713

222%

Lesotho

674

1,485

811

220%

Vanuatu

75

163

88

217%

Cameroon Solomon Islands

Ghana

17,626

37,518

19,893

213%

Pakistan

77,438

160,228

82,790

207%

Eswatini

348

703

355

202%

Table 2 List of Commonwealth countries projected to add more than 1m urban residents per annum to 2050 Country

Projected urban population (‘000) 2020

2050

Projected urban population growth 2020-2050 ‘000

as %

India

483,099

876,613

393,514

181%

Nigeria

107,113

287,130

180,018

268%

Pakistan

77,438

160,228

82,790

207%

Tanzania

22,113

76,542

54,429

346%

Bangladesh

64,815

117,837

53,022

182%

Uganda

11,775

46,664

34,889

396%

Kenya

14,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Mozambique

11,978

37,473

25,494

313%

Cameroon

14,942

36,415

21,474

244%

Ghana

17,626

37,518

19,893

213%

South Africa

39,551

58,057

18,506

147%

8,336

25,577

17,240

307%

United Kingdom

56,495

68,008

11,512

120%

Malaysia

25,362

36,440

11,078

144%

Zambia

Similar challenges exist in the three Commonwealth countries which are projected to experience the largest increase in their urban populations by 2050, namely India, Nigeria and Pakistan. Table 3 provides an illustration of the shortfall in architects and planners when compared with OECD averages.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

17


Table 3 Numbers of Town Planners and Architects required to achieve OECD averages Country

Total Population 2018

Profession

India

1,352,617,330

Town Planners

5,0009

0.004

285,813

Architects

87,674

0.065

527,767

Town Planners

1,608

0.008

40,505

Architects

7,468

0.038

81,655

Town Planners

1,388

0.007

44,238

Architects

6,028

0.028

90,530

Nigeria Pakistan

195,874,740 212,215,030

Number of professionals

Ratio of professionals per 1,000 population

Indicative shortfall compared with OECD averages

While it is clearly both impractical and unrealistic to suggest that such ratios should or could be achieved, these figures clearly indicate a critical lack of capacity in many of the Commonwealth countries which are rapidly urbanising. Unless this issue can be effectively addressed then it is likely we will continue to experience an increasing number of unplanned or poorly planned settlements with correspondingly serious consequences in terms of social, economic and environmental well-being. Indeed, this is already being reflected in the results of the annual survey undertaken by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network10, and a comparison between their findings in 2017 and 2019 reveals that progress towards achievement of SDG11 is: · unchanged in 23 countries · improving in only 2 countries · worsening in 10 countries Furthermore, a comparison with the 2017 survey reveals that rates of urban growth are generally increasing while the number of built environment professionals are relatively static; eg the number of architects in Uganda has increased from 178 to 221 whereas the rate of urban growth has leapt from 5.3% to 6.2% per annum. These figures become even more significant when considered in the context of projected floor area additions and climate change vulnerability, as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. In addition to their exposure to extreme weather events such as hurricanes, many small island states are also particularly vulnerable to sea level rises. In some cases, 100% of the population is located on land below 5m elevation (see Appendix V).

9

Based on anecdotal evidence: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ home/education/news/india-needs-3-lakh-town-planners-by-2031know-how-you-can-be-one/articleshow/67431428.cms

10 For further information, see Appendix IV 11 Source: IEZ (2017), Energy Technology Perspectives 2017, IEZ/OECD,

Paris, www.iea.org/etp. 12 Source: Verisk Maplecroft, https://www.maplecroft.com/insights/

analysis/84-of-worlds-fastest-growing-cities-face-extreme-climatechange-risks/

18

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 3 Projected floor area additions to 206011 Africa China India North America Europe ASEAN Latin America Other Asia

Current floor area Floor area additions

Middle East

2017-2030

OECO Pacific

2030-2040

Russia & Caspian region

2040-2050

billion m2

2050-2060

90

60

30

0

30

60

90

Notes: OECD Pacific includes Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Korea; ASEAN= Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Figure 4 Location of cities most at risk from climate change impacts11

2.5

0

Low risk Medium risk

1 million 10 million

High risk

5

Size of population

Extreme risk

7.5

Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2018-Q4

10

Average annual % change in population, 2018-2035 0

-1 Europe

1

2

Americas

3 Asia

4 Africa

5

6 Oceania

Among the Commonwealth cities most at risk of climate change impacts are Kampala in Uganda, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania, Abuja and Lagos in Nigeria12.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

19


It should be noted that the survey only accounts for respondent countries in which professional institutes exist and that no architectural institute could be found in 9 Commonwealth countries, no town planning association could be found in 22 Commonwealth countries, no civil engineering association could be found in 7 Commonwealth countries and no quantity surveying association could be found in 25 Commonwealth countries. No built environment associations of any kind could be found in 5 Commonwealth countries; Kiribati, Nauru, Seychelles, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu; all of which are small island states and many of which are among the most vulnerable to climate change impacts.Â

Table 4 Commonwealth countries lacking one or more key built environment institute

Income Country (LMIC) 16 CRI: Climate Resilience Index; a measure of vulnerability to

climate change impacts 17 Anecdotal evidence suggests there is no recognised planning

profession in Sierra Leone, but that there are 19 Development Planning Officers (eg: Haja) in each of the councils. Haja is

Projected urban population growth 20202050

Surveying Institute?

15 ODA Status: Least Developed Country (LDC), Lower Middle-

ODA CRI16 status15

Planning Institute?

14 https://data.worldbank.org/region/small/states

Small states14

Engineering Institute?

13 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/sids/list

SIDS13

Architectural institute?

Country

Seychelles

Y

Y

-

116

12

122%

N

N

N

N

Kiribati

Y

Y

LDC

116

168

132%

N

N

N

N

Nauru

Y

Y

UMIC

-

58

185%

N

N

N

N

Solomon Islands

Y

Y

LDC

75

226

241%

N

N

N

N

Tuvalu

Y

Y

LDC

116

4

154%

N

N

N

N

Gambia, The

-

Y

LDC

101

2,088

245%

Y

N

N

N

Mozambique

-

-

LDC

37

25,494

313%

N

Y

N

N

St Vincent & Gren.

Y

Y

UMIC

116

14

142%

Y

N

N

N

Samoa

Y

Y

UMIC

116

7

146%

N

Y

N

N

Tonga

Y

Y

UMIC

116

16

162%

N

Y

N

N

Vanuatu

Y

Y

LDC

90

88

217%

N

Y

N

N

Cameroon

-

-

LMIC

97

21,474

244%

Y

Y

N

N

Eswatini

-

Y

LMIC

116

355

202%

Y

Y

N

N

Lesotho

-

Y

LDC

116

811

220%

Y

Y

N

N

Antigua & Barbuda

Y

Y

UMIC

20

2,629

167%

Y

Y

N

N

Grenada

Y

Y

IUMIC

116

8

115%

Y

Y

N

N

Guyana

Y

Y

UMIC

116

12

130%

Y

Y

N

N

Saint Kitts & Nevis

Y

Y

-

64

264

116%

Y

Y

N

N

Bahamas

Y

Y

-

-

81

124%

Y

Y

N

Y

Papua New Guinea

Y

-

LMIC

78

2,157

285%

Y

Y

N

Y

Sierra Leone17

-

-

LDC

15

4,271

224%

Y

Y

N17

Y

Bangladesh

-

-

LDC

16

53,022

1825

Y

Y

Y

N

Belize

Y

Y

UMIC

116

155

185%

Y

Y

Y

N

Brunei Darussalam

-

Y

-

116

112

132%

Y

Y

Y

N

Cyprus

-

Y

-

84

223

128%

Y

Y

Y

N

Dominica

Y

Y

UMIC

9

8

115%

Y

Y

Y

N

Mauritius

Y

Y

UMIC

116

85

116%

Y

Y

Y

N

Namibia

-

Y

UMIC

116

1,713

222%

Y

Y

Y

N

'000

as %

not a Town Planner per se and has no planning qualification, but their role does include spatial planning

20

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Another aspect of the findings which needs to be considered in relation to professional capacity, is the fact that most built environment professionals tend to be located in capital cities and in the main metropolitan areas18 whereas urban growth is being experienced by cities of all sizes, including secondary cities, which constitute the majority (Table 5 and Figure 5), and where most of the Commonwealthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban population actually live.

Table 5 Number of Commonwealth Cities, grouped by population size Category

No. of cities per Category

Sum of Population 2010

as %

Cumulative %

Over 4m

16

146,027,069

22%

100%

Between 1m and 4m

76

139,692,792

21%

78%

Between 500k to 1m

93

64,658,956

10%

57%

Between 200k and 500k

280

83,865,680

13%

47%

Between 100k and 200k

525

73,393,194

11%

34%

Between 50k and 100k

996

69,045,549

11%

23%

Between 20k and 50k

2,585

80,145,216

12%

12%

Grand Total

4,571

656,828,457

100%

Figure 5 Number of Commonwealth cities, grouped by population size19 Grater than 4 million

16 76

Between 1- 4 million Between 500k-1million

92 281

Between 200k-500k

525

Between 100k-200k

996

Between 50k-100k Between 20k-50k

2,585

The following figures (Figures 6-9) and tables (Tables 6-9) illustrate the capacity gap which exists for each of the principal built environment disciplines.

18 According to the Uganda Society of Architects, nearly all of its 221

members are located in Kampala. 19 Source: Nicolas Galarza, Visiting Scholar, NYU Marron Institute of

Urban Management, with Ana Camelo and Maria Bernal.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

21


Figure 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand population v rates of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0

0.1

United Kingdom

0.2

0.6

0.7 0.619

0.543 0.500

0.8%

New Zealand

0.392

2.0%

Canada

0.274

1.5% 0.5%

0.228 0.218

0.4%

Mauritius

0.167

Botswana

0.110

3.3%

Dominica

0.7%

Malaysia

0.073

2.1%

South Africa

0.072

2.1%

Trinidad & Tobago

0.5

1.7%

Hong Kong

Antigua & Barbuda

0.4

1.0%

Australia

Singapore

0.3

0.084

0.069

0.4%

Sri Lanka

0.065

India

0.065

2.3%

Nigeria

0.038

Pakistan

0.033

Fiji

0.033

Bangladesh

0.021

Belize

0.016

Zambia

0.015

Rwanda

0.014

Kenya

0.012

Ghana

0.011

Uganda

0.005

Gambia, The

0.005

4.2% 2.7% 1.6% 3.2% 2.2% 4.2% 3.1% 4.1% 3.4% 6.2% 4.0%

Urban growth 0.0%

22

1.0%

2.0%

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Registered Professionals 2018

Architects per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

412,981,910

13,708

0.033

3.5%

Botswana

2,254,130

249

0.110

3.3%

Gambia, The

2,280,100

11

0.005

4.0%

Ghana

29,767,110

333

0.011

3.4%

Kenya

51,393,010

618

0.012

4.1%

1,256,300

210

0.167

-0.1%

Nigeria

195,874,740

7,468

0.038

4.2%

Rwanda

12,301,940

178

0.014

3.1%

South Africa

57,779,620

4,153

0.072

2.1%

Uganda

42,723,140

221

0.005

6.2%

Zambia

17,351,820

267

0.015

4.2%

1,785,025,660

102,039

0.058

2.1%

161,356,040

3,350

0.021

3.2%

1,352,617,330

87,674

0.065

2.3%

Malaysia

31,528,580

2,291

0.073

2.1%

Pakistan

212,215,030

6,028

0.033

2.7%

Singapore

5,638,680

1,284

0.228

0.5%

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

1,412

0.065

1.5%

38,999,710

10,265

0.263

1.0%

96,290

21

0.218

0.4%

383,070

6

0.016

2.2%

37,058,860

10,136

0.274

1.5%

71,630

6

0.084

0.7%

1,389,860

96

0.069

0.4%

68,161,790

44,585

0.654

1.7%

1,189,270

2,389

2.009

0.8%

483,530

1,026

2.122

3.3%

United Kingdom

66,488,990

41,170

0.619

1.0%

Other

7,451,000

3,723

0.500

0.8%

7,451,000

3,723

0.500

0.8%

30,761,350

15,510

0.504

1.8%

24,992,370

13,567

0.543

1.7%

883,480

29

0.033

1.6%

4,885,500

1,914

0.392

2.0%

Mauritius

Asia Bangladesh India

Caribbean and Americas Antigua and Barbuda Belize Canada Dominica Trinidad & Tobago Europe Cyprus

20

Malta

Hong Kong

21

Pacific Australia22 Fiji New Zealand

20 Cyprus (ratio: 2.01) and Malta (ratio: 2.12) have been omitted

from the chart for clarity as their members are also defined as engineers, which prevents a like-for-like comparison 21 While Hong Kong SAR is no longer a member of the

Commonwealth, the HKIA remains a member of the CAA 22 Australia only provided numbers of registered professional

numbers for 2017

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

23


Figure 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0

0.1

United Kingdom

0.2

New Zealand

2.0%

Australia

1.7%

Canada

1.5%

Trinidad & Tobago

0.4%

Fiji

0.028

Ghana

0.022

24

0.7

0.183 0.167 3.3%

0.034 0.033 1.6% 3.4%

Mauritius

0.018

Malaysia

0.017

2.1%

South Africa

0.011

2.1%

Nigeria

0.008

Pakistan

0.006

Tanzania

0.006

Barbados

0.000

Sri Lanka

0.000

0.0%

0.6

0.184

0.084 0.5%

0.5

3.3%

0.186

Botswana

0.4 0.330

1.0%

Malta

Singapore

0.3

4.2% 2.7% 5.1%

1.5%

1.0%

Urban growth 2.0%

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth Country

Africa23

Total Population 2018

Registered Professionals 2018

Town Planners per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

343,250,250

3,411

0.010

3.0%

2,254,130

190

0.084

3.3%

29,767,110

644

0.022

3.4%

1,256,300

22

0.018

-0.1%

195,874,740

1,608

0.008

4.2%

South Africa

57,779,620

630

0.011

2.1%

Tanzania

56,318,350

317

0.006

5.1%

Botswana Ghana

24

Mauritius Nigeria

Asia

249,382,290

2,005

0.013

1.4%

Malaysia

31,528,580

549

0.017

2.1%

25

Pakistan

212,215,030

1,266

0.006

2.7%

Singapore

5,638,680

190

0.034

0.5%

Sri Lanka

38,448,720

0

0.000

1.5%

286,640

6,246

0.161

0.7%

37,058,860

6,200

0.167

1.5%

1,389,860

46

0.033

0.4%

Europe

66,972,520

22,009

0.327

2.2%

Malta26

483,530

90

0.186

3.3%

66,488,990

21,919

0.330

1.0%

Pacific

30,761,350

5,501

0.179

1.8%

Australia

24,992,370

4,579

0.183

1.7%

883,480

25

0.028

1.6%

4,885,500

897

0.184

2.0%

Caribbean & Am. Canada Trinidad & Tobago

United Kingdom

Fiji New Zealand

23 Although not a survey respondent, the Uganda

Institute of Physical Planners (UIPP) appeares to comprise 30 corporate, 67 graduate, 1 associate and 1 student member in 2017. Source: https://www. zaddockassociates.com/digitalpublications/UPG/ august-2017/mobile/index.html#p=83 24 Ghana, Mauritius, UK, Australia and Fiji did not provide

the number of registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute. 25 Number of registered professionals provided by the

Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP), February 2020. 26 Town Planning is not a legally recognised profession

in Malta, but it is understood that there are 90 Professionally qualified town planners in the country. Malta did not provide the number of registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Workshop in Bo credit: The Princeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Foundation

25


Figure 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0 Mauritius

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.1% 4.2% 0.8%

United Kingdom

1.0%

0.76 0.73 0.63

Botswana

3.3%

Belize

2.2%

Ghana

0.22

Mozambique

0.08

Malaysia

0.06

Malta

0.06

Uganda

0.05

1.1 1.00

Zambia Grenada

1

0.53

0.27 3.4% 4.4%

2.1% 3.3% 6.2%

0.0% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0%

4.0% 5.0%

6.0% 7.0%

Urban growth 8.0% 9.0% 10.0% 11.0%

Table 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rates of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Registered Professionals 2018

Engineers per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

122,849,460

24,480

0.217

3.6%

2,254,130

1,200

0.532

3.3%

29,767,110

6,502

0.218

3.4%

1,256,300

1,258

1.001

-0.1%

Mozambique

29,496,960

2,320

0.079

4.4%

Uganda27

42,723,140

2,176

0.051

6.2%

Zambia

17,351,820

13,200

0.761

4.2%

31,528,580

2,019

0.064

2.1%

Botswana Ghana Mauritius

Asia Malaysia

31,528,580

2,019

0.064

2.1%

Caribbean & Am.

494,520

186

0.376

1.5%

Belize

383,070

105

0.274

2.2%

Grenada

111,450

81

0.727

0.8%

Europe

66,972,520

42,141

0.630

2.2%

483,530

30

0.062

3.3%

66,488,990

42,141

0.634

1.0%

Malta

27

United Kingdom 27 Uganda and Malta did not provide the number of

registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute.

26

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

Malaysia

0.20

0.25

0.4%

Nigeria

0.02

Rwanda

0.01

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.25

2.1%

Trinidad and Tobago

0.30

0.07 4.2% 3.1%

Urban growth 0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

2.5%

3.0%

3.5%

4.0%

4.5%

Table 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand head of population v rate of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Registered Professionals 2018

Engineers per thousand population

Africa

208,176,680

4,268

Nigeria

195,874,740

Rwanda

12,301,940

Urban Growth (%)

0.016

4.1%

4,126

0.021

4.2%

142

0.012

3.1%

31,528,580

8,000

0.254

2.1%

Malaysia

31,528,580

8,000

0.254

2.1%

Caribbean and Americas

1,389,860

101

0.073

0.4%

1,389,860

101

0.073

0.4%

Asia

Trinidad and Tobago

Site visit for workshop in Bo credit: The Princeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Foundation

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

27


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


2.2 CRITICAL LACK OF EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY

There is a lack of educational and institutional capacity to grow the professions fast enough in many Commonwealth countries. The findings of the 2017 survey revealed that, while lack of capacity among built environment professionals is a serious issue in a number of Commonwealth countries, the rate at which the profession is growing in these countries is also insufficient to achieve the sort of ratios found in OECD countries owing to the relatively small number of undergraduate places available for built environment professionals. The findings of the 2019 survey reveal that lack of educational capacity remains a concern and that this is affecting each of the principal built environment professions to a greater or lesser extent. By way of example, the ratio of schools of architecture per million head of population in Commonwealth countries which are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), ie Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, is 0.587, whereas in Nigeria it is 0.362. Lack of planning schools is an even greater concern. In OECD countries, the ratio of planning schools per million head of population is 0.729 whereas in Nigeria it is only 0.179, a fourfold difference. These figures are particularly concerning when one considers that Nigeria is forecast to add a further 180million urban dwellers in the next 30 years. Figure 10 Proportion of professional associations requiring mandatory continuing professional development Architects, Mandatory CPD?

37%

While the training of undergraduates is a concern, so too is the need to ensure existing members of the profession are equipped with appropriate up-to-date knowledge to deal with the range of challenges being faced in a rapidly changing world. Figure 10 illustrates the fact that the provision of mandatory continuing professional development remains a challenge for many respondents owing to lack of resources and/or institutional capacity.

63%

The following figures (Figures 11-14) and tables (Tables 10-13) illustrate the capacity gap which exists for each of the principle built environment disciplines.

Planners, Mandatory CPD?

44%

Respondents were also invited to comment on some of the key challenges facing the education of built environment professions. These are covered in Chapter 2.4 and include poorly skilled and unqualified teaching staff together with outdated curriculum, ie it is not simply the number of graduates which is an issue but also the quality of the education they are receiving. Indeed, the need for curriculum review to better reflect the challenges of climate change and sustainable urbanisation is widely recognised in many parts of the Commonwealth28.

28 See p13, Chapter 5.0 Knowledge and competence’, ‘RIBA Ethics and

56%

Sustainable Development Commission’: https://www.architecture.

Yes No

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

com/‐/media/GatherContent/Work‐with‐Us/Additional‐Documents/ Ethics‐and‐Sustainable‐ Development‐Commission‐‐Full‐ findingspdf.pdf

29


Figure 11 Ratio of Architects/1,000 population v ratio of Schools of Architecture/1m population United Kingdom Australia

0.543

Hong Kong

0.72

0.500

New Zealand

0.81

0.392

Canada

0.274

Singapore

0.61

0.32

0.228

Antigua & Barbuda

0.35

0.218

Mauritius

0.167

Botswana

0.80

0.110

Malaysia

0.44

0.106

South Africa

0.072

Trinidad & Tobago

0.069

0.76 0.17

0.065

Sri Lanka

0.09

0.065

India Nigeria

0.038

Pakistan

0.033

0.33 0.36 0.16

0.033

Fiji

0.021

Bangladesh

0.15

0.015

Zambia Rwanda

0.014

Kenya

0.012

Ghana

0.011

Uganda

0.005

0

30

0.69

0.619

0.08 0.14 0.37

Schools per million population Professionals per thousand population

0.09

0.1

0.2

0.3

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 10 Ratio of Architecture Schools /1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Total schools of Architecture

Schools per million population

413,150,070

108

0.26

2,254,130

1

0.44

Ghana

29,767,110

11

0.37

Kenya

51,393,010

7

0.14

Mauritius

1,256,300

1

0.80

Namibia

2,448,260

1

0.41

Nigeria

195,874,740

71

0.36

Rwanda

12,301,940

1

0.08

South Africa

57,779,620

10

0.17

Uganda

42,723,140

4

0.09

Zambia

17,351,820

1

0.06

1,785,025,660

510

0.29

161,356,040

25

0.15

1,352,617,330

448

0.33

Malaysia

31,528,580

24

0.76

Pakistan

212,215,030

33

0.16

Singapore

5,638,680

2

0.35

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

2

0.09

38,616,640

13

0.33

96,290

0

0.00

37,058,860

12

0.32

71,630

1

13.96

1,389,860

0

0.00

68,161,790

51

0.75

1,189,270

4

3.36

483,530

1

2.07

United Kingdom

66,488,990

46

0.69

Other

7,451,000

6

0.81

7,451,000

6

0.81

Pacific

30,761,350

21

0.68

Australia

24,992,370

18

0.72

883,480

0

0.00

4,885,500

3

0.61

Botswana

Asia Bangladesh India

Caribbean and Americas Antigua and Barbuda Canada Dominica

29

Trinidad and Tobago Europe Cyprus Malta

Hong Kong SAR

Fiji New Zealand

29 Dominica, Cyprus and Malta have a relatively high number of

schools/1m population and have not been shown

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

31


Figure 12 Ratio of Town Planners/1,000 population v ratio of Planning Schools/1m population United Kingdom

0.330

New Zealand

0.184

Australia

0.183

Canada Botswana

0.42 1.02 0.96 0.51

0.167 0.44

0.084

Trinidad and Tobago

0.033

Ghana

0.022

Mauritius

0.018

Malaysia

0.017

South Africa

0.011

Nigeria

0.008

0.72 0.10 0.80 0.16 0.19 0.18

Pakistan

0.006

0.02

Tanzania

0.006

0.02

Barbados

0.000

Sri Lanka

0.000

Schools per million population 0.05

0

Professionals per thousand population

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Table 11 Ratio of Town Planning Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Africa Botswana Ghana Mauritius

0.15

2,254,130

1

0.44

29,767,110

3

0.10

1

0.80

35

0.18

South Africa

57,779,620

11

0.19

Tanzania

56,318,350

1

0.02

265,413,610

11

0.04

Malaysia

31,528,580

5

0.16

Pakistan

212,215,030

5

0.02

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

1

0.05

38,735,360

20

0.52

Caribbean & Am. Barbados

286,640

0

0.00

37,058,860

19

0.51

1,389,860

1

0.72

68,161,790

29

0.43

483,530

1

2.07

66,488,990

28

0.42

Pacific

29,877,870

29

0.94

Australia

24,992,370

24

0.96

4,885,500

5

1.02

Canada Trinidad and Tobago Europe Malta

30

United Kingdom

New Zealand

32

52

1,256,300

Asia

omitted from the chart for clarity

343,250,250

195,874,740

Nigeria

30 Malta has a high number of schools/ 1m population and has been

Total schools of Planning Schools per million population

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 13 Ratio of Engineers/1,000 population v ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population Grenada

0.73

0.00

United Kingdom Belize

0.63 0.00

0.27 0.22

Ghana Mozambique Uganda

0.90

0.67 0.64

0.08 0.05

Schools per million population

0.23

Professionals per thousand population

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Table 12 Ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Total schools of Engineering

Schools per million population

Africa

119,339,030

79

0.64

Ghana

29,767,110

20

0.67

Mozambique

29,496,960

19

0.64

Uganda

42,723,140

10

0.23

Zambia

17,351,820

30

1.73

Caribbean and Americas

494,520

0

0.00

Belize

383,070

0

0.00

Grenada

111,450

0

0.00

Europe

66,488,990

60

0.90

66,488,990

60

0.90

United Kingdom

Figure 14 Ratio of Surveyors/1,000 population v ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population Malaysia

0.25

Trinidad & Tobago

0.35

0.25

0.07

Nigeria

0.72

0.02

Rwanda

0.33

0.01

0

Schools per million population

0.08

0.1

Professionals per thousand population

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Table 13 Ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Total schools of Surveying

Schools per million population

Africa

208, 176,680

65

0.25

Nigeria

195,874,740

64

0.33

Rwanda

12,301,940

1

0.08

Asia

31,528,580

11

0.35

Malaysia

31,528,580

11

0.35

C. & Americas

1,389,860

1

0.72

1,389,860

1

0.72

Trinidad & Tobago

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

33


2.3 WEAKNESS IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT POLICY

There is an increasing recognition of weakness in built environment policy in many Commonwealth countries in terms of standards, implementation and enforcement. Survey respondents were invited to confirm the existence of national strategies and policies in a wide range of areas. Figures 16 and 17 illustrate the range of responses received from which it will be seen that there is considerable scope for strengthening built environment policy in a number of Commonwealth countries. Survey respondents were also invited to comment on whether their national planning legislation and building code was fit-for-purpose and whether it was being implemented effectively. While responses varied considerably from one profession to another, the combined responses (Figure 15) reveal that circa 30% of respondents consider their national planning policy is not fit for purpose while nearly 60% do not believe it is being implemented effectively. Survey respondents were even more critical of building code, with nearly 50% expressing the view that it is not fit for purpose (25% in 2017) and almost 75% that it is not being implemented effectively (60% in 2017). A comparison with the 2017 results suggests that this policy weakness is being experienced and recognised more widely. Figure 15 Effectiveness of planning legislation and building code Planning Legislation

Implemented effectively

42%

Fit for purpose

71%

34

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Building Codes

Implemented effectively

27%

Fit for purpose

54%

Yes No

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 16 National built environment strategies Has your government developed effective...? Renewable energy policy

NO

YES

Disaster management plans City resilience strategies Smart Cities strategy National BIM strategy National housing strategy National construction strategy Sustainable design & construction standards Anti-bribery and corruption legislation Inclusive design standards 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Figure 17 National built environment policies Has your government developed effective...? Effective NUA implementation plan

NO

YES

N/A

NUA embraced by government Effective COP21 implementation plan COP21 targets Effective SDG implementation plan SDG targets developed Health & safety standards adequately regulated Effective health and safety standards 0%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

35


The weakness of planning legislation and building code is particularly concerning in the context of climate change and resilience especially when considered in terms of risk and vulnerability (Figure 4), and the lack of mandatory energy codes in many parts of the Commonwealth (Figure 18). Data from the International Energy Agency reveals the fact that 69% of Commonwealth countries have no mandatory energy codes for non-residential buildings while 81% have no such codes for residential buildings (see Appendix VI). Figure 18 Map of building energy codes by jurisdiction, 2018-1931

Mandatory for entire sector Mandatory for part of sector Mandatory for part of sector in major city Voluntary for part of sector Code in development No known code

The latter is particularly concerning when one considers the urgent need for industrialised countries to dramatically reduce their carbon emissions and for those countries which are rapidly urbanising to do so in a sustainable manner. Figure 19 illustrates the scale of the challenge being faced, with countries such as Australia (86% urbanised) currently producing 15.4 tonnes of CO2 per capita per annum and urbanising at 1.7% per annum compared with Uganda (24% urbanised) currently producing 0.1 tonnes of CO2 per capita per annum and urbanising at 6.2% per annum. The scale of the challenge becomes even more apparent when one considers that the 20 countries responsible for producing circa half of the Commonwealths total CO2 emissions comprise approximately 250 million people while the remaining 50% of the Commonwealth, which is rapidly urbanising, comprises 2.3 billion people. It is for this reason that the Commonweath Association of Architects has recently become a member of the Global Alliance for Building and Construction32, to help advocate for more appropriate regulation combined with effective implementation and enforcement.

31 Image taken from IEA (2019c), Energy efficiency policies: Buildings,

Figure 19

www.iea.org/topics/energyefficiency/policies/buildings. 32 https://globalabc.org/

36

CO2 per capita v rates of urbanisation

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

Australia Canada Singapore South Africa Malaysia New Zealand Bahamas United Kingdom Hong Kong Antigua & Barbados Malta

250m people 2.3bn tonnes CO2

Seychelles Cyprus St Kitts and Nevis Barbados Botswana Jamaica Guyana St Lucia Grenada St Vincent Dominica Namibia India Belize Fiji Lesotho Tonga Eswatini Tuvalu Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Papua New Guinea Vanuatu Kiribati

2.27bn people 2.7bn tonnes CO2

Nigeria Ghana Bangladesh Solomon Island Mozambique Zambia Kenya Gambia Cameroon Tanzania Sierra Leone Uganda Malawi

Co2 per capita (metric tonnes)

Rwanda

Urban growth (%)

0.0%

1.0%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

2.0%

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

37


2.4 CHALLENGES FACING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Respondents from all four disciplines were invited to offer their opinion on the biggest challenges facing the Built Environment, the Profession and Education. The following comprises a summary of the main issues of common concern. The overall findings of this year’s survey confirm that the issues previously identified in 2017 are even more pervasive than first imagined, affect more countries and are being experienced to a greater or lesser extent by each of the principle built-environment professions; architecture, town planning, engineering and surveying.

Biggest challenges facing the Built Environment: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

38

Climate change Resilience to disaster and the need for adaptation Rapid urbanisation Urban sprawl Affordable housing Traffic congestion Lack of public transport Outdated planning policy and building code Lack of enforcement of existing regulations Lack of local building materials Skills shortage Economic uncertainty Corruption and uncontrolled development

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Biggest challenges facing the Profession: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Failure to develop and implement local plans Failure to enforce regulations Procurement methods and forms of contract Increasing use of Design & Build, loss of control Impact of foreign consultants and contractors Competition from unqualified persons Digitisation and advances in technology Declining fees v increasing risk and liability Need for continuing professional development Lack of resources to develop knowledge and skills Lack of government support and patronage Economic uncertainty Lack of respect for the professions

Biggest challenges facing the Education of Built Environment Professionals: • • • • • • • • • • •

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Insufficient universities, places of learning Poorly skilled and unqualified teaching staff Outdated curriculum Need to align education with the Sustainable Development Goals and industry needs Inadequate teaching material and lack of facilities, especially digital tools Low standards compared with best practice Lack of practical training opportunities for students Low levels of funding combined with high fees/low pay Failure to attract the best students Lack of access to research facilities Lack of diversity in terms of gender and ethnicity

39


CLIMATE CHANGE, RAPID URBANISATION AND THE COMMONWEALTH Half of the top 20 global emerging cities are in the Commonwealth: New Delhi, Mumbai, Nairobi, Kuala Lumpur, Bangalore, Johannesburg, Kolkata, Cape Town, Chennai and Dhaka. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit33, the Commonwealth includes 6 of the 10 Most Liveable Cities in the World and 5 of the 10 Least Liveable Cities in the World.

83% URBAN The United Kingdom has a population of 66 million is 83% urbanised with a population density of 36 people/sqkm

81% URBAN Canada is 81% urbanised with a population density of 4 people/sqkm

4.2%

URBAN GROWTH RATE

15.2

TONNES

Bahamas

Canada produces 15.2 tonnes CO2/ capita/annum

Belize

Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St Kitts & Nevis St Vincent St Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago

Jamaica

Nigeria has a population of 195,874,740 which is growing at a rate of 2.6% with an urban growth rate of 4.2%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 180,018,000 by 2050.

Guyana Samoa

Rwandaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population density is one of the highest in Africa, at 499 people/sqkm

32

SMALL STATES 32 Commonwealth countries are Small States, 25 of which are Small Island Developing States (SIDS). In the Caribbean, over 50% of the population lives within 1.5km of the sea, rendering them particularly vulnerable to storm surges and rising sea levels.

33

40

6.2%

URBAN GROWTH RATE Uganda has a population of 42,723,140 which is growing at a rate of 3.7%, with an urban growth rate of 6.2%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 396% by 2050.

https://www.eiu.com/public/topical_report aspx?campaignid=Liveability2018

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Nearly 50% of the projected urban growth to 2050 will be in the Commonwealth; that’s an additional 1 billion urban dwellers in the next 30 years.

6.5

TONNES The United Kingdom produces 6.5 tonnes CO2/capita/annum

2.3%

URBAN GROWTH RATE India has a population of 1.35 billion which is growing at a rate of 1.0% with an urban growth rate of 2.3%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 393,514,000 by 2050.

37% URBAN Pakistan’s urban population is forecast to double within the next 30 years, adding a further 60m urban dwellers.

100% URBAN Singapore is 100% urbanised with a population density of 7,953 people/sqkm. The citystate also has the highest GNI per capita at $94,500 Singapore

Maldives

Nauru

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea Seychelles

Mauritius

Tuvalu

94% of the population of the Commonwealth live in Africa and Asia

Solomon Islands Vanuatu Fiji

0.1

TONNES

Malawi, Rwanda, and Uganda each produce 0.1 tonnes CO2/capita/annum

15.4

TONNES

Rate of urbanisation ≥ 5.00+%

4.00 - 4.99%

3.00 - 3.99%

2.00 - 2.99%

1.00 - 1.99%

0.00 - 0.99%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Australia is 86% urbanised with a population density of 3 people/sqkm

< 0.00%

Australia produces 15.4 tonnes CO2/ capita/annum

86% URBAN

41


2.5 IMPACT OF THE FINDINGS ON THE GROUND While the findings of the survey have evidenced the range of challenges being faced, the consequences are being experienced in difference ways in different Commonwealth countries as illustrated below:

2.5.1 AUSTRALIA

Professor Barbara Norman, University of Canberra, Australia Australia is one of the most urbanised nations in the world. Over 85% of the population live in the coastal zone and most live in the urban areas of the coastal zone. Australia is therefore predominantly a coastal urban nation. Urban growth continues particularly in the capital cities and regional coastal towns. As a nation, our urban population is expected to grow from 20 to 40 million by 2050. Australia is also identified as a country that will experience significant impacts from climate change; fire, flood drought and storms. The Australian fires of 2020 are a prime example of stretched resources with small urban coastal communities being in some cases nearly wiped out. Australia is also a very large and diverse country with tropical environments in the north, arid environments in the centre to cold climates in the south. The challenges for built environment professionals are indeed large. Given the above context and the survey findings, the built environment professionals face the following three challenges in Australia: · Supporting the training and development of professionals in coastal regional Australia that are experiencing both the pressures of urban growth and climate risks. · Ongoing professional development for built environment professional across a large and very diverse nation. · Upskilling of the current and future professional on planning for climate change i.e. actions we can take in the built environment that will both reduce emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The built environment professions in Australia have played a critical role in recent years in the process of recovery and rebuilding from disasters. In particular, the professionals have argued strongly to ‘build back better’ to be more resilient in the future. To do this better in the future, we need strong investment in strategic and scenario planning as highlighted by the Planning Institute of Australia’s recent national statement: ‘Through the lens: the tipping point’34, calling for a national planning framework.

2.5.2 BANGLADESH

Mr Jalal Ahmed, President, Institute of Architects Bangladesh & Dr Farida Nilufar, Secretary, Environment and Urbanisation, Institute of Architects Bangladesh In the absence of critical lack of capacity of professionals, the cities and towns of Bangladesh are becoming unliveable mainly due to lack of proper development controls, poor management of waste, unbridled expansion of industries emitting toxic gases and effluents.

34 https://www.planning.org.au/policy/national-settlement-strategy

42

Myopic and blinkered policies of the past have created this frightening condition. Situations are further aggravated due to poor enforcement of policy. The towns and cities are rapidly losing their natural resources like water bodies, greeneries and open spaces. The rivers, lakes and wetlands in and around the cities are being encroached upon and filled up for expansion of habitats, due to lack of strict enforcements.

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Factories are throwing toxic waste in the open rivers and the surface water has become extremely polluted. Consequently, 85% of the water demand in the capital city is met through extracting water from the underground water table and the underground water level is depleting at a rapid rate of 3 to 4 meters every year. Brick kilns, mostly coal fired, around the urban areas are also major causes of air pollution. There are only around 4,000 registered architects in the country for a population of about 165 million. But there are more than 800 local government bodies in the country and only a handful of them have urban planners and few have architects for development controls and enforcement of building regulations. The negative impact of this absence of built environment professionals in the local government and planning authorities are visible in the unplanned development of most to the cities and towns. Currently, around 30 universities in the country are producing architects, of which only 11 are accredited by the Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB). Most of the non-accredited academic programs lack adequate number of qualified teaching professionals.

2.5.3 BOTSWANA

Ms Sithabile Mathe, Chairperson, Architects Registration Council of Botswana The Architectural Association of Botswana participated in the first survey of the architectural profession undertaken by the CAA in 2017 and was shocked to discover the issues that were revealed. While the lack of capacity and policy weakness exposed by the survey was deeply concerning, having access to real data has enabled us to establish a more meaningful dialogue with policy makers and was empowering. At the time of writing, a new government has just been elected in Botswana and policy makers have started talking about ‘Eco and Smart Cities’ but there is little evidence to demonstrate any real understanding of sustainable urbanisation or the multi-disciplinary, multi-sector approach required to achieve this and tackle the challenges we face. While our government believes its policies reflect a vision underpinned by sustainability, the findings of the survey have highlighted that our progress towards the achievement of SDG 11 is slipping. As built environment professionals, it is important for us to work together with policymakers to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. In and amongst the talk about ‘Eco and Smart Cities’, we need to develop meaningful targets that are relevant for us here in Botswana and use these to help inform everything we do. While technology is no substitute for good urban planning and design, we also need to consider the use of technology and the way in which it can help deliver innovative solutions which deliver real value for our communities. The results of the current survey will help us in our work with policymakers, to focus on the areas where we need to strengthen and build capacity.

2.5.4 PAKISTAN

Mr Kalim Siddiqui, Chairman, Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners Pakistan has seen an increase in the number of Architectural schools (from 10 to 35) during the last 10 years both in public as well as private sector. This growth of Architectural programs in the country has caused a serious dearth of quality teachers. To fulfil the accreditation criteria fresh architectural graduates or architects with few years professional experience are being hired by the universities on low salaries and contract terms without any benefits. Most of the Architectural schools lack qualified teaching professionals.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

43


The country lacks quality architectural education and training opportunities for professional development in academia as well as in professional practice. The institutions are not producing competent built environment professionals with desired technical skills for addressing country’s growing urban/rural problems. The country has not yet developed strong professional institutions. There is an Institute of Architects and Institute of Planners, but both are under resourced and run by professional Architects and Planners on voluntary basis. Architects are concentrated in four provincial capitals of Pakistan hence leaving rural areas unattended and at mercy of the nonprofessionals. Mostly architects are working for elite class in Pakistan. The middle and lower middle class are unable to afford the services of an architect and most of the time contractors/builders are filling this gap. The survey findings clearly show a need for Pakistan to be supported in strengthening its built environment institutions and professionals to play their role in the country’s urban/ rural development and being able to increase their outreach to the entire country as well as to compete internationally. Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP) has initiated its own survey of the profession in the country, the findings of which will be published in due course. We are confident that these initiatives, that are being taken for the first time, will help ensure the regulation of academia and the profession, as we work towards strategic planning to deal with all aspects of the built environment.

2.5.5 SIERRA LEONE35

Mr Sulaiman F Kamara, Research and Community Officer at the Sierra Leone Urban Research Centre & Mr Charles Wright, Associate, Architecture Sans Frontieres-UK Sierra Leone’s cities are growing at an inexorable rate each year. Freetown, the capital city, has grown in population by roughly 2.87% annually since 201536. This rapid urbanisation is now presenting Freetown and other cities with severe growing problems, including increased exposure to extreme environmental events, increased poverty, and decreasing public health. Like many Commonwealth countries, Sierra Leone has not developed strong professional institutions or a pool of qualified built environment professionals with the technical skills to address the country’s growing urban problems. There is an institute of architects and institute of engineers, but both are under resourced. There is also a lack of well-paid job opportunities for Sierra Leoneans in the built environment sector to attract prospective students. Currently there is an overreliance on short-term built environment professionals from more developed countries. Sierra Leone has not embraced the potential for built environment professions to unlock national improvement in the long-term. There are questions regarding accountability and transparency in government institutions, furthermore, Sierra Leone has not had the capacity to effectively legislate, regulate and thereby enforce procedures to ensure safe and equitable urban development. Lack of capacity in local authorities has meant that devolving planning powers from the central government has also not been prioritised resulting in development which is reactive over pragmatic.

35 Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is no planning institute Sierra

Leone (pop >7.5m, >3% urban growth), and only 16 architects. 36 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Dynamics

There is also a lack of educational options, further training and continued professional development. There have been attempts to establish a School of Architecture in the past and recently, there have been some strong initiatives including the establishment of the

(2018) ‘World Urbanization Prospects 2018’, [03/01/2020], https:// population.un.org/wup/Country-Profiles/

44

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Sierra Leone Urban Research Centre, new built environment courses in higher education institutions, technical support for councils, and the Transform Freetown Agenda. These initiatives have brought renewed energy to the built environment professions, but more is needed. The findings in this survey highlight a need for Sierra Leone to be supported in strengthening its built environment institutions and professionals to avoid unmitigated and uncontrolled, therefore potentially damaging urban development.

The observations contained in this chapter illustrate that while the challenges being experienced in different countries always need to be understood in their local context, they share a number of similarities thereby offering the potential for cross-learning and mutual support.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

45


2.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FINDINGS It is widely acknowledged that well designed cities contribute to social, economic and environmental well-being and that SDG 11 is central to delivery of all the other Sustainable Development Goals. What might the consequences be if we fail to address the findings of this survey? We invited contributors from a variety of backgrounds to share their thoughts with us:

2.6.1 ECONOMIC IMPACT

Astrid Haas, Senior Country Economist (Cities) International Growth Centre Urbanisation and economic development are uniquely tied.37 Urban areas can be the engine of economic growth38 with well-managed cities bringing firms closer to their labour39, their inputs, their markets40 as well as fostering innovation within and between them. Efficient and effective firms, in turn, are the foundation for economic growth overall. Underpinning cities’ connectivity is the built environment. This can encourage denser land use, which in turn can promote more efficient delivery of shared infrastructure and services. Beyond the economic benefits, denser land use can also lead to lower energy use and emissions per resident.41 Thus well-managed proximity can lead to productivity and prosperity.42 However, in many developing countries in the Commonwealth, cities are failing to unlock this urban miracle. As the 2019 survey findings highlight, the considerable gaps in capacity, have resulted in poorly planned and built cities. Rather than fostering prosperity, they exacerbate the downsides of density, including contagion, crime and congestion43. Furthermore, inadequate forward-looking planning has led many of these cities to sprawl. Without the commensurate investments in housing and transportation, sprawl reduces connectivity and thus the potential prosperity. Investments in built environment capacity will not only have positive outcomes on the Commonwealth’s current cities, but perhaps more importantly it can change the urban landscape overall, as the majority of urbanisation in many Commonwealth countries is still to come. Now is the opportunity to make these investments in capacity to unlock the miracle of urbanisation that will underpin economic growth for the whole Commonwealth.

2.6.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Professor Tadj Oreszczyn and Mike Davies, University College London, Energy Institute, While the impacts of climate change are increasing, carbon emissions continue to rise and the UN Emissions Gap Report44 has highlighted that time is running out to achieve a below 20C world, and so individuals, countries and regions are declaring a climate emergency.

37 Collier, P., Glaeser, E., and Venables, T. (Forthcoming). Policies for

prosperity in middle income countries. IGC Policy Paper 38 Glaeser, E. (2012). Triumph of the City. Penguin Press 39 Combes, P,. and Gobillon, L. (2015) The empirics of agglomeration

economies. In Handbook of regional and urban economics. Elsevier 40 Storper, M., and Venables, A. (2004). Buzz: face-to-face contact and

the urban economy, Journal of Economic Geography. 41 Glaeser, E., (2012). The Benefits of Density. The Urban Age – LSE

Cities 42 Combes, P.-P., Duranton, G., Gobillon, L., Puga, D. and Roux, S.

(2012), The Productivity Advantages of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection. Econometrica, 43 Glaeser, E., and Sims, H. (2015). Contagion, crime, and congestion:

In an emergency, we need to radically change our behaviour, this requires bold leadership to clearly articulate what must be delivered in a limited time scale and with limited resources. It probably requires increased dependency on regulation which have been shown to deliver urban change quicker than other policy and market instruments. Yet this survey highlights that in many parts of the Commonwealth which are rapidly urbanising, eg Africa, there are no regulations to develop the near to zero carbon emitting buildings required. Nor, are many of the developed countries, such as the UK, that have the capacity and resources leading the way by developing regulations that clearly show new buildings can be very low energy consuming despite demonstration buildings having been developed over the last 50 years.

overcoming the downsides of density. IGC Growth Brief 44 https://www.unep-wcmc.org/news/2019-emissions-gap-report

46

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This report very clearly demonstrates the important role that buildings and urbanisation in Commonwealth countries need to play both in terms of mitigating and adapting to climate change, plus the massive gap in capacity which exists to tackle the climate emergency that we are facing.

2.6.3 HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

Dr David Howard, Associate Professor in Sustainable Urban Development, University of Oxford. Co-Director, Global Centre on Healthcare and Urbanisation, Kellogg College, Oxford Developing and building better cities is essential to achieve sustainable levels of health and well- being at local and global levels. The physical built environment is critical to urban living conditions, where access to safe drinking water, sanitation and drainage are vital for the health of concentrated human populations: one third of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population does not have access to improved sanitation, and 775,000 or 1.4% of global deaths were due to unsafe urban sanitation in 2017. There is a continuing lack of professional capacity to maintain and generate appropriate built environments and urban infrastructure in many of the Commonwealth countries, which are rapidly urbanising. With significant urban floorspace and demographic growth expected over the next sixty years, Commonwealth countries remain highly vulnerable not only to the challenges of urbanisation, but to the extreme risks of climate change impact on health issues. Four main chronic, non-communicable diseases account for 60% of global morbidity and mortality: diabetes, respiratory disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. These diseases are a global crisis and still require a global response, despite affordable and cost-effective preventive measures being readily available. These measures can most effectively and most rapidly be applied in urban areas, a core component being to create a healthy built environment. Effective urban planning and design improves living conditions together with access to health and welfare services while moderating exposure to unhealthy environments. The density of the urban environment, in terms of buildings and people, continues to raise both positive and negative consequences for everyday city living. High densities have historically been seen as the cause of poor health, whereas increased density, when combined with mixed land use urban neighbourhoods, are regarded as a core component of sustainable urbanism, countering decades of urban sprawl. Urban density matters and will play an increasingly central role in the future economic, social, political and biophysical state of Commonwealth cities and their populations. Enhancing the capacity and capability of built environment professionals is key to addressing the relationships between health, well-being and the urban environment.

2.6.4 LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Lucy Slack, Deputy Secretary General, Commonwealth Local Government Forum This report provides sober reading for the public sector. Rapid urbanization coupled with the impacts of climate change and economic uncertainty means that many cities in the Commonwealth are not benefitting from the urbanization dividend which we have seen in the past. This is particularly marked in secondary cities (75% of the cities in the Commonwealth), where growth is happening faster, the infrastructure challenge is often greater, and the potential resource base is more limited. We know that built environment professionals are important partners in ensuring sustainable urbanization, and this survey highlights the worrying trend that there is often a corresponding lack of built environment professionals in countries where urbanization is happening fastest. Training professionals and encouraging more people into the sector is of course essential, but more strategically we must make sure that the policy, financing, and regulatory frameworks are in place too.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

47


We must work to make cities places where built environment professionals, and others, want to work and can see a career path. Professionalizing local government will be an important step in ensuring that we can continue to build inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements – where the 2.4million citizens of the Commonwealth live, work and innovate. The challenge is now; and the Commonwealth is well placed to respond quickly by mobilizing its unique network of governments, local governments, professionals, civil society and experts to help deliver a more sustainable urban future.

2.6.5 ACCESS TO SERVICES

Erik Harvey, Programme Support Unit Director, and Hannah Crichton-Smith, Sustainable WASH Advisor Critical to human health, well-being and socio-economic development, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services are central features of any built environment around the world. WASH is the foundation of health services and central to the reduction of child and maternal mortality, as well as ensuring people are resilient to climate-induced hazards. Water and waste management are also critical for economic activities. However, weak sector capacity, coupled with poor sector governance, threatens the achievement of inclusive and sustainable WASH access for all (SDG 6) and will have knockon effects for the achievement of all other related SDGs. This is despite capacity being well-recognised as a need in the WASH sector globally45, and prioritised under target 6.a of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)46. The preliminary findings of the 2019 Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth Survey reflect WaterAid’s own understanding and experience of supporting improvements in the delivery of inclusive and sustainable WASH in developing countries. The findings also reflect those of the 2014 International Water Association’s assessment of capacity gaps in the WASH sector in 15 developing countries47. For example, weak capacity to implement WASH policies at local levels; limited ability to enforce WASH regulation and standards to ensure quality; insufficient resources and skills to monitor, budget and plan for inclusive and sustainable WASH service provision; limited skills to design financially viable and sustainable management models; and limited opportunities and resources to maintain knowledge and continue professional development. Achieving sustainable and thriving built environments is critically dependent on welldesigned and managed WASH services that reach everyone. This in turn requires strong governance and capacity across a wide range of disciplines including engineering, urban/ town planning, economics, architecture, social science, water resource management, behavioural science, data analysis, to name but a few.

45 https://iwa-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/1422745887-

an-avoidable-crisis-wash-gaps.pdf 46 “By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building

support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies.” 47 https://iwa-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/1422745887-

an-avoidable-crisis-wash-gaps.pdf

48

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


It is clear from these contributions that there is a pressing need to address the findings of this survey if the consequences of poorly planned cities are to be avoided and to ensure we are able to capitalise on the opportunities presented by continuing urbanisation to create prosperous and healthy cities, and communities which are â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;48.

48 https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-

development-goals/goal-11-sustainable-cities-and-communities.html

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

49


3 3

SURVEY RESULTS

The 2019 Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth has been undertaken jointly by the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA), the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP), the Commonwealth Association of Surveyors and Land Economists (CASLE) and the Commonwealth Engineers Council (CEC). The survey was conducted online and was issued to all known national architectural, town planning, civil engineering and quantity surveying associations in the 53 countries of the Commonwealth whether or not they are currently members of their respective Commonwealth body (ie CAA, CAP, CEC and CASLE). The survey itself comprised 7 principal subject areas and a total of 75 separate questions. The main subject areas were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The Chamber/Institute/Association The Profession Professional Practice Education and Training The Market Government Context Challenges and Opportunities

A total of 61 questionnaires were returned across the 4 disciplines from a total of 33 Commonwealth countries including 26 from Africa, 10 from Asia, 11 from the Caribbean and the Americas, 7 from Europe and 6 from the Pacific, representing a broad cross section of countries across all 5 regions of the Commonwealth. The quality of responses received was somewhat inconsistent and it would appear than several respondents were simply not able to answer some of the questions due to lack of data, others perhaps due to lack of resource. With regard to the responses received from the Engineering and Surveying professions, in some countries, the associations include members from related disciplines (eg some engineering associations include members from a range of structural, civil, electrical and mechanical backgrounds, while some surveying institutes include members from a range of cost, building and land surveying backgrounds). The survey results do not account for these differences and the membership numbers quoted for these disciplines may not therefore always provide a like-for-like comparison. Irrespective of this, and despite the relatively low response rates, it is evident that these disciplines face similar capacity issues.

50

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Survey respondents included: 路 29 x architectural associations. Up from 16 in 2017 and representing a 66% response rate. 路 18 x town planning associations. Up from 15 in 2017 and representing a 53% response rate. 路 11 x civil engineering associations. The first such survey to have been undertaken in many years and representing a 22% response rate. 路 5 x quantity surveying associations. The first such survey to have been undertaken in many years and representing an 18% response rate. Anecdotal evidence also points to the fact that, in some countries, town planning functions are undertaken by other disciplines, including architects, engineers and surveyors, who may lack formal training for such a role. A list of respondents is shown in table 14 and a full list of all known national institutes representing architects, civil engineers, town planners and quantity surveyors in the Commonwealth, is contained in Appendix I.

Number of Survey Responses 0 1 2 3 4 all other values

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

51


Table 14

Country

Planning

Engineering

Surveying

Totals

Region

Architecture

Survey Respondents

Botswana

Y

Y

Y

N

3

Gambia, The

Y

None

None

None

1

Ghana

Y

Y

Y

N

3

Kenya

Y

N

N

N

1

Mauritius

Y

Y

Y

None

3

None

None

Y

None

1

Namibia

Y

N

N

None

1

Nigeria

Y

Y

N

Y

3

Rwanda

Y

N

N

Y

2

South Africa

Y

Y

N

N

2

Tanzania

N

Y

N

Y

2

Uganda

Y

N

Y

N

2

Zambia

Y

N

Y

N

2

Sub-total

11

6

6

3

26

Bangladesh

Y

N

N

None

1

India

Y

N

N

N

1

Malaysia

Y

Y

Y

Y

4

Pakistan

Y

Y

N

N

2

Singapore

Y

Y

N

N

2

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

N

N

2

Sub-total

6

3

0

1

12

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

None

N

None

1

Barbados

N

Y

N

N

1

Belize

Y

N

Y

None

2

Canada

Y

Y

N

N

2

Dominica

Y

N

N

None

1

Grenada

N

None

Y

None

1

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

Y

N

Y

3

Sub-total

5

3

2

1

11

Cyprus

Y

N

N

None

1

Malta

Y

Y

Y

N

3

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Y

N

3

Sub-total

3

2

2

0

7

Hong Kong SAR50

Y

None

None

None

1

Sub-total

1

0

0

0

1

Australia

Y

Y

N

N

2

Fiji

Y

Y

N

N

2

New Zealand

Y

Y

N

N

2

Sub-total

3

3

0

0

6

29

18

11

5

63

Mozambique Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other (non-CW)

49 No response from the IPP but some information received from the

Pacific

Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners 50 While Hong Kong SAR is no longer a member of the Commonwealth,

the HKIA remains a member of the CAA

52

Grand Total

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49

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

53


4 4

THE ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/ INSTITUTE

4.1 DETAILS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/INSTITUTE Table 15 Details of the National Architectural Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Africa

Country

Name of Organisation

Acronym

Website

Est

Botswana

Architects Association of Botswana

AAB

www.aab-bw.org

1995

Ghana

Ghana Institute of Architects

GIA

www.gia.com.gh

1998

Kenya

Architectural Association of Kenya

AAK

www.aak.or.ke

1967

Mauritius

Mauritius Association of Architects

MAA

None

1970

Namibia

Namibia Institute of Architects

NIA

www.nia.org.na

1952

Nigeria

Nigerian Institute of Architects

NIA

www.nia.ng

1960

Rwanda

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Rwanda Institute of Architects

RIA

www.riarchitects.rw

2012

South Africa

South African Institute of Architects

SAIA

www.saia.org.za

1927

Gambia, The

Association of Gambian Architects

AGA

None

1987

Uganda

Uganda Society of Architects

USA

www.architects.ug

1996

51

Zambia

Zambia Institute of Architects

ZIA

www.zia.org.zm

1971

Bangladesh

Institute of Architects Bangladesh

IAB

www.iab.com.bd

1972

Hong Kong SAR

Hong Kong Institute of Architects

HKIA

www.hkia.net

1956

India

Indian Institute of Architects

IIA

www.indianinstituteofarchitects.com

1917

Malaysia

Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia

PAM

www.pam.org.my

1920

Pakistan

Institute of Architects, Pakistan

IAP

www.iap.com.pk

1957

Singapore

Singapore Institute of Architects

SIA

www.sia.org.sg

1963

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Institute of Architects

SLIA

www.slia.lk

1976

Antigua & Barbuda

Antigua & Barbuda Institute of Architects

ABIA

www.instituteofarchitectsab.com

1986

Belize

Belize Green Construction Organization

BGCO

Canada

Royal Architectural Institute of Canada

RAIC

www.raic.org

1907

Dominica

Dominica Society of Architects

DSA

www.Architectsdominica.org

1997

2015

Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects

TTIA

www.ttia-architects.org

1954

Cyprus

Cyprus Architects Association

CAA

www.architecture.org.cy

1981

Malta

Kamra tal-Periti (Chamber of Architects and Civil Engineers)

KTP

www.kamratalperiti.org

1920

United Kingdom

Royal Institute of British Architects

RIBA

www.architecture.com

1834

Australia

Royal Australian Institute of Architects

RAIA

www.architecture.com.au

1930

Fiji

Fiji Association of Architects

FAA

None

1970

New Zealand

New Zealand Institute of Architects

NZIA

www.nzia.co.nz

1905

51 The Rwanda Urban Planning Institute (RUPI) has recently emerged as an offshoot of the Rwanda

Institute of Architects and is understood to be currently in formation.

54

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Table 16 Details of the National Town Planning Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe

Pacific

Country

Name of Organisation

Acronym

Website

Est

Botswana

Pula Institute of Town Planners

PITP

None

2005

Ghana

Ghana Institute of Planners

GIP

www.ghanainstituteofplanners.com

1969

Mauritius

Town Planning Association of Mauritius

TPAM

www.facebook.com/townplanningmauritius

2006

Nigeria

Nigerian Institute of Town Planners

NITP

www.nitpng.com

1966

South Africa

South Africa Planning Institute

SAPI

www.sapi.org.za

1996

Tanzania

Tanzania Association of Planners

TAP

1985

Malaysia

Malaysian Institute of Planners

MIP

www.mip.org.my

1972

Pakistan

Institute of Planners Pakistan52

IPP

www.ipp.org.pk

1980

Singapore

Singapore Institute of Planners

SIP

www.sip.org.sg

1968

Sri Lanka

Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka

ITPSL

www.itpsl.lk

1986

Barbados

Barbados Town Planning Society

BTPS

www.barbadosplanningsociety.org

1968

Canada

Canadian Institute of Planners

CIP

www.cip-icu.ca

1919

Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners

TTSP

www.ttplanners.org

1975

Malta

Kamra Maltija ghal-Ippjanar (Malta Chamber of Planners)

KMaP (MACP)

www.kmap.org.mt

1997

United Kingdom

Royal Town Planning Institute

RTPI

www.rtpi.org.uk

1914

Australia

Planning Institute of Australia

PIA

www.planning.org.au

1951

Fiji

Fiji Planners Association

FiPA

None

2019

New Zealand

New Zealand Planning Institute

NZPI

www.planning.org.nz

1949

Table 17 Details of the National Engineering Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Country

Name of Organisation

Acronym

Website

Est

Botswana

Botswana Institution of Engineers

BIE

www.bie.org.bw

1983

Ghana

Ghana Institution of Engineering

GhIE

www.ghie.org.gh

1968

Mauritius

Institution of Engineers Mauritius

IEM

www.iemauritius.com

Mozambique

Ordem dos Engenhereiros de Mocambique

OrdEM

www.ordeng.org.mz

2002

Uganda

Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers

UIPE

www.uipe.co.ug

1972

Zambia

Engineering Institution of Zambia

EIZ

www.eiz.org.zm

1955

Asia

Malaysia

The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia

IEM

www.myiem.org.my

1959

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Association of Professional Engineers of Belize

APEB

www.apebbelize.org

2001

Grenada

Grenada Institute of Professional Engineers

GIPE

None

1969

Malta

Malta Group of Professional Engineering Institutions (Institution of Civil Engineers)

MGPEI & ICE

www.maltagpei.org.mt

1960

United Kingdom

Institution of Civil Engineers

ICE

www.ice.org.uk

1818

Africa

Europe

Table 18 Details of the National Surveying Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Country

Name of Organisation

Acronym

Website

Est

Nigeria

Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

NIQS

www.niqs.org.ng

1969

Rwanda

Institute of Real Property Valuers in Rwanda

IRPV

www.irpv.rw

2010

Tanzania

Association of Real Estate Professionals of Tanzania

AREPTA

www.arepta.go tz

Asia

Malaysia

Royal Institution of Surveyors Malaysia

RISM

www.rism.org.my

1961

Caribbean & A.

Trinidad and Tobago The Institute of Surveyors of Trinidad and Tobago

ISTT

www.instituteofsurveyors.com

1996

Africa

52 Limited information provided by the Pakistan Council for Architects and Town Planners (PCATP).

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

55


4.2 ORGANISATION OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION/CHAMBER/ INSTITUTE Table 19 Organisation of the National Architectural Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Country

Basis of organisation

Botswana

National only

Ghana

Regional only

Kenya

National only

Mauritius

National only

Namibia

National and Regional basis

Nigeria

National only

Rwanda

National and Regional basis

Rwanda Institute of Architects is a member of East Africa Institute of Architects, which is a regional umbrella corporation that brings together all architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fraternity across the region

South Africa

National and Regional basis

The National and Regional Constitutions are aligned with regard to aims and management structure. The Regions are represented on the Board of SAIA.

Gambia, The

National only

Uganda

National and Regional basis

Zambia

National only

Bangladesh

National only

India

National and Regional basis

Malaysia

National only

Pakistan

National and Regional basis

Singapore

National only

Sri Lanka

National and Regional basis

Antigua & Barbuda

National only

Belize

National only

Canada

National and Regional basis

Dominica

National only

Regional Structure

Not Applicable Through Chapters of the IAP National Council

Regional chapters being developed

Trinidad and Tobago National only Cyprus

National only

Europe

Malta

National only

United Kingdom

National and Regional basis

Others

Hong Kong SAR

Regional only

Australia

National and Regional basis

Fiji

National only

New Zealand

National AND Regional basis

Pacific

1 head office in London 11 regional offices in the UK We are a national organisation with chapters in each state and territory and 1 international chapter 8 branches across New Zealand

Table 20 Organisation of the National Town Planning Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Africa

56

Country

Basis of organisation

Botswana

National only

Ghana

National and Regional basis

Mauritius

National only

Nigeria

National and Regional basis

Regional Structure

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Basis of organisation

Regional Structure

South Africa

National and Regional basis

SAPI is a unitary structure. The Regions and Regional Committees function as semi‐autonomous, non‐ independent local bodies that engage with members in an interactive and dynamic manner; with the National Board being the co‐ordinating structure with regard to general policy, representation of the Institute nationally and internationally, financial and membership management and other matters set out in the Constitution and Bylaws.

Tanzania

National only

Malaysia

National and Regional basis

Pakistan

National and Regional basis

Singapore

National only

Sri Lanka

National only

Barbados

National only

Canada

National only

Trinidad and Tobago

National only

Malta

National only

United Kingdom

National and Regional basis

Australia

National only

Fiji

National only

New Zealand

National and Regional basis

MIP have the National Office that consists of Exco Members, Ordinary Council Members. Under this, MIP have other several branches namely Northern Branch, Southern Branch and Sarawak & Sabah Chapter. There will be one representative from these branches to be part of Council.

The RTPI has 5 constituent nations England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland and Ireland. England and Scotland are also organised regionally.

Central national office with 10 branches manned by volunteers across the country

Table 21 Organisation of the National Engineering Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Africa

Country

Basis of organisation

Regional Structure

Botswana

National and Regional basis

There is North and South Region

Ghana

National and Regional basis

Branches closely mapped to political regions for now

Mozambique

National and Regional basis

N/A

Uganda

National only

Zambia

National and Regional basis

Asia

Malaysia

National only

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

National only

Grenada

National only

Malta

National only

United Kingdom

National and Regional basis

Europe

UK: East Midlands, East of England, London, North East, North West, Northern Ireland, Scotland, South East England, South West, Wales, West Midlands, Yorkshire and Humber International: Europe, Americas, MENA, Africa, Australasia, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia

Table 22 Organisation of the National Surveying Association/Chamber/Institute Region

Country

Basis of organisation

Nigeria

National and Regional basis

Africa

Rwanda

National only

Tanzania

National only

Asia

Malaysia

National and Regional basis

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago National only

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Regional Structure

Sabah, Sarawak, Northern, Eastern, and Southern

57


4.3 MEMBERSHIP NUMBERS AND GROWTH RATES Table 23 Membership numbers and growth rates (Architects) Country

Membership Type

Africa

2016

2017

2018

2017-18 Growth Rate

Average Annual Growth Rate

4,338

5,707

5,965

4.5%

18.0%

Voluntary

90

93

98

5.4%

4.4%

Compulsory

11

11

11

0.0%

0.0%

Ghana

Voluntary

-

-

-

-

-

Kenya

Voluntary

-

1,073

1,645

53.3%

-

Botswana Gambia, The

Voluntary

100

100

100

0.0%

0.0%

Namibia

Compulsory

-

-

-

-

-

Nigeria

Compulsory

1,118

1,400

962

- 31.3%

- 3.0%

Rwanda

Compulsory

93

135

178

31.9%

38.5%

South Africa

Voluntary

2,372

2,310

2,284

- 1.1%

- 1.9%

Uganda

Voluntary

308

336

420

25.0%

17.0%

Zambia

Voluntary

246

249

267

7.2%

4.2%

29,560

31,070

31,733

2.1%

3.6%

Mauritius

Asia Bangladesh

Compulsory

3,020

3,350

3,350

0.0%

5.5%

India53 54

Voluntary

19,375

20,355

20,672

1.6%

3.3%

Malaysia

Voluntary

3,301

3,366

3,355

- 0.3%

0.8%

55

Pakistan

Voluntary

1,477

1,559

1,660

6.5%

6.0%

Singapore

Voluntary

1,232

1,242

1,284

3.4%

2.1%

Sri Lanka

Voluntary

1,155

1,198

1,412

17.9%

10.8%

4,958

4,903

4,974

1.4%

0.2%

Antigua and Barbuda

Voluntary

11

12

16

33.3%

21.2%

Belize

Voluntary

5

6

6

0.0%

10.0%

Canada

Voluntary

4925

4,868

4,937

1.4%

0.1%

Dominica

Voluntary

17

17

15

- 11.8%

- 5.9%

Trinidad and Tobago

Voluntary

-

-

-

-

-

Caribbean & A.

30,982

31,575

32,095

1.6%

1.8%

Cyprus

Voluntary

952

965

972

0.7%

1.0%

Malta

Voluntary

976

1,004

1,034

3.0%

2.9%

United Kingdom

Voluntary

29,054

29,606

30,089

1.6%

1.8%

4,385

4,456

4,559

2.3%

2.0%

4385

4456

4559

2.3%

2.0%

12811

13146

13498

2.7%

2.6%

Europe

Other Hong Kong SAR

Voluntary

Pacific Australia

Voluntary

9868

10133

10565

4.3%

3.5%

Fiji

Voluntary

-

-

20

-

-

New Zealand

Voluntary

2943

3013

2913

-3.3%

-0.5%

53 Additional (unverified) analysis available here courtesy of

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Architecture ideasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;: https://architectureideas.info/2008/08/statisticsof-architects-in-india/#number-of-architects 54 See also https://www.coa.gov.in/ 55 See also Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners: https://

www.pcatp.org.pk/

58

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 24 Membership numbers and growth rates (Town Planners) Country

Membership Type

2016

Africa

2017

2018

2017-18 Growth Rate

Average Annual Growth Rate

2493

2874

3041

-5.8%

10.5%

Compulsory

204

200

190

5.0%

-3.5%

Ghana

Voluntary

460

566

644

13.8%

18.4%

Mauritius

Voluntary

22

22

22

0.0%

0.0%

Nigeria

Voluntary

1285

1499

1629

8.7%

12.7%

South Africa

Voluntary

422

487

456

-6.4%

4.5%

Tanzania

Voluntary

100

100

100

0.0%

0.0%

1772

1866

2010

7.7%

6.5%

Botswana

Asia Malaysia

Voluntary

1220

1236

1341

8.5%

4.9%

Pakistan

Voluntary

1,016

1,136

1,266

11.4%

11.6%

Singapore

Voluntary

141

182

200

9.9%

19.5%

Sri Lanka

Voluntary

411

448

469

4.7%

6.8%

6146

6175

7202

16.6%

8.6%

Barbados

Voluntary

13

13

16

23.1%

11.5%

Canada

Voluntary

6077

6106

7116

16.5%

8.5%

Trinidad and Tobago

Voluntary

56

56

70

25.0%

12.5%

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

22012

21999

21930

-0.3%

-0.2%

Malta

Voluntary

11

11

11

0.0%

0.0%

United Kingdom

Voluntary

22001

21988

21919

-0.3%

-0.2%

6837

6971

7240

3.9%

2.9%

Pacific Australia

Voluntary

4515

4521

4579

1.3%

0.7%

Fiji

Voluntary

-

-

25

-

-

New Zealand

Voluntary

2322

2450

2636

7.6%

6.6%

Table 25 Membership numbers and growth rates (Engineers) Country

Membership Type

2016

Africa

2017

2018

2017-18 Growth Rate

Average Annual Growth Rate

46932

54385

62364

14.7%

15.3%

Voluntary

700

900

1200

33.3%

31.0%

Ghana

Compulsory

7600

8955

10575

18.1%

18.0%

Mozambique

Compulsory

2350

2620

3190

21.8%

16.6%

Uganda

Voluntary

1721

1923

2176

13.2%

12.4%

Zambia

Compulsory

Botswana

34561

39987

45223

13.1%

14.4%

21,683

21,037

21,643

0.00

0.00%

Voluntary

21,683

21,037

21,643

0.00

0.00%

156

175

186

6.3%

9.2%

Compulsory

95

100

105

5.0%

5.1%

Voluntary

61

75

81

8.0%

15.5%

67376

67874

68835

1.4%

1.1%

Asia Malaysia Caribbean and Americas

Belize Grenada Europe Malta

Voluntary

-

-

30

-

-

United Kingdom

Voluntary

67376

67874

68805

1.4%

1.1%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

59


Table 26 Membership numbers and growth rates (Surveyors) Country

Membership Type

Africa Nigeria Rwanda

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

60

2017

2018

2017-18 Growth Rate

Average Annual Growth Rate

3824

4009

4268

6.5%

5.6%

Voluntary

3728

3897

4126

5.9%

5.2%

Compulsory

96

112

142

26.8%

21.7%

8000

9000

10000

11.1%

11.8%

Voluntary

8000

9000

10000

11.1%

11.8%

160

160

185

15.6%

7.8%

Voluntary

160

160

185

15.6%

Asia Malaysia

2016

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

7.8%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


4.4 MEMBERSHIP NUMBERS BY CATEGORY OF MEMBERSHIP56 Table 27 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Architects) Country Africa

Chartered

Associate

6921

Botswana

Student

3954

Retired 2674

Fellow 185

Affiliate 575

Total Practicing

Total Members

46

11450

14355

98

32

4

0

0

0

130

134

Gambia, The

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0

0

Ghana

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0

0

Kenya

582

318

471

no data

45

no data

945

1416

Mauritius Namibia Nigeria

100

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

100

100

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0

0

3541

3447

2010

0

480

12

7468

9490

69

18

35

6

17

33

104

178

Rwanda South Africa

2043

51

0

179

11

1

2105

2285

Uganda

221

88

90

no data

22

no data

331

421

Zambia

267

no data

64

0

no data

no data

267

331

Asia

2852

23269

2130

128

1858

1243

27979

31480

Bangladesh

1100

1700

200

no data

350

no data

3150

3350

0

19166

1115

100

1490

0

20656

21871

Malaysia

1847

1320

742

3

96

75

3263

4083

Pakistan

no data

1100

no data

no data

60

1167

1160

2327

India

Singapore

895

234

77

25

46

1

1175

1278

0

1279

176

0

131

0

1410

1586

3715

29

645

111

452

22

4196

4974

10

6

0

no data

no data

no data

16

16

Sri Lanka Caribbean & A. Antigua & B. Belize

0

0

0

0

6

0

6

6

3690

23

645

111

446

22

4159

4937

15

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

15

15

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0

0

Europe

29591

1668

12647

41

44

743

31303

44734

Cyprus

no data

972

150

no data

no data

no data

972

1122

985

no data

no data

41

no data

no data

985

1026

28606

696

12497

no data

44

743

29346

42586

Other

3579

37

23

36

189

14

3805

3878

Hong Kong SAR

3579

37

23

36

189

14

3805

3878

Pacific

8755

2534

1202

556

1192

1274

12481

15513

Australia

7100

2063

no data

325

959

845

10122

11292

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0

0

1655

471

1202

231

233

429

2359

4221

Canada Dominica Trinidad & Tobago

Malta United Kingdom

Fiji New Zealand

56 Generally, larger institutions (ie those with over 1,000 members) tend

to offer more categories of membership to reflect the progress of members throughout their professional careers

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

61


Table 28 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Town Planners) Country

Chartered

Africa

Associate

Student

Retired

Fellow

Affiliate

Total Practicing

Total Members

3842

360

2396

151

395

21

4597

7165

Botswana

175

15

no data

no data

no data

no data

190

190

Ghana

526

85

700

50

33

no data

644

1394

Mauritius

22

no data

10

no data

no data

no data

22

32

Nigeria

1394

74

1246

7

214

21

1682

2956

South Africa

1710

181

440

64

98

no data

1989

2493

15

5

0

30

50

0

70

100

Asia

965

108

797

0

141

92

1214

2103

Malaysia

468

40

770

0

81

0

589

1359

Singapore

66

no data

27

no data

22

92

88

207

Sri Lanka

431

68

no data

no data

38

no data

537

537

Tanzania

Caribbean& A.

4693

1006

1075

192

2

30

5701

6998

14

no data

no data

no data

no data

2

14

16

4633

991

1070

192

no data

21

5624

6907

46

15

5

0

2

7

63

75

Europe

14880

516

3148

2993

99

379

15495

22015

Malta57

11

0

0

1

0

0

11

12

14869

516

3148

2992

99

379

15484

22003

Pacific

3669

1710

1061

290

338

755

5717

7823

Australia

2766

948

682

244

313

212

4027

5165

6

10

3

2

1

3

17

25

897

752

376

44

24

540

1673

2633

Barbados Canada Trinidad & Tobago

United Kingdom

Fiji New Zealand

Table 29 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Engineers) Country

Chartered

Associate

Student

Retired

Fellow

Affiliate

Total Practicing

Total Members

Africa

19464

9972

15452

6481

540

22835

29976

74744

Ghana

4230

789

1866

286

231

3173

5250

10575

Mozambique

2320

870

no data

no data

no data

no data

3190

3190

Uganda

895

1246

2179

no data

29

no data

2170

4349

Zambia

12019

7067

11407

6195

280

19662

19366

56630

Asia

11,048

9,303

26,969

No data

739

27

20,351

48,086

Malaysia

11,048

9,303

26,969

No data

739

27

20,351

48,086

186

186

Caribbean & A.

81

105

no data

no data

no data

no data

105

no data

105

105

Grenada

81

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

81

81

Europe

42185

876

24763

13931

5247

0

48308

87002

20

no data

200

no data

10

no data

30

230

42165

876

24563

13931

5237

0

48278

86772

Belize

Malta United Kingdom

57 The Kamra Maltija ghal-Ippjanar (Malta Chamber of Planners), note

that there are in the region of 90 qualified planners in Malta but that it is not a regulated profession.

62

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 30 Membership numbers by category of Membership (Surveyors) Country

Chartered

Associate

Student

Retired

Fellow

Affiliate

Total Practicing

Total Members

Africa

3750

0

3369

0

376

0

4126

7495

Nigeria

3750

0

3369

no data

376

0

4126

7495

0

0

0

0

Asia

3625

15

3104

Malaysia

Rwanda

3625

15

3104

Caribbean & A.

167

18

10

Trinidad & Tobago

167

18

10

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

no data no data

0

0

0

0

542

2012

4182

9298

542

2012

4182

9298

185

195

185

195

no data

no data

63


4.5 MEMBERSHIP FEES BY CATEGORY OF MEMBERSHIP

Table 31 Membership fees by category of membership (Architects) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

Country

Local Currency

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

Botswana Gambia, The

Student Retired Member Fee Member Fee

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

Botswana Pula

500.00

400.00

70.00

500.00

500.00

300.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Ghana

Cedi (GHS)

23.00

12.00

11.00

11.00

11.00

no data

Kenya

Kenya Shillings

7,500.00

3,750.00

500.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Mauritius

MUR

2,000.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Namibia

Namibian Dollars N$

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Nigeria

Naira

Rwanda

Rwandan Franc

10,000.00

6,500.00

0.00

0.00

20,000.00

0.00

500,000.00

300,000.00

50,000.00

250,000.00

1,000,000.00

750,000.00

South Africa

ZA Rand

900.00

483.00

0.00

448.00

0.00

0.00

Uganda

Uganda Shillings

224.00

101.00

94.00

no data

24.00

no data

Zambia

KWACHA

2,000.00

no data

750.00

0.00

0.00

no data

Bangladesh

BDT (Bangladeshi Taka)

1,500.00

1,000.00

300.00

no data

1,500.00

no data

India

Indian Rupees

0.00

1,000.00

200.00

0.00

2,000.00

0.00

Malaysia

Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)

500.00

190.00

0.00

250.00

500.00

190.00

Pakistan

PKR

no data

1,500.00

no data

0.00

1,500.00

1,500.00

Singapore

SGD

550.00

250.00

50.00

250.00

1,500.00

2,500.00

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan Rupees (SLR)

0.00

4,000.00

250.00

0.00

7,000.00

0.00

Antigua & B.

Eastern Caribbean dollar (EC)

250.00

100.00

50.00

No data

no data

no data

Belize

Dollars

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Canada

Canadian Dollar (CAD)

385.00

415.00

0.00

185.00

385.00

415.00

Dominica

Xcd

240.00

120.00

60.00

0.00

no data

no data

Trinidad & T.

TTD

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Cyprus

Euro

no data

20.00

0.00

no data

no data

no data

Malta

Euro

100.00

0.00

0.00

12.00

no data

no data

UK

Pound Sterling GBP

425.00

255.00

0.00

86.00

no data

127.00

Other

Hong Kong SAR

HKD

2,400.00

2,400.00

100.00

1,000.00

3,600.00

1,200.00

Australia

AUD

1,060.00

745.00

30.00

245.00

1,060.00

530.00

Pacific

Fiji

Fijian

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

New Zealand

New Zealand Dollar

482.00

178.00

0.00

97.00

482.00

257.00

Europe

64

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 32 Membership fees by category of membership (Town Planners) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Local Currency

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

Botswana Ghana

Student Retired Member Fee Member Fee

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

BWP

500.00

500.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

Ghana Cedis (Gh¢)

200.00

no data

no data

100.00

300.00

no data

Mauritius

Mauritian Rupee

1,000.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Nigeria

Naira

5,000.00

1,000.00

1,000.00

0.00

10,000.00

0.00

South Africa

ZAR

770.00

770.00

0.00

171.00

192.00

no data

Tanzania

Tanzanian Shilling (TZS)

30,000.00

30,000.00

15,000.00

30,000.00

30,000.00

30,000.00

Malaysia

Ringgit Malaysia (RM)

150.00

100.00

30.00

0.00

150.00

no data

Singapore

Singapore dollars

150.00

no data

20.00

0.00

200.00

100.00

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan Rupee

2,000.00

1,000.00

0.00

0.00

3,000.00

no data

Barbados

Barbados Dollar (1USD = 2BDS)

100.00

no data

20.00

no data

no data

50.00

Canada

Canadian Dollar

191.00

191.00

0.00

75.00

no data

99.00

Trinidad & T.

Trinidad and Tobago Dollars (TTD)

500.00

300.00

100.00

0.00

0.00

200.00

Malta

Euro

58.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

UK

Pound sterling (ÂŁ)

300.00

150.00

90.00

60.00

300.00

90.00

Australia

$AUD

632.00

555.00

77.00

158.00

632.00

555.00

Fiji

Fiji Dollar FJD

300.00

350.00

100.00

100.00

400.00

350.00

New Zealand

New Zealand Dollars

450.00

450.00

0.00

45.00

450.00

250.00

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

Student Retired Member Fee Member Fee

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

Table 33 Membership fees by category of membership (Engineers) Region

Country

Local Currency

Botswana

Pula

900.00

900.00

150.00

900.00

900.00

900.00

Ghana

Cedi (GHS)

480.00

402.00

0.00

220.00

645.00

480.00

Mauritius

Mauritian Rupees

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Mozambique

metical (MZM)

350.00

100.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

Uganda

Uganda Shilling

200,000.00

150,000.00

20,000.00

no data

250,000.00

no data

Zambia

Zambian Kwacha (ZMW)

1,040.00

910.00

90.00

650.00

1,365.00

550.00

Asia

Malaysia

Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)

155

100

20

25% of full fee of relevant grade

265

155

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Belize dollars

no data

no data

no data

no data

300.00

no data

Grenada

Eastern Caribbean Dollar, XCD

300.00

300.00

120.00

0.00

300.00

300.00

Malta

euro

300.00

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

UK

GBP

52.00

206.00

0.00

68.00

409.00

no data

Africa

Europe

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

65


Table 34 Membership fees by category of membership (Surveyors)

Region

Africa

Country

Local Currency

Nigeria

NAIRA

Rwanda

Rwanda francs

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Tanzania

Tanzania Shillings (TZS)

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

200.00

600.00

30.00

no data

400.00

no data

1,000.00

1,000.00

25.00

no data

no data

no data

Asia

Malaysia

ringgit

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

TT$

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

10,000.00

Student Retired Member Fee Member Fee

0.00

5,000.00

Fellow Member Fee

12,500.00

Affiliate Member Fee

25,000.00

100,000.00

Figure 20

100,000

1500

90,000

1350

80,000

1200

70,000

1050

60,000

900

50,000

750

40,000

600

30,000

450

20,000

300

10,000

150

GNI per Capita

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

New Zealand

Australia

Hong Kong

United Kingdom

Malta

Dominica

Canada

Antigua & Barbuda

Chartered Architect

Singapore

Malaysia

Bangladesh

Zambia

Uganda

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Kenia

Ghana

0 Botswana

0

Chartered Membership Fee (ÂŁGBP, PPP)

GNI per Capita, PPP ($)

Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (Architects)58

Pacific

58 This figure illustrates the cost of membership in relation to Gross

National Income and shows the relative affordability of membership. Clearly, those institutes which can convert a higher proportion of registered architects as members, and can charge a relatively higher membership fee, have greater resources with which to fund activity.

66

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 21

100,000

1500

90,000

1350

80,000

1200

70,000

1050

60,000

900

50,000

750

40,000

600

30,000

450

20,000

300

10,000

150

Chartered Planner

Asia

Africa

GNI per Capita

Caribbean and Americas

New Zealand

Fiji

Australia

United Kingdom

Malta

Trinidad & Tobago

Canada

Barbados

Sri Lanka

Singapore

Malaysia

Tanzania

Nigeria

Mauritius

Ghana

0 Botswana

0

Chartered Membership Fee (ÂŁGBP, PPP)

GNI per Capita, PPP ($)

Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (Planners)

Pacific

Europe

Figure 22

100,000

1500

90,000

1350

80,000

1200

70,000

1050

60,000

900

50,000

750

40,000

600

30,000

450

20,000

300

10,000

150

Chartered Planners

Africa

Chartered Surveyor

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Asia

Europe

New Zealand

Fiji

Australia

Hong Kong

United Kingdom

Malta

Grenada

Dominica

Barbados

Canada

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

Chartered Engineer

Antigua and Barbuda

Chartered Architect

Sri Lanka

Singapore

Malaysia

Bangladesh

Zambia

Uganda

Tanzania

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Kenia

Mozambique

GNI per Capita

Ghana

0 Botswana

0

Chartered Membership Fee (ÂŁGBP, PPP)

GNI per Capita, PPP ($)

Chartered Membership Fees v GNI per Capita (All professions)

Pacific

67


Table 35 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP)59, (Architects) Region

Country

Chartered Member Fee

Botswana

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

10.83

77.37

77.37

46.42

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Ghana

7.57

3.95

3.62

3.62

3.62

no data

Kenya

105.09

52.55

7.01

0.00

0.00

0.00

87.21

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

63.64

41.36

0.00

0.00

127.27

0.00

1,184.13

710.48

118.41

592.07

2,368.26

1,776.20

Namibia Nigeria Rwanda South Africa

102.25

54.87

0.00

50.90

0.00

0.00

Uganda

0.14

0.06

0.06

no data

0.01

no data

Zambia

367.29

no data

137.73

0.00

0.00

no data

32.92

21.95

6.58

no data

32.92

no data

Bangladesh India

0.00

38.67

7.73

0.00

77.35

0.00

Malaysia

242.45

92.13

0.00

121.23

242.45

92.13

Pakistan

no data

35.84

no data

0.00

35.84

35.84

Singapore

448.87

204.03

40.81

204.03

1,224.18

2,040.30

Sri Lanka Antigua & B. Caribbean and Americas

Retired Member Fee

61.90

Mauritius

Asia

Student Member Fee

77.37

Gambia, The

Africa

Associate Member Fee

Belize Canada

56.59

3.54

0.00

99.04

0.00

41.66

20.83

no data

no data

no data

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

216.57

233.45

0.00

104.07

216.57

233.45

90.06

45.03

22.52

0.00

no data

no data

Trinidad & Tobago

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Cyprus

no data

22.20

0.00

no data

no data

no data

Europe

Malta

116.98

0.00

0.00

14.04

no data

no data

United Kingdom

425.00

255.00

0.00

86.00

no data

127.00

Other

Hong Kong SAR

284.50

284.50

11.85

118.54

426.76

142.25

Australia

518.04

364.10

14.66

119.74

518.04

259.02

Fiji

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

New Zealand

228.28

84.30

0.00

45.94

228.28

121.72

Pacific

Dominica

0.00 104.14

59 2018 Data from database: World Development Indicators, https://

databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=2&series=PA.NUS. PPP&country=#, last Updated: 12/20/2019

68

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 36 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Town Planners) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe

Pacific

Country

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

Student Member Fee

Retired Member Fee

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

Botswana

77.37

77.37

no data

no data

no data

no data

Ghana

65.82

no data

no data

32.91

98.74

no data

Mauritius

43.61

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Nigeria

31.82

6.36

6.36

0.00

63.64

0.00

South Africa

87.48

87.48

0.00

19.43

21.81

no data

Tanzania

28.34

28.34

14.17

28.34

28.34

28.34

Malaysia

72.74

48.49

14.55

0.00

72.74

no data

Singapore

122.42

no data

16.32

0.00

163.22

81.61

Sri Lanka

28.30

14.15

0.00

0.00

42.44

no data

Barbados

36.19

no data

7.24

no data

no data

18.09

107.44

107.44

0.00

42.19

no data

55.69

Trinidad & Tobago

96.64

57.98

19.33

0.00

0.00

38.65

Malta

67.85

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

United Kingdom

300.00

150.00

90.00

60.00

300.00

90.00

Australia

308.87

271.24

37.63

77.22

308.87

271.24

Fiji

174.69

203.81

58.23

58.23

232.93

203.81

New Zealand

213.13

213.13

0.00

21.31

213.13

118.40

Canada

Table 37 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Engineers) Region

Country Botswana

Africa

Chartered Member Fee 139.27

Associate Member Fee 139.27

Student Member Fee 23.21

Retired Member Fee 139.27

Fellow Member Fee 139.27

Affiliate Member Fee 139.27

Ghana

157.98

132.31

0.00

72.41

212.28

157.98

Mauritius

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

11.88

3.40

no data

no data

no data

no data

Uganda

121.36

91.02

12.14

no data

151.70

no data

Mozambique Zambia

190.99

167.12

16.53

119.37

250.68

101.01

Asia

Malaysia

75.16

75.16

9.70

25% of relevant grade

128.50

75.16

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

no data

no data

no data

no data

185.94

no data

Grenada

113.75

113.75

45.50

0.00

113.75

113.75

Malta

350.94

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

52.00

206.00

0.00

68.00

409.00

no data

Europe

United Kingdom

Table 38 Membership Fees, (Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in GBP), (Surveyors) Region

Country

Chartered Member Fee

Associate Member Fee

Student Member Fee

Retired Member Fee

Fellow Member Fee

Affiliate Member Fee

Nigeria

63.64

0.00

31.82

79.55

159.09

636.37

Rwanda

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Tanzania

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Asia

Malaysia

96.98

290.94

14.55

no data

193.96

no data

Caribbean & A.

Trinidad & Tobago

193.27

193.27

4.83

no data

no data

no data

Africa

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

69


4.6 MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

Table 39 Membership of international and regional Architectural associations Affiliations Region

Country

ACE

ARCASIA AUA

CAA

Canberra Accord

SAARCH

UIA

UMAR

Other

Botswana

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

-

Gambia, The

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

-

Ghana

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

CEC, CAP, CASLE

Kenya

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

CEC, CAP, CASLE, AAQS, ISOCARP, APSEA, EAIA, IFLA, IPMA

Africa

Mauritius

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

N

-

Namibia

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

Namibian Council for Architects and Quantity Surveyors

Nigeria

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

-

Rwanda

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

AAQS, East Africa Institute of Architects (EAIA)

South Africa

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

Icomos, DoCoMoMo

Uganda

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

East African Institute of Architects

Zambia

N

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

-

Bangladesh

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

-

India

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

Y

N

-

Malaysia

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

N

Eastern Regional Organisation on Planning & Housing (EAROPH), International Council on

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)

Pakistan

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Y

N

-

Singapore

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

N

-

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

-

Antigua & B.

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

-

Belize

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

-

Canada

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

-

Dominica

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

ACSAC, FCAA

Trinidad & T.

N

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

Association of Commonwealth Societies of Architects in the Caribbean, Federation of Caribbean Association of Architects

Europe Other

Cyprus

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

-

Malta

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

Y

European Council of Civil Engineers

UK

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

-

Hong Kong SAR

N

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

N

-

Australia

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

American Institute of Architects, New Zealand Institute of Architects, Royal Architecture Institute of

Pacific

70

Canada, Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia

Fiji

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

-

New Zealand

N

N

N

N

N

N

Y

N

MoU RAIC, MoU RAIA

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 40 Membership of international and regional Town Planning associations Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe

Country

Affiliations CAP

GPEAN

GPN

P4CA

Other

Botswana

Y

N

N

N

-

Ghana

Y

N

N

N

-

Mauritius

Y

N

N

N

-

Nigeria

Y

N

N

N

-

South Africa

Y

N

Y

N

APA (African Planning Association) network formation

Tanzania

Y

N

N

N

-

Malaysia

Y

N

N

N

EAROPH

Singapore

Y

N

N

N

ASEAN Institute of planners, EAROPH, YSELI, etc

Sri Lanka

Y

N

N

N

-

Barbados

Y

N

N

N

Caribbean Planners Association

Canada

Y

N

Y

Y

-

Trinidad & T.

Y

N

N

N

-

Malta

Y

N

N

N

ECTP-CEU (European Council of Spatial Planners)

United Kingdom

Y

N

Y

N

European Council of Spatial Planners (ECTP‐CEU), Global Alliance for Urban Crises, World Urban Campaign, International Federation for Housing and Planning

Pacific

Australia

Y

N

Y

N

-

Fiji

Y

N

N

N

-

New Zealand

N

N

Y

Y

-

Table 41 Membership of international and regional Engineering associations Region

Country

Affiliations FAEO

Botswana

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Ghana

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Mauritius

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

-

Mozambique

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Ordem dos Engenheiros de Portugal (OEP)

Uganda

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

EAFEO and MoU with SAICE, EWB‐USA

Zambia

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Southern Africa Engineering Organisation (SAFEO)

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

-

-

-

-

Y

FEIIC, APEC, FEIAP, ITA

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Y

N

N

N

Y

N

Y

FOICAP - the Central America association for engineering

Grenada

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

-

Malta

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

United Kingdom

Y

N

N

N

N

N

Y

Africa

FEANI

FEISCA

UPADI

WCCE

WFEO

Other

CEC

Europe

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

West African Federation of Engineering Organisations (WAFEO)

Institution of Civil Engineers UK, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Engineering and Technology ECCE (European Council of Civil Engineers), ECEC (European Council of Engineering Chambers) - Associate member only

71


Table 42 Membership of international and regional Surveying associations

Region

Country

Africa

Asia Caribbean

Affiliations AAQS

CASLE

FIG

GLTN

PAQS

Other

Nigeria

Y

Y

Y

N

N

ICEC

Rwanda

N

N

N

N

N

AFRES, IVSC

Tanzania

N

N

N

N

N

-

Malaysia

N

Y

Y

N

Y

AFLAG, RISC, BSI, CABE, API, IPMS, IVSC, ASEAN VALUERS IES, PRRES FIABCI, IHS, SAA, ICES, IQAI PPC, ETC

Trinidad & T

N

Y

Y

N

N

-

Key to abbreviations Architecture ACE

Architects Council of Europe

ARCASIA Architects Regional Council Asia AUA

African Union of Architects

CAA

Commonwealth Association of Architects

SAARCH South Asian Association of Architects UIA

International Union of Architects

UMAR Union of Mediterranean Architects Engineering CEC

Commonwealth Engineers Council

FAEO

Federation of African Engineering Associations

FEANI

European Federation of National Engineering Associations

FEISCA Federation of Engineering Institutions of South and Central Asia UPADI

Pan American Federation of Engineering Societies

WCCE

World Council of Civil Engineers

WFEO

World Federation of Engineering Associations

Town Planning CAP

Commonwealth Association of Planners

GPEAN Global Planning Education Association Network GPN

Global Planners Network

P4CA

Planners for Climate Action

Quantity Surveying AAQS

African Association of Quantity Surveyors

CASLE Commonwealth Association of Surveyors and Land Economists FIG

International Federation of Surveyors

PAQS

Pacific Association of Quantity Surveyors

72

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


4.7 USE OF STUDENT COMPETITIONS60 Table 43

Asia

Botswana

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Gambia, The

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Ghana

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Kenya

Y

1

Y

Y

Awards of Excellence Children’s Design Competition

Mauritius

N

N/A

N/A

Y

Idea competition (most of the time pro‐bono design for CSOs/ NGOs)

Namibia

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Nigeria

Y

4

Y

Y

Public, Corporate and Private projects design competition

Rwanda

Y

1

Y

N

N/A

South Africa

N

N/A

N/A

Y

Architectural Competitions are sometimes run in accordance with the SAIA Guidelines which are aligned with the UIA Competition

Uganda

Y

1

N

Participation is low in terms of number of students submitting

N

N/A

Zambia

N

N/A

N/A

Designs Competitions should be part of the ZIA Calendar

Y

ZIA does sanction design competitions on application by Public and Private Consumers of Architectural Services in the Country

Bangladesh

Y

2

Y

Y

Architectural Design Competitions among the members Indoor Sports Competitions among the members. Logo/poster Design Competitions etc.

India

Y

2

N

It is difficult to synchronise with the academic schedule of 448 institutes imparting architectural education

Y

Design Competitions for Members Quiz Competitions

Malaysia

Y

15

N

Poor response

Y

Housing Competition, ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COMPETITION, Photography Competition, LOGO DESIGN COMPETITION Master Plan and Architectural Ideas Competition, Mosque Competition

Pakistan

Y

4

Y

_

_

Singapore

N

N/A

N/A

_

Y

Ideas Competition, Architectural Design Awards for Professionals

Sri Lanka

Y

1

Y

_

Y

Young Architect Award, Design Award, Colour Award, Research & Publication Award

Antigua and Barbuda

N

N/A

N/A

_

N

N/A

N

N/A

N/A

_

N

N/A

N

N/A

N/A

_

_

Caribbean Belize and Canada Americas Dominica

Europe

Other

Pacific

Reason

We do not have the resources to host a proper student competition.

The competitions have been successful so far. However, we have encountered a number of issues over the years. 1. Resources to be channelled into the competition are limited. 2. Limited access to international jurists to facilitate the competition and grade the designs per international standards

Alternative competitions

Satisfactory response

Africa

Country

Frequency (per year)

Region

Organised Student Design Competitions

Use of Student Competitions, (Architecture)

Competition description

N

N/A

N/A

_

N

N/A

Trinidad and Tobago

N

N/A

N/A

_

N

N/A

Cyprus

Y

1

Y

_

N

N/A

Malta

N

N/A

N/A

_

Y

Sustainable Communities Design Competition Emanuele Luigi Galizia Awards

United Kingdom

Y

2

Y

Y

Open Design and Open Ideas Competitions Invited Design Competitions, Competitive Interviews

Hong Kong SAR

Y

2

Y

Y

Furniture Design Competition

Australia

Y

2

N

Fiji

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

New Zealand

Y

1

Y

Y

Architectural Writing, offsite manufacturing, government memorials, site specific projects

Low participation Rate

60 These tables show the way in which student competitions are being used to stimulate engagement with younger members of the profession. The RIBA’S annual ‘Presidents Medal’ dates to 1836 and attracts entries from around the world. The

RTPI engages students at primary and secondary school level in The RTPI World Town Planning Day School Competition. Engaging students at such a young age stimulates an awareness of the planning process and equips them to make more informed choices when contemplating their future careers.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

73


Table 44

Africa

Asia

N

N/A

N/A

-

-

-

Ghana

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

Mauritius

N

N/A

N/A

-

Y

Community issues presentations, discussion forums

Nigeria

N

N/A

N/A

-

South Africa

Y

1

Y

-

Y

SAPI has a biennial awards programme; SAPI National Awards were established in 2008 to: Reflect on and recognize the valuable contributions that individuals and organizations make, inspire their continued involvement and those of others, promote the key role of the planning profession in public life. Every two years SAPI recognizes valuable contributions and extraordinary performance in all aspects of the planning profession

Tanzania

N

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Malaysia

Y

1

Y

Low response

Y

1. MIP planning excellence award 2. MYPLACE award

Singapore

Y

0

Y

-

Y

SIP planning awards.

Sri Lanka

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

Barbados

N

N/A

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

N

N/A

N/A

-

Y

CIP President's award; President's award for Young Planners, Award for Planning Excellence; Awards for Academic Excellence; Vision in Planning Award; Plan Canada Award, National Urban Design Awards

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

Malta

N

N/A

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

United Kingdom

N

N/A

N/A

-

Y

The RTPI World Town Planning Day School Competition. The competition is open to planning- themed creative entries from primary and secondary

Australia

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

Fiji

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

New Zealand

N

N/A

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Canada Caribbean and Americas Trinidad & T Europe

Pacific

74

Reason

Alternative competitions

Botswana

Satisfactory response

Country

No. per annum

Region

Organised Student Design Competitions

Use of Student Competitions, (Town Planning)

Competition description

school pupils.

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 45

Reason

Alternative competitions

Satisfactory response

Country

No. per annum

Region

Organised Student Design Competitions

Use of Student Competitions, (Engineering)

Competition description

Botswana

N

N/A

N/A

Ghana

Y

1

N

Mauritius

-

-

-

Mozambique

N

N/A

N/A

N/A

N

N/A

Uganda

N

N/A

N/A

-

Y

Competition on innovation concepts

Zambia

Y

1

Y

-

Y

Paperate Competition for University Students

Malaysia

Y

2

Y

-

-

Final Year Project Paper, STEM Quiz, Essay Writing

Caribbean Belize and Grenada Americas

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

N

N/A

N/A

-

N

N/A

Malta

Y

6

Y

-

Y

PATW and SOFE, ICE Photography competition.

United Kingdom

N

N/A

N/A

-

Y

People's Choice Award, Emerging Engineers Award, Pitch 180, Renee Redfern Hunt Prize, Karen Burt Award, Student Prize, Graduate and Student Communications Competition, Chris Binnie Award for Sustainable Water Management

Africa

Asia

Europe

Not getting broad participation

N

N/A

Y

Engineering excellence awards

-

Table 46

Nigeria

N

N/A

N/A

Africa

Rwanda

N

N/A

N/A

Tanzania

N

N/A

N/A

Asia

Malaysia

Y

200

Y

N

N/A

N/A

Caribbean Trinidad and and Tobago Americas

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Reason

N/A yes

Alternative competitions

Satisfactory response

Country

No. per annum

Region

Organised Student Design Competitions

Use of Student Competitions, (Surveying)

Competition description

Y

INTER SCHOOL QUIZ COMPETITION

N

N/A

N

N/A

Y

SPORT, GAME, EDUCATION

Y

The ISTT awards prizes for the best projects submitted by students in the BSc Geomatics and BSc Land Management (Valuation) programmes at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

75


5 5

THE PROFESSION

5.1 REGULATION OF THE PROFESSION Table 47 Regulation of the Architectural Profession Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Profession regulation

Law under which the profession is regulated

Name of regulator

Botswana

Externally Regulated

The Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Registration Council is established by Act of Parliament-Cap.61:08,

The Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Registration Council

Gambia, The

Unregulated

Ghana

Self-regulated

Kenya

Externally Regulated

Architects and Quantity Surveyors Act

Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity Surveyors

Professional Architects' Council Act (Pac Act)

Professional Architects' Council

Mauritius

Externally Regulated

Namibia

Self-regulated

Nigeria

Externally Regulated

Laws of the Federation of Nigeria

Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON)

Rwanda

Self-regulated

Law no: 26/2012 Governing the Profession of Architecture in Rwanda

Rwanda Institute of Architects

South Africa

Externally Regulated

The Act for the Architectural Profession - Act 44 of 2000

The South African Council for the Architectural Profession - SACAP

Uganda

Externally Regulated

Architects Registration Act, 1996

Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Zambia

Externally Regulated

Zambia Institute of Architects Act No. 36 Of 1995

Zambia Institute of Architects

Bangladesh

Self-regulated

India

Externally Regulated

Architects Act 1972

Council of Architecture, India

Malaysia

Externally Regulated

Architects Act

The Board of Architects Malaysia

Pakistan

Externally Regulated

Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners Ordinance 1983 (Ordinance IX of 1983)

PACTP (Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners)

Singapore

Externally Regulated

Architects Act

Board of Architects, Singapore

Sri Lanka

Externally Regulated

Regulated by a gazette notification as an amendment to the original act; (act of Parliament; No.1 of 1976)

Extraordinary Government Gazette notification of Regulation of SLIA

Antigua and Barbuda

Externally Regulated

Antigua & Barbuda Architects Registration Act (1986) (Architects Professions Act 2018)

Ministry of Legal Affairs

Externally Regulated

Regulated under the individual acts and regulations of each province or territory

See individual act by province or territory

Externally Regulated

Dominica Architecture Profession Act 2003

Board of Architects

Trinidad and Tobago

Externally Regulated

Architecture profession act, act 19 of 1992

Board of architecture of Trinidad and Tobago

Cyprus

Externally Regulated

Law 224/1990

Technical Chamber of Cyprus (ETEK)

Malta

Self-regulated

UK

Externally Regulated

Architects Act 1997

Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Hong Kong SAR

Externally Regulated

Architects Registration Ordinance

Architects Registration Board, HKSAR

Australia

Externally Regulated

Architects Act (State and Territory)

Architects Registration Board

Fiji

Externally Regulated

Architects Registration Act

Registrar of Architects

Registered Architects Act 2005

New Zealand Registered Architects Board

Caribbean Canada & Americas Dominica

Europe Other Pacific

New Zealand Externally Regulated

76

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 48 Regulation of the Town Planning Profession Region

Country

Profession regulation

Law under which the profession is regulated

Name of regulator

Botswana

Externally Regulated

Town and Country Planning Act, 2013

Department of Town and Country Planning

Ghana

Self-regulated

-

-

Mauritius

Externally Regulated

Planning and Development Act 2004, Council of Professional Planners 2018 (Bill-not enacted yet) Town and Country Planning Act 1954, Local Government Act 2011, EPA Act 2014

Ministry of Housing and Lands, Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Environment

Nigeria

Externally Regulated

Decree 3 of 1988 (Cap T7 LFN 2004)

Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria

South Africa

Externally Regulated

Planning Profession Act 36 2002

SACPLAN

Tanzania

Externally Regulated

Town Planners Registration Act (Act No. 7 of 20007)

Tow Planners Registration Board (TPRB)

Malaysia

Externally Regulated

Town Planners Act 1995 (Act 538)

Board of Town Planners Malaysia

Pakistan

Externally Regulated

Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners Ordinance 1983 (Ordinance IX of 1983)

PACTP (Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners)

Singapore

Self-regulated

-

-

Sri Lanka

Self-regulated

-

-

Barbados

Unregulated

-

-

Canada

Externally Regulated

Many, which are provincially based.

-

Trinidad & T.

Self-regulated

-

-

Malta

Unregulated

-

-

UK

Self-regulated

-

-

Australia

Unregulated

-

-

Fiji

Unregulated

-

--

New Zealand

Self-regulated

-

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas Europe

Pacific

Table 49 Regulation of the Engineering Profession Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Profession regulation

Law under which the profession is regulated

Name of regulator

Botswana

Self-regulated

-

-

Ghana

Externally Regulated

Engineering Council Act 819, 2011

Engineering Council of Ghana

Mauritius

Externally Regulated

Council of Registered Professional Engineers Act of 1966

Council of Registered Professional Engineers Board

Mozambique

Self-regulated

-

-

Uganda

Externally Regulated

Engineers Registration Act of 1969

Engineers Registration Board

Zambia

Self-regulated

Malaysia

Externally Regulated

The Registration of Engineers Act 1967

Board of Engineers Malaysia

Self-regulated

826

APEB

Unregulated

An Engineers' Registration Act was passed in 2014 but not yet enforced.

-

-

-

Self-regulated

-

-

Caribbean & Belize Americas Grenada Europe

Malta UK

Table 50 Regulation of the Surveying Profession Region

Country

Profession regulation

Law under which the profession is regulated

Name of regulator

Nigeria

Externally Regulated

Quantity Surveying Registration Board of Nigeria Act

Quantity Surveying Registration Board of Nigeria (QSRBN)

Africa

Rwanda

Externally Regulated

Law No. 17/2010 of 12/05/2010

Council of Regulation of the Real Property Profession in Rwanda

Tanzania

Self-regulated

-

-

Asia

Malaysia

Self-regulated

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

Externally Regulated

Only the Registered, Licensed Land Surveyors are regulated by the Land Surveyors Act 1996. Other professional members are not regulated.

The Land Survey Board of Trinidad and Tobago

Caribbean & Americas

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

77


5.2 LICENSING REQUIREMENTS Table 51 Licensing requirements, (Architecture)61 Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

Country

Registration / license mandatory?

Name of registration/licensing body

Work experience/practical training required for a licence

No. of weeks

Botswana

Y

The Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Registration Council

Y

104

Gambia, The

N

-

N

-

Ghana

N

-

N

-

Kenya

Y

BORAQS

Y

104

Mauritius

Y

PAC

Y

104

Namibia

Y

NCAQS

Y

104

Nigeria

Y

Architects Registration Council of Nigeria

Y

104

Rwanda

Y

Rwanda Institute of Architects / Board of Registration

Y

96

South Africa

Y

South African Council for the Architectural

Profession

Y

104

Uganda

Y

Architects Registration Board

Y

144

Zambia

Y

Zambia Institute of Architects

Y

104

Bangladesh

Y

Institute of Architects Bangladesh for registration, City corporation for license

Y

96

India

Y

Council of Architecture, India

Y

6

Malaysia

Y

The Board of Architects Malaysia

Y

156

Pakistan

Y

Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners

N/A

52

Singapore

Y

-

Y

104

Sri Lanka

Y

Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Y

104

Antigua and Barbuda

N

-

Y

156

Canada

Y

Provincially self-regulating professional associations

Y

104

Dominica

Y

Board of Architects

Y

156

Trinidad & T.

N

-

Y

156

Cyprus

Y

Technical Chamber of Cyprus

Y

52

Malta

Y

Periti Warranting Board

Y

52

United Kingdom

Y

ARB - it is mandatory to be registered with the ARB in order to practice as an architect in the UK

Y

104

Hong Kong SAR

Y

Architects Registration Board

Y

96

Australia

Y

Architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s registration board

Y

24

Fiji

Y

Architects Registration Board

Y

104

New Zealand

N

N

-

61 It is interesting to note that Bangladesh, Rwanda and Zambia are

the only three countries where the registration body is also the membership body.

78

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 52 Licensing requirements, (Town Planning) Region

Africa

Asia Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Registration / license mandatory?

Name of registration/licensing body

Work experience/practical No. of weeks training required for a licence

Botswana

Y

Department of Town and Country Planning

Y

96

Ghana

Y

Ghana Institute of Planners

Y

104

Mauritius

N

-

Y

2

Nigeria

Y

Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria

Y

104

South Africa

Y

SACPLAN

Y

114

Tanzania

Y

Town Planners Registration Board (TPRB)

Y

416

Malaysia

Y

Board of Town Planners Malaysia

Sri Lanka

N

Barbados

N

Canada

Y

96

Y

36

BTPS is promoting a Planning Profession Bill to make registration necessary

N

-

N

-

Y

104

Trinidad & T.

N

-

N

-

Malta

N

-

N

-

United Kingdom

N

-

N/A

-

Australia

N

Yes: South Australia (State)

N/A

-

Fiji

-

-

-

-

New Zealand

N

-

N/A

-

Table 53 Licensing requirements, (Engineering) Region

Country

Registration / license mandatory?

Botswana

Y

Ghana

Y

Mozambique

Y

Uganda

Name of registration/licensing body

Work experience/practical No. of weeks training required for a licence Y

-

Engineering Council of Ghana

Y

156

Ordem dos Engeneheiros de Mocambique

Y

104

Y

Engineers Registration Board

Y

4

Zambia

Y

Engineering Registration Board

Y

208

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Board of Engineers Malaysia

Y

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Y

APEB

Y

208

Grenada

N

Engineers' Registration Act no enforced.

N

-

Europe

UK

N

-

N/A

-

Africa

Table 54 Licensing requirements, (Surveying) Region

Africa

Country

Registration / license mandatory?

Name of registration/licensing body

Work experience/practical No. of weeks training required for a licence

Nigeria

Y

Quantity Surveying Registration Body of Nigeria

Y

156

Rwanda

Y

Council of regulation of Real Property Valuation Profession in Rwanda

Y

160

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Boards

Y

156

Caribbean & A.

Trinidad & T.

N

-

Y

104

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

79


5.3 REGULATION GOVERNING SUPPLANTING AND ADVERTISING62 Table 55 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Architecture) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Other Pacific

Country

Is supplanting problematic? Is advertising allowed?

Botswana

Y

Y

Gambia, The

N

N

Ghana

N

N

Kenya

Y

N

Mauritius

Y

N

Namibia

Y

N

Nigeria

Y

N

Rwanda

Y

N

South Africa

N

Y

Uganda

N

N

Zambia

Y

N

Bangladesh

N

N

India

N

N

Malaysia

Y

N

Pakistan

Y

N

Singapore

N

N

Sri Lanka

Y

N

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

N

Canada

N

Y

Dominica

Y

Y

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

N

Cyprus

Y

N

Malta

Y

Y

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Hong Kong SAR

N

N

Australia

N

Y

Fiji

N

N

New Zealand

N

Y

62 When the matter of supplanting was raised in the CAAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s survey of

1985, Australia reported that this issue gave rise to the greatest number of complaints, but this issue has since become the subject of regulation and is now less problematic. Interestingly, and despite regulation, it appears to remain an issue in several other countries. In the 2017 survey, 50% of architecture institutes reported supplanting as a problem. In this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s survey, that has increased to 57%. Supplanting appears to be much less of an issue for other disciplines.

80

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 56 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Town Planning) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe

Pacific

Country

Is supplanting problematic? Is advertising allowed?

Botswana

N

Y

Mauritius

N

-

Nigeria

N

N

South Africa

N

Y

Tanzania

N

N

Malaysia

Y

N

Singapore

N

N

Sri Lanka

N

N

Barbados

N

Y

Canada

N

Y

Trinidad & Tobago

N

Y

Malta

N

Y

United Kingdom

N

Y

Australia

N

Y

Fiji

N

-

New Zealand

N

Y

Table 57 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Engineering) Region

Country

Is supplanting problematic?

Botswana

Y

N

Ghana

N

N

Mauritius

N

N

Mozambique

Y

N

Uganda

Y

N

Zambia

N

Y

Asia

Malaysia

N

Y

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

N

Y

Grenada

N

N

Europe

United Kingdom

N

Y

Africa

Is advertising allowed?

Table 58 Regulation governing supplanting and advertising, (Surveying) Region

Country

Is supplanting problematic?

Is advertising allowed?

Nigeria

Y

N

Rwanda

N

N

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

Caribbean & A.

Trinidad & T.

N

N

Africa

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

81


5.4 NUMBER OF REGISTERED PROFESSIONALS AND GRADUATES IN EACH COUNTRY Table 59 Number of registered professionals and graduates in each country, (Architecture) Country

2016

2017

2018

17-18 Growth Rate (%)

Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

Registered Professionals per thousand 2018

Graduates

12,363

13,573

13,708

1.0%

5.4%

0.033

4,968

172

210

249

18.6%

20.3%

0.110

60

11

11

11

0.0%

0.0%

0.005

11

Ghana

233

333

333

Kenya

558

582

Mauritius

190

Africa Botswana Gambia, The

Namibia Nigeria

0.0%

21.5%

0.011

3,344

63

6.2%

5.2%

0.012

652

200

210

5.0%

5.1%

0.167

50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6918

7444

7468

0.3%

4.0%

0.038

0

618

93

135

178

31.9%

38.5%

0.014

42

3,772

4,029

41,53

3.1%

4.9%

0.072

614

Uganda

170

200

221

10.5%

14.1%

0.005

101

Zambia

246

429

267

-37.8%

18.3%

0.015

94

73,792

84,338

104,055

23.4%

18.8%

0.058

15,537

3,020

3,350

3,350

0.0%

5.5%

0.021

250

64,171

73,762

87,674

18.9%

16.9%

0.065

15,000

Malaysia

-

-

3,355

-

-

0.106

-

Pakistan

5,446

6,028

6,980

15.8%

13.2%

0.033

-

-

-

1,284

-

-

0.228

-

Sri Lanka

1,155

1,198

1,412

17.9%

10.8%

0.065

287

Caribbean & A.

9,746

119

10,265

-

-

0.263

1,231

19

21

21

0.0%

5.3%

0.218

20

-

-

6

-

-

0.016

-

9,626

-

10,136

-

-

0.274

1200

7

7

6

-14.3%

-7.1%

0.084

11

94

91

96

5.5%

1.2%

0.069

-

41,640

43,315

44,585

2.9%

3.5%

0.654

200

2,167

2,335

2,389

2.3%

5.0%

2.009

200

962

993

1,026

3.3%

3.3%

2.122

0

38,511

39,987

41,170

3.0%

3.4%

0.619

-

Other

3,439

3,619

3,723

2.9%

4.1%

0.500

130

Hong Kong SAR

3,439

3,619

3,723

2.9%

4.1%

0.500

130

Pacific

1,876

15,496

15,510

0.1%

363.1%

0.504

1971

-

13,567

13,567

0.0%

-

0.543

1300

Rwanda South Africa

Asia Bangladesh India

Singapore

Antigua & B. Belize Canada Dominica Trinidad & Tobago Europe Cyprus Malta United Kingdom

Australia Fiji New Zealand

30

30

29

-3.3%

-1.7%

0.033

20

1,846

1,899

1,914

0.8%

1.8%

0.392

651

63 In May 2020, The Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity

Surveyors (BORAQS) Kenya, gives the total number of registered architects as being 868. https://boraqs.or.ke/about-us/what-we-do/

82

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 23 Registered Professionals per thousand head of population (Architects)64 Registered Professionals per thousand head of population 0.110

Botswana

Africa

Gambia, The

0.005

Ghana

0.011

Kenya

0.012

Mauritius

0.167

Nigeria

0.038

Rwanda

0.014

South Africa Uganda

0.072 0.005

Zambia

0.015

Bangladesh

0.021

Asia

India

0.065

Malaysia

0.073

Pakistan

0.028

Singapore

0.228

Sri Lanka

0.065

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Belize

0.218 0.016

Canada

0.274

Dominica

0.084

Trinidad and Tobago

0.069

United Kingdom

0.619

Pacific

Hong Kong

0.500

Australia Fiji

0.543 0.033

New Zealand 0.000

0.392

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

0.600

0.700

64 Cyprus (2.01) and Malta (2.12) omitted for clarity owing to the fact

that their members also include defined as engineers

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

83


Figure 24 Registered Professionals and Total members (Architects, >10,000 members)

Registered Professionals and Practising Members (>10,000)

100000 90000 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0

India Asia

Canada Caribbean and Americas

United Kingdom Europe

Australia Pacific

Figure 25 Registered Professionals and Total members (Architects, <10,000 members)

Registered Professionals and Practising Members (<10,000) 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000

Registered Architects 2018

Africa

Asia

Practicing Members 2018

84

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Caribbean and Europe Americas

New Zealand

Fiji

Hong Kong

Malta

Cyprus

Trinidad & Tobago

Dominica

Belize

Antigua & Barbuda

Sri Lanka

Singapore

Pakistan

Malaysia

Bangladesh

Zambia

Uganda

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Kenia

Ghana

Gambia, The

Botswana

0

Pacific

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 26 Professional and Membership Growth (>10%) Professional and Membership Growth (>10%) 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Botswana

Ghana

Rwanda

Uganda

Zambia

India

Pakistan Sri Lanka Antigua & Belize Barbuda

Africa

Caribbean and Americas

Asia

Figure 27 Professional and Membership Growth (<10%) Professional and Membership Growth (<10%) 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% -2.0% -4.0%

Africa

Professional Growth Rate

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

New Zealand

Fiji

Australia

Hong Kong

UK

Malta

Cyprus

Trnidad ^Tobago

Dominica

Canada

Singapore

Bangladesh

South Africa

Nigeria

Mauritius

-8.0%

Kenia

-6.0%

Pacific

Membership Growth Rate

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

85


Table 60 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Town Planning) Country

Africa

2016

2017

2018

17-18 Growth Rate (%)

1986

2268

3411

201

200

190

Ghana

-

-

Mauritius

-

Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

Registered Professionals per thousand 2018

Graduates

-

0.010

1852

-5.0%

-2.7%

0.084

20

644

-

-

0.022

-

-

22

-

-

0.018

10

1265

1478

1608

8.8%

12.8%

0.008

1322

520

590

630

6.8%

10.1%

0.011

500

-

-

317

-

-

0.006

-

Asia

651

710

739

-

0.013

1072

Malaysia

511

530

549

3.6%

3.7%

0.017

792

Singapore

140

180

190

5.6%

17.1%

0.034

0

0

0

0

-

-

0.000

280

42

42

6246

-

0.161

39

0

0

0

-

0.000

24

Botswana

Nigeria South Africa Tanzania

Sri Lanka Caribbean and Americas Barbados

-

-

-

6200

-

-

0.167

0

42

42

46

9.5%

4.8%

0.033

15

Europe

0

0

21919

0.327

0

Malta

0

0

90

-

-

0.000

0

United Kingdom

-

-

21919

-

-

0.330

-

Pacific

-

-

5501

-

-

0.179

376

Australia

-

-

4579

-

-

0.183

-

Fiji

-

-

25

-

-

0.028

-

New Zealand

-

-

897

-

-

0.184

376

Canada Trinidad and Tobago 65

65 While town planning is not a legally recognised profession in Malta,

it is understood that there are circa 90 professionally qualified town planners in the country.

86

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 28 Registered Professional per thousand head of population (Town Planners)

Registered Professional Planners per thousand Botswana

0.084

Africa

Ghana

0.022

Mauritius

0.018

Nigeria

0.008

South Africa

0.011

Tanzania

0.006

Malaysia Asia Americas

0.017

Pakistan

0.006

Singapore

0.034

Sri Lanka

0.000

Barbados

0.000

Canada Trinidad and Tobago

0.167 0.033

Malta

0.186

United Kingdom

0.330

Pacific

Australia Fiji

0.183 0.028

New Zealand 0.000

0.184

0.050

0.100

0.150

0.200

0.250

0.300

0.350

Figure 29 Registered Professionals and Total members (Town Planners, >3,000 members)

Registered Professionals and Practising Members (>3,000) 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Canada Caribbean and Americas

United Kingdom Europe

Australia Pacific

Registered Planners 2018 Practicing Members 2018

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

87


Figure 30 Registered Professionals and Total members (Town Planners, <3,000 members) Registered Professionals and Practising Members (< 3,000)

2500

2000

1500

1000

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

Europe

New Zealand

Fiji

Malta

Trinidad & Tobago

Barbados

Sri Lanka

Singapore

Malaysia

Tanzania

South Africa

Nigeria

Mauritius

Ghana

0

Botswana

500

Pacific

Registered Planners 2018 Practicing Members 2018

88

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 61 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Engineering) Country

2016

Africa

2017

16817

Botswana

2018

17-18 Growth Rate (%)

Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

Registered Professionals per thousand 2018

Graduates

19102

26656

39.5%

26.6%

0.217

13028

700

900

1200

33.3%

31.0%

0.532

-

Ghana

5185

5633

6502

15.4%

12.0%

0.218

3173

Mauritius

1157

1198

1258

5.0%

4.3%

1.001

155

Mozambique

1950

2090

2320

11.0%

9.1%

0.079

1200

Uganda

-

-

2176

-

-

0.051

-

Zambia

7825

9281

13200

42.2%

30.4%

0.761

8500

Asia

-

-

2,019

-

-

0.064

125,000

Malaysia

-

-

2,019

-

--

0.064

125,000

156

175

186

6.3%

9.2%

0.376

30

Belize

95

100

105

5.0%

5.1%

0.274

30

Grenada

61

75

81

8.0%

15.5%

0.727

-

Europe

41136

41526

42171

1.6%

1.3%

0.630

20163

-

-

30

-

-

0.062

-

41136

41526

42141

1.5%

1.2%

0.634

20163

Caribbean and Americas

Malta United Kingdom

Table 62 Number of registered professionals and gradates in each country, (Surveying) Country

2016

2017

2018

17-18 Growth Rate (%)

Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

Registered Professionals per thousand 2018

Graduates

Africa66

3824

4009

4268

6.5%

5.6%

0.02

4303

Nigeria

3728

3897

4126

5.9%

5.2%

0.02

4131

96

112

142

26.8%

21.7%

0.01

172

Asia

-

-

8000

-

0.25

1000

Malaysia

Rwanda

-

-

8000

-

-

0.25

1000

Caribbean and Americas

101

101

101

0.0%

0.0%

0.07

150

Trinidad and Tobago

101

101

101

0.0%

0.0%

0.07

150

66 In May 2020, The Board of Registration of Architects and Quantity

Surveyors (BORAQS) Kenya, gives the total number of registered quantity surveyors as being 527. https://boraqs.or.ke/about-us/ what-we-do/

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

89


5.5 MUTUAL RECOGNITION AGREEMENTS Table 63 Mutual recognition agreements, (Architecture) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

Country

Mutual recognition agreements

Nature of agreements

Mutual recognition countries

Botswana

N

-

-

Gambia, The

N

-

-

Ghana

N

-

-

Kenya

Y

Architects Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) allows for Architects to operate within Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi without any special permits

Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi

Mauritius

Y

Foreign architects can practice architecture on a project basis whereby there is a need for a mandatory Joint Venture Agreement as per provisions of the PAC Act.

Global; as per the prescription of the PAC Act

Namibia

Y

Need to collaborate with a local company.

South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique

Nigeria

N

-

-

Rwanda

Y

We signed a regional treaty allowing a free movement of professionals and service delivery across the region, under the East Africa Institute of Architects

Uganda and Kenya

South Africa

N

-

-

Uganda

Y

Professional Qualifications, Education and Training

Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi

Zambia

N

-

-

Bangladesh

N

-

-

India

N

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Malaysia

Y

-

-

Pakistan

N

-

-

Singapore

Y

Allow fast-track cross-border registration procedures.

Asean, Australia, New Zealand

Sri Lanka

N

Antigua & Barbuda

Y

OECS Countries, CSME Countries, EU Countries

OECS Countries, CSME Countries, EU Countries

Canada

Y

-

America, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand (APEC)

Dominica

N

-

-

Trinidad & T.

N

-

-

Cyprus

Y

-

EU member countries

Malta

Y

As members of the EU, there is a system of Mutual Recognition of Architects with all member states. No other mutual recognition agreements outside this.

EU

United Kingdom

Y

European countries under the EU Mutual Recognition of Professional Qualifications Directive

EU and EEA Countries

Hong Kong SAR

N

Australia

Y

Fiji

N

New Zealand

Y

Europe

Other

Pacific

90

facilitate the registration of an architect licensed in a participating U.S. jurisdiction as an Australian architect or New Zealand architect;

National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, (USA), New Zealand Registered Architects Board

The national and federal architects' registration bodies of Australia, the USA and New Zealand are signatories to the Australia, United States of America, New Zealand Mutual Recognition Arrangement. This means that an eligible New Zealand (or Australian) architect can apply for licensure in those participating US states and territories that have chosen to be parties to the arrangement.

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Australia, APEC, US

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 64 Mutual recognition agreements, (Town Planning) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Mutual recognition agreements

Nature of agreements

Mutual recognition countries

Botswana

N

-

-

Ghana

N

-

-

Mauritius

N

-

-

Nigeria

Y

Registered Town Planners in such countries are recognized as qualified to practice Town planning in Nigeria and Vice versa

Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Gambia, and Senegal.

South Africa

N

Qualifications are verified by the SAQA to enable professionals to practice

Tanzania

N

-

-

Malaysia

N

-

-

Singapore

Y

Members with recognized degrees from Commonwealth countries and with requisite working experience. Degrees from top planning schools from other countries are accredited courses recognised by their respective countries + planning experience + exams.

No formal agreements. Planning degree from Singapore university or recognized by RTPI, Planning Accreditation Board (US), CIP, PIA and NZPI.

Sri Lanka

N

Barbados

Y

There is freedom of movement of professionals in CARICOM.

Effectively all CARICOM members

Canada

Y

An expedited process to become a certified professional in Canada

Australia, USA

Trinidad & T.

N

-

-

Malta

Y

European free movement of citizens

EU member states

UK

N

-

-

Australia

N

-

-

Fiji

N

-

-

New Zealand

Y

Formal and informal reciprocal arrangements

Australia (PIA), UK (RTPI), Ireland (IPI)

Table 65 Mutual recognition agreements, (Engineering) Region

Country

Mutual recognition agreements

Nature of agreements

Mutual recognition countries

Botswana

Y

MOU between other engineering institutions

South Africa, United Kingdom

Ghana

Y

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

Members of FAEO, Members of WFEO, ICE, ASCE, ASME

Mauritius

N

-

-

Mozambique

Y

The effective members of OrdEM and OEP can work in Portugal or Mozambique respectively

Portugal

Uganda

Y

Mutual recognition agreements under EAC and Commonwealth

Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Commonwealth countries

Zambia

N

-

-

Asia

Malaysia

Y

-

Australia

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Y

CSME

All Caribbean nations part of CARICOM

Grenada

N

-

-

United Kingdom

Y

Mutual recognition of professional qualifications (CEng, IEng and EngTech)

Ireland, Australia, Hong Kong SAR, South Africa, New Zealand, European Union

Africa

Europe Table 66

Mutual recognition agreements, (Surveying) Region

Country

Mutual recognition agreements

Nature of agreements

Mutual recognition countries

Nigeria

N

-

-

Rwanda

N

-

-

Asia

Malaysia

Y

MOU

Indonesia etc

Caribbean & A

Trinidad & T.

N

-

-

Africa

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

91


5.6 LEGAL FORMS OF ASSOCIATION PERMITTED IN EACH COUNTRY Table 67 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Architecture) Region

Country

Partnership

Limited Liability Company

Botswana

Y

Y

-

Gambia, The

N

N

-

Ghana

N

N

-

Kenya

Y

Y

-

Mauritius

Y

Y

a freelance architect registered on the personal name at the Companies Division (Registrar of Companies) and under the Mauritius Revenue Authority (MRA); still it is mandatory to have a professional liability insurance, and in any case, the Mauritian Civil Code is applicable in every scenario (meaning that the architect is personally accountable for a period of 10 years)

Namibia

Y

N

Ltd. Pty. but just between Architects.

Nigeria

Y

Y

-

Rwanda

Y

Y

sole practitioners

South Africa

Y

Y

Sole Practitioner/ Close Corporation/ Incorporated Company/ Business Trust

Uganda

Y

Y

-

Zambia

Y

Y

Partnership of a Foreign Architectural Firm and Local Firm

Bangladesh

Y

Y

-

India

Y

N

Not Applicable

Malaysia

Y

Y

-

Pakistan

Y

Y

Sole Proprietorship

Singapore

Y

Y

-

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Individual practitioners - Practice of Architecture on an individual basis. Sole proprietorship practitioners - Practice of Architecture on an individual basis and has obtained a business registration. Government Bodies - Practice of Architecture in a statutory body if such Statutory Body is authorized to practice Architecture by that statute.

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

Y

Sole Practitioners

Canada

Y

Y

Sole proprietorship, Partnership of corporations, Joint venture partnerships

Dominica

Y

Y

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

Y

Sole proprietorship

Cyprus

Y

Y

Sole practitioner

Malta

Y

N

A limited liability company can offer architectural services provided the professional is identified.

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Sole Trader; PLC; Limited Liability Partnership; Limited Company; Employees Ownership Trusts are also an increasingly popular model

Hong Kong SAR

Y

Y

Sole Proprietor

Australia

Y

Y

sole trader/practitioner, multiâ&#x20AC;?disciplinary firms, trust structures

Fiji

Y

Y

New Zealand

Y

Y

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

92

Other legal formations

Joint venture, Alliance

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 68 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Town Planning) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Country

Partnership

Limited Liability Company

Botswana

-

-

Ghana

Y

Y

Mauritius

Y

Y

Nigeria

Y

Y

South Africa

Y

Y

Tanzania

Y

Y

A professional planner can be hired as a consultant to multidisciplinary project

Malaysia

Y

Y

Sole proprietorship

Singapore

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Individual Practices

Barbados

Y

Y

Some operate as sole traders and are not necessarily incorporated.

Canada

Y

Y

Trinidad & T.

Y

-

Malta

-

-

Planning as a profession is as yet unregulated and thus any professionals working in the field work as a normal business practice as regulated by local legislation.

UK

Y

Y

Sole trader

Australia

Y

Y

Fiji

-

-

New Zealand

Y

Y

Europe

Pacific

Other legal formations registered planners can set up a business. PTY ltd.

Sole Proprietorship (Practitioners). When a Professional registers a business name with the intention of practicing alone.

Sole traders, multi-disciplinary practices, regional/territorial local government authorities.

Table 69 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Engineering) Region

Country

Partnership

Limited Liability Company

Botswana

N

N

-

Ghana

Y

Y

-

Mozambique

Y

Y

-

Uganda

Y

Y

Sole practitioners

Zambia

Y

Y

-

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

Sole proprietors

Caribbean & Americas

Belize

Y

Y

-

Grenada

Y

Y

-

Europe

UK

Y

Y

The full range of legal entities are available from Public Limited Company (PLC) to sole trader.

Africa

Other legal formations

Table 70 Legal forms of association permitted in each country, (Surveying) Region

Country

Other legal formations

Partnership

Limited Liability Company

Y

Y

Sole Practitioners (Registration of business name with Corporate Affairs Commission)

Rwanda

-

Y

-

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

-

Caribbean & Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

Y

-

Africa

Nigeria

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

93


5.7 AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARIES Table 71 Average annual salaries, grouped by country, (GBP, PPP), Architects

Region

Country

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe Other Pacific

94

Those in partnerships

Principals in Partnership

Private Practice Salaried

Those in Local Authorities

Those in Central Government

Botswana

-

46,423.75

61,898.34

54,161.05

34,044.09

46,423.75

Gambia, The

-

-

-

-

-

-

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

Ghana Africa

Sole practitioners

Mauritius

43,605.17

65,407.75

52,326.20

31,395.72

no data

26,163.10

Nigeria

31,818.55

76,364.52

159,092.75

26,727.58

15,272.90

19,091.13

Rwanda

28,419.13

42,628.69

71,047.82

22,735.30

14,209.56

19,893.39

South Africa

45,443.83

77,254.50

93,159.84

63,621.36

81,798.89

93,159.84

Zambia

45,911.47

36,729.17

27,546.88

11,018.75

15,609.90

14,691.67

Bangladesh

26,336.58

32,920.73

39,504.88

10,973.58

16,460.37

16,460.37

India

96,686.14

58,011.69

77,348.92

19,337.23

19,337.23

38,674.46

Sri Lanka

33,954.88

42,443.60

42,443.60

16,977.44

12,733.08

10,186.46

Antigua & B.

33,324.09

33,324.09

52,068.90

24,993.07

20,827.56

20,827.56

Canada

34,314.06

-

-

-

-

-

Dominica

31,522.10

24,767.36

27,018.94

18,012.63

13,509.47

-

Malta

52,640.38

-

-

29,244.65

32,754.01

32,754.01

UK

40,000.00

-

55,000.00

41,000.00

40,439.00

52,000.00

-

-

-

71,199.98

-

112,100.28

Australia

34,210.29

48,871.85

73,307.77

41,541.07

39,097.48

39,097.48

Fiji

52,408.24

52,408.24

52,408.24

-

-

-

Hong Kong SAR

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 31 Average annual salaries, grouped by country, (GBP, PPP) Architects

160,000

Sole practitioners

Average Annual Salary (ÂŁGBP, PPP)

Those in partnerships

140,000

Principals in Partnership Private Practice Salaried

120,000

Those in Local Authorities Those in Central Government

100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000

Asia

Africa

Europe

Caribbean & Americas

Fiji

Australia

Hong Kong

United Kingdom

Malta

Dominica

Canada

Antigua & Barbuda

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Zambia

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Ghana

Gambia, The

Botswana

0

Pacific

Figure 32 Average annual salaries, grouped by employment type, (GBP, PPP), Architects 160,000

Average Annual Salary (ÂŁGBP, PPP)

140,000

120,000

Botswana

Zambia

Malta

Gambia, The

Bangladesh

United Kingdom

Ghana

India

Hong Kong

Mauritius

Sri Lanka

Australia

Nigeria

Antigua and Barbuda

Fiji

Rwanda

Canada

South Africa

Dominica

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

0 Sole practitioners

Those in partnership

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Principals in partnership

Private Practice Salaried

Those in Local Authorities

Those in Central Government

95


5.8 PROFESSIONAL INDEMNITY INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS67 Table 72 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Architects Region

Country

Professional Indemnity Insurance

Period of liability and regulation

mandatory?

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

Europe

Other Pacific

Botswana

Y

Depends on contract format selected for project 5-6 years

Gambia, The

N

-

Ghana

N

none

Kenya

Y

Up until the completion of building works

Mauritius

Y

10 years

Namibia

N

-

Nigeria

Y

Five years

Rwanda

Y

The period of liability is 10 years for architects and for most of practitioners in the built industry It is regulated by the Rwanda Building Code and reinforced by: -The Ministry of infrastructure (MININFRA) and -Rwanda Housing Authority (RHA)

South Africa

N

5 years - It is limited by Agreement in Writing.

Uganda

Y

It is regulated by the Architecture Registration Board for a period of 1 year. The ARB ensures that all practicing architects get registered. It should cover all the practicing professions in the company.

Zambia

N

-

Bangladesh

N

-

India

N

Not Applicable

Malaysia

N

-

Pakistan

N

-

Singapore

Y

-

Sri Lanka

N

Not Applicable.

Antigua and Barbuda

N

The new Architects (Professions) Act 2018 makes Professional Indemnity Insurance mandatory. We anticipate that this law will take effect very soon

Canada

Y

Varies by province

Dominica

N

-

Trinidad & T.

N

N.A.

Cyprus

N

Malta

N

15 years and regulated in the Civil Code of the Laws of Malta.

United Kingdom

Y

6 years for ordinary contracts (5 years in Scotland) 12 years for secured contracts (20 years in Scotland) counted from the appearance of damage

Hong Kong SAR

Y

By services agreement and civil law

Australia

Y

regulated by jurisdictions - varies with each

Fiji

N

-

New Zealand

N

10 - 15 years

67 Professional indemnity insurance is intended to protect all parties

in the event of failure yet is only required by 40% of architectural institutes (an increase from 27% in the 2017 survey). It is understood that Ghana and Malta are in the process of implementing a programme of mandatory insurance. It should be noted that both the RIBA (UK) and RAIA (Australia) offer insurance products to their members thereby creating both a benefit for members and an income stream for the institute.

96

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 73 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Town Planners Region

Country

Professional Indemnity Insurance

Period of liability and regulation

mandatory?

Africa

Asia Caribbean and Americas Europe Pacific

Botswana

N

-

Mauritius

N

-

Nigeria

Y

-

South Africa

N

-

Tanzania

N

-

Malaysia

N

-

Sri Lanka

N

-

Barbados

N

-

Canada

Y

Annual, regulated by Provincial and Territorial Associations / Institutes

Trinidad & T.

N

-

Malta

N

Not applicable

UK

Y

Re. question 4.9: liability and insurance it is not a mandatory requirement, but a universal practice.

Australia

N

Not a regulatory requirement, but commonly a contracting requirement.

New Zealand

N

We offer an opt in annual cover for members.

Table 74 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Engineers Region

Country

Professional Indemnity Insurance

Period of liability and regulation

mandatory?

Africa

Ghana

N

-

Mozambique

N

-

Uganda

Y

-

Zambia

Y

1 year regulated through the EIZ

Asia

Malaysia

Y

-

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

N

-

Grenada

N

-

United Kingdom

N

The only compulsory cover is employersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; liability insurance (not indemnity), which is a legal requirement for most businesses that employ staff.

Europe

Table 75 Professional indemnity insurance requirements for Surveyors Region

Country

Professional Indemnity Insurance

Period of liability and regulation

mandatory?

Nigeria

Y

-

Rwanda

N

-

Asia

Malaysia

Y

-

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

N

Professional Indemnity Insurance is mandatory for Licensed, Registered Land Surveyors only. The Land Survey Board requires this and checks this prior to annual registration.

Africa

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

97


5.9 BUILDING PERMIT REQUIREMENTS Table 76 Building permit requirements (Combined response)68

Surveying

Architecture

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Is it obligatory to employ a professional for construction works?

Planning

Is it obligatory to obtain a building permit before undertaking construction works?

Engineering

Country

Architecture

Region

Botswana

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

N

-

Gambia, The

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Ghana

N

Y

Y

-

N

Y

Y

-

Kenya

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

Mauritius

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Y

-

-

Mozambique

Y Y

-

98

These regulations are poorly enforced

Y

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Only buildings larger than 500m2 and of complex nature.

Nigeria

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

N

Y

It is obligatory to employ a Planning professional to establish setbacks, Landscape provisions, etc., during setting out to commence construction. Engineers take full responsibility for infrastructural components.

Rwanda

Y

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

N

The new Building code provides guidelines on the profile of professionals that are required to design and supervise specific categories of buildings. Some housing typology do not require to employ a professional during execution stage

South Africa

Y

N

-

N

-

-

N

-

Y

Tanzania

Caribbean and Americas

Requirement is only for planning permission processes

Namibia

Africa

Asia

Comments

Y

Uganda

Y

Y

N

Y

-

-

Zambia

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

-

-

The Law is not strictly enforced by Local Authorities when granting Planning Permission, an engineering professional should be registered with EIZ before being engaged

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

Y

-

-

-

But some exceptions may be seen in some rural or suburban areas where architects may not be employed and building permits may not be obtained.

India

Y

-

-

Y

-

-

-

-

Y

Malaysia

-

N

Y

Pakistan

Y

-

Y Y

-

-

-

Singapore

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Antigua & B

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

Belize

-

Y

-

-

N

-

-

Canada

-

-

N

-

-

-

N

-

Requirements for architects for construction works varies based on occupancy type and size

Dominica

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

An Architect should be engaged for all civic, institutional and industrial projects. Commercial and residential from a certain size. However, this is not enforced in Dominica.

Grenada

-

Y

N

-

-

Trinidad & T.

Y

-

-

-

N

Y

Y

Y

N

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning control is well-established in existing law and the new Planning and Development Act 2019. the status of the Building Code is unclear and is expected to be reviewed with new legislation in the next 12 months.

Yes, it is obligatory, but the majority of construction takes place without any approvals whatsoever

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Y

-

-

Y

-

Malta

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Architect and builders only need be qualified.

United Kingdom

N

Y

Y

-

N

Y

N

-

Building permit: Need to check with local authority as planning permission and/or building regulations approval may be needed, while it is not obligatory to employ a Architectural professional for construction works, it is obligatory to employ a Principal Designer, i.e. for planning permission, The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) require the client to appoint a principal designer where a project involves, or is likely to involve, more than one contractor. See http://www. legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2015/51/pdfs/uksi_20150051_en.pdf.

Hong Kong

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Australia

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Fiji

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

New Zealand

N

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Planning

Cyprus

Comments

Architecture

Pacific

Is it obligatory to employ a professional for construction works?

Surveying

Other

Is it obligatory to obtain a building permit before undertaking construction works?

Engineering

Europe

Country

Architecture

Region

Depends on type of work, our system allows any person to make a planning submission.

68 While a building permit is required in the majority of countries, it is

noted that a built environment professional is not always required for construction projects; only 17% of countries require a planner, 50% require a surveyor, 54% require an architect, but 75% require an engineer. Anecdotal evidence suggests that enforcement of building code is weak in a number of Commonwealth countries and this may be partly due to the fact that in most Commonwealth countries, there is no requirement for a qualified professional to prepare the building permit application or to undertake routine site inspections.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

99


5.10 USE OF MANDATORY FEE SCALES Table 77 Use of mandatory fee scales by Architects69 Region

Africa

Country

Recommended schedule of fees

Obliged to respect schedule

Authority which issues schedule

Botswana

Y

Y

The Architectsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Registration Council

Gambia, The

N

N

-

Ghana

N

N

-

Kenya

Y

N

-

Mauritius

Y

N

-

Namibia

Y

Y

NCAQS

Nigeria

Y

Y

-

Rwanda

N

N

There exists a benchmark document that guides the minimum a professional can charge for services issued by Rwanda Institute of Architects under the oversight of Rwanda Housing Authority and Ministry of Infrastructure, but it is not approved yet for official use

South Africa

Y

N

SACAP - It is a guideline fee.

Uganda

Y

N

-

Zambia

Y

Y

Zambia Institute of Architects Statutory Instrument No. 109 of 1996

Bangladesh

Y

Y

Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB)

India

Y

Y

Council of Architecture, India

Malaysia

Y

Y

The Board of Architects Malaysia

Pakistan

Y

N

PCATP

Singapore

N

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

N

Sri Lanka Institute of Architects

Antigua & B.

Y

N

-

Canada

Y

N

Published by the RAIC

Dominica

N

-

-

Trinidad & T.

Y

N

-

Cyprus

N

-

-

Europe

Malta

N

N

-

UK

N

-

-

Other

Hong Kong SAR

N

-

-

Australia

N

N

-

Fiji

Y

Y

-

New Zealand

N

N

-

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Pacific

69 While many countries still appear to be operating recommended fee

scales, it is noted that only Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Zambia, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, and Fiji are obliged to use them. The use of recommended fee scales was banned in Australia and the UK in the 1980â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s as they were deemed as being anti-competitive.

100

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 78 Use of mandatory fee scales by Town Planners Region

Africa

Asia Caribbean and Americas Europe Pacific

Country

Recommended schedule of fees

Obliged to respect schedule

Authority which issues schedule

Botswana

N

N

-

Ghana

Y

Y

Ministry of Works and Housing

Mauritius

N

N

Nigeria

Y

Y

South Africa

Y

N

SACPLAN

Tanzania

N

-

TPRB is currently preparing the schedules. The first draft already shared with planners

Malaysia

Y

Y

Board of Town Planners Malaysia

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka - Member's Code of Practice

Barbados

N

N

-

Canada

N

N

-

Trinidad & T.

N

-

-

Malta

N

N

-

Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria

UK

N

N

-

Australia

N

N

-

New Zealand

N

N

-

Table 79 Use of mandatory fee scales by Engineers Region

Africa

Country

Recommended schedule of fees

Obliged to respect schedule

Authority which issues schedule

Botswana

Y

Y

-

Ghana

Y

Y

Ministry of Works and Housing

Mozambique

N

-

-

Uganda

N

N

-

Zambia

Y

Y

EIZ Act No. 17 of 2010

Asia

Belize

N

N

-

Caribbean & A.

Grenada

Y

N

-

Europe

UK

N

N

-

Table 80 Use of mandatory fee scales by Surveyors Region

Country

Recommended schedule of fees

Obliged to respect schedule

Authority which issues schedule

Nigeria

Y

Y

Quantity Surveyors Registration Board of Nigeria

Rwanda

Y

Y

Council of Regulation of Real Property Valuation Profession in Rwanda

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

-

Caribbean and Americas

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

N

The ISTT

Africa

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

101


5.11 TYPES OF FEE AGREEMENT PERMITTED Table 81 Types of fee agreement permitted for Architects Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

102

Country

Percentage of Contract Value

Lump Sum

Hourly charge

No charge agreed (at risk)

Other methods

Botswana

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Gambia, The

N

N

N

N

-

Ghana

N

N

N

N

-

Mauritius

Y

Y

Y

N

hourly charge is rarely used. No charge agreed is a serious practice; because some client ask to work at risk until a project is bankable for the sponsor

Namibia

Y

-

Y

-

-

Nigeria

-

-

-

-

-

Rwanda

Y

Y

Y

-

Depending on both partyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agreement, schedule of fees are based on a hybrid approach between percentage of the contract value and lump sum in most cases.

South Africa

Y

Y

Y

Y

Fees may be determined in any manner as indicated or as negotiated but needs to be confirmed in writing as required by the SACAP Code of Professional Conduct.

Uganda

Y

Y

-

Y

-

Bangladesh

Y

Y

Y

-

-

India

Y

Y

N

N

-

Pakistan

Y

Y

-

Y

-

Singapore

Y

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Y

N

Floor area basis

Antigua & B.

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Belize

-

-

-

-

-

Canada

Y

Y

Y

N

Upset limit Combination

Dominica

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Cyprus

Y

Y

Y

N

Fee tendering for all government projects

Malta

Y

Y

Y

N

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Y

N

Hong Kong SAR

Y

Y

Y

N

Australia

Y

Y

Y

-

New Zealand

Y

Y

Y

-

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

GMP, New Engineering Contract (NEC), similar forms with conditions to allow adjustment (up to down) of fee Varies depending on client and could include percentage of construction value

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 82 Types of fee agreement permitted for Town Planners Region

Africa

Country

Percentage of Contract Value

Lump Sum

Hourly charge

No charge agreed (at risk)

Botswana

-

Y

Y

-

-

Mauritius

-

Y

Y

-

-

South Africa

-

-

Y

-

-

Tanzania

-

Y

-

-

In most cases the planners will negotiate with the client. However, most of the planning tasks from the Government (Central/local/Govt. Institutions) are issued by tenders

Malaysia

-

-

-

-

Multiplier and manâ&#x20AC;?month and also according to guideline by ministry of finance

Singapore

-

-

-

-

-

Barbados

Y

Y

Y

N

-

Canada

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

-

Y

-

-

-

Malta

N

Y

Y

N

Client agrees with quote.

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Y

N

Daily charge.

Australia

N

Y

Y

N

-

New Zealand

-

Y

Y

-

Fees are often bundled into development costs in multiâ&#x20AC;? disciplinary practices.

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Other methods

Table 83 Types of fee agreement permitted for Engineers Region

Africa

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Country

Percentage of Contract Value

Lump Sum

Hourly charge

No charge agreed (at risk)

Other methods

Botswana

N

N

N

N

-

Ghana

Y

Y

Y

N

-

Mozambique

N

N

N

N

-

Uganda

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Belize

Y

-

-

-

-

Grenada

Y

Y

Y

-

-

United Kingdom

-

-

-

-

If this question relates to paying for engineering consultancy, there is no schedule of fees and the method of determining fees varies depending on the contract provisions chosen for the project.

Table 84 Types of fee agreement permitted for Surveyors Region

Country

Percentage of Contract Value

Africa

Rwanda

-

-

-

Y

Based on floor area

Asia

Malaysia

Y

Y

Y

-

-

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Lump Sum

Hourly charge

No charge agreed (at risk)

Other methods

103


5.12 EMPLOYMENT BY SECTOR70 Table 85 Employment by sector, Architecture Country

Sole Private practitioners practice (%) (partner/ director) (%)

Africa

Private practice (salaried professional) (%)

Central government (%)

Local/regional Public agency government (%) (%)

Other employment (%)

20

23

24

11

8

8

7

0

40

45

5

6

3

1

Gambia, The

20

20

20

20

10

5

5

Ghana

10

10

10

10

10

30

20

Kenya

27

15

30

7

10

10

1

Mauritius

40

30

10

18

0

2

0

Nigeria

15

15

10

20

15

20

5

Rwanda

30

15

35

3

10

1

6

South Africa

30

15

40

2

5

3

5

Uganda

10

45

20

5

5

5

10

Zambia

15

28

21

17

-

5

14

Asia

29

24

40

7

6

5

10

Bangladesh

15

20

40

3

2

10

10

India

10

15

40

10

10

5

10

Sri Lanka

61

38

-

-

-

1

-

Caribbean and Americas

38

23

14

12

-

35

5

Antigua and Barbuda

52

10

21

12

-

-

5

Dominica

24

35

6

-

-

35

-

Europe

20

21

42

7

1

11

11

Malta

21

8

41

8

-

11

11

United Kingdom

18

34

42

5

1

-

-

Pacific

46

22

30

1

1

1

0

Australia

15

22

60

1

1

1

-

Fiji

80

9

9

2

-

-

-

New Zealand

43

35

22

0

0

0

0

Botswana

70 It is noted that most architects work as sole practitioners or in

private practice, with very few working in the public sector. A lack of skilled professionals in the public sector is of concern considering the importance of public policy in the built environment. While the ratios presented here might suggest that the situation may be different for town planners, the fact is that, in many countries, there remains a critical shortage in the public sector, eg see: https://www. citiesalliance.org/sites/default/files/Final%20Report%20on%20 Municipal%20Staffing%20Toolkit_0.pdf

104

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 33 Employment by Sector, Architecture 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Africa

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

Europe

New Zealand

Fiji

Australia

United Kingdom

Malta

Dominica

Antigua & Barbuda

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Zambia

Uganda

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Kenya

Ghana

Gambia, The

Botswana

0%

Pacific

Other employment (%) Public agency (%) Local/regional government (%) Central government (%) Private practice (salaried professional) (%) Private practice (partner/director) (%) Sole practitioners (%)

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

105


Table 86 Employment by sector, Town Planning Country

Sole Private practitioners practice (%) (partner/ director) (%)

Private practice (salaried professional) (%)

Central government (%)

Local/regional Public agency government (%) (%)

Other employment (%)

Africa

11

8

9

20

42

8

6

Botswana

10

10

5

15

50

5

5

Ghana

10

4

12

5

53

11

5

3

0

1

46

45

2

3

12

4

8

27

38

0

11

Mauritius Nigeria South Africa

20

20

20

5

25

5

5

Asia

25

11

12

43

6

4

1

Malaysia

40

20

15

10

10

5

0

Sri Lanka

10

2

8

75

2

2

1

Caribbean and Americas

20

14

6

29

18

5

8

0

37

0

63

0

0

0

Canada

25

0

13

2

54

4

2

Trinidad and Tobago

35

6

4

22

0

11

22

Europe

2

0

0

2

0

96

0

Malta

2

0

0

2

0

96

0

Pacific

0

14

36

12

24

-

14

Australia

0

14

36

12

24

-

14

Barbados

Figure 34 Employment by Sector, Town Planning 100%

Other employment (%) Public agency (%)

90%

Local/regional government (%)

80%

Central government (%)

70%

Private practice (salaried professional) (%)

60%

Private practice (partner/director) (%) Sole practitioners (%)

50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Africa

106

Asia

Caribbean & Americas

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Australia

Malta

Trinidad & Tobago

Canada

Barbados

Sri Lanka

Malaysia

South Africa

Nigeria

Mauritius

Ghana

Botswana

0%

Europe Pacific

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 87 Employment by sector, Engineering Country

Sole Private practitioners practice (%) (partner/ director) (%)

Private practice (salaried professional) (%)

Africa

9

11

Ghana

10

Mozambique

10

Uganda

Central government (%)

Local/regional Public agency government (%) (%)

10

35

15

5

55

5

10

25

5

10

10

20

Zambia

10

15

15

Caribbean and Americas

35

23

Belize

10

Grenada

60

16

Other employment (%)

13

6

4

1

10

30

15

5

20

30

5

40

10

5

5

25

13

5

5

0

20

40

20

5

5

0

25

10

5

-

-

-

Table 88 Employment by sector, Surveying Country

Sole Private practitioners practice (%) (partner/ director) (%)

Private practice (salaried professional) (%)

Central government (%)

Local/regional Public agency government (%) (%)

Other employment (%)

Africa

8

21

16

1

12

4

39

Nigeria

15

2

29

1

19

6

28

Rwanda

0

40

3

0

5

2

50

Caribbean and Americas

30

15

15

10

10

10

10

Trinidad & Tobago

30

15

15

10

10

10

10

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

107


5.13 FULL-TIME V PART-TIME EMPLOYMENT Table 89 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Architects) Country

Full-time (%)

Part-time (%)

Unemployed (%)

Not working (other) (%)

Africa

62

21

9

7

Botswana

45

30

20

5

Gambia, The

40

40

10

10

Ghana

20

20

20

40

Kenya

70

25

4

1

Mauritius

85

5

5

5

Nigeria

50

35

15

0

Rwanda

65

20

10

5

South Africa

85

10

2

3

Uganda

70

22

5

3

Zambia

89

7

3

1

Asia

73

17

5

5

Bangladesh

70

20

5

5

India

50

30

10

10

100

0

0

0

Caribbean and Americas

70

13

13

5

Antigua and Barbuda

40

25

25

10

Dominica

100

0

0

0

Europe

81

14

1

4

United Kingdom

81

14

1

4

Pacific

84

15

0

0

Australia

83

15

1

1

100

0

0

0

70

30

0

0

Sri Lanka

Fiji New Zealand

108

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 35 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Architects) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Africa

Asia

Caribbean Europe & Americas

New Zealand

Fiji

Australia

United Kingdom

Dominica

Antigua & Barbuda

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Zambia

Uganda

South Africa

Rwanda

Nigeria

Mauritius

Kenya

Ghana

Gambia, The

Botswana

0%

Pacific

Table 90 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Town Planners) Country

Full-time (%)

Part-time (%)

Unemployed (%)

Not working (other) (%)

Not working (other) (%)

Unemployed (%)

Africa

67

16

15

3

Part-time (%)

Botswana

90

10

0

0

Full-time (%)

Ghana

70

18

9

3

Mauritius

80

5

10

5

Nigeria

54

21

25

0

South Africa

40

25

30

5

Asia

80

15

3

2

Malaysia

70

25

3

2

Sri Lanka

90

5

3

2

Caribbean and Americas

83

17

0

0

Barbados

83

17

0

0

Trinidad & Tobago

83

17

0

0

Europe

86

6

1

8

Malta

98

1

0

1

United Kingdom

74

11

1

14

Pacific

94

4

1

2

Australia

94

5

0

1

New Zealand

93

3

2

2

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

109


Figure 36 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Town Planners) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Africa

Caribbean & Americas

Asia

Europe

New Zealand

Australia

United Kingdom

Malta

Trinidad & Tobago

Barbados

Sri Lanka

Malaysia

South Africa

Nigeria

Mauritius

Gambia, The

Botswana

0%

Not working (other) (%) Unemployed (%) Part-time (%) Full-time (%)

Pacific

Table 91 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Engineers) Country

Full-time (%)

Part-time (%)

Unemployed (%)

Not working (other) (%)

Africa

53

25

16

6

Ghana

50

25

20

5

Mozambique

70

15

10

5

Uganda

50

40

5

5

Zambia

40

20

30

10

Caribbean and Americas

89

8

3

1

Belize

90

5

3

2

Grenada

88

10

2

0

Table 92 Full-time v Part-time Employment, (Surveyors) Country

Full-time (%)

Part-time (%)

Unemployed (%)

Not working (other) (%)

Africa

43

9

19

30

Nigeria

45

7

28

20

Rwanda

40

10

10

40

Caribbean and Americas

85

5

5

5

Trinidad & Tobago

85

5

5

5

110

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


5.14 GENDER BALANCE71 Table 93 Gender balance, (Architecture) Country

Male (%)

Female (%)

Male Graduates (%)

Female Graduates (%)

Africa

73

27

67

33

Botswana

85

15

70

30

Gambia, The

50

50

50

50

Ghana

50

50

60

40

Kenya

64

36

54

46

Mauritius

70

30

50

50

Nigeria

90

10

85

15

Rwanda

90

10

81

19

South Africa

73

27

63

37

Uganda

70

30

70

30

Zambia

89

11

86

14

Asia

60

40

50

50

Bangladesh

60

40

50

50

India

53

47

53

47

Pakistan

66

34

-

-

Sri Lanka

62

38

48

52

Caribbean & A.

79

21

76

24

Antigua & B.

75

25

70

30

Canada

64

36

61

39

Dominica

100

0

96

4

Trinidad & T.

76

24

-

-

Europe

64

36

-

-

Cyprus

56

44

-

-

Malta

64

36

-

-

United Kingdom

71

29

-

-

Other

67

33

-

-

Hong Kong SAR

67

33

-

-

Pacific

69

31

79

22

Australia

69

31

-

-

Fiji

85

15

85

15

New Zealand

52

48

72

28

71 The issue of gender balance has been a subject of considerable interest in recent years with a continuing trend of more women leaving the architectural profession that men over their lifetime even though the number of women

studying architecture has increased in many places (ref in previous version). The % of female architects in New Zealand has more than doubled since the 2017 survey (from 22% to 48%). Most other countries remain unchanged or have slightly increased (up to 11%). The ratio in Sri Lanka has decreased by 3%. Despite a lower response rate, the ratios for Town Planning are generally higher than in Architecture. Except for South Africa and Nigeria, where responses have been provided for both professions, the percentage of women in planning is approximately twice that of women in architecture. Engineering and Surveying see much lower numbers of women in practice, from 4-10% and 4-30% respectively. This is perhaps not surprising as engineering and surveying have been historically male dominated fields. Nonetheless, it highlights a real need to promote those subjects to women in schools and universities to improve the gender balance.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

111


Figure 37 Gender balance, (Architecture)

Gambia, The

Female 50

Male 50

Ghana

50

50

New Zealand

48

52

India

47

53

Cyprus

44

Bangladesh

40

Sri Lanka

38

Kenya

36

64

Canada

36

64

Malta

36

64

Pakistan

34

66

Hong Kong

33

67

Australia

31

69

Mauritius

30

70

Uganda

30

70

United Kingdom

29

South Africa

27

Antigua & Barbuda

25

Trinidad & Tobago

24

Botswana

15

85

Fiji

15

85

Zambia

11

Nigeria

10

90

Rwanda

10

90

Dominica

60 62

71 73 75 76

89

90

0%

112

56

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 94 Gender balance, (Town Planning)

Country

Male (%)

Female (%)

Male Graduates (%)

Female Graduates (%)

Africa

62

38

60

41

Botswana

50

50

50

50

Mauritius

40

60

40

60

Nigeria

85

15

78

22

South Africa

72

28

70

30

Asia

48

52

33

67

Malaysia

70

30

40

60

Singapore

45

55

40

60

Sri Lanka

30

70

20

80

Caribbean & A.

54

46

37

64

Trinidad & Tobago

54

46

27

73

Europe

100

0

100

0

Malta

100

0

100

0

Pacific

51

49

51

49

Australia

51

49

51

49

Figure 38 Gender balance, (Town Planning)

Sri Lanka

Female 70

Mauritius

60

Singapore

45

Botswana

50

Australia

49

Trinidad & Tobago

46

Malaysia

30

South Africa

28

Nigeria

15

Malta

100

0%

Male 30 40 55 50 51 54 70 72 85

10%

20%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

113


Table 95 Gender balance, (Engineering) Country

Male (%)

Female (%)

Male Graduates (%)

Female Graduates (%)

Africa

90

10

81

19

Ghana

92

8

85

15

Mauritius

89

11

85

15

Mozambique

90

10

75

25

Zambia

90

10

80

20

Caribbean & A.

96

5

90

10

Belize

95

5

90

10

Grenada

96

4

-

-

Europe

91

9

83

17

United Kingdom

91

9

83

17

Table 96 Gender balance, (Surveying) Country

Male (%)

Female (%)

Male Graduates (%)

Female Graduates (%)

Africa

93

8

89

12

Nigeria

89

11

87

13

Rwanda

96

4

90

10

Asia

70

30

70

30

Malaysia

70

30

70

30

Caribbean & A.

85

15

70

30

Trinidad & Tobago

85

15

70

30

114

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


5.15 OVERSEAS WORKING Table 97 Overseas working, (Architecture) Region

Country

Do many professionals work

Does this lead to a professional shortfall?

overseas?

Africa

Botswana

N

-

Gambia, The

N

-

Ghana

N

-

Kenya

N

-

Mauritius

Y

No. The local market is ready quite saturated given that there is 1 architect for every 6000 inhabitants

Namibia

Y

No, too many Architects for current job availabilities.

Nigeria

N

-

Rwanda

N

-

N

Of those registered with SACAP only 1,5% practice outside the country. Shortfall of Architects due to under provision and emigration

South Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other Pacific

Uganda

N

-

Zambia

Y

No

Bangladesh

Y

No

India

N

No Shortfall

Sri Lanka

Y

No

Antigua & Barbuda

Y

No

Dominica

N

-

Trinidad & Tobago

Y

No

Malta

Y

No

Y

We do not have this information. However, according to the 2018 RIBA Benchmarking report - A significant 19 per cent of RIBA Chartered Practicesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; revenue comes from work on projects which are located outside the UK. The value of the revenue is 3 per cent higher than last year and is almost as high as in 2015, the peak year so far. Nearly three quarters of all international work is undertaken by the largest practices (100+); indeed, international work accounts for 29 per cent of large practicesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; total revenue. London is the focus; 91 per cent of international revenue comes from practices based in the capital. There has been a gradual shift in where international jobs come from. Since 2015, practices have been getting less work from the Middle East and more work from Asia and the EU.

Hong Kong SAR

Y

No

Australia

N

-

Fiji

Y

-

New Zealand

Y

Unknown

United Kingdom

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

115


Table 98 Overseas working, (Town Planning) Region

Country

Do many professionals work

Does this lead to a professional shortfall?

overseas?

Botswana

Africa

N

-

Ghana

Y

No

Mauritius

N

-

Nigeria

N

-

Y

This work is mainly through companies that win tenders in other countries in Africa. The shortfall is due to a lack of appointments of planners in local authorities, which is the government's responsibility and not a supply problem as there are planning graduates who are unemployed

Tanzania

N

-

Malaysia

N

-

Singapore

N

-

N

-

Y

It has been a problem for the public sector, losing experienced staff. Some private sector planners carry out fee earning commissions abroad.

N

-

South Africa

Asia

Sri Lanka

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Pacific

Barbados Canada Trinidad & Tobago

Y

Yes

Malta

N

-

United Kingdom

Y

No

Fiji

Y

Yes, absolutely

New Zealand

Y

Yes

Table 99 Overseas working, (Engineering) Region

Country

Do many professionals work

Does this lead to a professional shortfall?

overseas?

Botswana

N

-

Ghana

Y

-

Mauritius

N

-

Mozambique

N

-

Zambia

N

-

Asia

Malaysia

N

-

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Y

Yes

Grenada

N

-

United Kingdom

Y

-

Africa

Europe Table 100

Overseas working, (Surveying) Region

Country

Do many professionals work

Does this lead to a professional shortfall?

overseas?

Africa

Nigeria

Y

No

Rwanda

N

-

Tanzania

N

-

Asia

Malaysia

N

-

Caribbean & A.

Trinidad & Tobago

Y

No

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Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

117


6 6

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

6.1 TRAINING REQUIRED TO BECOME A PROFESSIONAL

Table 101 Training required to become an Architect Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Training required to be a professional

Botswana

Architect: 5 Years + 2 Years’ work experience. Technologist, 3 Years + 2 Years’ work experience, Draftsperson, 2 Years + 2 Years’ work experience

Kenya

6 years of training and 2 years of work experience

Mauritius

5 years full-time Architecture course (BArch, MArch)

Namibia

Master’s Degree: Minimum 5 years Practical work Experience: Minimum 2 years, and when all required hours in training are met, and only after passing the final Competence examinations which is only possible once a year.

Nigeria

6 years academic, 2 work experience

Rwanda

A minimum of a bachelor’s degree in a related discipline, 5 academic years for Architects, 3-4 academic years for Planners & Surveyors A minimum of 2 years on professional internship

South Africa

The professional degree is a 5-year course, with qualifications as follows: 3-year Bachelor, 1-year Honours, 1-year Masters (Prof). Thereafter there is a 2-year candidacy period after which the candidate must pass a Prof Practice Examination.

Uganda

5 academic years, 3 years of work under a registered architect

Zambia

5 Years Academic Training and 2 Years Practical Training under a Professional

Bangladesh

Minimum 5 academic years for bachelor’s degree. Minimum 2 years for work experience

India

5 Years full-time bachelor’s degree, including a minimum of 6 months practical training

Pakistan

5 Year Bachelor of Architecture, 6 Months mandatory Internship during studies. One year of work experience with PCATP Registered Architect/Firm, Licensing Examination, Registration with PCATP

Singapore

5 academic years and at least 2 years of work experience before taking the professional practice examination.

Sri Lanka

2 Years of training

Antigua & Barbuda 5 Years of training

Caribbean and Americas

Canada

University path: Undergraduate pre-professional degree, professional graduate degree, internship, then licensure. Alternate path: RAIC Syllabus Program: work-study with courses and design studios working under an architect, then licensure.

Dominica

5 years of academic and not less than 3 years of practice

Trinidad and Tobago

A professional architecture degree (5 yr) from an accredited architectural programme or Bachelor of Science plus 2-year master (3+2); plus, two years of working experience under the guidance of a registered architect; and pass all parts of the Architects Professional Practice Course exam.

Cyprus

5-year studies and 1-year practice

Malta

1+3+2 years

United Kingdom

RIBA Part 1 - university undergraduate degree. 3 years full time (or longer period as stated for part-time study). Stage 1 Practical experience/year out (optional). RIBA Part 2 - University degree. 2 years full time (or longer period as stated for part-time study). Stage 2 Practical Experience - 24 months experience in total RIBA Part 3 - Final qualifying examination

Hong Kong SAR

Candidates should have completed a professional architectural programme accredited or recognised by the HKIA/ARB and accumulated a minimum of 24 months of recognised practical experience, including a minimum of 12 months of mandatory "Category A" local practical experience. Candidates with less than 5 years of full-time study in architecture combined in both pre-professional and professional programmes accredited or recognised by HKIA/ARB are required to make up for the shortfall by undergoing an additional period of recognised practical experience. In all circumstances, the additional period of recognised practical experience required shall not exceed 3 years, i.e. the maximum total period of recognised practical experience required shall be 5 years.

Australia

Complete a 10 semester higher education program leading to an accredited Master of Architecture qualification (or accepted equivalent) obtain at least 2 years working in the industry pass a three part competency assessment process, including the completion of a log book, a written paper and an interview with current practitioners

Fiji

Recognised qualification minimum of 5 years study and 2 years’ experience

New Zealand

Depends on pathway to registration

Europe

Other

Pacific

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 102 Training required to become a Town Planner Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Country

Training required to be a professional

Botswana

4 academic years at university Plus 2 years work experience

Ghana

4 Year Degree Programme, 2 Years Working Experience, 3 Sets of Work Samples

Mauritius

at least 3-year degree programme in Town and Country planning

Nigeria

5 academic years 2 years’ experience

South Africa

4 years academic and 2 years work experience under a registered planner

Tanzania

Academic years = 3 - 4 years’ work experience at least 4 years for one full registration as planner

Malaysia

The person needs to hold recognised qualifications in town planning/urban planning at a university or centre of higher learning. Additionally, the person should have a minimum 1 year of practice experience.

Sri Lanka

Minimum 4 years of Academic Training. Minimum 3 years of work-related experience

Barbados

BTPS requirements are a degree level qualification plus relevant planning experience. the time requirement may vary with the nature of the experience.

Canada

Postgraduate Education (typically 2 years in Canada). 2 years’ work experience.

Trinidad & Tobago

need a post graduate degree from an accredited planning school, plus 2 years post qualification experience for an MSc, and 3 years post qualification for a BSc

Malta

RTPI accredited planning and related/or University of Malta graduate courses.

United Kingdom

Minimum 4 academic years plus 2 years of professional experience

Australia

Accredited planning qualification plus 2 years professional experience. Non-accredited planning qualification plus 5 years professional experience.

New Zealand

Accredited degree (4 years) and or Masters (2 or 3 years) plus minimum of 3 years practical experience. Non-Accredited degree plus 7 years practical experiences

Pacific

Table 103 Training required to become an Engineer Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Country

Training required to be a professional

Ghana

4 years academic, 3 years work experience

Mozambique

4 years and 2 years working

Uganda

4 years of undergraduate training and 4 years of work experience

Zambia

Engineers 5 years training with 4 years’ experience, Technologists 3 years training with 2 years’ experience, Technicians 2 to 3 years training with 2 years’ experience, Craftsperson 2 yeas training with 2 years’ experience

Malaysia

4 years engineering degree programme; 120 credit hours plus 3 years working under the supervision of a professional engineer

Belize

Bachelor’s degree and 4 years’ experience

Grenada

Possess a degree from a University or School of Engineering recognized by the Institute - Have not less than four years approved experience in engineering subsequent to obtaining his/her qualifications - at the time of application should be engaged in professional engineering works.

United Kingdom

Chartered engineers must have an accredited masters level degree (or equivalent learning) and sufficient experience to meet the attributes expected of a professional engineer (i.e. engineering knowledge and application, management and leadership, independent judgement and responsibility, commercial ability, health safety and welfare, sustainable development, interpersonal skills, and professional commitment). Candidates on a structured training scheme can in principle achieve the necessary experience over a 4-year period.

Table 104 Training required to become a Surveyor Region

Africa Asia

Country

Training required to be a professional

Nigeria

5 academic years for university and polytechnic graduates and minimum of three years professional work experience is required

Rwanda

4 academic years and three years of experience

Malaysia

Field and Office

Caribbean & A. Trinidad & Tobago

3 years of a first degree.

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119


6.2 NUMBER AND TYPES OF EDUCATION ESTABLISHMENTS Table 105 Number of Schools of Architecture Country Africa

Government schools

Private schools

Total schools

Schools per million population

33

25

108

0.26

1

1

1

0.44

Ghana

12

12

11

0.37

Kenya

6

1

7

0.14

Mauritius

0

1

1

0.80

Namibia

0

1

1

0.41

Nigeria

0

6

71

0.36

Rwanda

1

1

1

0.08

10

0

10

0.17

Uganda

2

2

4

0.09

Zambia

1

0

1

0.06

22

486

534

0.30

Bangladesh

4

21

25

0.15

India

0

448

448

0.33

Malaysia72

-

-

24

0.76

17

16

33

0.16

-

-

2

0.35

Botswana

South Africa

Asia

Pakistan Singapore

1

1

2

0.09

13

0

13

0.33

0

0

0

0.00

Canada

12

0

12

0.32

Dominica

1

0

1

13.96

Sri Lanka Caribbean & A. Antigua & B.

0

0

0

0.00

Europe

47

4

51

0.75

Cyprus

1

3

4

3.36

Malta

1

0

1

2.07

Trinidad & T.

45

1

46

0.69

Other

4

2

6

0.81

Hong Kong SAR

4

2

6

0.81

Pacific

17

4

21

0.68

Australia

17

1

18

0.72

Fiji

0

0

0

0.00

New Zealand

0

3

3

0.61

United Kingdom

72 Malaysia did not provide number of schools, so the number of

schools has been taken from the 2017 survey response

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 39 Total Number of Architecture Schools (Indian schools excluded for clarity) Nigeria

71

United Kingdom

46

Pakistan

33

Bangladesh

25

Malaysia

24

Australia

18

Canada

12

Ghana

11

South Africa

10

Kenya

7

Hong Kong

6

Cyprus

4

Uganda

4

New Zealand

3

Sri Lanka

2

Singapore

2

Malta

1

Dominica

1

Zambia

1

Rwanda

1

Namibia

1

Mauritius

1

Botswana

1

Fiji

0

Trinidad & Tobago

0

Antigua & Barbuda

0

0

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

121


Figure 40 Number of Architecture Schools per 1 Million Population (Indian schools excluded for clarity)

80 Nigeria

70

Number of Schools

60 50

United Kingdom

40 Pakistan

30

Bangladesh

Malaysia Australia

20 10

Cyprus Singapore

South Africa Kenya Uganda

Canada Ghana

Hong Kong

Sri Lanka

Zambia

0 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Population Table 106 Number of Town Planning Schools Country Africa

Government schools

Private schools

Total schools

Schools per million population

48

4

52

0.15

Botswana

1

0

1

0.44

Ghana

2

1

3

0.10

Mauritius

1

0

1

0.80

Nigeria

32

3

35

0.18

South Africa

11

0

11

0.19

Tanzania

1

0

1

0.02

Asia

6

0

6

0.10

Malaysia

5

0

5

0.16

Pakistan

5

-

5

0.02

Sri Lanka

1

0

1

0.05

Caribbean & A.

0

20

20

0.52

Barbados

0

0

0

0.00

Canada

-

19

19

0.51

Trinidad & T.

-

1

1

0.72

Europe

1

28

29

0.43

Malta

1

0

1

2.07

United Kingdom

0

28

28

0.42

Pacific

0

5

29

0.94

Australia

-

-

24

0.96

Fiji

-

-

-

0.00

New Zealand

0

5

5

1.02

122

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 41 Total Number of Town Planning Schools Nigeria

35

United Kingdom

28

Australia

24

Canada

19

South Africa

11

Pakistan

5

New Zealand

5

Malaysia

5

Ghana

3

Malta

1

Trinidad & Tobago

1

Sri Lanka

1

Tanzania

1

Mauritius

1

Botswana

1

Barbados

0

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Figure 42 Number of Town Planning per 1 Million Population 40 Nigeria

35

Number of Schools

30

United Kingdom

Australia

25

Canada

20

15 South Africa

10

5

New Zealand

Malaysia

Pakistan

Ghana

Botswana

0

Tanzania

Sri Lanka

Barbados

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

Population

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

123


Table 107 Number of Engineering Schools Country

Government schools

Private schools

Total schools

Schools per million population

Africa

42

37

79

0.64

Ghana

13

7

20

0.67

Mozambique

4

15

19

0.64

Uganda

5

5

10

0.23

Zambia

20

10

30

1.73

Caribbean & A.

0

0

0

0.00

Belize

0

0

0

0.00

Grenada

0

0

0

0.00

Europe

60

0

60

0.90

United Kingdom

60

0

60

0.90

Table 108 Number of Surveying Schools Country

Government schools

Private schools

Total schools

Schools per million population

Africa

58

7

65

0.25

Nigeria

57

7

64

0.33

Rwanda

1

0

1

0.08

Asia

5

6

11

0.35

Malaysia

5

6

11

0.35

Caribbean & A.

1

-

1

0.72

Trinidad & T.

1

0

1

0.72

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


6.3 RECIPROCAL EDUCATION AGREEMENTS73 Table 109 Reciprocal education agreements for Architects Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

Country

Reciprocal education agreements

Countries with reciprocal education agreements

Botswana

N

-

Ghana

N

-

Kenya

N

-

Mauritius

Y

France

Namibia

N

-

Nigeria

N

-

Rwanda

N

None for now, but we're looking forward to signing a mutual Recognition agreement at the EAC level, on the harmonization of teaching curriculum & education qualifications with Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi & Uganda

South Africa

Y

SACAP is a signatory to the Canberra Accord

Uganda

Y

Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda

Zambia

N

-

Bangladesh

N

-

India

N

Not Applicable

Malaysia

-

-

Pakistan

N

-

Sri Lanka

N

-

Antigua & B.

N

-

Canada

N

Education credentials for licensure are evaluated by the Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB). All of those seeking licensure who did not graduate from an accredited Canadian university must have their education certified by the Board.

Dominica

N

-

Trinidad & T.

N

-

Cyprus

N

-

Malta

Y

EU Mutual Professional Qualifications Directive

United Kingdom

Y

Typically, EU countries

Hong Kong SAR

Y

New Zealand Registered Architects Board (NZRAB), Architects Accreditation Council of Australia (AACA), Canberra Accord signatories

Australia

Y

New Zealand, Hong Kong SAR, Singapore

Fiji

N

-

New Zealand

Y

Varies across the schools

73 Across all four disciplines, over at least 60% of respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reported

having no reciprocal educational arrangements with other countries thereby limiting opportunities for students to gain broader experience in an increasingly globalised profession. This compares with 50% for architecture schools in the 2017 survey. While students can of course apply independently to study overseas, the cost of tuition is often prohibitively expensive

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

125


Table 110 Reciprocal education agreements for Town Planners Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Reciprocal education agreements

Countries with reciprocal education agreements

Botswana

N

-

Ghana

N

-

Mauritius

N

-

Nigeria

N

-

South Africa

N

-

Malaysia

Y

Subject to university policies & regulations

Sri Lanka

Y

Australia, La Trobe University

Barbados

Y

Planning is not taught at the University of the West Indies (UWE) campus in Barbados but is taught by UWE in Trinidad. The University of Technology in Jamaica also runs a planning course. Neither course is currently recognized or accredited. BTPS is working with CPA and the institutions. We would like to see an accredited course in the region providing planning education relevant to SIDS. A number of our Members and other professional planners in Barbados have been trained in Canada, USA or UK and some are also members of professional institutes in those countries. We would like it to be possible to achieve similar status within the region. We would like to introduce CPD under our proposed Planning Profession Bill.

Canada

Y

Australia, United States

Trinidad & Tobago

N

-

Malta

Y

The Planning Authority had an agreement in the past with some UK universities. Currently a course sponsored by the Planning Authority for its own staff is underway at the University of Malta on a part-time basis.

United Kingdom

N

Australia

N

No formal reciprocal arrangements but many institutes have the ability for overseas qualified members to join.

New Zealand

N

-

Table 111 Reciprocal education agreements for Engineers Region

Country

Reciprocal education agreements

Countries with reciprocal education agreements

Ghana

N

-

Mozambique

N

-

Uganda

N

-

Zambia

Y

South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Tanzania

Caribbean & A. Belize

N

-

Europe

Y

With International Engineering Alliance signatories. See http://www.ieagreements.org/

Africa

United Kingdom

Table 112 Reciprocal education agreements for Surveyors Region Africa Asia Caribbean & A. Europe

126

Country

Reciprocal education agreements

Countries with reciprocal education agreements

Nigeria

N

-

Rwanda

N

-

Malaysia

Y

Australia etc

Trinidad & Tobago

N

-

Belize

N

-

United Kingdom

Y

With International Engineering Alliance signatories. See http://www.ieagreements.org/

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


6.4 NATIONAL VALIDATION AUTHORITY Table 113 National validation authority for Architecture Region

Country

Independent

Validation organisation

validation for schools

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other Pacific

Botswana

Y

Architects Registration Council

Ghana

N

-

Kenya

Y

Commonwealth Association of Architects

Mauritius

Y

Tertiary Education Council (Mauritius)

Namibia

Y

-

Nigeria

Y

Nigerian Universities Commission (NUC)/ Architects Registration Council of Nigeria (ARCON)/ Nigerian Institute of Architects (NIA)

Rwanda

Y

High Education Council (HEC)

South Africa

Y

SACAP & CAA

Uganda

Y

By the Commonwealth Association board and the Uganda National Council of Higher Education

Zambia

N

-

Bangladesh

Y

Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB) and University Grant Commission (UGC)

India

Y

Council of Architecture; All India Council of Technical Education; University Grants Commission;

Pakistan

Y

HEC / PCATP

Sri Lanka

Y

SLIA

Canada

Y

Canadian Architectural Certification Board (CACB)

Dominica

N

-

Cyprus

Y

Ministry of Education and Culture

Malta

Y

There are different levels of validation: Each cohort is assessed by an external examiner from another University. There are quality assurance processes at institutional level, and also at national level.

United Kingdom

Y

RIBA

Hong Kong SAR

Y

The Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA) and Architects Registration Board (ARB)

Australia

Y

Architects Accreditation Council of Australia

New Zealand

Y

Australia and New Zealand Architecture Programme Accreditation

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Table 114 National validation authority for Town Planning Region

Country

Independent

Validation organisation

validation for schools

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe Pacific

Botswana

Y

Royal Town Planning Institute

Ghana

Y

Ghana Accreditation Board

Mauritius

Y

University of Mauritius in collaboration with external examiner U.K universities

Nigeria

Y

Town Planners Registration Council of Nigeria

South Africa

Y

SACPLAN

Tanzania

Y

Tanzania Commission of Universities (TCU) and NACTE for non-university schools

Malaysia

Y

Board of Town Planners Malaysia and National Accreditation Board

Singapore

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

University Grants Commission

Barbados

N

-

Canada

Y

Professional Standards Board

Trinidad & Tobago

N

-

Malta

N

-

United Kingdom

Y

By the RTPI

Australia

Y

Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency & PIA's Accreditation process

New Zealand

Y

NZPI

Table 115 National validation authority for Engineering Region

Country

Independent

Validation organisation

validation for schools Botswana

Y

-

Ghana

Y

Ghana Institution of Engineering, Engineering Council, National Accreditation Board

Mozambique

Y

CNAC

Uganda

Y

Uganda National Council for Higher Education (UNCHE)

Zambia

Y

Higher Education Authority and the Ministry of Higher Education

Caribbean & A. Belize

N

-

Europe

Y

They are accredited for the profession by the Joint Board of Moderators (https://jbm.org. uk/Home) and by the QAA which oversees standards in higher education in the UK (https:// www.qaa.ac.uk/)

Africa

United Kingdom

Table 116 National validation authority for Surveying Region

Country

Independent

Validation organisation

validation for schools Africa Asia

Nigeria

Y

National Universities Commission and National Board for Technical Education

Rwanda

Y

Council of Higher learning

Malaysia

Y

MQA and Board

Y

The Geomatics programme is accredited by the Chartered Institution of Civil Engineering Surveyors (ICES)

Caribbean & A. Trinidad & Tobago

128

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6.5

CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) REQUIREMENTS74

Table 117 CPD requirements for Architects Region

Africa

Country

Mandatory CPD

Botswana

Y

Gambia, The

-

Ghana

N

Kenya

Required hours per annum

CPD regulator

Consequence for failing minimum CPD requirement

Architects Registration Council

Practice Licence is not renewed

-

-

21

-

-

Y

30

BORAQS

Non-renewal of practicing licence

Mauritius

Y

12

PAC

can be removed from the registry; but PAC is yet to set in place proper regulatory framework

Namibia

Y

6

NCAQS

Only for In-Training-Architects, registered Architects are not regulated.

Nigeria

Y

160-man hours

ARCON/NIA

Delayed renewal of practice licence

45

Rwanda Institute of Architects / Board of Registration and the Board of Practice

If a minimum requirement of CPD is not met, the professional license is suspended for the subsequent year or other professional sanctions can be applied in some cases

SACAP

Warning given; time to rectify; thereafter deregistration.

The Architects Registration Board

The individual will not get a practicing license

-

-

Rwanda

Y

48

20 nominal hours = 2 full days formal (5 Credits/

South Africa

Y

annum in three categories; formal courses, workrelated, personal study

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Uganda

Y

Zambia

N

Bangladesh

Y

16

Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB)

One cannot get IAB registration number for Architectural practice

India

N

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Malaysia

Y

10

The Board of Architects Malaysia

De-registered

Pakistan

Y

PCATP

License will not be renewed

Singapore

Y

20 CPD Points per annum

Board of Architects, Singapore

Appeal to the Board

Sri Lanka

N

-

-

-

Antigua & Barbuda

N

-

-

-

Canada

Y

Varies by province

Provincial associations

Possible finding of professional misconduct and suspension of license.

Dominica

N

Trinidad & Tobago

N

20

TTIA

No action

20

74 Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is vital if architects are to

keep abreast of current practice in terms of design, technology, contract, law etc, yet only 63% of architecture respondents, 60% of planners and only 57% of engineers consider CPD to be a mandatory requirement (only a 3% increase on the 2017 figures for architecture). This may be due in part to the lack of institutional capacity.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

129


Region

Country

Mandatory CPD

Required hours per annum

Pacific

Consequence for failing minimum CPD requirement

Cyprus

N

-

-

Malta

N

-

The RIBA monitors compliance with CPD every year through contacting a random sample of members and asking for evidence of CPD undertaken. Members who persistently refuse to offer evidence of CPD undertaken can, after a series of warnings, be referred to the RIBA's professional conduct team. They may then refer the matter to a disciplinary panel which may decide to suspend the member for a year or until the required evidence is supplied.

United Kingdom

Y

35

CPD is compulsory in order to meet ARB's Code of Conduct and for continued Chartered membership of the RIBA.

Hong Kong SAR

Y

25

The Hong Kong Institute of Architects (HKIA)

Members would be expelled if they failed to fulfil the CPD requirements in two consecutive years.

20

CPD is only mandatory in 4 jurisdictions, where it is regulated by the architectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s registration board

It may be considered a breach of a code of conduct

Europe

Other

CPD regulator

Australia

Y

Fiji

N

-

-

Y

Guide - 1000 point

New Zealand Registered Architects Board

Extension of time, review (face to face), suspension

Country

Mandatory CPD

Required hours per annum

CPD regulator

Consequence for failing minimum CPD requirement

Botswana

N

-

-

-

Ghana

Y

40

Ghana Institute of Planners

The license would not be renewed

Mauritius

N

-

Nigeria

Y

Town Planners registration Council (TOPREC) and Nigerian Institute of Town Planners (NITP)

Sanctions will be applicable

South Africa

Y

SACPLAN

Policy recently approved - first year not through as yet

Tanzania

N

-

-

-

Malaysia

Y

12

Board of town planners Malaysia

Renewal of membership will not be processed

Sri Lanka

Y

3

ITPSL

Suspension of the Membership

Barbados

N

-

Canada

Y

18

Provincial and Territorial Institutes / Associations

At the discretion of the PTIA. Members may be prevented from renewing their membership.

Trinidad & Tobago

N

-

-

-

Malta

N

-

-

-

New Zealand Table 118 CPD requirements for Town Planners Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

130

16 hours 25 points per year one hour = one point

United Kingdom

Y

25

The RTPI

Failure to supply a plan or a record, without an acceptable reason for not doing so, is likely to constitute a breach of the Code of Conduct and to lead to disciplinary action being taken. Under Byelaw 20, if any member is found to be in breach of the Code the RTPI has the power to warn the member as to their future conduct, to reprimand the member, to suspend the member from membership of the RTPI or even to terminate their membership.

Australia

Y

30

PIA

Members can be demoted down a grade of membership

New Zealand

Y

25

NZPI

Membership ceases

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 119 CPD requirements for Engineers Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Mandatory CPD

Botswana

Y

Ghana

Y

18

GHANA INSTITUTION OF LICENSE SUSPENDED IF CPD NOT MET FOR 2 ENGINEERING CONSECUTIVE YEARS

Mozambique

N

-

-

-

Uganda

N

--

-

-

Zambia

Y

10

CPD Policy of the EIZ

No renewal of practicing licence

Malaysia

Y

50

Board of Engineers, Malaysia

Practicing licence will not be renewed

N

-

-

-

Y

As a guide, ICE recommends members should be doing at least 30 CPD hours per year up until their professional Review, and later in their careers enough to continue developing and maintaining the professional knowledge, skills and experience needed for their role.

The Institution of Civil Engineers for civil engineers.

ICE members can lose their membership and professional registration if they do not submit their CPD records on request.

Mandatory CPD

Required hours per annum

CPD regulator

Consequence for failing minimum CPD requirement

Nigeria

Y

15hours minimum per annum and 60hours in 3years

Nigerian institute of quantity surveyors

Sanction (suspension or withdrawal)

Rwanda

N

-

-

-

Malaysia

Y

-

Boards

no licence

20

The Land Survey Board of Trinidad and Tobago for only Licensed and Registered Land Surveyors

The surveyor is not registered. This only applies to Licensed and Registered Land Surveyors

Caribbean & A. Belize

Europe

United Kingdom

Required hours per annum

CPD regulator

Consequence for failing minimum CPD requirement

ERB

-

Table 120 CPD requirements for Surveyors Region

Africa

Asia Caribbean and Americas

Country

Trinidad & Tobago

Y

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

131


7 7

THE MARKET

7.1 CONSTRUCTION MARKET SIZE Since this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s survey is being jointly undertaken by the four principal-built environment disciplines (architecture, planning, engineering and surveying), it is no longer possible, or appropriate, to rely upon individual assessments of market size as each profession sees the market from a somewhat different perspective and there is no unified definition of what the construction market includes. We have therefore focused our efforts this year on perceptions of market size, and these are shown below.

7.2 CHANGE IN THE MARKET FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES Table 121 Change in the market for professional services Compared to LAST YEAR do you expect an increase or decrease in the Region

Africa

Asia

Country

built-environment market for your country in the next two years? Architecture

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Botswana

Increase

-

No change

-

Slight increase

Ghana

-

Increase

Increase

-

Increase

Kenya

Decrease

-

-

-

Decrease

Mauritius

Increase

-

Increase

-

Increase

Mozambique

-

Increase

-

-

Increase

Namibia

Decrease

-

-

-

Decrease

Nigeria

Increase

-

Increase

Increase

Increase

Rwanda

Increase

-

-

Increase

Increase

South Africa

Decrease

-

Decrease

-

Decrease

Tanzania

-

-

Increase

-

Increase

Uganda

Increase

Increase

-

-

Increase

Decrease

Zambia

Decrease

Bangladesh

Increase

India

Increase

Malaysia

Europe Other

132

-

-

Decrease

-

-

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

-

Increase

Decrease

Conflicted

Pakistan

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Singapore

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Sri Lanka

Decrease

-

Increase

-

Conflicted

-

-

-

No change

Antigua and Barbuda No change Caribbean and Americas

Overall Expectation

Barbados

-

-

Increase

-

Increase

Belize

-

Increase

-

-

Increase

Canada

-

-

Decrease

-

Decrease

Grenada

-

Decrease

-

-

Decrease

Trinidad and Tobago

No change

-

Increase

Decrease

Conflicted

Cyprus

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Malta

No change

-

No change

-

No change

United Kingdom

No change

-

No change

-

No change

Hong Kong SAR

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Compared to the LAST FIVE YEARS do you expect an increase or decrease Region

Pacific

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Other Pacific

Country

in the built-environment market in your country over the next two years?

Overall Expectation

Architecture

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Australia

Increase

-

Decrease

-

Conflicted

Fiji

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

New Zealand

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Botswana

Increase

-

No change

-

Slight increase

Ghana

-

Increase

Increase

-

Increase

Kenya

Decrease

-

-

-

Decrease

Mauritius

Increase

-

Increase

-

Increase

Mozambique

-

Increase

-

-

Increase

Namibia

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Nigeria

No change

-

Increase

Increase

Slight increase

Rwanda

Increase

-

-

Increase

Increase

South Africa

No change

-

Decrease

-

Slight decrease

Tanzania

-

-

Increase

-

Increase

Uganda

Increase

Increase

-

-

Increase

Zambia

Decrease

Decrease

-

-

Decrease

Bangladesh

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

India

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Malaysia

-

-

Increase

Decrease

Conflicted

Pakistan

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Singapore

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Sri Lanka

Decrease

-

Increase

-

Conflicted

Antigua and Barbuda No change

-

-

-

No change

Barbados

-

-

Increase

-

Increase

Belize

-

Increase

-

-

Increase

Canada

-

-

-

-

no data

Grenada

-

Decrease

-

-

Decrease

Trinidad and Tobago

Decrease

-

Decrease

Decrease

Decrease

Cyprus

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Malta

Increase

-

Decrease

-

Conflicted

United Kingdom

Decrease

-

No change

-

Slight decrease

Hong Kong SAR

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Australia

Increase

-

Decrease

-

Conflicted

Fiji

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

New Zealand

Increase

-

-

-

Increase

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

133


7.3 RECENT EVENTS AFFECTING THE LOCAL MARKET FOR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES Table 122 Recent events affecting the local market for professional services Have local events or conditions affected the built-environment market?

Planning

Surveying

Asia

Botswana

Y

-

Y

-

Corruption in delivery of state projects creating loss of quality and wasted public funds, Substantial Reduction in Government Spending

Ghana

-

Y

N

-

Government budget deficit, currency instability

Kenya

Y

-

Declining Economic Performance

Mauritius

N

-

Mozambique

-

Y

-

hidden debts, cyclones

Namibia

Y

-

-

Government halted all projects mid process.

Nigeria

Y

-

Y

Nigeria was in an economic depression from 2015 to 2017, recession, government policies and civil unrest

Rwanda

Y

-

N

In the aftermath of 1994 Rwanda Genocide against Tutsi, the country has embarked of social and economic transformation whereby the construction sector has benefited and has grown year after year to meet the country's vision 2020

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Overall growth in SA economy stalled over past decade due to political and policy uncertainty. International Trade wars and the delay in finalising Brexit are also contributing to financial uncertainty. Recession.

Tanzania

-

-

Y

-

The shift of capital from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, more construction projects are now skewed to Dodoma

Uganda

Y

-

-

-

The discovery of oil, the heavy investment in energy sector, government policy for roads, industrial investors

Zambia

Y

Y

-

-

Government Infrastructure Policy, Global economic meltdown, Unsustainable external debt

Bangladesh

N

-

-

India

Y

-

-

-

Focus on Infrastructural Development; Housing for All by 2022;

Malaysia

-

--

Y

N

The changes in political landscape where the government has reviewed several mega infrastructure projects and commitment for better practices such as open tender, safe and others. Additionally, the is influx of international firms competing for large/mega projects

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

N

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

Terrorist Bombing and Attack

Antigua & Barbuda

Y

-

-

Global Financial Crisis

-

Barbados struggled to recover from the recession. The incoming Government in 2018 has agreed a homegrown recovery programme with the IMF and there are signs of increased investment and growth in the coming years. (The current figure above is an actual for 2018. the 2020 figure is my estimate which I hope will be exceeded).

Barbados

Caribbean and Americas

134

Local Event / Condition

Engineering

Africa

Country

Architecture

Region

-

Belize

N

Y

-

Y

Y

-

-

CPEC

Hurricanes

Canada

N

-

-

-

Dominica

Y

-

-

-

Hurricane Maria

Grenada

-

Y

-

-

Citizenship by investment programme established by Government

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

-

Y

Y

The economy is in decline as a result of falling oil and gas prices and depletion of reserves, government clamp down on economy and not paying money owed to local contractors, Economic recession Increase in the number of contracts awarded to Chinese companies

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Have local events or conditions affected the built-environment market?

Planning

Surveying

Local Event / Condition

Engineering

Country

Architecture

Region

Cyprus

Y

-

-

-

Malta

Y

-

N

Government policies which favoured increased foreign high-income residents, and liberalized planning policies which boosted demand for residential accommodation and offices.

Europe

Other

The bail-in of the two major Banks and the economy collapse

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Y

--

Brexit, a shortage of housing units, uncertainty around the situation in international trade, access to migrant construction labour, notes re the forecast size of the country's construction market in 2020: The Construction Product Association (CPA) have a forecast of a small contraction in 2019 of -0.4%, then modest growth of 1.4% in 2020. This assumes an orderly Brexit, so it could turn out to be very different.

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

The government undertook to consider and implement a number of positive measures after 1 July 2017.

Australia

Y

--

Y

-

High house prices, lower demand, slowing infrastructure markets, tighter lending conditions as a result of a royal commission into banking practices, a sustained housing boom over last 5 years fuelled by National Govt subsidies on residential property investment, low interest rates and the lack of a recession (modest to strong GDP and population growth).

Fiji

Y

-

-

-

Political stability

New Zealand

Y

-

-

-

Earthquakes, flooding, storm events, heavy housing shortage

Pacific

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

135


8 8

GOVERNMENT CONTEXT

8.1 GOVERNMENT ENGAGEMENT75

Table 123 Government engagement with the Architectural profession Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Government Ministry responsible for the profession

Botswana Kenya

Does the Government consult the profession

Profession role within Government

Government/ Chief Resilience Officer

Ministry of Infrastructure and Housing

Y

N

N

Ministry of Transport, Housing, Infrastructure and Urban Development

Y

Y

Y

Mauritius

Ministry of Public Infrastructure

Y

Y

N

Namibia

Ministry of Works and Transport

N

N

N

Nigeria

Federal Ministry of Housing and Urban Development

Y

Y

Y

Rwanda

Ministry of Infrastructure

Y

N

Y

South Africa

Department of Public Works

Y

Y

N

Uganda

Ministry of Works, Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban development

Y

Y

N

Zambia

Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure Development

Y

Y

Y

Bangladesh

The Ministry of Housing and Public Works

Y

Y

N

India

Ministry of Human Resource Development

Y

N

N

Malaysia

The Ministry of Works

Y

N

N

Pakistan

Ministry for Housing and Works

Y

Y

N

Singapore

Ministry for National Development

Y

N

N

Sri Lanka

Ministry of Housing and Construction

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

Antigua & Barbuda Ministry of Legal Affairs Caribbean and Americas

Canada Dominica

Public work

Y

Y

N

Trinidad & T.

Ministry of Works and Transport

N

N

N

Cyprus

Ministry of the Interior / Ministry of Transport, Communications and Works

Y

Y

N

Malta

Ministry for transport, infrastructure and capital projects

Y

N

N

United Kingdom

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, responsible for Architecture and Planning; Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (DBEIS); and Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)

Y

Y

N

Europe

Other

Pacific

Profession is regulated by each provincial legislature; generally regulated by attorney general of each province

Hong Kong SAR

Development Bureau, HKSAR

Y

Y

N

Australia

Varies from state to state

Y

Y

N

Fiji

Ministry of Infrastructure

Y

Y

N

New Zealand

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment/ Ministry for Housing and Urban Development

Y

N

N

75 While most countries reported that their government consults the

profession, only 58% report there being a Government Architect, 70% report a Government Planner, 63% a Government Engineer and 60% a Government Surveyor. Even fewer report a Government/Chief resilience Officer; 19%, 40%, 0% and 0% respectively.

136

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 124 Government engagement with the Town Planning profession Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Europe

Country

Government Ministry responsible for the profession

Botswana

Ministry of Land Management Water and Sanitation Services

Y

N

N

Ghana

Ministry of Works and Housing

Y

Y

Y

Mauritius

Ministry of Housing and Lands

Y

Y

N

Does the Government consult the profession

Profession role within Government

Government/ Chief Resilience Officer

Nigeria

Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing

Y

Y

Y

South Africa

Agriculture, Rural Development and Land Reform

Y

Y

Y

Tanzania

Ministry of Lands Housing and Human Settlements Development

Y

-

-

Malaysia

Ministry of Federal Territories

Y

N

N

Sri Lanka

Ministry of Megapolis & Western Development (Urban Development)

Y

Y

N

Barbados

The Prime Minister

Y

Y

Y

Canada

It depends on the Province - e.g. Municipal Affairs (Ontario) Order Des Professions (Quebec)

Y

N

N

Trinidad & Tobago

Ministry of Planning and Development

N

Y

N

Malta

Ministry for Transport Infrastructure and Capital Projects

N

N

N

United Kingdom

Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local Government (for England).

Y

Y

N

Australia

The Australian planning profession is primarily regulated by the six State Governments – each have a Ministerial portfolio that includes ‘Planning’ – as well as Departmental structures that include ‘Planning’ – but often in combination with Environment, Infrastructure and Local Government. At the national level the two most relevant Ministries are ‘Population, Cities and Urban Infrastructure’ and ‘Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development’.

Y

N

N

New Zealand

Ministry for the Environment, Ministry for Housing and Urban Development and Ministry of Transport

Y

N

N

Pacific

Table 125 Government engagement with the Engineering profession Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Government Ministry responsible for the profession

Ghana

Ministry of Works and Housing

Y

N

N

Mauritius

Ministry of Public Infrastructure

Y

Y

N

Mozambique

Ministry of Science and Technology

Y

N

N

Uganda

Ministry of Works and Transport

Y

Y

Botswana

-

Y

-

-

Zambia

Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure

Y

N

N

Malaysia

Ministry of Works

Y

Y

-

Does the Government consult the profession

Profession role within Government

Government/ Chief Resilience Officer

Caribbean and America

Belize

-

N

Y

N

Grenada

Ministry of Infrastructure Development, Public Utilities, Energy, Transport & Implementation

N

Y

N

Europe

United Kingdom

BEIS

Y

Y

Table 126 Government engagement with the Surveying profession Region

Africa

Country

Government Ministry responsible for the profession

Nigeria

Ministry of Power Works and Housing

Y

N

N

Rwanda

-

Y

N

N

Tanzania

Ministry of lands

Y

Y

-

Malaysia

NRE, JKR etc

Y

Y

-

Trinidad & Tobago

The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Fisheries is responsible for land and the land tenure institutions.

Y

Y

N

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Does the Government consult the profession

Profession role within Government

Government/ Chief Resilience Officer

137


8.2 PROFESSIONAL ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT Table 127 Extent of engagement between Government and the Architectural profession Region

Country

Does the organisation advise the Government?

Botswana

Y

AAB members participate in a variety of government consultative forums.

Ghana

N

-

Kenya

Y

Providing advice and support on infrastructural development that affects the built environment and public safety

Mauritius

Y

The MAA is invited on several consultation platforms to advise on architectural matters

Namibia

Y

Advice regarding Acts that are changing without prior communication with the Institute. Requests revisions on procurement Acts that are being launched without approval from Architects.

Nigeria

Y

Interactive annual conferences, workshop and seminars, all closing with communique and reports issued to Government and Public.

Rwanda

Y

RIA plays advisory role as it comes to matters pertaining to the built environment. RIA has actively participated in the preparation of master plans in the capital city and tertiary cities. RIA is actively involved with cities and districts in preparation and implementation of short- and long-term projects in different settings.

South Africa

Y

SAIA comments on legislation/regulation when there is opportunity to do so. It participates in round table discussions and forums to comment on relevant Built Environment matters whenever the opportunity arises. The City of Cape Town appointed a Chief Resilience Officer in May 2017.

Uganda

Y

We sit on the national building board. Representation in the ministries. Participate in different policy workshops

Zambia

Y

Government appoints Architects to Technical Committee where expert advice will be required Government requests opinions from Architects on matters that are Architectural in nature

Bangladesh

Y

IAB advises government in architectural matters. IAB advises government in technical issues. IAB advises government to take development strategies. IAB advises government to make policies and act. IAB advises government to review building codes, guidelines and its necessary amendment. IAB advises government in heritage conservation. IAB advises government in any moral stand. etc.

India

Y

As members/invitees in various boards and committeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s setup by the government for the purpose

Malaysia

Y

Memorandum, participate in working committees or task force groups

Pakistan

Y

Informally

Singapore

Y

Involve in the formulation of new codes and standards, feedback from the industry

Sri Lanka

Y

Institute represents the government appointed committees who discuss and advise planning and solving national issues.

Antigua & Barbuda

N

-

Canada

Y

-

Dominica

Y

In any manners. The government is selecting who they want.

Trinidad & Tobago

Y

Meetings are held where possible with respective state bodies to address our concerns. We advise via the Joint Consultative Council (JCC), which represents all consultants i.e. architects, engineers, quantity surveyors and planners

Cyprus

Y

Malta

Y

The Government should, but does not always, consult the profession on matters related to architecture. The Chamber advises government through written submission, formal meetings and hands on consultation.

United Kingdom

Y

The ARB advises the Government as the regulatory body for architecture. The RIBA advises the Government in an informal capacity.

Hong Kong SAR

Y

Appointments of HKIA members in government advisory committees, public / stakeholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; consultations, regular and ad hoc meetings with government

Australia

Y

Advises on architectural competitions, advises on matters of policy related to the built environment, affordable housing, etc

Fiji

Y

New Zealand

Y

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

138

How does the professional organisation advise the Government?

Ministerial Advisory Group

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 128 Extent of engagement between Government and the Town Planning profession Region

Country

Does the organisation advise the Government?

Botswana

Y

We write formal advisory letters/notes on topics of interest. The government planning system is however very weak, especially at the top Ministry level. As you can see there is no Chief Planner in Government.

Ghana

Y

Advises are given to the government in a form of prepared plan of actions for implementation

Mauritius

Y

Regular consultation meetings on strategic planning, Planning laws amendments, outline planning schemes and planning policy guidelines modifications with the Ministry.

Nigeria

Y

Our Institute participates in discussions during policy making, and during public hearings in the process of making laws and occasionally writes position papers to draw government's attention to issues relating to Urban and Regional planning and general development of the country.

Y

Between 1996 and 2002 the regulatory environment for planning was finalised with the Act adopted. SAPI played a role in ensuring that planners were more informed and linked to what was taking root in planning, participatory approaches, strategic foci and implementation-oriented development planning - Integrated Development Planning (IDP). Planners had a unique opportunity to be at the forefront of positioning and skilling themselves on IDP. This led to an appreciation of the critical role of spatial and physical planning competencies of Planners and this remains a key differentiator for the Profession. Post 2010 SAPI commenced a robust engagement with the South African government processes around the National Planning Commission, the formulation of the National Development Plan (NDP) and SPLUMA (Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act). The sustainability and spatial components of development were consolidated in terms of the spatial principles and objectives set out in the NDP with a focus on sustainable human settlements and spatial targeting by the Department of Human Settlements and National Treasury as a driver for resource allocation. In 2002 SAPI mobilised many planning activists to help refocus efforts on building planning capability starting with organising the first Planning Africa conference that year. The conference marked a seminal moment by at least partly restoring confidence and belief in the value and central role of Planners in the changing landscape. Subsequently, and for this reason, Planning Africa has rightfully become a flagship programme for SAPI. It has evolved into a premier knowledge sharing platform and positions SAPI as a leading voice by facilitating key dialogues and learnings. Planning Africa has become one of the largest gatherings of its kind globally. SAPI mobilised funding from UN-Habitat and GIZ for research and publication of the first African Planning Report. The report was presented to Planning Africa 2014 and to an international Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) webinar event highlighting the urbanisation challenge on the continent that requires serious Planning capacity.

Tanzania

Y

The TAP has been advising the government on many issues related to planning viz: 1) How to manage proliferation of unplanned areas in urban centres 2) Planning for land within major Infrastructure corridors like the SGR railway project, the Uganda - Tanzania oil pipeline, The Stigglers Gorge hydro power generation project, 3) On Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) - the Association advised the government to involve the private sector especially in realizing SDG 11 i.e Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The government has started to involve the private firms in planning and regularization of of informal settlements under community driven initiatives 4) Decentralization of professional service provision in line with capacity building

Malaysia

Y

1. Through preparation of development plans and policies under town and country planning act 1976 (act 172) 2. Members of specific committees on various matters affecting government policies

Sri Lanka

Y

For each Planning Project of the Government a Town Planner is involved through relevant Planning Agency

Y

The incoming Prime Minister asked the Society to run stakeholder engagement on planning reform. The PM herself attended and spoke at meetings and we used social media and broadcast media. BTPS members formed part of the consultancy team preparing a Green Paper, White Paper sand a Bill. The Society was able to respond formally to these documents. Following passing of the Bill the Society is now being consulted on the subsidiary legislation.

Canada

Y

There is no direct line to Government at the National level. Provincial Organizations have their own arrangements with Provincial Governments. The majority of our advice is given in the form of responding to open consultations (e.g. on the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy) but we also place volunteers on Government advisory groups, e.g. Natural Resources Canada's flood risk guidance group.

Trinidad & Tobago

N

The interaction is not consistent. Many things are decided on by the Government without consultation. Where there is interaction or consultation, there is often no feedback.

Malta

N

Occasional meetings are held, publications in the press and public meetings.

United Kingdom

Y

Undertaking research into the art and science of TP and disseminating the results. Providing evidence and responding to government consultations.

Australia

Y

PIA advises Government via submissions, inquiries, direct contact and via advocacy campaigns on priority planning industry issues (eg the need for a National Settlement Strategy). Additional comment to the above question "Is there such a role as Government/Chief Resilience Officer?" - No, however there is a joint government/NGO sponsored Chief Resilience Officer for Sydney and Melbourne.

New Zealand

Y

Regular sessions with Ministry staff and formal submissions on policy proposals

Africa South Africa

Asia

Barbados Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

How does the professional organisation advise the Government?

139


Table 129 Extent of engagement between Government and the Engineering profession Region

Country

Does the organisation advise the Government?

Botswana

Y

-

Ghana

Y

We are included as one of the regular stakeholders for many government decisions. Government also consults on specific engineering issues. The institution has statutory representation on public entity boards

Mauritius

Y

-

Mozambique

Y

-

Uganda

Y

-

Zambia

Y

EIZ advises Government on all engineering matters of public interest through our line Ministry. EIZ receives requests on engineering matters from Parliament for advice, we advise Parliament directly.

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Y

Being part of boards

Grenada

N

-

Europe

United Kingdom

Y

We issue them with periodic reports on the nation's infrastructure

Africa

How does the professional organisation advise the Government?

Table 130 Extent of engagement between Government and the Surveying profession Region

Africa Asia

Country

How does the professional organisation advise the Government?

Nigeria

Y

By making available white papers, conference and research proceedings, professional advice

Rwanda

Y

The institute is mandated to gather data and analyse for government and public use

Tanzania

Y

Malaysia

Y

Caribbean & A. Trinidad & Tobago

140

Does the organisation advise the Government?

Y

The ISTT publishes statements on proposed new and amended legislation.

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


8.3 PUBLIC SECTOR PROCUREMENT76 Table 131 How are Government projects procured?

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Other Pacific

Surveying

Planning

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Architecture

Design Competition

Engineering

Surveying

Engineering

Fee Tender Architecture

Direct Invitation

Planning

Country

Architecture

Region

Botswana

Y

-

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

N

-

Ghana

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

Y

--

Kenya

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Mauritius

N

-

-

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

Mozambique

-

N

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

Namibia

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Nigeria

Y

-

N

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Rwanda

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

Y

-

-

-

-

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

Tanzania

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Uganda

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

Y

-

-

Zambia

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Belize

-

N

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

India

N

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Malaysia

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

-

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

Belize

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Canada

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Y

-

Dominica

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Grenada

-

-

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

N

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Cyprus

N

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Malta

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Y

-

United Kingdom

Y

N

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

N

-

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Australia

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Fiji

-

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

New Zealand

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

-

-

76 Anecdotal evidence suggests that public sector procurement in many

parts of the Commonwealth is still based on lowest cost rather than best value and the small to medium sized enterprises (SMEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s) often struggle to compete for public sector projects.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

141


8.4 DESIGN COMPETITIONS Table 132 Use of public sector design competitions, (Architects) Region

Africa

Country

Design Competition

Botswana

Y

Y

N

N

Kenya

Y

Y

N

N

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Winning Prize

Award of the project

General design based on DESIGN & BUILD format; hence submission of entries are done along with a Building Contractor. This type of practice actually limits the architects' control over the project given that the contractor employs the architect.

Y

N

N

Y

Namibia

N

`-

-

-

Nigeria

Y

Y

N

Y

monetary prize, project funding, full design and supervision of the project, etc

Y

-Full design and supervision of the project.

Y

SAIA encourages the use of our Competition Guidelines which are compliant with the UIA Rules. Apart from a monetary prize, the winner is generally appointed to carry out full professional services for the project.

Y

South Africa

Y

Y

Y

Uganda

N

-

-

-

Zambia

Y

Y

N

Y

Monetary Prize and Full Design and Supervision

Bangladesh

Y

Y

Y

Y

In Design Competition, the monetary prizes are given to the award winners 1st, 2nd, 3rd and special mention (if any). 1st prize winner gets the chance to implement his/her design and get the consultancy fees for the design and supervision. The award money may be deducted from the consultancy fees.

India

Y

Y

Y

N

Not Applicable

Malaysia

N

-

-

-

Pakistan

Y

Y

Y

Y

Cash Prize. Design and supervision of the project

Singapore

Y

Y

N

Y

Winner will be awarded to develop the project

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

N

Y

Money prize & usually 1st prize winner is commission for the project.

Antigua & B.

N

-

-

-

Canada

N

-

-

-

Dominica

N

-

-

-

Trinidad & T.

N

Cyprus

Y

N

N

Y

Malta

N

N

N

N

N Competitions occur on very few occasions. If a prize is awarded, first prize is a money prize and the design and supervision of the project is assigned in which case the money prize is part of the fee.

United Kingdom

Y

N

Y

Y

It is recommended that the winner is awarded a prize. The type of prize is dependent on work required / negotiations with the client Notes: Fees: UK Regulations require that public sector competitions are free to enter. Recognised body: the RIBA

Hong Kong SAR

Y

N

N

Y

HKIA pursues full design and supervision of the project for project design competitions. For idea design competition, only money prize is available.

Australia

Y

Y

N

N

competitions endorsed by the Institute remunerate the short list and either provide a monetary prize and/or result in an awarding of a contract to the winner

Pacific

142

Type of prize or award

Mauritius

Rwanda

Asia

Competition Competition Fee Body

Fiji

Y

Y

Y

N

New Zealand

Y

Y

Y

N

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 133 Use of public sector design competitions, (Town Planners) Region

Africa Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

Country

Design Competition

Botswana

N

-

-

-

-

Ghana

Y

N

Y

Y

Project Funding

Nigeria

Y

N

Y

Y

Full design and supervision of the project

Malaysia

N

Y

Y

Y

Monetary prize, full design, project funding

Barbados

N

-

-

-

Canada

Y

Y

Y

Y

We cannot speak for every competition. However, a recent competition - SMART cities Challenge, awarded different amounts of project funding.

Trinidad & T.

N

-

-

-

-

Malta

Y

Y

N

N

-

UK

N

-

-

-

-

N

Further information to the above responses: Recognised body? No, the individual State agency, development corporation or Local Council doing the procurement organises the competitions. Awarded a prize? No, not always - typically the winner will be in a leading position to negotiate a key role in the design and development of the project.

Australia

Competition Competition Fee Body

Y

N

N

Winning Prize

Type of prize or award

Table 134 Use of public sector design competitions, (Engineers) Region

Africa

Asia

Country

Design Competition

Botswana

Y

-

-

-

-

Ghana

N

-

-

-

-

Mauritius

Y

N

N

N

-

Mozambique

N

-

-

-

-

Uganda

Y

Y

-

Y

-

Zambia

Y

Y

N

Y

Monetary prize. Full design and Supervision

Malaysia

Competition Competition Fee Body

Winning Prize

Type of prize or award

-

Y

-

-

-

Caribbean & A. Belize

N

-

-

-

-

Europe

Y

-

N

N

-

UK

Table 135 Use of public sector design competitions, (Surveyors) Region Africa

Country

Design Competition

Competition Competition Fee Body

Winning Prize

Type of prize or award

Nigeria

Y

N

Y

Y

Full design and supervision of the project

Rwanda

-

Y

-

-

-

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

143


8.5 PLANNING LEGISLATION Table 136 Is Planning Legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? Region

Country

Africa

Botswana

Planning legislation fit for purpose? Architecture

Engineering Planning

N

Planning legislation implemented effectively? Surveying

N

Architecture

Engineering Planning

N

Surveying

N

Gambia, The

N

Ghana

Y

N

Y

Kenya

N

Y

Mauritius

Y

Y

N

Y

Nigeria

N

Y

N

Y

Rwanda

Y

South Africa

Y

Mozambique Namibia

Y Y Y

Tanzania

Asia

Uganda

Y

Zambia

Y

Bangladesh

Y

Y

Caribbean and Americas

Y

Sri Lanka

Y

Antigua and Barbuda

N

N Y Y

Y Y Y

Y

Y

Y

N Y

Barbados

N

N

Belize

N Y

Canada

Y

Y

N Y

Grenada Trinidad and Tobago

N

Cyprus

N

Malta

N

United Kingdom

Y

Other

Hong Kong

Y

Pacific

Australia

Y

Fiji

Y

New Zealand

N

Europe

Y

N

Y Y

Dominica

N

Y

Singapore

N

N

Malaysia Pakistan

Y Y

N

Belize India

N Y

N N

Y

N

N

N

N N

Y

N

N

Y

N

Y

Y Y

Y

Y

N Y

N

N

75 43% of architectural respondents do not consider their building

codes fit for purpose. This is a significant increase on the 2017 survey which found that figure to be 20%. Furthermore, 80% do not consider their building code is being implemented effectively; an increase from 50% in 2017. 46% of planners also consider building codes arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit for purpose and 54% do not consider it is being implemented effectively.

144

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


8.6 BUILDING CODES75 Table 137 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Architects) Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Other

Pacific

Country

Building code legislation name

Building code legislation date

Building codes implemented effectively?

Reason

Botswana

Building Control Regulations 65.02

1980

N

N

Outdated

Kenya

Kenya Building Code

1968

N

N

The code has long outlived its usefulness as it follows the old British Council Building Laws

Mauritius

Building Control Act

2012

Y

N

BS, EN, are normally used; local standards are limited

Nigeria

National Building Code

2006

Y

N

Needs review to include compliance and enforcement

Rwanda

Ministerial Order determining urban planning and building regulations

2015

Y

N

There is a big gap in the harmonization of inspection manuals at different levels as well as in compliance monitoring systems in different institutions (Public institutions, professionals regulating bodies and private cooperation)

South Africa

Building Regulations & Standards Act, Act 103

1977

Y

Y

Uganda

National Building regulation

2018

Y

N

The government does not have the capacity and human resource to enforce and monitor

Zambia

Public Health Act

1995

Y

N

Not all buildings are compliant

Bangladesh

Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC)

N

N

Corruption and Lack of dynamism, transparency and accountability in the activities of administration, ridden with alleged wrongdoings over the years. Proper review and some amendments needed due to some recent crisis and urgency.

India

State Town Planning Acts

Y

Y

Not Applicable

Pakistan

Pakistan Building Codes

2007

Y

N

Weak implementation control of the Agency

Singapore

Building Control Act

1989

Y

Y

Sri Lanka

Mainly we are using British Standards and Codes

-

-

Antigua & B.

OECS Building Code

1970

N

N

Lack of building inspection Lack of enforcement by Authorities

Canada

National Building Code, Provincial Building Codes and Municipal Building Codes

-

-

-

Many different legislations based on jurisdiction.

Dominica

N/A

N

N

Government / parliament NEVER approved OECS building code 1995. But physical planning division is using it as guide

Trinidad & T.

There is no national building code

-

-

-

Cyprus

Colonial Legislation (based on Indian low)

1960

N

N

Personal opinion

Malta

Original building code originates from 19th century Code of Police Laws, focussing on Sanitary legislation. Current legislation includes Building Regulation Act 2011, but Code of Police Laws still in place.

2011

Y

N

2011 Law is an enabling legislation which envisages the drafting of building regulations. The building regulations themselves are, however, still not sufficient, and, particularly in the case of environmental health legislation, is old-fashioned prescriptive rather than based on performance standards. In recent years, Government has been advised to integrate building regulations with development planning approval processes, but the Chamber believes that this is incorrect.

UK

Building Regulations

1984

N

N

Since the fire at Grenfell Tower, a number of problems within the existing building regulations have come to light. The RIBA has been lobbying for the building regulations to be updated and clarified

Hong Kong

Mainly through Buildings Ordinance

2017

Y

Y

Australia

National Construction Code

2019

Y

N

Fiji

Building Code of Fiji

?

N

N

New Zealand

New Zealand Building Act

2004

N

N

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

2006

Building codes fit for purpose

while the code is national, it is enforced by state and territory governments and local governments - practices vary from state to state

Performance based in theory but implemented as prescriptive

145


Table 138 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Town Planning) Region

Africa

Country

Building code legislation name

Botswana

Development Control Code

2015

N

N

Ghana

Ghana Building Code

2018

Y

Y

Mauritius

Planning and Development Act 2004; Building Control Act 2012

2004 ,2012

Y

N

South Africa

Building Act

2004

Y

Y

Tanzania

The township (building) Rules (cap 101)

1930

N

N

Malaysia

Uniform Building By-Laws Under Street, Drainage and Building (Act 133)

1984

Y

Y

Sri Lanka

Construction Industry Development Authority Act

2018

Y

Y

Barbados

Building Act

2018

N

N

Canada

National Model Building Code

2015

Y

Y

Trinidad & T.

Trinidad and Tobago Small Building Code (DRAFT)

2004

N

N

it is draft and has never been formalized, far less implemented

Malta

N/A

N

N

Legislation needs to be consolidated and resources provided to the section supposedly in charge of it. The Independent Review of Building Regulations and Fire Safety commissioned in 2018 after the Grenfell Tower fire raised significant concerns which the government will need to address.

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

United Kingdom

Australia

Building codes fit for purpose

Building codes implemented effectively?

The Building Regulations

2010

N

N

Building Code of Australia (is administered by a national board) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is given legal effect by the various planning Acts in each state.

1970 (with new iterations and name changes regularly since then)

Y

Y

New Zealand Building Act

146

Building code legislation date

Reason

There are complaints that it is not flexible to adapt to the various context around the country. and Planners at Local Government are not empowered to develop their own area specific codes

lack ex-post control and monitoring during and after construction.

The Code is based on European practice and not appropriate. The organizational structures are considered unaffordable and unworkable by the current administration. New legislation is expected within 12 months.

2004

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 139 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Engineers) Region

Country

Building code legislation name

Building code legislation date

Ghana

Ghana Building Code 2018

2018

Y

N

Zambia

Zambia Bureau of Standards

2017

Y

Y

Caribbean and Americas

Belize

Central building authorities

2003

N

N

Grenada

OECS Building Code

-

Y

N

Europe

UK

-

N

Africa

Building codes fit for purpose

Building codes implemented effectively?

Reason

Planning regulations are ignored, implementing agencies are scattered across different ministries resulting in many grey areas and turf wars

Table 140 Is Building Code legislation fit for purpose and implemented effectively? (Surveyors) Region

Country

Nigeria

Africa

Building code legislation name

Federal Ministry of Power Works and Housing

Building code legislation date

Building codes fit for purpose

2006

Trinidad & T.

Building codes implemented effectively?

Reason

N

N

The statutory body is not well funded, professionals are not well aware. Corruption of responsible officers

N

N

There is no legislation

Figure 43 Is Planning Policy and Building Code fit for purpose and implemented effectively?

Planning Legislation

Implemented effectively

42%

Fit for purpose

71%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Building Codes

Implemented effectively

27%

Fit for purpose

54%

Yes No

147


8.7 HEALTH AND SAFETY Table 141 Has your government developed and implemented effective health and safety standards?

Kenya

Mauritius

N

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

n/a

N

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Y

Y

Y

n/a

It is dependent on the outcomes of an Environmental Assessment Process Labour office of the ministry of employment and labour

N

Health and Safety Authority: National Construction Authority The person obliged to appoint the project Health and Safety officer is the Main Contractor

N

It is a common practice to appoint an independent Health and Safety consultant, Health and safety Inspectorate (Special Division) in the Ministry of Labour and Industrial relation

Y

Y

Africa Mozambique

Y

Y Y

Y

Y

n/a

Y

Y

Y

Rwanda

Y

South Africa

Y

Uganda

N

Zambia

Y

Bangladesh

N

Y

N

N

India

N

Y

Y

N

Y

N

Y

n/a

Y

Y

Nigeria

Y

Y

Y

Y Y

Malaysia

Y

N

Y

N

Y

n/a

N

Y

Y

N

N

Y n/a

Y

Y Y

Y

N

Y

Health and Safety Institute of Zambia

Department of Occupational Safety and Health under the Ministry of Human Resources

Y

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

148

N

N

n/a

N

Singapore

Y

Y

Y

Y

Sri Lanka

Y

-

N

-

Y

-

Antigua & B.

N

-

-

-

N

-

Barbados

-

-

n/a

-

-

Belize

-

N

-

-

N

Canada

n/a

-

Y

-

n/a n/a

Dominica

N

-

-

-

Grenada

-

N

-

-

Trinidad & T.

Y

-

n/a

Y

Y

-

Y

n/a

N

-

-

N

-

-

-

-

N

-

n/a

-

-

n/a

N

-

-

Y

-

n/a

Y

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Y

-

N

n/a

N

-

-

N

-

-

-

-

N n/a

-

-

N

N

n/a

Ministry of Manpower

-

-

-

Y

Y

Y

The health and safety compliance in construction projects is monitored under Rwanda Housing Authority.

National Environment Management Authority, Ministry of Gender and labour

Y

Pakistan

Department of Development Control

Department of Labour, Client/ Building Owner/ Developer

Y

Y

Y

Name of health and safety authority

Surveying

N

Planning

Y

Engineering

n/a

Y

Architecture

Y

Y

Surveying

Y

Planning

N

Y

Engineering

Y

Ghana

Y

Architecture

Y

Surveying

Y

Planning

Y

Engineering

Health and safety officer required for construction?

Architecture

Health and safety standards adequately regulated?

Surveying

Effective health and safety standards

Planning

Botswana

Health and safety authority

Engineering

Country

Architecture

Region

-

N

n/a

-

Contractor is obliged to appoint the H&S Officers.

-

Project Manager or Owner

-

n/a

-

-

-

N

-

-

n/a

N

Health and Safety falls under provincial jurisdiction, Ministry of Labour

Occupational Safety and Health Agency (OSHA)

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Malta

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Y

-

-

Y

-

N

-

The client for design stage and the contractor for construction stage

-

Occupational Health and Safety Authority, Owners/Developers of sites whose cost exceed an established threshold are obliged to appoint a H&S officer who will periodically visit the site and monitor works.

UK

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

n/a

-

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) The Principal Designer is appointed by the Client (to plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the pre-construction phase). The architect who has Principal Designer duties might sub-consult a specialist Health and Safety Adviser. The principal contractor is appointed by the client to plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety during the construction phase.

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Y

--

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Occupation Safety and Health Council, Client or Contractor

Australia

Y

-

Y

-

Y

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

--

Safe Work Australia (they prepare model workplace health and safety regimes that are given effect, varies from state to state

Fiji

Y

New Zealand

Y

Europe

Other

Pacific

Name of health and safety authority

Surveying

-

Planning

Y

Engineering

-

Architecture

-

Health and safety officer required for construction?

Surveying

Y

Planning

-

Engineering

Engineering

-

Architecture

Architecture

-

Health and safety standards adequately regulated?

Surveying

Surveying

Y

Planning

Effective health and safety standards

Planning

Cyprus

Health and safety authority

Engineering

Country

Architecture

Region

N Y

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Y

N Y

Y

N Y

Y

Y

Worksafe NZ

149


8.8 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS77 Table 142 Has your government developed SDG targets together with an effective implementation plan? Region

Country

SDG targets developed? Architecture

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Other Pacific

Botswana

Y

Ghana

-

Engineering

Effective SDG implementation plan? Planning

Surveying

Y Y

Y

Architecture

Engineering

N -

-

Planning

Surveying

N Y

Y

-

Kenya

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Mauritius

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

n/a

-

Mozambique

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Namibia

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nigeria

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Rwanda

Y

-

-

n/a

Y

-

-

n/a

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Tanzania

-

-

Y

-

-

-

-

-

Uganda

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Zambia

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

India

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Malaysia

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Belize

-

Y

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

Canada

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Dominica

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Grenada

-

n/a

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

-

Y

Y

N

-

n/a

Y

Cyprus

N

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

-

Malta

Y

-

N

-

n/a

-

N

-

United Kingdom

Y

Y

N

-

n/a

N

N

-

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Australia

N

-

Y

-

n/a

-

Y

-

Fiji

N

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

-

New Zealand

Y

-

N

-

n/a

-

N

-

77 The Sustainable Development Goals were agreed upon at the United

Nations by 193 countries in September 2015 and comprise a series of voluntary commitments to help end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for everyone. It is disappointing, therefore, to discover that over 20% of architecture and planning respondents have not set national targets (though this is less than the 40% figure in the 2017 survey) and almost 30% of architecture respondents and around 40% of planning respondents lack an effective implementation plan (though this is again less than the 70% figure in the 2017 survey).

150

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


8.9 RENEWABLE ENERGY78 Table 143 Has your government developed an effective renewable energy policy? Region

Country

Effective renewable energy policy? Architecture

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe Other Pacific

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

Botswana

N

-

N

-

Ghana

-

Y

-

-

Kenya

N

-

-

-

Mauritius

N

Y

Y

-

Mozambique

-

-

-

-

Namibia

N

-

-

-

Nigeria

N

-

N

N

Rwanda

Y

-

-

-

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Tanzania

-

-

Y

-

Uganda

N

-

-

-

Zambia

N

Y

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

-

India

Y

-

-

-

Malaysia

-

-

Y

Y

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

Belize

-

N

-

-

Canada

Y

-

N

-

Dominica

N

-

-

-

Grenada

-

N

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

N

-

N

N

Cyprus

Y

-

-

-

Malta

N

-

N

-

United Kingdom

N

Y

N

-

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Australia

N

-

N

-

Fiji

N

-

-

-

New Zealand

N

-

N

-

78 56% of architecture respondents and 57% of planning respondents

report that their governments have not developed renewable energy or energy efficiency policies. This is particularly concerning in light of the current climate emergency.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

151


8.10 OTHER GOVERNMENT POLICIES79 Table 144 What is the status of other relevant national policies?

National housing strategy

National BIM strategy

Smart Cities strategy

City resilience strategies

Disaster management plans

Botswana

N

N

N

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Kenya

N

Y

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Y

Mauritius

N

Y

N

Y

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Namibia

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Nigeria

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

Y

Y

Y

Rwanda

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

Anti-bribery and corruption legislation

National construction strategy

Africa

Specify standards

Sustainable design and construction standards

Country Inclusive design standards

Region

152

Economic and Financial Crimes Commission Act 1999 Smart Cities Initiatives 2017 Nigerian Resilient Cities Network 2016 National Emergency Management Policy 2010

South Africa

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

SANS 10400-S (Inclusive Design) National Building Regulations Part X and SANS 10400-XA (Sustainable Design) Act 12 of 2004 (Prevention and Combating of Corrupt Activities Act) Act 57 of 2002 (Disaster Management Act) Creating an enabling Environment for Reconstruction, Growth and Development within the Construction Industry 1997 - White Paper

Uganda

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

N

Y

N

Y

National Housing Policy. National Adaption Plan

Zambia

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

N

N

N

N

Sustainable Housing Standards - 2016

Bangladesh

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

-

Y

Y

Y

Building Construction Rules 2008 Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) Land Development Rules for Private Housing 2004 The Town Improvement Act (TI), 1953 Anti-Corruption Commission Act, 2004 (Amended 2011) National Sustainable Development Strategy, 2009 Renewable Energy Policy, 2008 Energy Conservation Act, 2010 Sustainable & Renewable Energy Development Authority (SREDA) Act (draft), 2012 Coastal Development Strategy Detailed Area Plan National Environment Management Action Plan (NEMAP), 1995 National 3-R Strategy, 2010 ( 3R : Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) National Plan for Disaster Management 20102015 Disaster Management Act, 2012

India

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Indian Standard Codes by Bureau of Indian Standards. The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013 Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

The Anti-corruption & Economic Crimes Act National Disaster Risk Management Policy Affordable Housing Programme

Pakistan

N

Y

Y

N

-

N

Y

Y

Y

Anti-bribery: NAB Ordinance Sustainable Design and Construction: Pakistan Building codes 2007 Smart Cities: Punjab Safe Cities project City Resilience: Presently for Sialkot and Abbotabad only Disaster Management: National Disaster Management Authority plans

Singapore

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Green Mark, Singapore BIM Guide, SMART Nation Initiatives

Sri Lanka

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

National Construction Policy

Antigua & B.

N

Y

Y

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

N

Y

Canada Dominica

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Trinidad & T.

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

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Inclusive design standards fall under provincial jurisdiction. National BIM strategy in progress

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Malta

N

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Disaster management plans

City resilience strategies

Smart Cities strategy

National BIM strategy

Specify standards National housing strategy

National construction strategy

Sustainable design and construction standards

Anti-bribery and corruption legislation

Country Inclusive design standards

Region

Y

DC2015 Design Guidelines have been published, but they are more related to what is permitted in development application approval processes then focussed on high architectural design quality. Criminal Code criminalizes active and passive bribery, extortion, embezzlement, trading in influence, abuse of office, and giving and receiving gifts. Some plans prepared by Civil Protection Department, relating to urban flooding, and special events such as explosions and earthquakes. Accessible Design Standards, The Bribery Act 2010, a range of sustainability standards are mandatory within the National Building Regulations. However, it can be argued these are not ambitious enough as much higher standards can currently be delivered cost-effectively. Government Construction Strategy 2016-2020. Digital Built Britain: Level 3 Building Information Modelling - Strategic Plan (2015) â&#x20AC;&#x153;Smart Cities Background paper October 2013 (Department for Business and Innovation Skills)â&#x20AC;? However there are Sector Resilience Strategies. Emergency response and recovery Guidance February 2013 (Cabinet Office)

Europe

Other

Pacific

United Kingdom

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Hong Kong SAR

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

Y

Y

Australia

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

Y

Y

-

-

-

-

-

-

Y

Y

N

N

Y

N

N

N

Y

Fiji New Zealand

N

National construction code Australian standards, City deals program, affordable housing policies at a federal and state level national BIM strategy being developed

79 While 84% of respondents report that their government have

established Anti-Bribery and Corruption legislation (up by 4% from the 2017 survey), 43% of respondents report that their governments have yet to develop Inclusive Design Standards. While 76% report a national housing strategy, 58% report a smart cities strategy, 52% report sustainable design and construction standards, and 46% report a national construction strategy. And while 84% report a disaster management plan (11% up from 2017 survey), only 38% claim to have developed a city resilience strategy. Only 23% report a national BIM strategy, although this is up 10% from 2017 survey

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

153


8.11 COP21 CLIMATE CHANGE80 Table 145 Has your government developed climate change targets together with an effective implementation plan? Region

Country

Developed COP21 targets? Architecture

Botswana

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Other Pacific

Planning

N

-

-

Surveying

-

Architecture

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

-

N

-

-

Ghana

-

n/a

Y

-

-

n/a

Y

-

Kenya

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Mauritius

N

Y

Y

-

N

Y

Y

-

Mozambique

-

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

Namibia

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Nigeria

Y

-

Y

n/a

Y

-

Y

Y

Rwanda

Y

-

-

n/a

Y

-

-

n/a

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Uganda

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Zambia

N

Y

-

-

N

Y

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

India

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Malaysia

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Y

Y

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

N

-

Y

-

n/a

-

Y

-

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Belize

-

n/a

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

Canada

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Dominica

n/a

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

-

Grenada

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

-

-

N

N

-

-

n/a

N

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Cyprus Europe

Engineering

Effective COP21 implementation plan?

Malta

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

United Kingdom

Y

Y

Y

-

N

N

Y

-

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Australia

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Fiji

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

New Zealand

Y

-

N

-

Y

-

N

-

80 Despite all Commonwealth countries having signed, if not ratified,

the Paris Climate Change Agreement, there are still 11% of respondents that report that their governments have not developed targets (this figure is much improved on the 2017 survey of 36%). However, 20% report that their governments are yet to develop an effective implementation plan (though this is also an improvement on the 2017 survey).

154

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


8.12 NEW URBAN AGENDA81 Table 146 Has your government embraced the New Urban Agenda and developed an effective implementation plan? Region

Country

NUA embraced by government Architecture

Botswana

Y

Ghana

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Engineering

Effective NUA implementation plan

Planning

-

Y

Surveying

-

Architecture

Engineering

Planning

Surveying

-

N

-

N

Y

Y

-

-

N

N

-

Kenya

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Mauritius

N

-

N

-

N

-

N

-

Mozambique

-

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

Namibia

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Nigeria

-

-

Y

Y

-

-

Y

N

Rwanda

Y

-

-

n/a

Y

-

-

n/a

South Africa

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Tanzania

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Zambia

Y

Y

-

-

N

Y

-

-

Bangladesh

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

India

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Malaysia

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Pakistan

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Singapore

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Sri Lanka

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

Antigua and Barbuda

N

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Barbados

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

Belize

-

n/a

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

Canada

Y

-

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

Dominica

n/a

-

-

-

n/a

-

-

-

Trinidad and Tobago

-

-

N

N

-

-

n/a

N

Cyprus

Y

-

-

-

N

-

-

-

Europe

Malta

N

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

United Kingdom

N

N

Y

-

-

n/a

N

-

Other

Hong Kong SAR

Y

-

-

-

Y

-

-

-

Australia

Y

-

Y

-

N

-

N

-

Fiji

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

New Zealand

N

-

N

-

n/a

-

N

-

Pacific

81 The New Urban Agenda (NUA) was launched at Habitat III in Quito,

Ecuador, in 2016. Its aim is to respond to Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals to make cities safe, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable. The New Urban Agenda provides a framework for achieving sustainable urban development. 78% respondents report that their governments have embraced the New Urban Agenda, which is a large increase of the 2017 survey results of less than 50%, while only 58% report having an effective implementation plan (thought this is again an improvement on the 2017 survey results of 25%). It is interesting to note that different built environment professions often have conflicting views on what their government is doing.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

155


9 9

CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

9.1 SUMMARY RESPONSES

Table 147 Challenges and opportunities Country

"Working hours have improved over the past ten years."

"Wages have improved over the past ten years."

"Staff working conditions have improved over the past ten years."

"The profession is seen as a worthwhile profession to pursue in the community."

"The profession is seen as a positive contributor to the community."

"I am optimistic about the future of the profession in my country."

"The authority and influence of professionals has improved over the past 20 years."

Botswana

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Ghana

Mildly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Kenya

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Mauritius

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Mozambique Neutral

Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Mildly Disagree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Namibia

Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Disagree

Disagree

Nigeria

Neutral

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Rwanda

Strongly Agree

Neutral

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

South Africa

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Tanzania

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Uganda

Mildly Agree

Disagree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Disagree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Zambia

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Mildly Agree

Bangladesh

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

India

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Malaysia

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Pakistan

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Singapore

Agree

Disagree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Sri Lanka

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas Antigua & B.

Disagree

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Agree

Barbados

Neutral

Disagree

Disagree

Disagree

Disagree

Strongly Agree

Mildy Disagree

Belize

Agree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Disagree

Canada

Neutral

Neutral

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Disagree

Dominica

Mildly Agree

Neutral

Mildly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Mildly Disagree

Disagree

Trinidad & T.

Neutral

Neutral

Neutal

Mildly Disagree

Neutral

Neutral

Neutral

Cyprus

Mildly Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Strongly Agree

Agree

Agree

Malta

Mildly Disagree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Disagree

Mildly Agree

Neutral

UK

Neutral

Agree

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Neutral

Neutral

Agree

Agree

Agree

Agree

Australia

Neutral

Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Fiji

Agree

Agree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Mildly Agree

Neutral

Neutral

Mildly Agree

Agree

Europe

Other Hong Kong Pacific

New Zealand Neutral 156

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


9.2 ASSOCIATED COMMENTS Table 148 What are the five most important challenges facing the built environment in your country today? Country

Discipline

Challenge 1

Challenge 2

Challenge 3

Challenge 4

Challenge 5

Antigua and Barbuda

Architectural

Lack of respect for the profession

Lack of effective implementation of the laws relating to the built environment and the profession.

Law not being enforced

Australia

Architectural

Climate change and a coherent policy and program to address it

Housing affordability

Integrated design of sustainable urban environments

Undervaluing of cultural assets

Planning

Global Warming / Climate Change

Technological Disruption / Change

Effective Community Engagement

Recognition of First Peoples

Lack of leadership from the Commonwealth Government

Bangladesh

Architectural

Providing sufficient housing facilities to a large diversity of slum dwellers could be a key challenge as none of the formal land and development agencies give housing to the urban poor.

Lack of agricultural land, wetland, public parks, open places and land with tree cover up causes environmental dreadful conditions, people lack areas for physical activities, and creates artistic uneasiness are different challenges.

Potable water source and the unhygienic situation created by the poor management of solid waste enforces economic prices in the style of health impacts, blocked drainage and artistic suffering.

Public safety will have to carry on to be compromised at the best population density with rapid urbanization, industrialization and the lack of land use coming up with have created main environmental issues.

Climate extremes and challenges to infrastructure development in coastal regions in Bangladesh.

Barbados

Planning

Impact of climate change on a SIDS disaster resilience

Suburbanization and impact on the capital city core

Vacant/abandoned land and buildings including heritage assets

Condition of some of housing stock and affordable housing issues

Condition of infrastructure - roads, water, drainage and need to expand renewables

Belize

Engineering

Climate change

Marine

Building code

Botswana

Architectural

Corruption undermining the quality delivery of buildings.

Poorly skilled building contractors affecting challenge 1

Lack of recognition for the need for qualified professionals

Little knowledge and skills development related to sustainability issues.

Lack of research, innovation for the built environment.

Planning

Frustrations over Planning rigidity not facilitating Development

Architectural

Sustainability

Environmental resiliency

Planning

Housing supply and affordability

Public transit infrastructure

Responding to climate change impacts including extreme weather

Health / Mental health including addiction

Viability / financing of projects

Cyprus

Architectural

Urban sprawl

Lack of public transport

Dominica

Architectural

Climate change (hurricane, flood)

Lack of professional supervision during construction

Lack of affordable building material

Lack of skilled labour

Fiji

Architectural

Updating the building codes to reflect the current conditions

Applying the rules and regulations consistently

Taking to task developers who disregard the rules and regulations

Canada

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

157


Ghana

Engineering

Lack of enforcement of existing regulations

Hong Kong

Architectural

Lack of land, housing, labour

India

Architectural

Kenya

Malaysia

Poor procurement practices

Poor access to finance

Lack of coordination between built environment professionals

Low uptake of new technologies

Inadequate awareness about environmental concerns amongst the community

Lack of Efficient use of limited available natural resources

Widespread disregard for vernacular model of urban development

Lack of sufficient trained and qualified manpower in the industry

Lack of Effective and enforcable measures for monitoring of good practices in the industry

Architectural

Declining Economic performance thus reduce investments in the sector

Infiltration of Market by Non-Professionals

Lax Local Content Policy that does not protect local practitioners

Delays in Issuance of Building and Development Permits

Planning

Undercutting of professional fee

Capacity building

Challenges in technology

Quality over the quantity

Surveying

Staff

Wages

Project

Location

Architectural

Need for a thorough re-evaluation of spatial planning process, with a long-term vision and political long-term commitment to achieve the vision.

Long-term transport strategy.

Protection of built heritage and a strategy for re-use.

Separation of planning processes and building regulations.

Formulation of a building regulations framework.

Planning

Sustainability

Infrastructure to cope with and support massive building activity

Transport

Provision of open spaces

Provision of affordable housing

Architectural

Urban Sprawl

Lack of urban regeneration policies and incentives

Lack of emphasis on Tropical Architecture (materials, building Technics and design)

Engineering

Climate Change

Urban planning

Infrastructure planning and construction

Transportaion

Resources to tackle above challenges

Planning

Traffic Congestion

Environment and land degradation due to increasing infrastructure and built environment

Affordable housing supply (Middle income and lower income level trap) , housing bubble.

Coastal development (hotels ,resort and luxury villas) pressure , reducing public access to beach areas impacting landscape degradation as well as on leisure and recreational culture.

Mozambique

Engineering

Lack of investments

Multilateral donors stopped financing

Government without funds

Namibia

Architectural

Fear of change.

Corruption

Poorly designated budgeting & waste

Too high property prices

Recession

New Zealand

Architectural

Natural hazard resilience

Attraction and retention of skills and diversity

Insurance availability and cover

Lack of understanding of design - clients, public

Costs in the building and construction industry (ie escalation)

Planning

Rapid urban growth

Climate change and natural hazards

Structural demographic change (aging population etc)

Timely provision or public infrastructure/ transport network/ public amenity

Architectural

Increased urban population and growth

Uncontrolled urban development

Overstretched or lack of urban infrastructure to support effective city function

The push and pull factors of the urban and rural areas

Lack of strong enforcement of planning regulations

Planning

Access to land

Land use violation

Poor Construction / Building collapse

Poor Infrastructure provision and Maintenance

Growth of slums

Surveying

Government policy

Lack of technology

Non stratification of the industry

Lack of collaboration

Corruption and unethical processes

Architectural

Building control under the authority of nonprofessionals

Lack of Building control implementation

Malta

Mauritius

Nigeria

Pakistan

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Recognition

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Rwanda

Architectural

Skills shortage

Socio-economic & cultural barriers

Limited source of construction materials & insufficient supply chain

Lack of awareness of policies in place and disconnected implementation initiatives

Lack of sufficient funds for projects development on different scale

Surveying

Lack of profession regulation

Lack of training colleges for professions other than civil engineers

Government and public not aware of professions other than civil engineers and architects

Lack of fit for purpose technologies

Lack of locally manufactured construction materials

Singapore

Architectural

Global economic uncertainties - trade wars

Regional shifts (one belt one road initiatives)

Rapid urbanisation and climate change (advent of mega cities and environmental impact)

Impact of digital technology

Weak growth

South Africa

Architectural

Inequality, poor service delivery, and an economy in a technical recession.

There is low investor confidence, limited government and municipal spending on infrastructure development and poor maintenance thereof.

Housing shortages remain a problem and lead to informal developments taking place without proper planning.

Planning

Spatial Transformation

Economic Growth

Crime

Inequalities

Corruption

Sri Lanka

Architectural

Sound and Air pollution

Sustainable Building Design

Environmentally friendly energy services generated within the project

Planning

Transforming to cater to emerging development demands and needs, in harmony with the environment and heritage

Transforming Development Agencies to adopt Modern Methods and Practices, Innovation and Coordination

Withstand Climate Change effects, Global Terrorism activities and undue Local Interference

Tanzania

Planning

Informality. i.e. proliferation of unplanned settlements (Urban poverty and growth informal settlements)

Lack of resources, constrained budget to address urban development- planning and services provision.

Environmental degradation, disasters and climate change resulting from unplanned urban development

Lack of proper urban development control - too much political interference in planning profession

Trinidad and Tobago

Planning

Project led development

Uncoordinated decision making

Unregulated use of land

Environmental degradation

Surveying

The depressed economy

Foreign contractors

Corruption in procurement

Uganda

Architectural

Lack of effective built environment legislation, especially poor spatial planning together with outdated building regulations, poorly implemented and enforced.

Urban sprawl, poor public transport and lack of investment in infrastructure

Housing and land shortages coupled with affordability.

Sustainability, including climate change, climate adaptation and resilience

United Kingdom

Architectural

Climate Change

Brexit

Ineffective planning system

Fire safety

Engineering

Transport emissions

Low carbon energy

Air pollution

Waste management and recycling

Water resources and waste water treatment

Planning

Shortage of affordable housing.

Under resourcing of municipalities to undertake planning.

Climate change.

Architectural

Influx of Foreign Developers who are usually non-compliant to regulations

Inadequate of Building Standards and National Codes

Increase in government to government projects where local participation is excluded

Lack of Capacity of Local Professionals and Contractors to compete against Foreign entities on projects

Inhibiting cost of doing business and interest rates on loans

Engineering

Government approval of certain projects without consultation

Multi-million Projects hiding in the name of bilateral agreements that excludes them from local regulation

Non-compliance of those engaged in Government

Rampant Deforestation

High influx of foreign professionals being offered in multi-million projects disadvataging the local market

Zambia

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

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Table 149 What are the five most important challenges facing the profession in your country today? Country

Discipline

Challenge 1

Challenge 2

Challenge 3

Challenge 4

Antigua and Barbuda

Architectural

Lack of respect for the profession

Law not being enforced

Australia

Architectural

Procurement methods and risk shifting

Articulation of the value of architects

Planning

Global Warming / Climate Change

Bangladesh

Architectural

The perception of the architect and the services provided are often poor and in many instances inaccurate.

Barbados

Planning

Need to build credibility Need to implement the with the public (current reforms effectively planning reforms should assist)

Belize

Engineering

Lack of historical data

Botswana

Architectural

Unwillingness of clients to pay for services

Illegal practice by unregistered individuals

Planning

Lack of Urbanisation policy.

Digital Disruption / Technological Change

Being recognised as a pre-eminent voice in managing growth / redevelopment

Providing a clear evidence base for decision making

Upgrading of other services related to architecture (Structure, MEP etc.).

Proper project management, construction quality & safety.

Corruption.

Gender Segregation.

Under resourced regulatory body delaying enforcement of legislation

Lack of resources to develop knowledge and skills for sustainable design

Lack of understanding by the public of architectural role

Lack of understanding of Urban planning relevance at high levels in Government

A conflicted national planning system where Local Authorities are not empowered to champion planning but rather dwell on regulatory development control

Lack of urban focused research culture in Planning offices in central government and Local authorities

Lack of continuous professional development for Planners

Architectural

Procurement

Image

Education/path to license

Technology

Politics

Planning

Responding to needs of under-represented communities

Embedding Climate Change Adaptation into prctice

Challenging political priorities and populism

Keeping up with technological change

Access to data

Cyprus

Architectural

B.O.T. procurement method

Fee tendering coverment projects procurement

Lack of professional fee scales

Dominica

Architectural

Opacity in procurement

Lack of design competition

No enforcement of regulations (draftsmen vs architects)

No regulation for overseas / foreign architects

Fiji

Architectural

Sustainability for local architectural practices

Continued professional development

Support staff in architectural practices when demand is high

Work undertaken by non local architects without any input from local architects

Ghana

Engineering

Poor quality control and quality assurance

Professional ethics and codes of conduct

Low remuneration

Hong Kong

Architectural

Insufficient opportunities for young practices or architects

India

Architectural

To make architectural services easily accessible to the masses

Lack of rewarding and satisfying job opportunities

Inadequate application of state of art technologies

Kenya

Architectural

Lax Local Content Policy

Delays in Issuance of Building Permits

Infiltration of Sector by Non-professionals

Canada

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Challenge 5

Need to train and develop planners to meet the challenge

Inadequate research

Professional fees and method of appointment of Architects

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Malaysia

Planning

Changes in technology

Institutional challenge

Surveying

Experience

Training

Architectural

Achieving quality in the face of strong development pressures, without appropriate regulation.

Preserving a role for the small local practice architect in the face of global firms with overwhelming resources

Planning

Recognition

Credibility

Politicians’ short term views

External lobbies for development groups

Architectural

Increasing “Design & Build” projects/ Architects having little control

Quality of young qualified architects (a drop of quality of education is observed)

No proper scale of fees leading to unfair competition (Quality of Services/ Scope versus fees)

Lack of opportunities for younger generation

Engineering professional taking over part of the services offered to architects

Engineering

Competent engineers in new areas of engineering

Manpower resources needed

Exposure to new technologies

Energy efficiency expertise

Tapping renewable energy

Planning

Non planning professional taking up work that is meant for professional planners

Further professional development of planners in disaster risk reduction, climate change action and land degradation nexus

Mozambique

Engineering

Opportunities for internship

Low income

Lack of institution offering post-graduate courses

Namibia

Architectural

Municipal submissions is not limited to Professionals. Not controlled.

Too many qualified for the amount of work.

Set out fee is considered too high to pay for services, in which un-registered technicians receive the jobs then at a lower fee because they are not being regulated.

No advertisements are allowed and no competition without approval from council. But Council should initiate competitions. Which in return never happens.

Quality loss due to expensive imports not available to all.

New Zealand

Architectural

Risk and liability

Occupational regulation

Procurement and contracts

Trust and confidence (Clients and public)

Changing legislation/ regulation

Planning

Lack of clarity about who makes planning decisions

Government interventionist policies that bypass established planning processes

Lack of new planners coming into profession due to uncertainty over future of planning/ planners

Perception of planning being a boring ‘box ticking’ role that puts up bureaucratic hurdles to development.

Architectural

Inadequate support for built environment professionals from the Government to adequately perform their functions.

Difficult procurement process

High operational cost

Payment for services are post execution and takes longer than necessary to be effected.

Negative state of the national economy.

Planning

Lack of Political will to plan the environment

Poor funding for planning activities

Poor implementation of plans

Employment of none qualified planners to carry out planning activities.

Excessive none engagement of Planners

Surveying

Inadequate QS professionals

Funding

Lack of government support and patronage

Government bureacracy

Breach of professional ethics

Pakistan

Architectural

Lack of building control implementation

Rwanda

Architectural

Lack of effective capacity building frameworks

Discrepancy in service delivery between different professions in the built environment

Limited clients’ funds

Limited understanding of the professions and expected outputs

Poorly structured public private partnerships between the various stakeholders

Malta

Mauritius

Nigeria

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Legal

161


Surveying

Lack of training colleges for professions other than civil engineers

Public not aware of professions other than civil engineers and architects

Low financial capacity in speeding up standards setting

Not matching professional practices and fast growing economies

Ignorance of ethics and conduct by professionals

Singapore

Architectural

Digitalisation and technology adoption

Declining professional fees with increasing liabilities

Procurement structure and unreasonable fees

Current skills vs future skills

Specialisation vs. generalisation

Singapore

Planning

South Africa

Architectural

The Architectural Profession in South Africa is under immense pressure, due to a weak economy and stagnant growth rate.

Low perception of the value of good design and the contribution Architects make to the quality of built environment.

Fortunately the Minister has appointed a new Council for the Architectural Profession, and hope is being placed on this Council to effectively implement the Act.

The Public have little cognisance of any differences in registration categories, but rather see value in a Council Registration Number.

Fee cutting

Planning

Spatial Transformation

Employment

passion to act and bring about change

disconnect between theory and practice

legislation to regulate planning and planners is still to be finalised

Architectural

Implementation of Design and Built projects as a main procurement system

Foreign Architects practicing here violating the UIA declarations on cross boarder practices

Planning

Adopting Modern Concepts, Novel Methods and Technological Innovations

Solidarity among professionals in working towards common and national interests

Establishment of formalities for regulation such as the Registration

Tanzania

Planning

Lack of Financial resources to prepare spatial plans - Urban Planning is still a Central/Local government activity

Low pace of implementation of spatial plans - Plans prepared by planners are implemented partially or no implementation at all

Lack of recognition by decision makers Top-down planning with minimal local participation

Land acquisition for urban planning is lacking due to lack of funds for compensation

Urban development planning is not a priority - In most of local authorities and the central government the priority is health, water supply, education. Urban planning is not in the list

Trinidad and Tobago

Architectural

Economy

Lack of government support

Impact of Chinese companies

Planning

Continued marginalization of planning

Outdated legislation and policies

Inefficient and corrupt systems of administration

Lack of enforcement and monitoring

Inconsistent decision making

Surveying

The depressed economy

Foreign contractors

corruption in procurement

Uganda

Architectural

Corruption, public procurement practices, low fees and a reliance on design and build.

Achieving design quality in the face of strong development pressures combined with poor construction technology.

Low pay

Lack of opportunity for young architects and small practices, aggravated by cross border trading practices and an influx of large international firms.

Lack of respect/ recognition for the profession caused partly by an inability to demonstrate its value coupled with weak regulation of the profession in some countries.

United Kingdom

Architectural

Economic uncertainty

Brexit

Talent pipeline

Engineering

Attracting young engineers to the profession (diversity issues including gender, BAME)

CPD to adapt to changing requirements

Trying to get governments to understand the importance of sustainable development rather than just economic growth

Sri Lanka

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Implementing and retrofitting smart infrastructure

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Zambia

Planning

Planners excluded from top level of decision making.

Preference for deregulatory measures of successive governments.

Architectural

Lack of Enforcement of Regulations where services of an Architect are required by Authorities

Influx of Foreign Architects in the Market, who are usually not compliant for political reasons

Increase of Government to Government Projects where local participation is excluded on the projects

Conflict arising from overlapping of roles with other professionals like engineer; Planners, etc

Lack of Capacity to enforce the Architectural Regulations Nationally

Engineering

Government multi and bilateral agreement projects

Formulation of Acts of parliaments without consultation, eg the MCA Act.

Non adherence to code of ethics by engineering professionals

Lack of the Office of the Engineer General

High non compliance of engineering professionals employed in central Government

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

163


Table 150 What are the five most important challenges facing the training of built environment professionals in your country today? Country

Discipline

Challenge 1

Challenge 2

Challenge 3

Challenge 4

Challenge 5

Antigua and Barbuda

Architectural

No architectural institution in the country,

Cost of university education overseas

Australia

Architectural

Imbalance in architectural curriculum between history, practice, heritage, knowledge of codes and standards, and business skills

Planning

Global Warming / Climate Change

Providing students with the skills to work in a digital world

Ensuring effective consideration of First Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Views

Understanding the complexity of Decision Making in a political context

Funding for programs

Bangladesh

Architectural

A gap between architectural education and the profession.

A gap between architectural education program accreditation and the international standards.

A basic curricular split between theoretical and practical teaching.

Marginal balance between creative and technical courses.

Graduates are not fully prepared with the knowledge, skills and professional abilities necessary to meet demands required by the current professional market.

Barbados

Planning

Need for accredited planning courses in region geared to local needs

Need to establish CPD as a mandatory requirement for planners in public and private sectors

Belize

Engineering

No university

Botswana

Architectural

Poorly skilled teaching staff

Unwillingness of private programs to comply with regulation requirements

Poorly resourced programs

Antiquated teaching methods

Planning

Lack of international exposure for students

Lack of variation of educators (backgrounds and experience)

Architectural

Relevancy and innovation

Technology

Funding

Planning

Balancing academic learning with professional skills required in the workplace

Attracting a more ethnically diverse range of students onto courses

Embedding inclusive design into planning courses

Cyprus

Architectural

Unemployment

Dominica

Architectural

Not adequate human resources

No relationship between college and DSA

Fiji

Architectural

Demand for study in the field of architecture

Establishing a education institution which can provide quality of education which can be recognised internationally

Ghana

Engineering

Hands on practical training

Lack of computer aided design methods

Canada

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Fees of courses

Embedding planning into pre-university education

Outmoded curriculum

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Hong Kong

Architectural

Increasing demand for more University Grants Committee (UGC) funded places

Extend Study Subsidy Scheme for Designated Professions / Sectors (SSSDP) to other tertiary

India

Architectural

To enrol students with genuine aptitude for architecture

Refine quality faculty with genuine interest in teaching along with professional experience

Inadequate opportunities for quality practical training

Inadequacy of state of art infrastructure in many private institutions

Upgradation of architectural syllabus in line with contemporary needs

Kenya

Architectural

Lack of internship opportunities

Disconnect between class work and industry practise

Study material is not custom designed to the local context e.g. use of local building materials

The curriculum is not standardized across the architectural schools

Architectural schools lack adequate capacity in terms of staffing i.e. Lecturers

Malaysia

Planning

Access to tertiary education

The quality to increase graduate employability rate

Equity- rate to ensure all malaysians have an opportunity to fulfil their potential

Training requirement to provide solid ground for possible shifts in terms of planner’s value, attitude, skills and knowledge

Engagements for the sectors (lecturers) able to give current and updated examples of challenges on urbanisation worldwide

Malta

Architectural

Biggest challenge is the ability to manoeuvre the route between the need to preserve traditional forms and landscapes and the desire to modernise.

The profession is still struggling to integrate the increasing component of technology - and hence the technical competence of the professional - with the ever-valid design vocation of architecture.

Planning

Lack of accredited courses

Limited career prospects

Lack of general interest

Architectural

Drop in quality of education overall

Education to match local realities and expectations

Increasing number of young architects (saturation of the market)

Engineering

Internationally recognised degrees

Laboratories and other research infrastructures at Universities

Availability of Financial resources

Shortage of Students studying scinetifice subjects at “A” levels

Propects of careers as engineers in Mauritius (this could be a perception issue)

Planning

Lack of experienced qualified lecturers to deliver tertiary planning programmes

Mozambique

Engineering

Curriculum

Lack of qualified teachers

Shortage of laboratories for practical application

New Zealand

Architectural

Alignment education with industry needs

Pressures of 5 year programme, Masters

Attraction of talented academics

Professional practice in academic programme

Limited/no on-site experience

Planning

Relevance in times of change - new technology, climate change, how to respond to rapid urban growth.

Equipping graduates with real world relevant skills and competencies that wrap around the profession

Architectural

Lack of synergy between number of students admitted and available resources for training.

Need for enhanced and up to-date training curriculum.

Absence of specialization in the various fields of architecture

Lack of reasonable funding to research and development to for teaching staff and instructors.

Lack of synergy between academic training and the needs of the industry.

Planning

Students are often enrolled by default into the planning schools

Inadequate planning experience by academic staff

Inadequate teaching materials

Insufficient academic staff

Inadequate welfare for academic staff by the government (employers)

Surveying

Funding

Inadequate infrastructure

Lack of exchange programme

Lack of awareness of quantity surveying profession

Inadequate research and training

Mauritius

Nigeria

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

165


Pakistan

Architectural

Lack of trained faculty

Rwanda

Architectural

Scarcity of advanced teaching experts

Restricted use of technology

Financial inability of institutions to purchase teaching and learning tools(Books, production software etc...)

Limited access to funding for research and curriculum development

Redundant course material and gap between industry standards and education outputs

Surveying

Lack of training colleges

Lack of qualified trainers

Lack of practical training facilities

Lack of involvement in training by private sector

A need of law amendment

Architectural

The relevance of traditional methods of teaching in Architecture, and certain existing course offerings are being questioned in regard colonial undertones and Africanism.

An increase in the structuring of courses around Sustainable Development Goals is essential.

Planning

Diversity is not in place, not just town and regional planning skills needed a more multidisciplinary approach is need

Collaboration amongst the schools can be improved

Engaging with data and different methodologies of reearch

Spatially referenced data and digital data

Curriculum needs to industry aligned and internships for practical experience needs to in place

Architectural

Paraprofessionals are trying to establish their selves as fully qualified professionals.

Planning

Difficulty to attract high performing students

Less availability of modern teaching/ training facilities

Planning

Too much concentration on planning theory due to lack of financial resources to enable students to attend practical training

Lack of resources to train lecturers in more specialized courses within the planning regime

Planning education is only offered at University level to enable students to graduate with degrees. Other institutions for diplomas and certificates are not available

Lack of resources to enable graduates from universities to attend post graduate courses after they have acquired their first degrees

Planning

Accreditation

Ability for graduates to secure jobs in planning

Surveying

Depressed economy

Lack of knowledge of the professions by potential students

Architectural

The value of architectural education when comparing the cost (fees) of tuition; the added cost (material, printing, etc, ); versus the pay off at the end (low salaries)

The rise of workplacebased learning: part time courses; courses based in practice; apprenticeship (no tuition fees)

Is the business model of the majority of practices sufficiently ethical to appeal to a graduate population which has increasing concerns around climate change, sustainability, social inclusion and diversity and proportionate approach to profit

Is there sufficient architecture being built? Is the work ambitious enough in its scope to appeal to those entering the profession, who embrace great design?

Engineering

Gender gap in take-up of civil engineering at all levels.

Reform of apprenticeship systems and technical and vocational qualifications at RQF Levels 3 to 5 is being hampered by lack of capacity at the IFATE and DFE and increasing bureaucratisation.

Declining FE funding is reducing capacity across England, and the apprenticeship levy system drives employers to take on fewer apprentices at expensive higher levels rather than addressing skills gaps at Level 3

The political drive to reduce tuition fees risks reducing funding in the HE sector

South Africa

Sri Lanka

Tanzania

United Kingdom

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The 4 skills systems of England, Scotland, Wales and NI are diverging making comparability for employers who work across the UK problematic.

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Zambia

Architectural

Low funding to Universities which often affects the Academic Calendar

Lack of Capacity by Training Institutions to invest in Modern learning methodologies

Reduced man hours due to inadequate Trainers

Lack of incentives for Trainers in the learning institutions who are forced to run private practices to supplement their low incomes

The course content is often not industry responsive

Engineering

Few Training Institutions

Old laboratory and workshop equipment for training

Unqualified professionals offering services as lecturers in private training Institutions as cost serving measure

Lack of consistency Government support

Perpetual Closures

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

167


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


10 10

APPENDIX


appendix i. BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH82 Country Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Darussalam Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Eswatini Fiji Gambia, The Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka St Vincent and The Grenadines Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Architectural Institutes

Engineering Institutes

The Antigua & Barbuda Institute of Architects

Association of Professional Engineers Antigua and Barbuda

Australian Institute of Architects

Engineers Australia

Institute of Bahamian Architects

Professional Engineers Board

Institute of Architects Bangladesh

The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh

Barbados Institute of Architects

Barbados Association of Professional Engineers

Association of Professional Architects of Belize

Association of Professional Engineers of Belize

Architects Association of Botswana

Botswana Institution of EngineersÂ

Pertubuhan Ukur Jurutera Dan Arkitek

Pertubuhan Ukur

Ordre National Des Architectes du Cameroun

Cameroon Society of Engineers

Royal Architectural Institute of Canada

The Engineering Insitute of Canada

Cyprus Civil Engineers and Architects Association

Cyprus Engineering Society

Dominica Society of Architects

Dominica Association of Professional Engineers

Swaziland Association of Architects, Engineers and Surveyors

Swaziland Association of Engineers, Architects & surveyors

Fiji Association of Architects

The Fiji Institution of Engineers

53 Commonwealth countries83

170

Association of Gambian Architects

Unable to locate an institute

Ghana Institute of Architects

Ghana Institution of Engineers

Grenada Society of Architects

Grenada Institute of Professional Engineers

Guyana Institute of Architects

Guyana Association of Professional Engineers

Indian Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers India

Jamaican Institute of Architects

Jamaica Insitution of Engineers

Architectural Association of Kenya

The Institution of Engineers of Kenya

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Lesotho Association of Construction Industry Consultants

Lesotho Association of Engineers

Malawi Institute of Architects

Malawi Institution of Engineers

Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia

The Institution of Engineers Malaysia

Architects Association Maldives

Association of Civil Engineers

Kamra Tal-Periti, Malta

Malta Group of Professional Engineering Institutions

Mauritius Association of Architects

Institution of Engineers Mauritius

Unable to locate an institute

Ordem dos Engenhereiros de Mocambique

Namibia Institute of Architects

Engineering Professions Association of Namibia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

New Zealand Institute of Architects

Engineering New Zealand

Nigerian Institute of Architects

Nigerian Institution of Engineers

Institute of Architects Pakistan

The Institution of Engineers, Pakistan

Papua New Guinea Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers, Papua New Guinea

Rwanda Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers Rwanda

St.Kitts-Nevis Institute of Architects

St. Kitts/Nevis Association of Professional Engineers

St Lucia Institute of Architects

Association of Professional Engineers of St. Lucia

Unable to locate an institute

Institution of Professional Engineers Samoa

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Sierra Leone Institute of Architects

Sierra Leone Institution of Engineers

Singapore Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers Singapore

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

South African Institute of Architects

The South African Institution Of Civil Engineering

Sri Lanka Institute of Architects

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

St Vincent & the Grenadines Institute of Architects

Unable to locate an institute

Architects Association of Tanzania

Institution of Engineers Tanzania

Unable to locate an institute

South Pacific Engineers Association

Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects

The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Uganda Society of Architects

Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers

Royal Institute of British Architects

Institution of Civil Engineers

Unable to locate an institute

South Pacific Engineers Association

Zambia Institute of Architects

The Engineering Institution of Zambia

45 Architectural Institutes

47 Engineering Institutes84

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Town Planning Institutes

Surveing Institutes

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Planning Institute of Australia

Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Bahamas Association of Land Surveyors

Bangladesh Institute of Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Barbados Town Planning Society

Barbados Association of Quantity Surveyors

Belize Association of Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Pula Institute of Town Planners

Botswana Institute of Development Professions

Town and Country Planning Dept, Ministry of Development

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Canadian Institute of Planners

Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Cyprus Association of Town Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Planners Association of Dominica

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Fiji Planners Association

Fiji Institute of Surveors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Ghana Institute of Planners

Ghana Institution of Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Institute of Town Planners India

Indian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Jamaican Institute of Planners

Jamaican Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Kenya Institute of Planners

Institution of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Malawi Institute of Physical Planners

Surveyors Institute of Malawi

Malaysian Institute of Planners

Royal Institution of Surveyors Malaysia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Malta Chamber of Planners

Land Surveyors of Malta

Town Planning Association of Mauritius

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Namibia Council of Town and Regional Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

New Zealand Planning Institute

New Zealand Institute of Surveyors

Nigerian Institute of Town Planners

Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Institute of Planners Pakistan

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Association of Surveyors of Papua New Guinea

Rwanda Urban Planning Institute

Rwanda Institute of Real Property Valuers

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Saint Lucia Institute of Land Use Planners

Institute of Surveyors of Saint Lucia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Singapore Institute of Planners

Singapore Institute of Surveyors and Valuers

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

South African Planning Institute

Association of South African Quantity Surveyors

Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka

Institution of Quantity Surveyors Sri Lanka

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Tanzania Association of Planners

Institution of Surveyors Tanzania

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners

Institution of Surveyors of Trindad and Tobago

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Uganda Institute of Physical Planners

Institution of Surveyors of Uganda

Royal Town Planning Institute

Royal Institution of Quantity Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Zambia Institute of Planners

Institution of Surveyors Zambia

32 Town Planning Institutes

24 Surveying Institutes85

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

82 Information compiled with the assistance of CAA, CAP, CASLE and

CEC. 83 The Maldives rejoined the Commonwealth in February 2020, but too

late to be included in this years survey. 84 The engineering institutes included here mainly represent civil

engineering. 85 The surveying institutes included here mainly represent quantity

surveying, unless otherwise noted.

171


appendix ii. THE COMMONWEALTH IN NUMBERS Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

172

Country

SIDS

Botswana

-

Cameroon Eswatini

Small states

ODA status

Land area (sqkm)

Population

Population growth (annual %)

Population density (Sqkm)

Y

UMIC

556,730

2,254,130

2.2%

4

-

-

LMIC

472,710

25,216,240

2.6%

53

-

Y

LMIC

17,200

1,136,190

1.0%

66

Gambia, The

-

Y

LDC

10,120

2,280,100

2.9%

225

Ghana

-

-

LMIC

227,540

29,767,110

2.2%

131

Kenya

-

-

LMIC

596,140

51,393,010

2.3%

90

Lesotho

-

Y

LDC

30,360

2,108,130

0.8%

69

Malawi

-

-

LDC

94,280

18,143,310

2.6%

192

Mauritius

Y

Y

UMIC

2,030

1,256,300

0.1%

623

Mozambique

-

-

LDC

786,380

29,496,960

2.9%

38

Namibia

-

Y

UMIC

823,290

2,448,260

1.9%

3

Nigeria

-

-

LMIC

910,770

195,874,740

2.6%

215

LDC

24,670

12,301,940

2.6%

499

460

96,760

1.0%

210

Rwanda

-

-

Seychelles

Y

Y

Sierra Leone

-

-

LDC

72,180

7,650,150

2.1%

106

South Africa

-

-

UMIC

1,213,090

57,779,620

1.4%

48

Tanzania

-

-

LDC

885,800

56,318,350

3.0%

64

Uganda

-

-

LDC

200,520

42,723,140

3.7%

213

Zambia

-

-

LDC

743,390

17,351,820

2.9%

23

Bangladesh

-

-

LDC

130,170

161,356,040

1.1%

1,240

Brunei Darussalam

-

Y

5,270

428,960

1.1%

81

India

-

-

LMIC

2,973,190

1,352,617,330

1.0%

455

Malaysia

-

-

UMIC

328,550

31,528,580

1.4%

96

Pakistan

-

-

LMIC

770,880

212,215,030

2.1%

275

Singapore

Y

-

709

5,638,680

0.5%

7,953

Sri Lanka

-

-

LMIC

62,710

21,670,000

1.0%

346

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

Y

UMIC

440

96,290

0.9%

219

Bahamas

Y

Y

10,010

385,640

1.0%

39

Barbados

Y

Y

430

286,640

0.1%

667

Belize

Y

Y

102

Canada

-

-

Dominica

Y

Y

UMIC

Grenada

Y

Y

Guyana

Y

Y

Jamaica

Y

Y

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Y

Y

Saint Lucia

Y

Y

St Vincent & the Grenadines

Y

Y

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

Cyprus

UMIC

22,810

383,070

1.9%

9,093,510

37,058,860

1.4%

4

750

71,630

0.2%

96

IUMIC

340

111,450

0.5%

328

UMIC

196,850

779,000

0.5%

4

UMIC

10,830

2,934,860

0.5%

271

260

52,440

0.8%

202

UMIC

610

181,890

0.5%

298

UMIC

390

110,210

0.3%

283

Y

5,130

1,389,860

0.4%

271

-

Y

9,240

1,189,270

0.8%

129

Malta

-

Y

320

483,530

3.3%

1,511

United Kingdom

-

-

241,930

66,488,990

0.6%

36

Australia

-

-

7,692,020

24,992,370

1.6%

3

Fiji

Y

Y

IMIC

18,270

883,480

0.7%

48

Kiribati

Y

Y

LDC

810

115,850

1.5%

143

Nauru

Y

Y

UMIC

635

New Zealand

-

-

Papua New Guinea

Y

-

LMIC

Samoa

Y

Y

Solomon Islands

Y

Y

Tonga

Y

Tuvalu Vanuatu

20

12,700

-1.3%

263,310

4,885,500

1.9%

19

452,860

8,606,320

2.0%

19

UMIC

2,830

196,130

0.4%

69

LDC

27,990

652,860

2.6%

23

Y

UMIC

720

103,200

1.2%

143

Y

Y

LDC

30

11,510

1.2%

384

Y

Y

LDC

12,190

292,680

2.5%

24

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Urban population (% of total population

Urban growth (%)

Total CO2 (kt)

CO2 per capita (metric tonnes)

GDP ($M)

69%

3.3%

7,033

3.40

$ 18,616

56%

3.7%

7,004

0.30

56%

1.7%

1,203

1.10

61%

4.0%

513

56%

3.4%

14,466

27%

4.1%

28%

2.3%

17%

HDI GNI per capita, PPP ($)

CRI

$ 17,970

0.717

$ 8,502

$ 3,700

$ 4,703

$ 10,680

0.30

$ 1,624

0.50

$ 65,556

14,287

0.30

2,468

1.20

4.0%

1,276

41%

-0.1%

36% 50%

Fragile States Index

Climate Losses (PPP) ($M) 72.17

$ 123.43

0.556

97.00

$ 5.12

97.0

25

0.588

116.00

-

85.3

38

$ 1,680

0.460

101.50

83.9

37

$ 4,650

0.592

82.17

$ 0.31

65.9

ND

$ 87,908

$ 3,430

0.590

53.50

$ 89.92

93.5

27

$ 2,791

$ 3,610

0.520

116.00

-

79.7

41

0.10

$ 7,064

$ 1,310

0.477

60.50

$ 15.81

83.3

32

4,228

3.40

$ 14,220

$ 26,030

0.790

116.00

-

38.9

51

4.4%

8,427

0.30

$ 14,457

$ 1,300

0.437

37.67

$ 162.39

88.7

23

4.0%

3,755

1.70

$ 14,521

$ 10,920

0.647

116.00

-

66.4

53

50%

4.2%

96,281

0.50

$ 397,269

$ 5,700

0.532

75.00

$ 63.44

98.5

27

17%

3.1%

840

0.10

$ 9,509

$ 2,210

0.524

79.33

$ 8.10

87.5

56

57%

1.7%

495

5.40

$ 1,590

$ 29,070

0.797

116.00

-

55.2

66

42%

3.1%

1,309

0.20

$ 3,999

$ 1,520

0.419

15.67

$ 99.10

86.8

30

66%

2.1%

489,772

9.00

$ 366,298

$ 13,230

0.699

35.67

$ 2,234.52

71.1

43

34%

5.1%

11,562

0.20

$ 57,437

$ 3,160

0.538

81.67

$ 7.91

80.1

36

24%

6.2%

5,229

0.10

$ 27,476

$ 1,970

0.516

78.83

$ 4.02

95.3

26

44%

4.2%

4,503

0.30

$ 26,720

$ 4,100

0.588

116.00

-

85.7

35

37%

3.2%

73,190

0.50

$ 274,024

$ 4,560

0.800

16.00

$ 2,826.68

87.7

26

78%

1.5%

9,109

22.20

$ 13,567

$ 85,790

0.853

116.00

57.5

63

34%

2.3%

2,238,377

1.70

$ 2,726,322

$ 7,680

0.640

22.67

$ 13,879.86

74.4

41

76%

2.1%

242,821

8.10

$ 354,348

$ 30,600

0.802

53.33

$ 272.20

60.5

47

37%

2.7%

166,298

0.90

$ 312,570

$ 5,840

0.562

43.17

$ 384.52

94.2

33

100%

0.5%

56,373

10.30

$ 364,156

$ 94,500

0.932

116.00

-

28.1

85

18%

1.5%

18,394

0.90

$ 88,900

$ 13,090

0.770

9.00

$ 3,129.35

84.0

38

25%

0.4%

532

5.70

$ 1,623

$ 25,160

0.780

20.67

$ 1,101.44

54.4

ND

83%

1.1%

2,417

6.50

$ 12,162

$ 30,920

0.608

ND

ND

48.8

65

31%

0.1%

1,272

4.50

$ 4,673

$ 17,640

0.800

116.00

-

48.0

68

46%

2.2%

495

1.40

$ 1,925

$ 8,200

0.708

116.00

-

62.5

ND

81%

1.5%

537,193

15.20

$ 1,709,327

$ 47,280

0.926

52.67

$ 1,773.78

20.0

81

70%

0.7%

136

1.90

$ 503

$ 10,680

0.715

9.33

$ 1,686.00

ND

ND

36%

0.8%

242

2.20

$ 1,207

$ 14,270

0.772

116.00

-

57.6

52

27%

0.7%

2,010

2.60

$ 3,610

$ 8,570

0.564

116.00

-

68.2

37

56%

1.0%

7,422

2.60

$ 15,717

$ 8,930

0.732

81.33

$ 26.46

61.2

44

31%

0.8%

231

4.50

$ 1,039

$ 30,120

0.778

64.00

$ 184.91

ND

ND

19%

0.9%

407

2.30

$ 1,876

$ 12,970

0.747

116.00

-

ND

55

52%

1.1%

209

1.90

$ 813

$ 13,210

0.723

116.00

-

ND

58

53%

0.4%

46,274

34.00

$ 23,410

$ 32,060

0.784

84.50

$ 26.33

53.0

41

67%

0.8%

6,062

5.30

$ 24,469

$ 35,170

0.869

83.67

$ 0.01

57.8

59

95%

3.3%

2,347

5.40

$ 14,542

$ 37,700

0.878

116.00

-

34.5

54

83%

1.0%

419,820

6.50

$ 2,835,207

$ 45,660

0.922

87.17

$ 248.95

36.7

80

86%

1.7%

361,262

15.40

$ 1,432,195

$ 49,930

0.939

30.33

$ 3,418.74

19.7

77

56%

1.6%

1,170

1.40

$ 5,479

$ 10,250

0.741

82.83

$ 0.02

71.7

ND

54%

2.9%

62

0.60

$ 188

$ 4,410

0.612

116.00

-

ND

ND

100%

-1.3%

48

4.00

$ 114

$ 19,480

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

87%

2.0%

34,664

7.70

$ 205,024

$ 40,250

0.917

68.67

$ 216.77

20.1

87

13%

2.5%

6,318

0.80

$ 23,431

$ 4,150

0.544

78.17

$ 0.08

83.1

28

18%

-0.7%

198

1.00

$ 861

$ 6,620

0.713

116.00

-

64.2

ND

24%

4.6%

202

0.30

$ 1,411

$ 2,280

0.546

75.33

$ 0.02

81.9

44

23%

1.0%

121

1.20

$ 450

$ 6,510

0.726

116.00

-

ND

ND

62%

2.6%

11

1.00

$ 42

$ 6,090

ND

116.00

-

ND

ND

25%

2.9%

154

0.60

$ 887

$ 3,160

0.603

90.00

$ 0.44

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

59.5

Corruption Perceptions Index 61

46

173


Key to Appendix II: Description

Units

Source

Commonwealth Region

Text

https://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries

Commonwealth Country

Text

https://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries

Small Island Developing State

Text

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/sids/list

Small State

Text

https://data.worldbank.org/region/small-states

ODA Status

Text

http://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance- standards/DAC_List_ODA_ Recipients2018to2020_flows_En.pdf

Land Area

SqKm

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.TOTL.K2

Population

Number

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL

Population Growth

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW

Population Density

Persons/SqKm

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.POP.DNST

Urban Population

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS

Urban Population Growth

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.GROW

Total CO2

Kilotons

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.KT?view=chart

CO2 per Capita

Metric Tons (Tonnes)/capita

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/en.atm.co2e.pc

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

$Million

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD

Gross National Income (GNI)

$

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD

Human Development Index (HDI)

Score

http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/data

Climate Risk Index (CRI)

Score

https://germanwatch.org/sites/germanwatch.org/files/Global%20Climate%20Risk%20Index%202019_2.pdf

Climate Losses

$Million

http://hdr.undp.org/en/data

Fragile States Index

Score

http://fundforpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/9511904-fragilestatesindex.pdf

Corruptions Perceptions Index

Score

https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018

Urbanisation is having a disproportionate effect on the people of the Commonwealth. In 2020, the urban population of the Commonwealth represented 24% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban population. By 2050 it will represent over 30%. By 2050, the worlds urban population is projected to increase by approximately 50% relative to 2020, whereas the urban population of the Commonwealth will have practically doubled, adding a further 1 billion urban dwellers

86 Figures taken from the UN World Urbanisation Prospects 2018,

https://population.un.org/wup/Download/ and extracted from https://population.un.org/wup/Download/Files/WUP2018-F03Urban_Population.xls

174

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


appendix iii. PROJECTED URBAN POPULATION GROWTH IN THE COMMONWEALTH86 Country Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados

Projected Urban Population (in thousands)

Growth 2020-2050

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

In thousands

as %

26

27

28

30

33

36

39

13

151%

21,904

23,335

24,740

26,110

27,469

28,833

30,186

8,282

138%

339

356

373

387

400

411

420

81

124%

64,815

74,838

84,689

93,958

102,422

110,433

117,837

53,022

182%

90

92

95

100

105

110

114

25

128%

183

205

230

256

283

311

338

155

185%

1,712

1,937

2,151

2,353

2,541

2,713

2,871

1,159

168%

348

374

397

417

435

449

460

112

132%

Cameroon

14,942

17,740

20,857

24,291

28,049

32,106

36,415

21,474

244%

Canada

30,670

32,164

33,663

35,120

36,540

37,922

39,234

8,564

128%

807

838

873

912

954

994

1,030

223

128%

Belize Botswana Brunei Darussalam

Cyprus Dominica

53

56

58

59

60

61

61

8

115%

eSwatini

348

393

442

498

561

631

703

355

202%

529

567

601

632

658

680

698

168

132%

Gambia

Fiji

1,435

1,731

2,055

2,403

2,766

3,141

3,523

2,088

245%

Ghana

17,626

20,539

23,641

26,912

30,319

33,878

37,518

19,893

213%

40

42

44

46

48

50

52

12

130%

Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya

212

223

236

250

266

282

295

84

140%

483,099

542,743

607,342

675,456

744,380

811,749

876,613

393,514

181%

1,640

1,707

1,770

1,827

1,871

1,896

1,904

264

116%

14,975

18,372

22,383

27,026

32,242

37,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Kiribati

68

78

88

97

107

116

126

58

185%

Lesotho

674

774

887

1,014

1,158

1,316

1,485

811

220%

Malawi

3,535

4,407

5,551

7,022

8,809

10,917

13,360

9,825

378%

Malaysia

25,362

27,845

30,109

32,067

33,717

35,138

36,440

11,078

144%

Malta

412

417

420

418

414

409

405

(7)

98%

Mauritius

519

527

539

554

572

590

604

85

116%

11,978

14,811

18,195

22,168

26,726

31,832

37,473

25,494

313%

1,403

1,684

1,972

2,261

2,546

2,829

3,116

1,713

222%

Mozambique Namibia Nauru

11

11

11

12

12

11

11

0

101%

4,191

4,388

4,579

4,756

4,919

5,068

5,200

1,009

124%

Nigeria

107,113

130,312

156,300

184,888

216,084

250,285

287,130

180,018

268%

Pakistan

77,438

87,777

99,360

112,484

127,362

143,649

160,228

82,790

207%

New Zealand

Papua New Guinea

1,168

1,351

1,592

1,909

2,316

2,790

3,326

2,157

285%

Rwanda

2,281

2,660

3,144

3,769

4,563

5,477

6,483

4,202

284%

Saint Kitts and Nevis

18

18

20

21

23

24

26

8

146%

Saint Lucia

34

36

38

40

43

46

49

14

142% 122%

Saint Vincent & the Grenadines

59

62

64

67

69

71

72

13

Samoa

36

36

37

39

43

47

52

17

146%

Seychelles

55

58

61

63

65

66

67

12

122%

Sierra Leone

3,454

4,017

4,651

5,351

6,111

6,909

7,725

4,271

224%

Singapore

5,935

6,157

6,342

6,480

6,563

6,592

6,575

640

111%

Solomon Islands South Africa

160

191

225

261

300

342

385

226

241%

39,551

43,113

46,457

49,631

52,625

55,447

58,057

18,506

147%

Sri Lanka

3,945

4,193

4,528

4,967

5,503

6,049

6,575

2,629

167%

Tanzania

22,113

28,245

35,529

44,001

53,579

64,407

76,542

54,429

346%

Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu

26

27

29

31

34

38

42

16

162%

733

742

753

768

787

802

812

79

111%

7

8

9

10

10

11

11

4

154%

Uganda

11,775

15,431

19,914

25,273

31,490

38,580

46,664

34,889

396%

United Kingdom

56,495

58,799

60,899

62,822

64,639

66,381

68,008

11,512

120%

75

85

97

111

126

144

163

88

217%

Vanuatu

8,336

10,257

12,549

15,220

18,272

21,722

25,577

17,240

307%

Total Commonwealth

Zambia

1,044,754

1,186,793

1,341,614

1,507,620

1,681,989

1,862,767

2,047,285

1,002,531

196%

Total World

4,378,994

4,774,646

5,167,258

5,555,833

5,938,249

6,312,545

6,679,756

2,300,762

153%

Projected increase in the urban population of the Commonwealth as a proportion of the increase in the Worlds urban population Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

44% 175


appendix iv. SMALL ISLAND STATES, LAND AND POPULATION BELOW 5M87 Region

Africa Asia

Country

Population in the Largest city (% of urban population)

Population living in areas where elevation is below 5m (% of total population 7.1% 5.6%

28.0%

Port Louis

Seychelles

56.3%

Victoria

43.9%

41.3%

Maldives

97.1%

Male

100.0%

100.0%

Singapore

95.0%

Singapore

8.1%

12.1%

100.0%

St John's

32.4%

32.3%

Bahamas

83.3%

Nassau

72.0%

46.5%

Barbados

92.7%

Bridgetown

15.7%

15.7%

-

Belize City

9.5%

15.8%

Dominica

30.0%

Roseau

9.4%

10.4%

Grenada

100.0%

St Georgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

21.7%

21.7%

Guyana

59.5%

Port-au-Prince

3.9%

5.4%

Jamaica

41.4%

Kingston

7.1%

5.8%

Saint Kitts and Nevis

77.7%

Basseterre

19.0%

22.1%

Saint Lucia

45.6%

Castries

8.0%

8.0%

St Vincent & the Grenadines

53.2%

Kingstown

22.0%

22.0%

Trinidad and Tobago

32.9%

Chaguanas

8.0%

7.5%

Fiji

39.7%

Nasinu

11.4%

11.0%

100.0%

Bairiki

96.7%

95.2%

Belize

Kiribati Nauru Pacific

Land area where elevation is below 5m (% of total land area)

Mauritius

Antigua and Barbuda

Caribbean and Americas

Largest City (by inhabitants)

-

Baren

-

-

Papua New Guinea

37.5%

Port Moresby

1.8%

2.0%

Samoa

97.1%

Apia

7.3%

15.6%

Solomon Islands

71.4%

Honiara

11.5%

13.4%

Tonga

100.0%

Nuku'alofa

40.5%

31.3%

Tuvalu

100.0%

Funafuti

100.0%

100.0%

77.8%

Port Vila

11.7%

10.8%

Vanuatu

87 Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.

php?page=view&type=400&nr=2169&menu=1515

176

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


appendix v. STATUS OF BUILDING ENERGY CODES IN THE COMMONWEALTH, 201988 Status of Building Energy Codes in the Commonwealth in 2019 Region Country Residential Botswana

Africa

No Code

No Code

Burundi

In Development

In Development

Cameroon

In Development

In Development

Gambia

No Code

No Code

Ghana

No Code

No Code

Kenya

In Development

In Development

Lesotho

No Code

No Code

Malawi

No Code

No Code

Mauritius

No Code

No Code

Mozambique

No Code

No Code

Namibia

No Code

No Code

Nigeria

No Code

Mandatory

Rwanda

No Code

Mandatory

Seychelles

No Code

No Code

Sierra Leone

No Code

No Code

South Africa

No Code

Voluntary

Eswatini

No Code

No Code

Uganda

In Development

In Development

Zambia

No Code

No Code

Bangladesh

No Code

No Code

Brunei Darussalam

No Code

No Code

Varies by State

Varies by State

Malaysia

No Code

Voluntary

Maldives

No Code

No Code

Pakistan

No Code

Voluntary

Singapore

No Code

Mandatory

Sri Lanka

No Code

Voluntary

Antigua and Barbuda

No Code

No Code

Bahamas

No Code

No Code

Barbados

No Code

No Code

Belize

No Code

No Code

India

Asia

Canada

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Varies by State

Varies by State

Dominica

No Code

No Code

Grenada

No Code

No Code

Guyana

No Code

No Code

Jamaica

Mandatory

Mandatory

Saint Kitts and Nevis

No Code

No Code

Saint Lucia

No Code

No Code

Saint Vincent & Grenadines

No Code

No Code

Trinidad and Tobago

No Code

No Code

Cyprus

No Code

No Code

Malta

No Code

No Code

United Kingdom

Mandatory

Mandatory

Australia

Mandatory

Mandatory

Fiji

No Code

No Code

Kiribati

No Code

No Code

Nauru

No Code

No Code

Mandatory

Mandatory

Papua New Guinea

No Code

No Code

Samoa

No Code

No Code

Solomon Islands

No Code

No Code

Tonga

No Code

No Code

Tuvalu

No Code

No Code

https://www.iea.org/reports/global-status-report-for-buildings-and-

Vanuatu

No Code

No Code

construction-2019.

New Zealand

Pacific

Non-Residential

Countries with no mandatory energy code % of countries with no mandatory energy code Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

44

37

81%

69%

88 IEA(2019). Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction.

177


appendix vi. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDEX FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PUBLISHED BY THE UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS NETWORK (UNSDSN)

A study of the results of the 2019 Sustainable Development Report89 produced by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (UNSDSN) concerning delivery of SDG 11 in the Commonwealth reveals that: · · · · ·

An assessment has only been made in 36 countries The targets associated with SDG 11 have only been achieved in 1 country Challenges remain in 10 countries Significant challenges remain in 13 countries Major challenges remain in 12 countries

The countries in which major challenges remain include Cameroon, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. All of these countries are experiencing high rates of urbanisation. The only country in which the targets set by SDG 11 have been achieved is Brunei Darussalam. A comparison between the results of 2017 and 2019 report reveals that progress towards delivery of SDG 11 is: · unchanged in 23 countries · improving in only 2 countries · worsening in 10 countries The countries in which progress towards achievement of SDG11 has deteriorated over the past two years includes Botswana, Cyprus, Ghana, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago and Zambia. The two countries in which progress is being achieved are Eswatini and Sri Lanka.

Key SDG achievement Challenges remain Significant challenges remain Major challenges remain 89 https://sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019/

178

Data not available

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Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


53.0

Namibia

119

59.9

Nigeria

159

46.4

Rwanda

126

56.0

Sierra Leone

155

49.2

South Africa

113

61.5

Eswatini

142

51.7

Tanzania

128

55.8

Uganda

140

52.6

Zambia

139

52.6

Zimbabwe

121

59.7

Bangladesh

116

60.9

India

115

61.1

Malaysia

68

69.6

Pakistan

130

55.6

Singapore

66

69.6

Sri Lanka

93

65.8

Belize

109

62.5

Canada

20

77.9

Guyana

114

61.4

Jamaica

74

68.8

Trinidad and Tobago

85

67.6

Cyprus

61

70.1

Malta

28

76.1

United Kingdom

13

79.4

Australia

38

73.9

Fiji

62

70.1

New Zealand

20

77.9

Papua New Guinea

143

52

118

60

Goal 17, Partnership for the Goals

136

Goal 16, Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

63.6

Mozambique

Goal 15, Life on Land

105

Goal 14, Life Below Water

51.4

Mauritius

Goal 13, Climate Action

146

Goal 12, Responsible Consumption and Production

50.9

Malawi

Goal 11, Sustainable cities and Communities 2019

150

Goal 11, Sustainable cities and Communities 2017

57.0

Lesotho

Goal 10, Reduced Inequalities

125

Goal 9, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

63.8

Kenya

Goal 8, Decent Work and Economic Growth

104

Goal 7, Affordable and Clean Energy

55.0

Ghana

Goal 6, Clean water and sanitation

131

Goal 5, Gender Equality

56.0

Gambia

Goal 4, Quality Education

59.8

127

Goal 3, Good Health and Well-being

120

Cameroon

Goal 2, No Hunger

Botswana

Country

Goal 1, No Poverty

2019 SDG Index, Score

Africa

2019 SDG Index, Rank

Region

Seychelles

Brunei Darussalam

Asia

Antigua ^ Barbuda Bahamas Barbados

Carribbean and Americas

Dominica Grenada

Saint Lucia St Kitts ^ Nevis St Vincent & the Grenadines

Europe

Kiribati Nauru

Pacific

Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Hong Kong

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

179


Profile for Commonwealth Association of Architects

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth, Survey Results  

Climate change and rapid urbanisation are among the most serious challenges facing the Commonwealth; challenges which have now been compound...

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth, Survey Results  

Climate change and rapid urbanisation are among the most serious challenges facing the Commonwealth; challenges which have now been compound...

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