Page 1

PLANNING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH KEY FINDINGS

COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH COMMONWEALTH

ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS ASSOCIATION OF PLANNERS ASSOCIATION OF SURVEYING AND LAND ECONOMY ENGINEERS COUNCIL


Survey conducted jointly by the Commonwealth Association of Architects, the Commonwealth Association of Planners, the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy and the Commonwealth Engineers Council Principal authors: Peter Oborn, Joseph Walters Design by Allies and Morrison, Architects and Urban Planners, London, UK Survey published: June 2020 With grateful thanks for the financial support received from The Prince of Wales’s Charitable Fund and the Commonwealth Secretariat, and to all contributors and participating organisations.


PLANNING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND RAPID URBANISATION SURVEY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH

FOREWORD BY HRH THE PRINCE OF WALES 1 INTRODUCTION 2 KEY FINDINGS

5 8 10

2.1 Critical lack of capacity among built environment professionals 

10

2.2 Critical lack of educational capacity

23

2.3 Weakness in built environment policy

28

2.4 Challenges facing the built environment

32

3 IMPACT OF THE FINDINGS ON THE GROUND

36

3.1 Australia

36

3.2 Bangladesh

37

3.3 Botswana

37

3.4 Pakistan

38

3.5 Sierra Leone

39

4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FINDINGS

40

4.1 Economic impact

40

4.2 Environmental impact

41

4.3 Health and well-being

41

4.4 Local government

42

4.5 Access to services

42

5 APPENDIX

45

I. Built environment professions in the Commonwealth

46

II. The Commonwealth in numbers

48

III. Projected urban population growth in the Commonwealth

51

IV. Small island states, land and population below 5m

52

V. Status of building energy codes in the Commonwealth, 2019 53 VI. Sustainable Development Goals Index for the Countries of the Commonwealth

54


[Type here]

Many of you reading this survey will not be surprised to know that the pace of urbanization in many countries far outstrips the capacity within the built environment professions to plan effectively and sustainably for that growth. Yet the pressing need for well-planned towns and cities could not be greater in the context of the two other most critical and inter-related issues of our time – climate change and accelerating loss of bio-diversity. Rapid urbanization is especially concerning for the Commonwealth, where nearly half of the projected growth in the world’s urban population over the next thirty years is expected to take place. A large proportion of this growth will be concentrated on secondary cities and towns, where the lack of resources to deal with the intense pressures they face is even more acute. In this context, the detail and analysis provided by this survey, the first of its kind in the Commonwealth, could not be more crucial and timely. The seriousness and scale of the issues revealed – a critical shortfall in professional capacity compared to demand, insufficient provision of relevant education and a weakness in built environment policy – will require urgent action. However, the strong collaboration involved in creating this survey – particularly in sharing information, experience and solutions between associations of architects, engineers, planners and surveyors across the diverse regions and contexts of the Commonwealth – lays a platform for positive action. Access to this data and analysis will help to pin-point where, and how, to prioritise responses to these immense challenges, in which built environment professionals across the Commonwealth will collectively play such a vital role. Therefore, I can only congratulate the four Commonwealth associations for the leadership they have shown in collaborating to survey these issues. I am proud and delighted that my own Foundation has been able to support, in some small way, a growing and connected partnership of Commonwealth organisations – which, importantly, also includes the Commonwealth Local Government Forum and the Association of Commonwealth Universities – to focus efforts on ensuring genuinely sustainable urbanization that will directly help communities across the Commonwealth. I need hardly say that I look forward with great anticipation to the ground-breaking actions that will flow from this collaboration.


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


List of Tables

List of Figures

Table 1

List of Commonwealth countries projected to more than double their urban population by 2050

11

Table 2

List of Commonwealth countries projected to add more than 1m urban residents per annum to 2050

11

Table 3

Numbers of Town Planners and Architects required to achieve OECD averages

12

Table 4

Commonwealth countries lacking one or more key built environment institute

14

Table 5

Number of Commonwealth Cities, grouped by population size

15

Table 6

Ratio of Architects per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth

17

Table 7

Ratio of Town Planners per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth

19

Table 8

Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rates of urban growth

20

Table 9

Ratio of Surveyors per thousand head of population v rate of urban growth

21

Table 10 Ratio of Architecture Schools /1m population

25

Table 11 Ratio of Town Planning Schools/1m population

26

Table 12 Ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population

27

Table 13 Ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population

27

Figure 1 Projected increase in the worlds urban population 2020-2050

8

Figure 2 Emissions and expected warming based on pledges and current policies

9

Figure 3 Projected floor area additions to 2060

13

Figure 4 Location of cities most at risk from climate change impacts

13

Figure 5 Number of Commonwealth cities, grouped by population size

15

Figure 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand population v with rates of urban growth

16

Figure 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand population v rate of urban growth

18

Figure 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rate of urban growth

20

Figure 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand population v rate of urban growth

21

Figure 10 Proportion of professional associations requiring mandatory continuing professional development

23

Figure 11 Ratio of Architects/1,000 population v ratio of Schools of Architecture/1m population

24

Figure 12 Ratio of Town Planners/1,000 population v ratio of Planning Schools/1m population

26

Figure 13 Ratio of Engineers/1,000 population v ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population

27

Figure 14 Ratio of Surveyors/1,000 population v ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population

27

Figure 15 Effectiveness of planning legislation and building code

28

Figure 16 National built environment strategies

29

Figure 17 National built environment policies

29

Figure 18 Map of building energy codes by jurisdiction, 2018-19

30

Figure 19 CO2 per capita v rates of urbanisation

30


1 1

INTRODUCTION

An analysis of the most recent projections by UN Habitat1 reveals that the number of urban dwellers in the Commonwealth is predicted to increase by over 1 billion people by 2050; that’s nearly 50% of the total projected increase in the World’s urban population in the next 30 years2, (Figure 1). Managing this growth sustainably is vital not only for the citizens of the Commonwealth but for the entire world. Figure 1 Projected increase in the worlds urban population 2020-2050, (numbers in ‘000) 2,500,000 Total Commonwealth Rest of the world

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0 2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050

This year’s ‘Survey of the built environment professions in the Commonwealth’ is therefore significant as many Commonwealth countries are already experiencing the impact of climate change and rapid urbanisation, a situation now compounded by the impact of Covid-19, and 2020 marks the start of a Decade of Action3 to achieve the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In 2017, the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) and the Commonwealth Association of Planners (CAP) undertook the first surveys of their respective professions to have been carried out in over 30 years. The findings of those surveys revealed a critical lack of capacity together with weakness in built environment policy in many of the Commonwealth countries that are urbanising most rapidly and are among the most vulnerable.

1

https://population.un.org/wup/

2

See Appendix I for details

3

https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/decade-of-action/

8

CAA and CAP are delighted to have been joined this year by colleagues from the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) together with the Commonwealth Engineers Council (CEC). We are also pleased to have increased the level of participation from member organisations.

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


The findings of this year’s survey reveal that the issues first identified in 2017 have become more challenging and are even more widespread. Moreover, while the capacity gap continues to grow, rates of urbanisation are on the rise and levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have reached record highs, (Figure 2), requiring increasingly more urgent action in order to avoid catastrophic climate change4. The need to develop an effective response to these inter-related challenges has become even more urgent and the built environment professions have therefore been advocating for a ‘Call to Action’ on sustainable urbanisation in the Commonwealth. In an effort to help tackle the underlying issues, CAA, CAP, CASLE and CEC are also collaborating with the Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) and the Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) to develop a programme of engagement based on inter-disciplinary, cross sector collaboration, working together with city leaders, built environment professionals and academia Figure 2

200

150

100

Global greenhouse gas emissions GtCO2e / year

Emissions and expected warming based on pledges and current policies5 Dec 2019 update Warming projected by 2100

Baseline 4.1 - 4.8°C

Current policies 2.8 - 3.2°C

50

Optimistic policies 2.8°C Pledges & Targets 2.5 - 2.8°C 0 2°C consistent 1.6 - 1.7°C 1.5°C consistent 1.3 °C -50 1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

2060

2070

2080

2090

2100

The Commonwealth of nations provides the perfect platform from which to engage with these issues, providing advocacy, sharing knowledge and resources, building capacity and capability, and the built environment professions represented here are fully committed to this important work6.

4

https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/emissions-gapreport-2019

5

Source: Climate Action Tracker, https://climateactiontracker.org/

6

https://wuf.unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020-02/WUF10_

Mr Kalim Siddiqui President Commonwealth Association of Architects Ms Dyan Currie AM President Commonwealth Association of Planners Mr Joseph Ajanlekoko President Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy Prof Paul Jowitt CBE President Commonwealth Engineers Council

final_declared_actions.pdf (see page 6)

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

9


2 2

KEY FINDINGS

2.1 CRITICAL LACK OF CAPACITY AMONG BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS

There is a continuing critical lack of capacity in many of the Commonwealth countries which are rapidly urbanising and are among the most vulnerable. While it is acknowledged that there is no specific target regarding the number of built environment professionals required in each country and that numbers alone are only one measure of capacity, it will be seen from the results of this survey that there is an acute imbalance between the number of built environment professionals in each country when compared with the rate of urban growth; a situation which is further aggravated when the results are correlated with levels of prosperity and vulnerability7. By way of example, the average ratio of architects per thousand head of population in Commonwealth countries which are members of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ie Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, is 0.455 whereas in Uganda it is 0.005. Similarly, in the case of town planners, the average ratio of planners per thousand head of population in OECD countries is 0.215 whereas in Tanzania it is also 0.005. These figures are particularly concerning when one considers that the rate of urban growth in OECD countries is, on average, 1.55% whereas in Tanzania it is currently 5.1% and in Uganda 6.2%. The survey results also need to be considered in relation to the cumulative impact of continuous high rates of urban growth, eg Uganda’s urban population is projected to quadruple by 2050, adding an additional 35million urban dwellers while Tanzania is expect to add a further 54 million urban dwellers in the same period (Table 1 and Table 2)8. 7

See Appendix II for further detail

8

See Appendix III for further detail

10

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 1 List of Commonwealth countries projected to more than double their urban population by 2050 Country

Projected urban population (‘000) 2020

2050

Projected urban population growth 2020-2050 ‘000

as %

Uganda

11,775

46,664

34,889

396%

Malawi

3,535

13,360

9,825

378%

Tanzania

22,113

76,542

54,429

346%

Mozambique

11,978

37,473

25,494

313%

Zambia

8,336

25,577

17,240

307%

Kenya

14,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Papua New Guinea

1,168

3,326

2,157

285%

Rwanda

2,281

6,483

4,202

284%

Nigeria

107,113

287,130

180,018

268%

Gambia

1,435

3,523

2,088

245%

14,942

36,415

21,474

244%

160

385

226

241%

Sierra Leone

3,454

7,725

4,271

224%

Namibia

1,403

3,116

1,713

222%

Lesotho

674

1,485

811

220%

Vanuatu

75

163

88

217%

Cameroon Solomon Islands

Ghana

17,626

37,518

19,893

213%

Pakistan

77,438

160,228

82,790

207%

Eswatini

348

703

355

202%

Table 2 List of Commonwealth countries projected to add more than 1m urban residents per annum to 2050 Country

Projected urban population (‘000) 2020

2050

Projected urban population growth 2020-2050 ‘000

as %

India

483,099

876,613

393,514

181%

Nigeria

107,113

287,130

180,018

268%

Pakistan

77,438

160,228

82,790

207%

Tanzania

22,113

76,542

54,429

346%

Bangladesh

64,815

117,837

53,022

182%

Uganda

11,775

46,664

34,889

396%

Kenya

14,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Mozambique

11,978

37,473

25,494

313%

Cameroon

14,942

36,415

21,474

244%

Ghana

17,626

37,518

19,893

213%

South Africa

39,551

58,057

18,506

147%

8,336

25,577

17,240

307%

United Kingdom

56,495

68,008

11,512

120%

Malaysia

25,362

36,440

11,078

144%

Zambia

Similar challenges exist in the three Commonwealth countries which are projected to experience the largest increase in their urban populations by 2050, namely India, Nigeria and Pakistan. Table 3 provides an illustration of the shortfall in architects and planners when compared with OECD averages.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

11


Table 3 Numbers of Town Planners and Architects required to achieve OECD averages Country

Total Population 2018

Profession

India

1,352,617,330

Town Planners

5,0009

0.004

285,813

Architects

87,674

0.065

527,767

Town Planners

1,608

0.008

40,505

Architects

7,468

0.038

81,655

Town Planners

1,388

0.007

44,238

Architects

6,028

0.028

90,530

Nigeria Pakistan

195,874,740 212,215,030

Number of professionals

Ratio of professionals per 1,000 population

Indicative shortfall compared with OECD averages

While it is clearly both impractical and unrealistic to suggest that such ratios should or could be achieved, these figures clearly indicate a critical lack of capacity in many of the Commonwealth countries which are rapidly urbanising. Unless this issue can be effectively addressed then it is likely we will continue to experience an increasing number of unplanned or poorly planned settlements with correspondingly serious consequences in terms of social, economic and environmental well-being. Indeed, this is already being reflected in the results of the annual survey undertaken by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network10, and a comparison between their findings in 2017 and 2019 reveals that progress towards achievement of SDG11 is: · unchanged in 23 countries · improving in only 2 countries · worsening in 10 countries Furthermore, a comparison with the 2017 survey reveals that rates of urban growth are generally increasing while the number of built environment professionals are relatively static; eg the number of architects in Uganda has increased from 178 to 221 whereas the rate of urban growth has leapt from 5.3% to 6.2% per annum. These figures become even more significant when considered in the context of projected floor area additions and climate change vulnerability, as illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. In addition to their exposure to extreme weather events such as hurricanes, many small island states are also particularly vulnerable to sea level rises. In some cases, 100% of the population is located on land below 5m elevation (see Appendix V).

9

Based on anecdotal evidence: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ home/education/news/india-needs-3-lakh-town-planners-by-2031know-how-you-can-be-one/articleshow/67431428.cms

10 For further information, see Appendix IV 11 Source: IEZ (2017), Energy Technology Perspectives 2017, IEZ/OECD,

Paris, www.iea.org/etp. 12 Source: Verisk Maplecroft, https://www.maplecroft.com/insights/

analysis/84-of-worlds-fastest-growing-cities-face-extreme-climatechange-risks/

12

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 3 Projected floor area additions to 206011 Africa China India North America Europe ASEAN Latin America Other Asia

Current floor area Floor area additions

Middle East

2017-2030

OECO Pacific

2030-2040

Russia & Caspian region

2040-2050

billion m2

2050-2060

90

60

30

0

30

60

90

Notes: OECD Pacific includes Australia, New Zealand, Japan and Korea; ASEAN= Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Figure 4 Location of cities most at risk from climate change impacts11

2.5

0

Low risk Medium risk

1 million 10 million

High risk

5

Size of population

Extreme risk

7.5

Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2018-Q4

10

Average annual % change in population, 2018-2035 0

-1 Europe

1

2

Americas

3 Asia

4 Africa

5

6 Oceania

Among the Commonwealth cities most at risk of climate change impacts are Kampala in Uganda, Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania, Abuja and Lagos in Nigeria12.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

13


It should be noted that the survey only accounts for respondent countries in which professional institutes exist and that no architectural institute could be found in 9 Commonwealth countries, no town planning association could be found in 22 Commonwealth countries, no civil engineering association could be found in 7 Commonwealth countries and no quantity surveying association could be found in 25 Commonwealth countries. No built environment associations of any kind could be found in 5 Commonwealth countries; Kiribati, Nauru, Seychelles, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu; all of which are small island states and many of which are among the most vulnerable to climate change impacts.Â

Table 4 Commonwealth countries lacking one or more key built environment institute

Income Country (LMIC) 16 CRI: Climate Resilience Index; a measure of vulnerability to

climate change impacts 17 Anecdotal evidence suggests there is no recognised planning

profession in Sierra Leone, but that there are 19 Development Planning Officers (eg: Haja) in each of the councils. Haja is

Projected urban population growth 20202050

Surveying Institute?

15 ODA Status: Least Developed Country (LDC), Lower Middle-

ODA CRI16 status15

Planning Institute?

14 https://data.worldbank.org/region/small/states

Small states14

Engineering Institute?

13 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/sids/list

SIDS13

Architectural institute?

Country

Seychelles

Y

Y

-

116

12

122%

N

N

N

N

Kiribati

Y

Y

LDC

116

168

132%

N

N

N

N

Nauru

Y

Y

UMIC

-

58

185%

N

N

N

N

Solomon Islands

Y

Y

LDC

75

226

241%

N

N

N

N

Tuvalu

Y

Y

LDC

116

4

154%

N

N

N

N

Gambia, The

-

Y

LDC

101

2,088

245%

Y

N

N

N

Mozambique

-

-

LDC

37

25,494

313%

N

Y

N

N

St Vincent & Gren.

Y

Y

UMIC

116

14

142%

Y

N

N

N

Samoa

Y

Y

UMIC

116

7

146%

N

Y

N

N

Tonga

Y

Y

UMIC

116

16

162%

N

Y

N

N

Vanuatu

Y

Y

LDC

90

88

217%

N

Y

N

N

Cameroon

-

-

LMIC

97

21,474

244%

Y

Y

N

N

Eswatini

-

Y

LMIC

116

355

202%

Y

Y

N

N

Lesotho

-

Y

LDC

116

811

220%

Y

Y

N

N

Antigua & Barbuda

Y

Y

UMIC

20

2,629

167%

Y

Y

N

N

Grenada

Y

Y

IUMIC

116

8

115%

Y

Y

N

N

Guyana

Y

Y

UMIC

116

12

130%

Y

Y

N

N

Saint Kitts & Nevis

Y

Y

-

64

264

116%

Y

Y

N

N

Bahamas

Y

Y

-

-

81

124%

Y

Y

N

Y

Papua New Guinea

Y

-

LMIC

78

2,157

285%

Y

Y

N

Y

Sierra Leone17

-

-

LDC

15

4,271

224%

Y

Y

N17

Y

Bangladesh

-

-

LDC

16

53,022

1825

Y

Y

Y

N

Belize

Y

Y

UMIC

116

155

185%

Y

Y

Y

N

Brunei Darussalam

-

Y

-

116

112

132%

Y

Y

Y

N

Cyprus

-

Y

-

84

223

128%

Y

Y

Y

N

Dominica

Y

Y

UMIC

9

8

115%

Y

Y

Y

N

Mauritius

Y

Y

UMIC

116

85

116%

Y

Y

Y

N

Namibia

-

Y

UMIC

116

1,713

222%

Y

Y

Y

N

'000

as %

not a Town Planner per se and has no planning qualification, but their role does include spatial planning

14

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Another aspect of the findings which needs to be considered in relation to professional capacity, is the fact that most built environment professionals tend to be located in capital cities and in the main metropolitan areas18 whereas urban growth is being experienced by cities of all sizes, including secondary cities, which constitute the majority (Table 5 and Figure 5), and where most of the Commonwealth’s urban population actually live.

Table 5 Number of Commonwealth Cities, grouped by population size Category

No. of cities per Category

Sum of Population 2010

as %

Cumulative %

Over 4m

16

146,027,069

22%

100%

Between 1m and 4m

76

139,692,792

21%

78%

Between 500k to 1m

93

64,658,956

10%

57%

Between 200k and 500k

280

83,865,680

13%

47%

Between 100k and 200k

525

73,393,194

11%

34%

Between 50k and 100k

996

69,045,549

11%

23%

Between 20k and 50k

2,585

80,145,216

12%

12%

Grand Total

4,571

656,828,457

100%

Figure 5 Number of Commonwealth cities, grouped by population size19 Grater than 4 million

16 76

Between 1- 4 million Between 500k-1million

92 281

Between 200k-500k

525

Between 100k-200k

996

Between 50k-100k Between 20k-50k

2,585

The following figures (Figures 6-9) and tables (Tables 6-9) illustrate the capacity gap which exists for each of the principal built environment disciplines.

18 According to the Uganda Society of Architects, nearly all of its 221

members are located in Kampala. 19 Source: Nicolas Galarza, Visiting Scholar, NYU Marron Institute of

Urban Management, with Ana Camelo and Maria Bernal.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

15


Figure 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand population v rates of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0

0.1

United Kingdom

0.2

0.6

0.7 0.619

0.543 0.500

0.8%

New Zealand

0.392

2.0%

Canada

0.274

1.5% 0.5%

0.228 0.218

0.4%

Mauritius

0.167

Botswana

0.110

3.3%

Dominica

0.7%

Malaysia

0.073

2.1%

South Africa

0.072

2.1%

Trinidad & Tobago

0.5

1.7%

Hong Kong

Antigua & Barbuda

0.4

1.0%

Australia

Singapore

0.3

0.084

0.069

0.4%

Sri Lanka

0.065

India

0.065

2.3%

Nigeria

0.038

Pakistan

0.033

Fiji

0.033

Bangladesh

0.021

Belize

0.016

Zambia

0.015

Rwanda

0.014

Kenya

0.012

Ghana

0.011

Uganda

0.005

Gambia, The

0.005

4.2% 2.7% 1.6% 3.2% 2.2% 4.2% 3.1% 4.1% 3.4% 6.2% 4.0%

Urban growth 0.0%

16

1.0%

2.0%

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 6 Ratio of Architects per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Registered Professionals 2018

Architects per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

412,981,910

13,708

0.033

3.5%

Botswana

2,254,130

249

0.110

3.3%

Gambia, The

2,280,100

11

0.005

4.0%

Ghana

29,767,110

333

0.011

3.4%

Kenya

51,393,010

618

0.012

4.1%

1,256,300

210

0.167

-0.1%

Nigeria

195,874,740

7,468

0.038

4.2%

Rwanda

12,301,940

178

0.014

3.1%

South Africa

57,779,620

4,153

0.072

2.1%

Uganda

42,723,140

221

0.005

6.2%

Zambia

17,351,820

267

0.015

4.2%

1,785,025,660

102,039

0.058

2.1%

161,356,040

3,350

0.021

3.2%

1,352,617,330

87,674

0.065

2.3%

Malaysia

31,528,580

2,291

0.073

2.1%

Pakistan

212,215,030

6,028

0.033

2.7%

Singapore

5,638,680

1,284

0.228

0.5%

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

1,412

0.065

1.5%

38,999,710

10,265

0.263

1.0%

96,290

21

0.218

0.4%

383,070

6

0.016

2.2%

37,058,860

10,136

0.274

1.5%

71,630

6

0.084

0.7%

1,389,860

96

0.069

0.4%

68,161,790

44,585

0.654

1.7%

1,189,270

2,389

2.009

0.8%

483,530

1,026

2.122

3.3%

United Kingdom

66,488,990

41,170

0.619

1.0%

Other

7,451,000

3,723

0.500

0.8%

7,451,000

3,723

0.500

0.8%

30,761,350

15,510

0.504

1.8%

24,992,370

13,567

0.543

1.7%

883,480

29

0.033

1.6%

4,885,500

1,914

0.392

2.0%

Mauritius

Asia Bangladesh India

Caribbean and Americas Antigua and Barbuda Belize Canada Dominica Trinidad & Tobago Europe Cyprus

20

Malta

Hong Kong

21

Pacific Australia22 Fiji New Zealand

20 Cyprus (ratio: 2.01) and Malta (ratio: 2.12) have been omitted

from the chart for clarity as their members are also defined as engineers, which prevents a like-for-like comparison 21 While Hong Kong SAR is no longer a member of the

Commonwealth, the HKIA remains a member of the CAA 22 Australia only provided numbers of registered professional

numbers for 2017

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

17


Figure 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0

0.1

United Kingdom

0.2

New Zealand

2.0%

Australia

1.7%

Canada

1.5%

Trinidad & Tobago

0.4%

Fiji

0.028

Ghana

0.022

18

0.7

0.183 0.167 3.3%

0.034 0.033 1.6% 3.4%

Mauritius

0.018

Malaysia

0.017

2.1%

South Africa

0.011

2.1%

Nigeria

0.008

Pakistan

0.006

Tanzania

0.006

Barbados

0.000

Sri Lanka

0.000

0.0%

0.6

0.184

0.084 0.5%

0.5

3.3%

0.186

Botswana

0.4 0.330

1.0%

Malta

Singapore

0.3

4.2% 2.7% 5.1%

1.5%

1.0%

Urban growth 2.0%

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 7 Ratio of Town Planners per thousand head of population v rates of urban growth Country

Africa23

Total Population 2018

Registered Professionals 2018

Town Planners per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

343,250,250

3,411

0.010

3.0%

2,254,130

190

0.084

3.3%

29,767,110

644

0.022

3.4%

1,256,300

22

0.018

-0.1%

195,874,740

1,608

0.008

4.2%

South Africa

57,779,620

630

0.011

2.1%

Tanzania

56,318,350

317

0.006

5.1%

Botswana Ghana

24

Mauritius Nigeria

Asia

249,382,290

2,005

0.013

1.4%

Malaysia

31,528,580

549

0.017

2.1%

25

Pakistan

212,215,030

1,266

0.006

2.7%

Singapore

5,638,680

190

0.034

0.5%

Sri Lanka

38,448,720

0

0.000

1.5%

286,640

6,246

0.161

0.7%

37,058,860

6,200

0.167

1.5%

1,389,860

46

0.033

0.4%

Europe

66,972,520

22,009

0.327

2.2%

Malta26

483,530

90

0.186

3.3%

66,488,990

21,919

0.330

1.0%

Pacific

30,761,350

5,501

0.179

1.8%

Australia

24,992,370

4,579

0.183

1.7%

883,480

25

0.028

1.6%

4,885,500

897

0.184

2.0%

Caribbean & Am. Canada Trinidad & Tobago

United Kingdom

Fiji New Zealand

23 Although not a survey respondent, the Uganda

Institute of Physical Planners (UIPP) appeares to comprise 30 corporate, 67 graduate, 1 associate and 1 student member in 2017. Source: https://www. zaddockassociates.com/digitalpublications/UPG/ august-2017/mobile/index.html#p=83 24 Ghana, Mauritius, UK, Australia and Fiji did not provide

the number of registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute. 25 Number of registered professionals provided by the

Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP), February 2020. 26 Town Planning is not a legally recognised profession

in Malta, but it is understood that there are 90 Professionally qualified town planners in the country. Malta did not provide the number of registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Workshop in Bo credit: The Prince’s Foundation

19


Figure 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0 Mauritius

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

-0.1% 4.2% 0.8%

United Kingdom

1.0%

0.76 0.73 0.63

Botswana

3.3%

Belize

2.2%

Ghana

0.22

Mozambique

0.08

Malaysia

0.06

Malta

0.06

Uganda

0.05

1.1 1.00

Zambia Grenada

1

0.53

0.27 3.4% 4.4%

2.1% 3.3% 6.2%

0.0% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0%

4.0% 5.0%

6.0% 7.0%

Urban growth 8.0% 9.0% 10.0% 11.0%

Table 8 Ratio of Engineers per thousand population v rates of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Registered Professionals 2018

Engineers per thousand population

Urban Growth (%)

122,849,460

24,480

0.217

3.6%

2,254,130

1,200

0.532

3.3%

29,767,110

6,502

0.218

3.4%

1,256,300

1,258

1.001

-0.1%

Mozambique

29,496,960

2,320

0.079

4.4%

Uganda27

42,723,140

2,176

0.051

6.2%

Zambia

17,351,820

13,200

0.761

4.2%

31,528,580

2,019

0.064

2.1%

Botswana Ghana Mauritius

Asia Malaysia

31,528,580

2,019

0.064

2.1%

Caribbean & Am.

494,520

186

0.376

1.5%

Belize

383,070

105

0.274

2.2%

Grenada

111,450

81

0.727

0.8%

Europe

66,972,520

42,141

0.630

2.2%

483,530

30

0.062

3.3%

66,488,990

42,141

0.634

1.0%

Malta

27

United Kingdom 27 Uganda and Malta did not provide the number of

registered professionals, so the numbers used here refer to members of the institute.

20

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand population v rate of urban growth Professionals per thousand population 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

Malaysia

0.20

0.25

0.4%

Nigeria

0.02

Rwanda

0.01

0.35

0.40

0.45

0.25

2.1%

Trinidad and Tobago

0.30

0.07 4.2% 3.1%

Urban growth 0.0%

0.5%

1.0%

1.5%

2.0%

2.5%

3.0%

3.5%

4.0%

4.5%

Table 9 Ratio of Surveyors per thousand head of population v rate of urban growth Country

Total Population 2018

Registered Professionals 2018

Engineers per thousand population

Africa

208,176,680

4,268

Nigeria

195,874,740

Rwanda

12,301,940

Urban Growth (%)

0.016

4.1%

4,126

0.021

4.2%

142

0.012

3.1%

31,528,580

8,000

0.254

2.1%

Malaysia

31,528,580

8,000

0.254

2.1%

Caribbean and Americas

1,389,860

101

0.073

0.4%

1,389,860

101

0.073

0.4%

Asia

Trinidad and Tobago

Site visit for workshop in Bo credit: The Prince’s Foundation

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

21


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


2.2 CRITICAL LACK OF EDUCATIONAL CAPACITY

There is a lack of educational and institutional capacity to grow the professions fast enough in many Commonwealth countries. The findings of the 2017 survey revealed that, while lack of capacity among built environment professionals is a serious issue in a number of Commonwealth countries, the rate at which the profession is growing in these countries is also insufficient to achieve the sort of ratios found in OECD countries owing to the relatively small number of undergraduate places available for built environment professionals. The findings of the 2019 survey reveal that lack of educational capacity remains a concern and that this is affecting each of the principal built environment professions to a greater or lesser extent. By way of example, the ratio of schools of architecture per million head of population in Commonwealth countries which are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), ie Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, is 0.587, whereas in Nigeria it is 0.362. Lack of planning schools is an even greater concern. In OECD countries, the ratio of planning schools per million head of population is 0.729 whereas in Nigeria it is only 0.179, a fourfold difference. These figures are particularly concerning when one considers that Nigeria is forecast to add a further 180million urban dwellers in the next 30 years. Figure 10 Proportion of professional associations requiring mandatory continuing professional development Architects, Mandatory CPD?

37%

While the training of undergraduates is a concern, so too is the need to ensure existing members of the profession are equipped with appropriate up-to-date knowledge to deal with the range of challenges being faced in a rapidly changing world. Figure 10 illustrates the fact that the provision of mandatory continuing professional development remains a challenge for many respondents owing to lack of resources and/or institutional capacity.

63%

The following figures (Figures 11-14) and tables (Tables 10-13) illustrate the capacity gap which exists for each of the principle built environment disciplines.

Planners, Mandatory CPD?

44%

Respondents were also invited to comment on some of the key challenges facing the education of built environment professions. These are covered in Chapter 2.4 and include poorly skilled and unqualified teaching staff together with outdated curriculum, ie it is not simply the number of graduates which is an issue but also the quality of the education they are receiving. Indeed, the need for curriculum review to better reflect the challenges of climate change and sustainable urbanisation is widely recognised in many parts of the Commonwealth28.

28 See p13, Chapter 5.0 Knowledge and competence’, ‘RIBA Ethics and

56%

Sustainable Development Commission’: https://www.architecture.

Yes No

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

com/‐/media/GatherContent/Work‐with‐Us/Additional‐Documents/ Ethics‐and‐Sustainable‐ Development‐Commission‐‐Full‐ findingspdf.pdf

23


Figure 11 Ratio of Architects/1,000 population v ratio of Schools of Architecture/1m population United Kingdom Australia

0.543

Hong Kong

0.72

0.500

New Zealand

0.81

0.392

Canada

0.274

Singapore

0.61

0.32

0.228

Antigua & Barbuda

0.35

0.218

Mauritius

0.167

Botswana

0.80

0.110

Malaysia

0.44

0.106

South Africa

0.072

Trinidad & Tobago

0.069

0.76 0.17

0.065

Sri Lanka

0.09

0.065

India Nigeria

0.038

Pakistan

0.033

0.33 0.36 0.16

0.033

Fiji

0.021

Bangladesh

0.15

0.015

Zambia Rwanda

0.014

Kenya

0.012

Ghana

0.011

Uganda

0.005

0

24

0.69

0.619

0.08 0.14 0.37

Schools per million population Professionals per thousand population

0.09

0.1

0.2

0.3

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Table 10 Ratio of Architecture Schools /1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Africa

Total schools of Architecture

Schools per million population

413,150,070

108

0.26

2,254,130

1

0.44

Ghana

29,767,110

11

0.37

Kenya

51,393,010

7

0.14

Mauritius

1,256,300

1

0.80

Namibia

2,448,260

1

0.41

Nigeria

195,874,740

71

0.36

Rwanda

12,301,940

1

0.08

South Africa

57,779,620

10

0.17

Uganda

42,723,140

4

0.09

Zambia

17,351,820

1

0.06

1,785,025,660

510

0.29

161,356,040

25

0.15

1,352,617,330

448

0.33

Malaysia

31,528,580

24

0.76

Pakistan

212,215,030

33

0.16

Singapore

5,638,680

2

0.35

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

2

0.09

38,616,640

13

0.33

96,290

0

0.00

37,058,860

12

0.32

71,630

1

13.96

1,389,860

0

0.00

68,161,790

51

0.75

1,189,270

4

3.36

483,530

1

2.07

United Kingdom

66,488,990

46

0.69

Other

7,451,000

6

0.81

7,451,000

6

0.81

Pacific

30,761,350

21

0.68

Australia

24,992,370

18

0.72

883,480

0

0.00

4,885,500

3

0.61

Botswana

Asia Bangladesh India

Caribbean and Americas Antigua and Barbuda Canada Dominica

29

Trinidad and Tobago Europe Cyprus Malta

Hong Kong SAR

Fiji New Zealand

29 Dominica, Cyprus and Malta have a relatively high number of

schools/1m population and have not been shown

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

25


Figure 12 Ratio of Town Planners/1,000 population v ratio of Planning Schools/1m population United Kingdom

0.330

New Zealand

0.184

Australia

0.183

Canada Botswana

0.42 1.02 0.96 0.51

0.167 0.44

0.084

Trinidad and Tobago

0.033

Ghana

0.022

Mauritius

0.018

Malaysia

0.017

South Africa

0.011

Nigeria

0.008

0.72 0.10 0.80 0.16 0.19 0.18

Pakistan

0.006

0.02

Tanzania

0.006

0.02

Barbados

0.000

Sri Lanka

0.000

Schools per million population 0.05

0

Professionals per thousand population

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

Table 11 Ratio of Town Planning Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Africa Botswana Ghana Mauritius

0.15

2,254,130

1

0.44

29,767,110

3

0.10

1

0.80

35

0.18

South Africa

57,779,620

11

0.19

Tanzania

56,318,350

1

0.02

265,413,610

11

0.04

Malaysia

31,528,580

5

0.16

Pakistan

212,215,030

5

0.02

Sri Lanka

21,670,000

1

0.05

38,735,360

20

0.52

Caribbean & Am. Barbados

286,640

0

0.00

37,058,860

19

0.51

1,389,860

1

0.72

68,161,790

29

0.43

483,530

1

2.07

66,488,990

28

0.42

Pacific

29,877,870

29

0.94

Australia

24,992,370

24

0.96

4,885,500

5

1.02

Canada Trinidad and Tobago Europe Malta

30

United Kingdom

New Zealand

26

52

1,256,300

Asia

omitted from the chart for clarity

343,250,250

195,874,740

Nigeria

30 Malta has a high number of schools/ 1m population and has been

Total schools of Planning Schools per million population

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 13 Ratio of Engineers/1,000 population v ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population Grenada

0.73

0.00

United Kingdom Belize

0.63 0.00

0.27 0.22

Ghana Mozambique Uganda

0.90

0.67 0.64

0.08 0.05

Schools per million population

0.23

Professionals per thousand population

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Table 12 Ratio of Engineering Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Total schools of Engineering

Schools per million population

Africa

119,339,030

79

0.64

Ghana

29,767,110

20

0.67

Mozambique

29,496,960

19

0.64

Uganda

42,723,140

10

0.23

Zambia

17,351,820

30

1.73

Caribbean and Americas

494,520

0

0.00

Belize

383,070

0

0.00

Grenada

111,450

0

0.00

Europe

66,488,990

60

0.90

66,488,990

60

0.90

United Kingdom

Figure 14 Ratio of Surveyors/1,000 population v ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population Malaysia

0.25

Trinidad & Tobago

0.35

0.25

0.07

Nigeria

0.72

0.02

Rwanda

0.33

0.01

0

Schools per million population

0.08

0.1

Professionals per thousand population

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Table 13 Ratio of Surveying Schools/1m population Country

Total Population 2018

Total schools of Surveying

Schools per million population

Africa

208, 176,680

65

0.25

Nigeria

195,874,740

64

0.33

Rwanda

12,301,940

1

0.08

Asia

31,528,580

11

0.35

Malaysia

31,528,580

11

0.35

C. & Americas

1,389,860

1

0.72

1,389,860

1

0.72

Trinidad & Tobago

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

27


2.3 WEAKNESS IN BUILT ENVIRONMENT POLICY

There is an increasing recognition of weakness in built environment policy in many Commonwealth countries in terms of standards, implementation and enforcement. Survey respondents were invited to confirm the existence of national strategies and policies in a wide range of areas. Figures 16 and 17 illustrate the range of responses received from which it will be seen that there is considerable scope for strengthening built environment policy in a number of Commonwealth countries. Survey respondents were also invited to comment on whether their national planning legislation and building code was fit-for-purpose and whether it was being implemented effectively. While responses varied considerably from one profession to another, the combined responses (Figure 15) reveal that circa 30% of respondents consider their national planning policy is not fit for purpose while nearly 60% do not believe it is being implemented effectively. Survey respondents were even more critical of building code, with nearly 50% expressing the view that it is not fit for purpose (25% in 2017) and almost 75% that it is not being implemented effectively (60% in 2017). A comparison with the 2017 results suggests that this policy weakness is being experienced and recognised more widely. Figure 15 Effectiveness of planning legislation and building code Planning Legislation

Implemented effectively

42%

Fit for purpose

71%

28

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Building Codes

Implemented effectively

27%

Fit for purpose

54%

Yes No

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Figure 16 National built environment strategies Has your government developed effective...? Renewable energy policy

NO

YES

Disaster management plans City resilience strategies Smart Cities strategy National BIM strategy National housing strategy National construction strategy Sustainable design & construction standards Anti-bribery and corruption legislation Inclusive design standards 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Figure 17 National built environment policies Has your government developed effective...? Effective NUA implementation plan

NO

YES

N/A

NUA embraced by government Effective COP21 implementation plan COP21 targets Effective SDG implementation plan SDG targets developed Health & safety standards adequately regulated Effective health and safety standards 0%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

29


The weakness of planning legislation and building code is particularly concerning in the context of climate change and resilience especially when considered in terms of risk and vulnerability (Figure 4), and the lack of mandatory energy codes in many parts of the Commonwealth (Figure 18). Data from the International Energy Agency reveals the fact that 69% of Commonwealth countries have no mandatory energy codes for non-residential buildings while 81% have no such codes for residential buildings (see Appendix VI). Figure 18 Map of building energy codes by jurisdiction, 2018-1931

Mandatory for entire sector Mandatory for part of sector Mandatory for part of sector in major city Voluntary for part of sector Code in development No known code

The latter is particularly concerning when one considers the urgent need for industrialised countries to dramatically reduce their carbon emissions and for those countries which are rapidly urbanising to do so in a sustainable manner. Figure 19 illustrates the scale of the challenge being faced, with countries such as Australia (86% urbanised) currently producing 15.4 tonnes of CO2 per capita per annum and urbanising at 1.7% per annum compared with Uganda (24% urbanised) currently producing 0.1 tonnes of CO2 per capita per annum and urbanising at 6.2% per annum. The scale of the challenge becomes even more apparent when one considers that the 20 countries responsible for producing circa half of the Commonwealths total CO2 emissions comprise approximately 250 million people while the remaining 50% of the Commonwealth, which is rapidly urbanising, comprises 2.3 billion people. It is for this reason that the Commonwealth Association of Architects has recently become a member of the Global Alliance for Building and Construction32, to help advocate for more appropriate regulation combined with effective implementation and enforcement.

31 Image taken from IEA (2019c), Energy efficiency policies: Buildings,

Figure 19

www.iea.org/topics/energyefficiency/policies/buildings. 32 https://globalabc.org/

30

CO2 per capita v rates of urbanisation

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

Australia Canada Singapore South Africa Malaysia New Zealand Bahamas United Kingdom Hong Kong Antigua & Barbados Malta

250m people 2.3bn tonnes CO2

Seychelles Cyprus St Kitts and Nevis Barbados Botswana Jamaica Guyana St Lucia Grenada St Vincent Dominica Namibia India Belize Fiji Lesotho Tonga Eswatini Tuvalu Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Papua New Guinea Vanuatu Kiribati

2.27bn people 2.7bn tonnes CO2

Nigeria Ghana Bangladesh Solomon Island Mozambique Zambia Kenya Gambia Cameroon Tanzania Sierra Leone Uganda Malawi

Co2 per capita (metric tonnes)

Rwanda

Urban growth (%)

0.0%

1.0%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

2.0%

3.0%

4.0%

5.0%

6.0%

7.0%

31


2.4 CHALLENGES FACING THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Respondents from all four disciplines were invited to offer their opinion on the biggest challenges facing the Built Environment, the Profession and Education. The following comprises a summary of the main issues of common concern. The overall findings of this year’s survey confirm that the issues previously identified in 2017 are even more pervasive than first imagined, affect more countries and are being experienced to a greater or lesser extent by each of the principle built-environment professions; architecture, town planning, engineering and surveying.

Biggest challenges facing the Built Environment: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

32

Climate change Resilience to disaster and the need for adaptation Rapid urbanisation Urban sprawl Affordable housing Traffic congestion Lack of public transport Outdated planning policy and building code Lack of enforcement of existing regulations Lack of local building materials Skills shortage Economic uncertainty Corruption and uncontrolled development

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Biggest challenges facing the Profession: • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Failure to develop and implement local plans Failure to enforce regulations Procurement methods and forms of contract Increasing use of Design & Build, loss of control Impact of foreign consultants and contractors Competition from unqualified persons Digitisation and advances in technology Declining fees v increasing risk and liability Need for continuing professional development Lack of resources to develop knowledge and skills Lack of government support and patronage Economic uncertainty Lack of respect for the professions

Biggest challenges facing the Education of Built Environment Professionals: • • • • • • • • • • •

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Insufficient universities, places of learning Poorly skilled and unqualified teaching staff Outdated curriculum Need to align education with the Sustainable Development Goals and industry needs Inadequate teaching material and lack of facilities, especially digital tools Low standards compared with best practice Lack of practical training opportunities for students Low levels of funding combined with high fees/low pay Failure to attract the best students Lack of access to research facilities Lack of diversity in terms of gender and ethnicity

33


CLIMATE CHANGE, RAPID URBANISATION AND THE COMMONWEALTH Half of the top 20 global emerging cities are in the Commonwealth: New Delhi, Mumbai, Nairobi, Kuala Lumpur, Bangalore, Johannesburg, Kolkata, Cape Town, Chennai and Dhaka. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit33, the Commonwealth includes 6 of the 10 Most Liveable Cities in the World and 5 of the 10 Least Liveable Cities in the World.

83% URBAN The United Kingdom has a population of 66 million is 83% urbanised with a population density of 36 people/sqkm

81% URBAN Canada is 81% urbanised with a population density of 4 people/sqkm

4.2%

URBAN GROWTH RATE

15.2

TONNES

Bahamas

Canada produces 15.2 tonnes CO2/ capita/annum

Belize

Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St Kitts & Nevis St Vincent St Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago

Jamaica

Nigeria has a population of 195,874,740 which is growing at a rate of 2.6% with an urban growth rate of 4.2%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 180,018,000 by 2050.

Guyana Samoa

Rwanda’s population density is one of the highest in Africa, at 499 people/sqkm

32

SMALL STATES 32 Commonwealth countries are Small States, 25 of which are Small Island Developing States (SIDS). In the Caribbean, over 50% of the population lives within 1.5km of the sea, rendering them particularly vulnerable to storm surges and rising sea levels.

33

34

6.2%

URBAN GROWTH RATE Uganda has a population of 42,723,140 which is growing at a rate of 3.7%, with an urban growth rate of 6.2%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 396% by 2050.

https://www.eiu.com/public/topical_report aspx?campaignid=Liveability2018

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Nearly 50% of the projected urban growth to 2050 will be in the Commonwealth; that’s an additional 1 billion urban dwellers in the next 30 years.

6.5

TONNES The United Kingdom produces 6.5 tonnes CO2/capita/annum

2.3%

URBAN GROWTH RATE India has a population of 1.35 billion which is growing at a rate of 1.0% with an urban growth rate of 2.3%. Its urban population is projected to increase by 393,514,000 by 2050.

37% URBAN Pakistan’s urban population is forecast to double within the next 30 years, adding a further 60m urban dwellers.

100% URBAN Singapore is 100% urbanised with a population density of 7,953 people/sqkm. The citystate also has the highest GNI per capita at $94,500 Singapore

Maldives

Nauru

Kiribati

Papua New Guinea Seychelles

Mauritius

Tuvalu

94% of the population of the Commonwealth live in Africa and Asia

Solomon Islands Vanuatu Fiji

0.1

TONNES

Malawi, Rwanda, and Uganda each produce 0.1 tonnes CO2/capita/annum

15.4

TONNES

Rate of urbanisation ≥ 5.00+%

4.00 - 4.99%

3.00 - 3.99%

2.00 - 2.99%

1.00 - 1.99%

0.00 - 0.99%

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

Australia is 86% urbanised with a population density of 3 people/sqkm

< 0.00%

Australia produces 15.4 tonnes CO2/ capita/annum

86% URBAN

35


3 3

IMPACT OF THE FINDINGS ON THE GROUND

While the findings of the survey have evidenced the range of challenges being faced, the consequences are being experienced in different ways in different Commonwealth countries as illustrated below:

3.1 AUSTRALIA

Professor Barbara Norman, University of Canberra, Australia

Australia is one of the most urbanised nations in the world. Over 85% of the population live in the coastal zone and most live in the urban areas of the coastal zone. Australia is therefore predominantly a coastal urban nation. Urban growth continues particularly in the capital cities and regional coastal towns. As a nation, our urban population is expected to grow from 20 to 40 million by 2050. Australia is also identified as a country that will experience significant impacts from climate change; fire, flood drought and storms. The Australian fires of 2020 are a prime example of stretched resources with small urban coastal communities being in some cases nearly wiped out. Australia is also a very large and diverse country with tropical environments in the north, arid environments in the centre to cold climates in the south. The challenges for built environment professionals are indeed large. Given the above context and the survey findings, the built environment professionals face the following three challenges in Australia: · Supporting the training and development of professionals in coastal regional Australia that are experiencing both the pressures of urban growth and climate risks. · Ongoing professional development for built environment professional across a large and very diverse nation. · Upskilling of the current and future professional on planning for climate change i.e. actions we can take in the built environment that will both reduce emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. The built environment professions in Australia have played a critical role in recent years in the process of recovery and rebuilding from disasters. In particular, the professionals have argued strongly to ‘build back better’ to be more resilient in the future. To do this better in the future, we need strong investment in strategic and scenario planning as highlighted by the Planning Institute of Australia’s recent national statement: ‘Through the lens: the tipping point’34, calling for a national planning framework.

34 https://www.planning.org.au/policy/national-settlement-strategy

36

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


3.2 BANGLADESH

Mr Jalal Ahmed, President, Institute of Architects Bangladesh & Dr Farida Nilufar, Secretary, Environment and Urbanisation, Institute of Architects Bangladesh In the absence of critical lack of capacity of professionals, the cities and towns of Bangladesh are becoming unliveable mainly due to lack of proper development controls, poor management of waste, unbridled expansion of industries emitting toxic gases and effluents. Myopic and blinkered policies of the past have created this frightening condition. Situations are further aggravated due to poor enforcement of policy. The towns and cities are rapidly losing their natural resources like water bodies, greeneries and open spaces. The rivers, lakes and wetlands in and around the cities are being encroached upon and filled up for expansion of habitats, due to lack of strict enforcements. Factories are throwing toxic waste in open rivers and surface water has become extremely polluted. Consequently, 85% of the water demand in the capital city is met through extracting water from the underground water table and the underground water level is depleting at a rapid rate of 3 to 4 meters every year. Brick kilns, mostly coal fired, around the urban areas are also major causes of air pollution. There are only around 4,000 registered architects in the country for a population of about 165 million. But there are more than 800 local government bodies in the country and only a handful of them have urban planners and few have architects for development controls and enforcement of building regulations. The negative impact of this absence of built environment professionals in the local government and planning authorities are visible in the unplanned development of most to the cities and towns. Currently, around 30 universities in the country are producing architects, of which only 11 are accredited by the Institute of Architects Bangladesh (IAB). Most of the non-accredited academic programs lack adequate number of qualified teaching professionals.

3.3 BOTSWANA

Ms Sithabile Mathe, Chairperson, Architects Registration Council of Botswana The Architectural Association of Botswana participated in the first survey of the architectural profession undertaken by the CAA in 2017 and was shocked to discover the issues that were revealed. While the lack of capacity and policy weakness exposed by the survey was deeply concerning, having access to real data has enabled us to establish a more meaningful dialogue with policy makers and was empowering. At the time of writing, a new government has just been elected in Botswana and policy makers have started talking about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Eco and Smart Citiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; but there is little evidence to demonstrate any real understanding of sustainable urbanisation or the multi-disciplinary, multi-sector approach required to achieve this and tackle the challenges we face. While our government believes its policies reflect a vision underpinned by sustainability, the findings of the survey have highlighted that our progress towards the achievement of SDG 11 is slipping. As built environment professionals, it is important for us to work together with policymakers to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

37


In and amongst the talk about ‘Eco and Smart Cities’, we need to develop meaningful targets that are relevant for us here in Botswana and use these to help inform everything we do. While technology is no substitute for good urban planning and design, we also need to consider the use of technology and the way in which it can help deliver innovative solutions which deliver real value for our communities. The results of the current survey will help us in our work with policymakers, to focus on the areas where we need to strengthen and build capacity.

3.4 PAKISTAN

Mr Kalim Siddiqui, Chairman, Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners Pakistan has seen an increase in the number of Architectural schools (from 10 to 35) during the last 10 years both in public as well as private sector. This growth of Architectural programs in the country has caused a serious dearth of quality teachers. To fulfil the accreditation criteria fresh architectural graduates or architects with a few years professional experience are being hired by the universities on low salaries and contract terms without any benefits. Most of the Architectural schools lack qualified teaching professionals. The country lacks quality architectural education and training opportunities for professional development in academia as well as in professional practice. The institutions are not producing competent built environment professionals with desired technical skills for addressing the country’s growing urban/rural problems. The country has not yet developed strong professional institutions. There is an Institute of Architects and Institute of Planners, but both are under-resourced and run by professional Architects and Planners on a voluntary basis. Architects are concentrated in four provincial capitals of Pakistan hence leaving rural areas unattended and at mercy of the nonprofessionals. Mostly architects are working for the elite class in Pakistan. The middle and lower middle class are unable to afford the services of an architect and most of the time contractors/builders are filling this gap. The survey findings clearly show a need for Pakistan to be supported in strengthening its built environment institutions and for professionals to play their role in the country’s urban/rural development and being able to increase their outreach to the entire country as well as to compete internationally. Pakistan Council of Architects and Town Planners (PCATP) has initiated its own survey of the profession in the country, the findings of which will be published in due course. We are confident that these initiatives, that are being taken for the first time, will help ensure the regulation of academia and the profession, as we work towards strategic planning to deal with all aspects of the built environment.

38

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


3.5 SIERRA LEONE

Mr Sulaiman F Kamara, Research and Community Officer at the Sierra Leone Urban Research Centre & Mr Charles Wright, Associate, Architecture Sans Frontieres-UK Sierra Leone’s cities are growing at an inexorable rate each year. Freetown, the capital city, has grown in population by roughly 2.87% annually since 201535. This rapid urbanisation is now presenting Freetown and other cities with severe growing problems, including increased exposure to extreme environmental events, increased poverty, and decreasing public health. Like many Commonwealth countries, Sierra Leone has not developed strong professional institutions or a pool of qualified built environment professionals with the technical skills to address the country’s growing urban problems. There is an institute of architects and institute of engineers, but both are under resourced36. There is also a lack of well-paid job opportunities for Sierra Leoneans in the built environment sector to attract prospective students. Currently there is an over-reliance on short-term built environment professionals from more developed countries. Sierra Leone has not embraced the potential for built environment professions to unlock national improvement in the long-term. There are questions regarding accountability and transparency in government institutions, furthermore, Sierra Leone has not had the capacity to effectively legislate, regulate and thereby enforce procedures to ensure safe and equitable urban development. Lack of capacity in local authorities has meant that devolving planning powers from the central government has also not been prioritised resulting in development which is reactive over pragmatic. There is also a lack of educational options, further training and continued professional development. There have been attempts to establish a School of Architecture in the past and recently, there have been some strong initiatives including the establishment of the Sierra Leone Urban Research Centre, new built environment courses in higher education institutions, technical support for councils, and the Transform Freetown Agenda. These initiatives have brought renewed energy to the built environment professions, but more is needed. The findings in this survey highlight a need for Sierra Leone to be supported in strengthening its built environment institutions and professionals to avoid unmitigated and uncontrolled, therefore potentially damaging urban development.

35 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Dynamics

The observations contained in this chapter illustrate that while the challenges being experienced in different countries always need to be understood in their local context, they share a number of similarities thereby offering the potential for cross-learning and mutual support.

(2018) ‘World Urbanization Prospects 2018’, [03/01/2020], https:// population.un.org/wup/Country-Profiles/ 36 Anecdotal evidence suggests that there is no planning institute Sierra

Leone (pop >7.5m, >3% urban growth), and only 16 architects.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

39


4 4

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FINDINGS

It is widely acknowledged that well designed cities contribute to social, economic and environmental well-being and that SDG 11 is central to delivery of all the other Sustainable Development Goals. Indeed, UN Habitat have established that 65% of the 169 targets underlying the Goals are linked to territorial and urban development37. So, what might the consequences be if we fail to address the findings of this survey? We invited contributors from a variety of backgrounds to share their thoughts with us:

4.1 ECONOMIC IMPACT

Ms Astrid Haas, Senior Country Economist (Cities) International Growth Centre Urbanisation and economic development are uniquely tied38. Urban areas can be the engine of economic growth39 with well-managed cities bringing firms closer to their labour40, their inputs, their markets41 as well as fostering innovation within and between them. Efficient and effective firms, in turn, are the foundation for economic growth overall. Underpinning cities’ connectivity is the built environment. This can encourage denser land use, which in turn can promote more efficient delivery of shared infrastructure and services. Beyond the economic benefits, denser land use can also lead to lower energy use and emissions per resident.42 Thus well-managed proximity can lead to productivity and prosperity.43 However, in many developing countries in the Commonwealth, cities are failing to unlock this urban miracle. As the 2019 survey findings highlight, the considerable gaps in capacity, have resulted in poorly planned and built cities. Rather than fostering prosperity, they exacerbate the downsides of density, including contagion, crime and congestion44. Furthermore, inadequate forward-looking planning has led many of these cities to sprawl. Without the commensurate investments in housing and transportation, sprawl reduces connectivity and thus the potential prosperity.

37 https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2020/02/financing_

sustainable_urbanization_-_counting_the_costs_and_closing_the_ gap_february_2020.pdf 38 Collier, P., Glaeser, E., and Venables, T. (Forthcoming). Policies for

prosperity in middle income countries. IGC Policy Paper 39 Glaeser, E. (2012). Triumph of the City. Penguin Press

Investments in built environment capacity will not only have positive outcomes on the Commonwealth’s current cities, but perhaps more importantly it can change the urban landscape overall, as the majority of urbanisation in many Commonwealth countries is still to come. Now is the opportunity to make these investments in capacity to unlock the miracle of urbanisation that will underpin economic growth for the whole Commonwealth.

40 Combes, P,. and Gobillon, L. (2015) The empirics of agglomeration

economies. In Handbook of regional and urban economics. Elsevier 41 Storper, M., and Venables, A. (2004). Buzz: face-to-face contact and

the urban economy, Journal of Economic Geography. 42 Glaeser, E., (2012). The Benefits of Density. The Urban Age – LSE

Cities 43 Combes, P.-P., Duranton, G., Gobillon, L., Puga, D. and Roux, S.

(2012), The Productivity Advantages of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection. Econometrica, 44 Glaeser, E., and Sims, H. (2015). Contagion, crime, and congestion:

overcoming the downsides of density. IGC Growth Brief

40

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


4.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Professor Tadj Oreszczyn and Mike Davies, University College London, Energy Institute,

While the impacts of climate change are increasing, carbon emissions continue to rise and the UN Emissions Gap Report45 has highlighted that time is running out to achieve a below 2°C world, and so individuals, countries and regions are declaring a climate emergency. In an emergency, we need to radically change our behaviour, this requires bold leadership to clearly articulate what must be delivered in a limited timescale and with limited resources. It probably requires increased dependency on regulations which have been shown to deliver urban change quicker than other policy and market instruments. Yet this survey highlights that in many parts of the Commonwealth which are rapidly urbanising, eg Africa, there are no regulations to develop the near to zero carbon emitting buildings required. Nor, are many of the developed countries, such as the UK, that have the capacity and resources leading the way by developing regulations that clearly show new buildings can be very low energy consuming despite demonstration buildings having been developed over the last 50 years. This report very clearly demonstrates the important role that buildings and urbanisation in Commonwealth countries need to play both in terms of mitigating and adapting to climate change, plus the massive gap in capacity which exists to tackle the climate emergency that we are facing.

4.3 HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

Dr David Howard, Associate Professor in Sustainable Urban Development, University of Oxford. Co-Director, Global Centre on Healthcare and Urbanisation, Kellogg College, Oxford Developing and building better cities is essential to achieve sustainable levels of health and well- being at local and global levels. The physical built environment is critical to urban living conditions, where access to safe drinking water, sanitation and drainage are vital for the health of concentrated human populations: one third of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population does not have access to improved sanitation, and 775,000 or 1.4% of global deaths were due to unsafe urban sanitation in 2017. There is a continuing lack of professional capacity to maintain and generate appropriate built environments and urban infrastructure in many of the Commonwealth countries, which are rapidly urbanising. With significant urban floorspace and demographic growth expected over the next sixty years, Commonwealth countries remain highly vulnerable not only to the challenges of urbanisation, but to the extreme risks of climate change impact on health issues. Four main chronic, non-communicable diseases account for 60% of global morbidity and mortality: diabetes, respiratory disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. These diseases are a global crisis and still require a global response, despite affordable and cost-effective preventive measures being readily available. These measures can most effectively and most rapidly be applied in urban areas, a core component being to create a healthy built environment.

45 https://www.unep-wcmc.org/news/2019-emissions-gap-report

Effective urban planning and design improves living conditions together with access to health and welfare services while moderating exposure to unhealthy environments. The density of the urban environment, in terms of buildings and people, continues to raise both positive and negative consequences for everyday city living. High densities have historically been seen as the cause of poor health, whereas increased density, when combined with mixed land use urban neighbourhoods, are regarded as a core component of sustainable urbanism, countering decades of urban sprawl. Urban density matters and will play an increasingly central role in the future economic, social, political and biophysical state of Commonwealth cities and their populations. Enhancing the capacity and capability of built environment professionals is key to addressing the relationships between health, well-being and the urban environment.

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

41


4.4 LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Ms Lucy Slack, Deputy Secretary General, Commonwealth Local Government Forum This report provides sober reading for the public sector. Rapid urbanization coupled with the impacts of climate change and economic uncertainty means that many cities in the Commonwealth are not benefitting from the urbanization dividend which we have seen in the past. This is particularly marked in secondary cities (over 75% of the cities in the Commonwealth), where growth is happening faster, the infrastructure challenge is often greater, and the potential resource base is more limited. We know that built environment professionals are important partners in ensuring sustainable urbanization, and this survey highlights the worrying trend that there is often a corresponding lack of built environment professionals in countries where urbanization is happening fastest. Training professionals and encouraging more people into the sector is of course essential, but more strategically we must make sure that the policy, financing, and regulatory frameworks are in place too. We must work to make cities places where built environment professionals, and others, want to work and can see a career path. Professionalizing local government will be an important step in ensuring that we can continue to build inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities and human settlements – where the 2.4million citizens of the Commonwealth live, work and innovate. The challenge is now; and the Commonwealth is well placed to respond quickly by mobilizing its unique network of governments, local governments, professionals, civil society and experts to help deliver a more sustainable urban future.

4.5 ACCESS TO SERVICES

Mr Erik Harvey, Programme Support Unit Director, and Hannah Crichton-Smith, Sustainable WASH Advisor Critical to human health, well-being and socio-economic development, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services are central features of any built environment around the world. WASH is the foundation of health services and central to the reduction of child and maternal mortality, as well as ensuring people are resilient to climate-induced hazards. Water and waste management are also critical for economic activities. However, weak sector capacity, coupled with poor sector governance, threatens the achievement of inclusive and sustainable WASH access for all (SDG 6) and will have knockon effects for the achievement of all other related SDGs. This is despite capacity being well-recognised as a need in the WASH sector globally46, and prioritised under target 6.a of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)47.

46 https://iwa-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/1422745887-

an-avoidable-crisis-wash-gaps.pdf 47 “By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building

support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse

The preliminary findings of the 2019 Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth Survey reflect WaterAid’s own understanding and experience of supporting improvements in the delivery of inclusive and sustainable WASH in developing countries. The findings also reflect those of the 2014 International Water Association’s assessment of capacity gaps in the WASH sector in 15 developing countries48. For example, weak capacity to implement WASH policies at local levels; limited ability to enforce WASH regulation and standards to ensure quality; insufficient resources and skills to monitor, budget and plan for inclusive and sustainable WASH service provision; limited skills to design financially viable and sustainable management models; and limited opportunities and resources to maintain knowledge and continue professional development.

technologies.” 48 https://iwa-network.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/1422745887-

an-avoidable-crisis-wash-gaps.pdf

42

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Achieving sustainable and thriving built environments is critically dependent on welldesigned and managed WASH services that reach everyone. This in turn requires strong governance and capacity across a wide range of disciplines including engineering, urban/ town planning, economics, architecture, social science, water resource management, behavioural science, data analysis, to name but a few.

It is clear from these contributions that there is a pressing need to address the findings of this survey if the consequences of poorly planned cities are to be avoided and to ensure we are able to capitalise on the opportunities presented by continuing urbanisation to create prosperous and healthy cities, and communities which are â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainableâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;49.

49 https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-

development-goals/goal-11-sustainable-cities-and-communities.html

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

43


credit: Johnny Miller, https://unequalscenes.com/


55

APPENDIX


appendix i. BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONS IN THE COMMONWEALTH50 Country Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Darussalam Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Eswatini Fiji Gambia, The Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Maldives Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka St Vincent and The Grenadines Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Architectural Institutes

Engineering Institutes

The Antigua & Barbuda Institute of Architects

Association of Professional Engineers Antigua and Barbuda

Australian Institute of Architects

Engineers Australia

Institute of Bahamian Architects

Professional Engineers Board

Institute of Architects Bangladesh

The Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh

Barbados Institute of Architects

Barbados Association of Professional Engineers

Association of Professional Architects of Belize

Association of Professional Engineers of Belize

Architects Association of Botswana

Botswana Institution of EngineersÂ

Pertubuhan Ukur Jurutera Dan Arkitek

Pertubuhan Ukur

Ordre National Des Architectes du Cameroun

Cameroon Society of Engineers

Royal Architectural Institute of Canada

The Engineering Insitute of Canada

Cyprus Civil Engineers and Architects Association

Cyprus Engineering Society

Dominica Society of Architects

Dominica Association of Professional Engineers

Swaziland Association of Architects, Engineers and Surveyors

Swaziland Association of Engineers, Architects & surveyors

Fiji Association of Architects

The Fiji Institution of Engineers

53 Commonwealth countries51

46

Association of Gambian Architects

Unable to locate an institute

Ghana Institute of Architects

Ghana Institution of Engineers

Grenada Society of Architects

Grenada Institute of Professional Engineers

Guyana Institute of Architects

Guyana Association of Professional Engineers

Indian Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers India

Jamaican Institute of Architects

Jamaica Insitution of Engineers

Architectural Association of Kenya

The Institution of Engineers of Kenya

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Lesotho Association of Construction Industry Consultants

Lesotho Association of Engineers

Malawi Institute of Architects

Malawi Institution of Engineers

Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia

The Institution of Engineers Malaysia

Architects Association Maldives

Association of Civil Engineers

Kamra Tal-Periti, Malta

Malta Group of Professional Engineering Institutions

Mauritius Association of Architects

Institution of Engineers Mauritius

Unable to locate an institute

Ordem dos Engenhereiros de Mocambique

Namibia Institute of Architects

Engineering Professions Association of Namibia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

New Zealand Institute of Architects

Engineering New Zealand

Nigerian Institute of Architects

Nigerian Institution of Engineers

Institute of Architects Pakistan

The Institution of Engineers, Pakistan

Papua New Guinea Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers, Papua New Guinea

Rwanda Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers Rwanda

St.Kitts-Nevis Institute of Architects

St. Kitts/Nevis Association of Professional Engineers

St Lucia Institute of Architects

Association of Professional Engineers of St. Lucia

Unable to locate an institute

Institution of Professional Engineers Samoa

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Sierra Leone Institute of Architects

Sierra Leone Institution of Engineers

Singapore Institute of Architects

Institution of Engineers Singapore

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

South African Institute of Architects

The South African Institution Of Civil Engineering

Sri Lanka Institute of Architects

The Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka

St Vincent & the Grenadines Institute of Architects

Unable to locate an institute

Architects Association of Tanzania

Institution of Engineers Tanzania

Unable to locate an institute

South Pacific Engineers Association

Trinidad and Tobago Institute of Architects

The Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Uganda Society of Architects

Uganda Institution of Professional Engineers

Royal Institute of British Architects

Institution of Civil Engineers

Unable to locate an institute

South Pacific Engineers Association

Zambia Institute of Architects

The Engineering Institution of Zambia

45 Architectural Institutes

47 Engineering Institutes52

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Town Planning Institutes

Surveying Institutes

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Planning Institute of Australia

Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Bahamas Association of Land Surveyors

Bangladesh Institute of Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Barbados Town Planning Society

Barbados Association of Quantity Surveyors

Belize Association of Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Pula Institute of Town Planners

Botswana Institute of Development Professions

Town and Country Planning Dept, Ministry of Development

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Canadian Institute of Planners

Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Cyprus Association of Town Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Planners Association of Dominica

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Fiji Planners Association

Fiji Institute of Surveors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Ghana Institute of Planners

Ghana Institution of Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Institute of Town Planners India

Indian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Jamaican Institute of Planners

Jamaican Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Kenya Institute of Planners

Institution of Quantity Surveyors of Kenya

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Malawi Institute of Physical Planners

Surveyors Institute of Malawi

Malaysian Institute of Planners

Royal Institution of Surveyors Malaysia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Malta Chamber of Planners

Land Surveyors of Malta

Town Planning Association of Mauritius

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Namibia Council of Town and Regional Planners

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

New Zealand Planning Institute

New Zealand Institute of Surveyors

Nigerian Institute of Town Planners

Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors

Institute of Planners Pakistan

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Association of Surveyors of Papua New Guinea

Rwanda Urban Planning Institute

Rwanda Institute of Real Property Valuers

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Saint Lucia Institute of Land Use Planners

Institute of Surveyors of Saint Lucia

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Singapore Institute of Planners

Singapore Institute of Surveyors and Valuers

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

South African Planning Institute

Association of South African Quantity Surveyors

Institute of Town Planners Sri Lanka

Institution of Quantity Surveyors Sri Lanka

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Tanzania Association of Planners

Institution of Surveyors Tanzania

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Trinidad and Tobago Society of Planners

Institution of Surveyors of Trinidad and Tobago

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Uganda Institute of Physical Planners

Institution of Surveyors of Uganda

Royal Town Planning Institute

Royal Institution of Quantity Surveyors

Unable to locate an institute

Unable to locate an institute

Zambia Institute of Planners

Institution of Surveyors Zambia

32 Town Planning Institutes

24 Surveying Institutes53

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

50 Information compiled with the assistance of CAA, CAP, CASLE and

CEC. 51 The Maldives rejoined the Commonwealth in February 2020, but too

late to be included in this years survey. 52 The engineering institutes included here mainly represent civil

engineering. 53 The surveying institutes included here mainly represent quantity

surveying, unless otherwise noted.

47


appendix ii. THE COMMONWEALTH IN NUMBERS Region

Africa

Asia

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Pacific

48

Country

SIDS

Small states

ODA status

Land area (sqkm)

Population

Botswana

-

Y

UMIC

556,730

2,254,130

Cameroon

-

-

LMIC

472,710

Eswatini

-

Y

LMIC

17,200

Gambia, The

-

Y

LDC

Ghana

-

-

Kenya

-

-

Lesotho

-

Malawi

Population growth (annual %)

Population density (Sqkm)

2.2%

4

25,216,240

2.6%

53

1,136,190

1.0%

66

10,120

2,280,100

2.9%

225

LMIC

227,540

29,767,110

2.2%

131

LMIC

596,140

51,393,010

2.3%

90

Y

LDC

30,360

2,108,130

0.8%

69

-

-

LDC

94,280

18,143,310

2.6%

192

Mauritius

Y

Y

UMIC

2,030

1,256,300

0.1%

623

Mozambique

-

-

LDC

786,380

29,496,960

2.9%

38

Namibia

-

Y

UMIC

823,290

2,448,260

1.9%

3

Nigeria

-

-

LMIC

910,770

195,874,740

2.6%

215

Rwanda

-

-

LDC

24,670

12,301,940

2.6%

499

Seychelles

Y

Y

460

96,760

1.0%

210

Sierra Leone

-

-

LDC

72,180

7,650,150

2.1%

106

South Africa

-

-

UMIC

1,213,090

57,779,620

1.4%

48

Tanzania

-

-

LDC

885,800

56,318,350

3.0%

64

Uganda

-

-

LDC

200,520

42,723,140

3.7%

213

Zambia

-

-

LDC

743,390

17,351,820

2.9%

23

Bangladesh

-

-

LDC

130,170

161,356,040

1.1%

1,240

Brunei Darussalam

-

Y

5,270

428,960

1.1%

81

India

-

-

LMIC

2,973,190

1,352,617,330

1.0%

455

Malaysia

-

-

UMIC

328,550

31,528,580

1.4%

96

Pakistan

-

-

LMIC

770,880

212,215,030

2.1%

275

Singapore

Y

-

709

5,638,680

0.5%

7,953

Sri Lanka

-

-

LMIC

62,710

21,670,000

1.0%

346

Antigua and Barbuda

Y

Y

UMIC

440

96,290

0.9%

219

Bahamas

Y

Y

10,010

385,640

1.0%

39

Barbados

Y

Y

430

286,640

0.1%

667

Belize

Y

Y

102

Canada

-

-

Dominica

Y

Y

UMIC

Grenada

Y

Y

Guyana

Y

Y

Jamaica

Y

Y

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Y

Y

Saint Lucia

Y

Y

UMIC

St Vincent & the Grenadines

Y

Y

UMIC

Trinidad and Tobago

Y

Y

Cyprus

-

Y

Malta

-

Y

United Kingdom

-

Australia

-

Fiji

Y

Y

Kiribati

Y

Y

Nauru

Y

Y

UMIC

New Zealand

-

-

Papua New Guinea

Y

-

LMIC

Samoa

Y

Y

Solomon Islands

Y

Y

Tonga

Y

Y

UMIC

Tuvalu

Y

Y

LDC

Vanuatu

Y

Y

LDC

22,810

383,070

1.9%

9,093,510

37,058,860

1.4%

4

750

71,630

0.2%

96

IUMIC

340

111,450

0.5%

328

UMIC

196,850

779,000

0.5%

4

UMIC

10,830

2,934,860

0.5%

271

260

52,440

0.8%

202

610

181,890

0.5%

298

390

110,210

0.3%

283

5,130

1,389,860

0.4%

271

9,240

1,189,270

0.8%

129

320

483,530

3.3%

1,511

-

241,930

66,488,990

0.6%

36

-

7,692,020

24,992,370

1.6%

3

IMIC

18,270

883,480

0.7%

48

LDC

810

115,850

1.5%

143 635

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

UMIC

20

12,700

-1.3%

263,310

4,885,500

1.9%

19

452,860

8,606,320

2.0%

19

UMIC

2,830

196,130

0.4%

69

LDC

27,990

652,860

2.6%

23

720

103,200

1.2%

143

30

11,510

1.2%

384

12,190

292,680

2.5%

24

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


Urban population (% of total population

Urban growth (%)

Total CO2 (kt)

CO2 per capita (metric tonnes)

GDP ($M)

69%

3.3%

7,033

3.40

$ 18,616

56%

3.7%

7,004

0.30

56%

1.7%

1,203

1.10

61%

4.0%

513

56%

3.4%

14,466

27%

4.1%

28%

2.3%

17%

HDI GNI per capita, PPP ($)

CRI

$ 17,970

0.717

$ 8,502

$ 3,700

$ 4,703

$ 10,680

0.30

$ 1,624

0.50

$ 65,556

14,287

0.30

2,468

1.20

4.0%

1,276

41%

-0.1%

36% 50%

Fragile States Index

Climate Losses (PPP) ($M) 72.17

$ 123.43

0.556

97.00

$ 5.12

97.0

25

0.588

116.00

-

85.3

38

$ 1,680

0.460

101.50

83.9

37

$ 4,650

0.592

82.17

$ 0.31

65.9

ND

$ 87,908

$ 3,430

0.590

53.50

$ 89.92

93.5

27

$ 2,791

$ 3,610

0.520

116.00

-

79.7

41

0.10

$ 7,064

$ 1,310

0.477

60.50

$ 15.81

83.3

32

4,228

3.40

$ 14,220

$ 26,030

0.790

116.00

-

38.9

51

4.4%

8,427

0.30

$ 14,457

$ 1,300

0.437

37.67

$ 162.39

88.7

23

4.0%

3,755

1.70

$ 14,521

$ 10,920

0.647

116.00

-

66.4

53

50%

4.2%

96,281

0.50

$ 397,269

$ 5,700

0.532

75.00

$ 63.44

98.5

27

17%

3.1%

840

0.10

$ 9,509

$ 2,210

0.524

79.33

$ 8.10

87.5

56

57%

1.7%

495

5.40

$ 1,590

$ 29,070

0.797

116.00

-

55.2

66

42%

3.1%

1,309

0.20

$ 3,999

$ 1,520

0.419

15.67

$ 99.10

86.8

30

66%

2.1%

489,772

9.00

$ 366,298

$ 13,230

0.699

35.67

$ 2,234.52

71.1

43

34%

5.1%

11,562

0.20

$ 57,437

$ 3,160

0.538

81.67

$ 7.91

80.1

36

24%

6.2%

5,229

0.10

$ 27,476

$ 1,970

0.516

78.83

$ 4.02

95.3

26

44%

4.2%

4,503

0.30

$ 26,720

$ 4,100

0.588

116.00

-

85.7

35

37%

3.2%

73,190

0.50

$ 274,024

$ 4,560

0.800

16.00

$ 2,826.68

87.7

26

78%

1.5%

9,109

22.20

$ 13,567

$ 85,790

0.853

116.00

57.5

63

34%

2.3%

2,238,377

1.70

$ 2,726,322

$ 7,680

0.640

22.67

$ 13,879.86

74.4

41

76%

2.1%

242,821

8.10

$ 354,348

$ 30,600

0.802

53.33

$ 272.20

60.5

47

37%

2.7%

166,298

0.90

$ 312,570

$ 5,840

0.562

43.17

$ 384.52

94.2

33

100%

0.5%

56,373

10.30

$ 364,156

$ 94,500

0.932

116.00

-

28.1

85

18%

1.5%

18,394

0.90

$ 88,900

$ 13,090

0.770

9.00

$ 3,129.35

84.0

38

25%

0.4%

532

5.70

$ 1,623

$ 25,160

0.780

20.67

$ 1,101.44

54.4

ND

83%

1.1%

2,417

6.50

$ 12,162

$ 30,920

0.608

ND

ND

48.8

65

31%

0.1%

1,272

4.50

$ 4,673

$ 17,640

0.800

116.00

-

48.0

68

46%

2.2%

495

1.40

$ 1,925

$ 8,200

0.708

116.00

-

62.5

ND

81%

1.5%

537,193

15.20

$ 1,709,327

$ 47,280

0.926

52.67

$ 1,773.78

20.0

81

70%

0.7%

136

1.90

$ 503

$ 10,680

0.715

9.33

$ 1,686.00

ND

ND

36%

0.8%

242

2.20

$ 1,207

$ 14,270

0.772

116.00

-

57.6

52

27%

0.7%

2,010

2.60

$ 3,610

$ 8,570

0.564

116.00

-

68.2

37

56%

1.0%

7,422

2.60

$ 15,717

$ 8,930

0.732

81.33

$ 26.46

61.2

44

31%

0.8%

231

4.50

$ 1,039

$ 30,120

0.778

64.00

$ 184.91

ND

ND

19%

0.9%

407

2.30

$ 1,876

$ 12,970

0.747

116.00

-

ND

55

52%

1.1%

209

1.90

$ 813

$ 13,210

0.723

116.00

-

ND

58

53%

0.4%

46,274

34.00

$ 23,410

$ 32,060

0.784

84.50

$ 26.33

53.0

41

67%

0.8%

6,062

5.30

$ 24,469

$ 35,170

0.869

83.67

$ 0.01

57.8

59

95%

3.3%

2,347

5.40

$ 14,542

$ 37,700

0.878

116.00

-

34.5

54

83%

1.0%

419,820

6.50

$ 2,835,207

$ 45,660

0.922

87.17

$ 248.95

36.7

80

86%

1.7%

361,262

15.40

$ 1,432,195

$ 49,930

0.939

30.33

$ 3,418.74

19.7

77

56%

1.6%

1,170

1.40

$ 5,479

$ 10,250

0.741

82.83

$ 0.02

71.7

ND

54%

2.9%

62

0.60

$ 188

$ 4,410

0.612

116.00

-

ND

ND

100%

-1.3%

48

4.00

$ 114

$ 19,480

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

87%

2.0%

34,664

7.70

$ 205,024

$ 40,250

0.917

68.67

$ 216.77

20.1

87

13%

2.5%

6,318

0.80

$ 23,431

$ 4,150

0.544

78.17

$ 0.08

83.1

28

18%

-0.7%

198

1.00

$ 861

$ 6,620

0.713

116.00

-

64.2

ND

24%

4.6%

202

0.30

$ 1,411

$ 2,280

0.546

75.33

$ 0.02

81.9

44

23%

1.0%

121

1.20

$ 450

$ 6,510

0.726

116.00

-

ND

ND

62%

2.6%

11

1.00

$ 42

$ 6,090

ND

116.00

-

ND

ND

25%

2.9%

154

0.60

$ 887

$ 3,160

0.603

90.00

$ 0.44

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

59.5

Corruption Perceptions Index 61

46

49


Key to Appendix II: Description

Units

Source

Commonwealth Region

Text

https://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries

Commonwealth Country

Text

https://thecommonwealth.org/member-countries

Small Island Developing State

Text

https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/sids/list

Small State

Text

https://data.worldbank.org/region/small-states

ODA Status

Text

http://www.oecd.org/dac/financing-sustainable-development/development-finance- standards/DAC_List_ODA_ Recipients2018to2020_flows_En.pdf

Land Area

SqKm

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.TOTL.K2

Population

Number

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL

Population Growth

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.GROW

Population Density

Persons/SqKm

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.POP.DNST

Urban Population

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS

Urban Population Growth

Percentage

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.GROW

Total CO2

Kilotons

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.KT?view=chart

CO2 per Capita

Metric Tons (Tonnes)/capita

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/en.atm.co2e.pc

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

$Million

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD

Gross National Income (GNI)

$

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.PP.CD

Human Development Index (HDI)

Score

http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/data

Climate Risk Index (CRI)

Score

https://germanwatch.org/sites/germanwatch.org/files/Global%20Climate%20Risk%20Index%202019_2.pdf

Climate Losses

$Million

http://hdr.undp.org/en/data

Fragile States Index

Score

http://fundforpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/9511904-fragilestatesindex.pdf

Corruptions Perceptions Index

Score

https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018

54 Figures taken from the UN World Urbanisation Prospects 2018,

https://population.un.org/wup/Download/ and extracted from https://population.un.org/wup/Download/Files/WUP2018-F03Urban_Population.xls

50

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


appendix iii. PROJECTED URBAN POPULATION GROWTH IN THE COMMONWEALTH54 Country Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados

Projected Urban Population (in thousands)

Growth 2020-2050

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

26

27

28

30

33

36

2050 In thousands 39

13

as % 151%

21,904

23,335

24,740

26,110

27,469

28,833

30,186

8,282

138%

339

356

373

387

400

411

420

81

124%

64,815

74,838

84,689

93,958

102,422

110,433

117,837

53,022

182%

90

92

95

100

105

110

114

25

128%

183

205

230

256

283

311

338

155

185%

1,712

1,937

2,151

2,353

2,541

2,713

2,871

1,159

168%

348

374

397

417

435

449

460

112

132%

Cameroon

14,942

17,740

20,857

24,291

28,049

32,106

36,415

21,474

244%

Canada

30,670

32,164

33,663

35,120

36,540

37,922

39,234

8,564

128%

807

838

873

912

954

994

1,030

223

128%

Belize Botswana Brunei Darussalam

Cyprus Dominica

53

56

58

59

60

61

61

8

115%

Eswatini

348

393

442

498

561

631

703

355

202%

529

567

601

632

658

680

698

168

132%

Gambia

Fiji

1,435

1,731

2,055

2,403

2,766

3,141

3,523

2,088

245%

Ghana

17,626

20,539

23,641

26,912

30,319

33,878

37,518

19,893

213%

40

42

44

46

48

50

52

12

130%

Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya

212

223

236

250

266

282

295

84

140%

483,099

542,743

607,342

675,456

744,380

811,749

876,613

393,514

181%

1,640

1,707

1,770

1,827

1,871

1,896

1,904

264

116%

14,975

18,372

22,383

27,026

32,242

37,975

44,185

29,210

295%

Kiribati

68

78

88

97

107

116

126

58

185%

Lesotho

674

774

887

1,014

1,158

1,316

1,485

811

220%

Malawi

3,535

4,407

5,551

7,022

8,809

10,917

13,360

9,825

378%

Malaysia

25,362

27,845

30,109

32,067

33,717

35,138

36,440

11,078

144%

Malta

412

417

420

418

414

409

405

(7)

98%

Mauritius

519

527

539

554

572

590

604

85

116%

11,978

14,811

18,195

22,168

26,726

31,832

37,473

25,494

313%

1,403

1,684

1,972

2,261

2,546

2,829

3,116

1,713

222%

Mozambique Namibia Nauru

11

11

11

12

12

11

11

0

101%

4,191

4,388

4,579

4,756

4,919

5,068

5,200

1,009

124%

Nigeria

107,113

130,312

156,300

184,888

216,084

250,285

287,130

180,018

268%

Pakistan

77,438

87,777

99,360

112,484

127,362

143,649

160,228

82,790

207%

New Zealand

Papua New Guinea

1,168

1,351

1,592

1,909

2,316

2,790

3,326

2,157

285%

Rwanda

2,281

2,660

3,144

3,769

4,563

5,477

6,483

4,202

284%

Saint Kitts and Nevis

18

18

20

21

23

24

26

8

146%

Saint Lucia

34

36

38

40

43

46

49

14

142%

Saint Vincent & the Grenadines

59

62

64

67

69

71

72

13

122%

Samoa

36

36

37

39

43

47

52

17

146%

Seychelles

55

58

61

63

65

66

67

12

122%

Sierra Leone

3,454

4,017

4,651

5,351

6,111

6,909

7,725

4,271

224%

Singapore

5,935

6,157

6,342

6,480

6,563

6,592

6,575

640

111%

Solomon Islands South Africa

160

191

225

261

300

342

385

226

241%

39,551

43,113

46,457

49,631

52,625

55,447

58,057

18,506

147%

Sri Lanka

3,945

4,193

4,528

4,967

5,503

6,049

6,575

2,629

167%

Tanzania

22,113

28,245

35,529

44,001

53,579

64,407

76,542

54,429

346%

Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu

26

27

29

31

34

38

42

16

162%

733

742

753

768

787

802

812

79

111%

7

8

9

10

10

11

11

4

154%

Uganda

11,775

15,431

19,914

25,273

31,490

38,580

46,664

34,889

396%

United Kingdom

56,495

58,799

60,899

62,822

64,639

66,381

68,008

11,512

120%

75

85

97

111

126

144

163

88

217%

Vanuatu

8,336

10,257

12,549

15,220

18,272

21,722

25,577

17,240

307%

Total Commonwealth

Zambia

1,044,754

1,186,793

1,341,614

1,507,620

1,681,989

1,862,767

2,047,285

1,002,531

196%

Total World

4,378,994

4,774,646

5,167,258

5,555,833

5,938,249

6,312,545

6,679,756

2,300,762

153%

Projected increase in the urban population of the Commonwealth as a proportion of the increase in the Worlds urban population Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

44% 51


appendix iv. SMALL ISLAND STATES, LAND AND POPULATION BELOW 5M55 Region

Africa Asia

Country

Population in the Largest city (% of urban population)

Population living in areas where elevation is below 5m (% of total population 7.1% 5.6%

28.0%

Port Louis

Seychelles

56.3%

Victoria

43.9%

41.3%

Maldives

97.1%

Male

100.0%

100.0%

Singapore

95.0%

Singapore

8.1%

12.1%

100.0%

St John's

32.4%

32.3%

Bahamas

83.3%

Nassau

72.0%

46.5%

Barbados

92.7%

Bridgetown

15.7%

15.7%

-

Belize City

9.5%

15.8%

Dominica

30.0%

Roseau

9.4%

10.4%

Grenada

100.0%

St Georgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

21.7%

21.7%

Guyana

59.5%

Port-au-Prince

3.9%

5.4%

Jamaica

41.4%

Kingston

7.1%

5.8%

Saint Kitts and Nevis

77.7%

Basseterre

19.0%

22.1%

Saint Lucia

45.6%

Castries

8.0%

8.0%

St Vincent & the Grenadines

53.2%

Kingstown

22.0%

22.0%

Trinidad and Tobago

32.9%

Chaguanas

8.0%

7.5%

Fiji

39.7%

Nasinu

11.4%

11.0%

100.0%

Bairiki

96.7%

95.2%

Belize

Kiribati Nauru Pacific

Land area where elevation is below 5m (% of total land area)

Mauritius

Antigua and Barbuda

Caribbean and Americas

Largest City (by inhabitants)

-

Baren

-

-

Papua New Guinea

37.5%

Port Moresby

1.8%

2.0%

Samoa

97.1%

Apia

7.3%

15.6%

Solomon Islands

71.4%

Honiara

11.5%

13.4%

Tonga

100.0%

Nuku'alofa

40.5%

31.3%

Tuvalu

100.0%

Funafuti

100.0%

100.0%

77.8%

Port Vila

11.7%

10.8%

Vanuatu

55 Source: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.

php?page=view&type=400&nr=2169&menu=1515

52

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


appendix v. STATUS OF BUILDING ENERGY CODES IN THE COMMONWEALTH, 201956 Status of Building Energy Codes in the Commonwealth in 2019 Region Country Residential Botswana

Africa

No Code

No Code

Burundi

In Development

In Development

Cameroon

In Development

In Development

Gambia

No Code

No Code

Ghana

No Code

No Code

Kenya

In Development

In Development

Lesotho

No Code

No Code

Malawi

No Code

No Code

Mauritius

No Code

No Code

Mozambique

No Code

No Code

Namibia

No Code

No Code

Nigeria

No Code

Mandatory

Rwanda

No Code

Mandatory

Seychelles

No Code

No Code

Sierra Leone

No Code

No Code

South Africa

No Code

Voluntary

Eswatini

No Code

No Code

Uganda

In Development

In Development

Zambia

No Code

No Code

Bangladesh

No Code

No Code

Brunei Darussalam

No Code

No Code

Varies by State

Varies by State

Malaysia

No Code

Voluntary

Maldives

No Code

No Code

Pakistan

No Code

Voluntary

Singapore

No Code

Mandatory

Sri Lanka

No Code

Voluntary

Antigua and Barbuda

No Code

No Code

Bahamas

No Code

No Code

Barbados

No Code

No Code

Belize

No Code

No Code

India

Asia

Canada

Caribbean and Americas

Europe

Varies by State

Varies by State

Dominica

No Code

No Code

Grenada

No Code

No Code

Guyana

No Code

No Code

Jamaica

Mandatory

Mandatory

Saint Kitts and Nevis

No Code

No Code

Saint Lucia

No Code

No Code

Saint Vincent & Grenadines

No Code

No Code

Trinidad and Tobago

No Code

No Code

Cyprus

No Code

No Code

Malta

No Code

No Code

United Kingdom

Mandatory

Mandatory

Australia

Mandatory

Mandatory

Fiji

No Code

No Code

Kiribati

No Code

No Code

Nauru

No Code

No Code

Mandatory

Mandatory

Papua New Guinea

No Code

No Code

Samoa

No Code

No Code

Solomon Islands

No Code

No Code

Tonga

No Code

No Code

Tuvalu

No Code

No Code

https://www.iea.org/reports/global-status-report-for-buildings-and-

Vanuatu

No Code

No Code

construction-2019.

New Zealand

Pacific

Non-Residential

Countries with no mandatory energy code % of countries with no mandatory energy code Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

44

37

81%

69%

56 IEA(2019). Global Status Report for Buildings and Construction.

53


appendix vi. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDEX FOR THE COUNTRIES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PUBLISHED BY THE UN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS NETWORK (UNSDSN)

A study of the results of the 2019 Sustainable Development Report57 produced by the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (UNSDSN) concerning delivery of SDG 11 in the Commonwealth reveals that: · · · · ·

An assessment has only been made in 36 countries The targets associated with SDG 11 have only been achieved in 1 country Challenges remain in 10 countries Significant challenges remain in 13 countries Major challenges remain in 12 countries

The countries in which major challenges remain include Cameroon, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. All of these countries are experiencing high rates of urbanisation. The only country in which the targets set by SDG 11 have been achieved is Brunei Darussalam. A comparison between the results of 2017 and 2019 report reveals that progress towards delivery of SDG 11 is: · unchanged in 23 countries · improving in only 2 countries · worsening in 10 countries The countries in which progress towards achievement of SDG11 has deteriorated over the past two years includes Botswana, Cyprus, Ghana, India, Kenya, New Zealand, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago and Zambia. The two countries in which progress is being achieved are Eswatini and Sri Lanka.

Key SDG achievement Challenges remain Significant challenges remain Major challenges remain 57 https://sdgindex.org/reports/sustainable-development-report-2019/

54

BACK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS

Data not available

Planning for climate change and rapid urbanisation


53.0

Namibia

119

59.9

Nigeria

159

46.4

Rwanda

126

56.0

Sierra Leone

155

49.2

South Africa

113

61.5

Eswatini

142

51.7

Tanzania

128

55.8

Uganda

140

52.6

Zambia

139

52.6

Zimbabwe

121

59.7

Bangladesh

116

60.9

India

115

61.1

Malaysia

68

69.6

Pakistan

130

55.6

Singapore

66

69.6

Sri Lanka

93

65.8

Belize

109

62.5

Canada

20

77.9

Guyana

114

61.4

Jamaica

74

68.8

Trinidad and Tobago

85

67.6

Cyprus

61

70.1

Malta

28

76.1

United Kingdom

13

79.4

Australia

38

73.9

Fiji

62

70.1

New Zealand

20

77.9

Papua New Guinea

143

52

118

60

Goal 17, Partnership for the Goals

136

Goal 16, Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

63.6

Mozambique

Goal 15, Life on Land

105

Goal 14, Life Below Water

51.4

Mauritius

Goal 13, Climate Action

146

Goal 12, Responsible Consumption and Production

50.9

Malawi

Goal 11, Sustainable cities and Communities - 2019

150

Goal 11, Sustainable cities and Communities - 2017

57.0

Lesotho

Goal 10, Reduced Inequalities

125

Goal 9, Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure

63.8

Kenya

Goal 8, Decent Work and Economic Growth

104

Goal 7, Affordable and Clean Energy

55.0

Ghana

Goal 6, Clean water and sanitation

131

Goal 5, Gender Equality

56.0

Gambia

Goal 4, Quality Education

59.8

127

Goal 3, Good Health and Well-being

120

Cameroon

Goal 2, No Hunger

Botswana

Country

Goal 1, No Poverty

2019 SDG Index, Score

Africa

2019 SDG Index, Rank

Region

Seychelles

Brunei Darussalam

Asia

Antigua ^ Barbuda Bahamas Barbados

Caribbean and Americas

Dominica Grenada

Saint Lucia St Kitts ^ Nevis St Vincent & the Grenadines

Europe

Kiribati Nauru

Pacific

Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Hong Kong

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth

55


Profile for Commonwealth Association of Architects

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth, Key Findings  

Climate change and rapid urbanisation are among the most serious challenges facing the Commonwealth; challenges which have now been compound...

Survey of the Built Environment Professions in the Commonwealth, Key Findings  

Climate change and rapid urbanisation are among the most serious challenges facing the Commonwealth; challenges which have now been compound...

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded