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Director of OrtMua !Javolo^?tMOt

Office of the Adsdnlstretor#

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Ctao of the aoot eorloue prot»X«ai that oall for floXutl<» in tlen-

eely populated troploal end oeml<»trqpioal areae le the houiinc

of low incoEM jproupe# 2he oxporinonte ehloh hare heen saade in tide field in the Caribbean island of Puortx) Rioo* first by the local Goronaaontf sad latierly*HMoro espeolally* durlnc the past

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deoade—by the Federal Oorromment of the United States# have

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yielded prinoiplee# policies# and ncthods not only of great vmlne to the island Itself# but probably also of uso to aacy other coontrleo* A oescrlption of tl^ce eoeporiiwnts is aeoordincXy civen in the followioe pagee#

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OlillSRAt. hCOIKmC AID SOCIAL BAOXOROUBD

Puerto Rico xmB diseovored by Columbai on his scoond "eoyacs in 1495# It mM a

Spanish possession unHX its oe«wpatlon ty bolted States fsroes during the Spanish*

Aoerioan x?ar in lB9St Spanish is still the prsdosinsnt lonouagoi and eltoer sletM»ta of t^le early oulture aleo rasskin indiseooos to the people*

At present Puerto Uioo is a Ihrritory of the bnlted States# ulth Its iMn !#•

glilature and Its om olvU adsdnlstraUon and a Ooremor appointed by the Presiaent* A Bill is now under omsideration In tl» Concrese of the bnltod Statee ohioh wis^d

modify the "Organlo Act" of Concresi of 1917 so aa to authorise tho eleotlcaa of the Oovemor by the dtisens of Puerto Woo*

Ihe leland is oblong# •^:proaclinatoly 100 sdles long and 86 sdles ooross* Jte-

aept for a rloh# flat shore atrip# it is sAiolly wwsitalnoae* Xhe Essn tenperatnre f0e the mnsast aonth of yeer at San dviaa on the ooaet avaragee 81 degrees Thhrenhelt# sad the eohlest 7# decppoee* It is oppressively *wrm only ahso the trade winds fall* Although the averaga sacsmal rainfall is fairly heavy (about 70 inc4^)# in suoh a cllhate the problea of shelter frosi the eleaente le not neerly ao serlooe as other mspeoif of the housing sltuatdoSMi Ihe dtstribntlflit of rainfall over the leland ie net good# and IrrlgaUoo is neeessary cn wSh of tl»e best agriottltnral land# Alnest wholly so agrloulturel island* Puerto Aloo*e only nanufaotMrse of 1»* Mrtsnoe aro sugar snd oeedlewoHc* trult# tObaooo# and ooffSe growing are deolinp*

ing# Puarto also exported 4*7 sdlllsn dellare* i»orth of sugar in 1000# md 67*6 ndllion dollars* »erth in 1940# evsn under the oontrals of the yaota syi

in 1800

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18«X fldllion dollars* -.«rtb of ooffwi was hat In 1940 only about ono ^ird of that ataount* %oa« fif;;uro8 indloato a oorreopondln;; population shift frcm

oofinHKproctuoli^ nountaln diatricta to the ou^ar*producinc coastal plains imd tonttuia In 1940 suear roprcsonixxl atxmt 62 per cant* of tho total exports from ftMirto

ftloo (cotpressod in dollars)# and ooffss rsprosontod only about 0«S por cant* of total sacporto#

lbs Island Is one of the noet dsnscly populatod In the viorld# ^th# in 104O# 1#210 persona per aquare mile of arable land* Houghly# tiie populatian hoa doubled

every forty yaara alnce the end of the eightaanth oanti^# inoreoaing from ddgSOS in

1768 to 1#869#888 in 1940* The dlatributlon is 90 par cent* urban and 70 per cent* rural* In !%at oomtrlhB, analyaea are oonoemod vith i^e problaias of when ao^^optod population trenda will of thwaaaXves lewl off or tmn dooroaoe, while a realiatlo

atudy of Puerto Rloo* a populstloB mat ooocem itaelf with how present riaing trends my be curbed* I'reasot indicationa do not point tewarda a decrawiinc rate of growth* em astlmtc for the 1900 population being 8,782*000 peraona*

Ihia la Indeed a

serioua proapect for an ai:;rioult»ral country already auffering ITon a aaladjuatont between roacrur<-se and population* There is laoro aericultural labcnir available than con be abeorbed even at the

eeaaonal peak of demand* In 1089*40 the working week of sugar oone workers wae 48*9 p«r cent* of fbll tdno* wi^ average weekly eominge of |3*48t that of tobaeco and

ooffee workera waa 40*9 per oaot* ind 60*0 per cent* roapeotivsly of full tLao*

The

aiage ratee* ranging from 10 eanta to 70 oects an hour* inOieate the low stondarda

of material living which snit prevail when ao much of tlie potential labour ia not eicpl^r*0* Aa ineottt sxirvey made in 1941 by the ignited States Tlork Projeets Adainistration in eoeperatlan with tlie inaulixr Cwpartnant of i^bor revealed an estiaated

annual Ineoae per wage earner in vorioua Industries as followsi sugar oiane* $8^|

tebaeee* tl80| oof fas* 41381 fruits* 4S88| buildinc* 96091 all others ;i^l* T*ith

an avwrags of 1*6 earners per fsadly (S«9 persoDs)* the eo Una ted annual Inooias per woHeer la a little over 4200*

A corollary to lew Inoone la the nutritioaal problem aanog low Incena Anolllci

ia Puerto Hloo* 3he atapla foods sf the majority of ttm population eonalat of rice* beaaa* oodfiidi* broad* and black eoffae* and only 80 per o«nt* of the total food re* qalreflMKita are groan cn the island* tAt aotual oaXorio intake ia low* and the diet

ia deftcimat in proten* fat* mineral* and vitamin content* /aacng llw low ineiani

alliof* few fresh isita and greati vegefxhlea are ordinarily used* tha supply and th* distribution of tim locally prodacad fruits and vegetablaa-M^laataiii* sweet potateea* yams* yuntda* bananas* citrus* aengess* eoconuta**ls poor* mik is ocn*

•umad by otay 40 per oant* of the f millea and the average enount ia apprcgdan^ ely three ounaea per pereon per day* The reaultf a state of general dsbllity* mlnotri* tion* apd great auaea^tibillty to fjlati aa<

A bealtii survey nada in 1990 rwaaled that malaria ia the meat prwfalant diae*

—Maaqoltes breed readily as in other treploal areas* It was also fbund that 79*1 i>er ecnt* of the mraona aeamHiad harboured parmltei« prinoipally hoekworm*

aee*

iifhlle Inteat^^raaitee are net one ef the leading oauaea of daath* iheir preaenoe ia of mere aienifleanoe than atatlatief would Indioate* alnce the babilitatlng effoet of the dlaeaet is auch as to mike the infeeted individual mare auaoeptlble to mortal

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disMBV* tbxw ft serloua Mod irldftspreftd eondltion ftrlies trm inftdftfoftttt Ai.eilltLfttt tor th» ftftAi diapoiftl of honan oxorotft* Sho loftding Miuses of dafttiSi la PtJorto Rloo. diftxrhoftft and initorlUft, ftro oloftoXy rftlfttod to iaaaaltary houolag ooaditloaa, and

tho fact that T2 por cent, of all persona eonatuBe untreated mtter oontrlbute* to this

eondiUon. ^berculoais la in aaoona place, iU epread Ijelag fftollltated by owrorOMlns*

Ihe eduofttional plotur# ia not brlgUter than that of Inoiffitft, dlftt* and heal'Si, ym> fftota atand out ole«rlyi only 37,8 per cent, of family heada "who aUondad aohool

oa^leted more than fbur gradoii and only 11,9 per oont, of family Heads ooB|>leted more than eight grades, Bnrolnent in urban and rural sohools ia approadnately equal. Considering that the rural population ie taloe S» urban in aite* it is eeldant that

childrsn liying in rural areas rocslYe moh less •eheollng* JSduoational proble«s h«re been eosplloatsd by oonflletiac languase polieles. The earlier tendenoy aias to place great S9|>hasls on the teaohinc of Kncliah, This has been an advantage to those who hare later pursued advanoed sfeidies on the oontinenti but eurrent feeling is tlmt the eXenentary eduoatien of the majority of the popuXaoe should not be oonfuaed by

what is to Sdna still a straaee language.

TUK moitlOHAL FAmtbi oy LOW XlOOlffi HOUSIHO

ineoae rural Aunlliea baefe tradittonally aeeured ahelter by oonetruoting fhaaka on land owned by the fhrwr or sugar aill normally furnishing employiwmt to

the ^ad of the faaiily# Land ownership ^ workers Is rare m the sugar-produoiag

aoas^l pl*i, and only about 20 per cent, of this in nauntalnous regiona oea small plots of nroond, ihe head of an agricultural tenant fandly is nom «n gttdo, and to sons extsnt he is protected by law in his tsnanoy. Rent may not be «!• looted for hit use of the land, and he may not te swicted, nor nay his house be

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^ oonsldered that ths aGrcgado, in part,

• ho works in return for his wage plus pemdation to

woges stop, he ma be foroed to moTSf hence, be has wary i Aooording to the 1940 ceasus, agrec^do alledhave 4S,894, or about 2, per cent, of all rural families In Puerto Rloo. famllioa All sugartotmills simll, in^^siw# woodaa houses for sewe, though not all, of the inctitrUX and rural wrk^ era ewpleyed at ths ndlls and surrounding cane fields, Vdiile no rent is aollooted.

the^est of this tuoility Is doubUess ooasidored in arrlwing at the terws of eB|>loy« how inooste urban families are usually ahaek osners, b^^t ualilcs rural fmailiee they ere aeouetsmd t» paying ground rent, prwvidtd the shaok is sitmted on oriwate-

ly owned land, average land rmt Is |8 to IS monthly, A title to isBrevomwt# does not run with the title to land, with the reault that it la eeiKWici ^tijaTT large treat owned by a alngle person eoftvod by as mny as flf^ IndlwlduaUv ownmd shaoks por mere, a eonsidsrable amount ef lamd in urban arena la nublioW Z.!T^. a !• ymidljr iMllt «r wo, ,J«. " »»»4. «4 Most houses ef ths low Ineoms greus are woftdam. rooiUd «t4ii

Dearly thre# ftfJjMi ef ths houses hsnre uncter 500 square fset of floM* area. The*

average number of roems per dwtlling is 2,6, a majority of the housos aro built by

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ths ojixx»F$ with II high piirooatftgw t>t aomp mtorlftl, H&ttcood Un, «to« Una mthip 1b (MmtBurlBh* ShctBrior op Intoriop pain ting la not oqmdcui Iba fumituro uBudlXy ocsisista of voodan Ixiaohae* oota# hasmootea# md rough tobXoa* Oocddng la

ordinarily done witi^ ohorcoal]. ualng a ols^la portabla iron hrasior* rra<}uacitXy in tba opoa*

Usually built on atllta two or thraa foot aborao the grovrnd* suoh houaaa

aro aaay pray for tiao hurrloanaa that haw* wiatod parto of tha island awory fanr yoars*

lha ttovlng of ahftdka la ooan3oa« and taobaiquas in torn aaotdons are wall da*

valop«d«

Sigh^eiz par oant* of lha a^gado faaAlioa do not hara piped water availablos but usa auppliaa trm atraama and ahallow aallat 60 par eant* baaa no aanitary ooowanicnoaat 46 per oant* hvra pit priwiasf and only 2 par oant* have water oloaet inatalXatiooa* Urban ahaoka ara usually built whtthin abort waHdng diatanoe of a publio water fauoety and ona third of the anillea hinra pipad water airailabla in ^ houaai 4S per oent« bawe no o onltaxy faoilitiaa« 80 par oant* hawa pit privietji and / about 6 per oent* have water olooota# Ordinarily no attaapt la nada to oonatruot Btreeta or aidaaalka in urban aluaa# and the arrangesimt of ahadca in mway aluni areas sppaars aoold«ntal« prooludlnc dooait genoral drainaga or aooeaa for aran adnd*

»n» fire protoo^oa« refuse oolleotloo, and poUeinc aervicaa* playgrounda are rara« inadequata, and poiNrly nalntainad*

^^knrami^ parlea or

ihe enforoenaat of bulldiag rwolaUcna is a fbttatlfla of tha Departwant of Health and oanl^tion* lha rogulatlons ootor auidi ttooa as room alsot -v«ntilatlon« aoooas* rat^rooflnga ato» but little oontrol la sixoraiaed over struotural dadgs or a afaty* Shadk building oan ba <diaraeterisod aa tax inproviaatlon« and no attaqpt la wads to enforee eaaplianeo with the reculatdma* Oooaalimally there are oonviotians for buildins on publio lands without a pomit* but tha final iat>oaad aro ttOBlnal# He so*

lutlon has baan found to tha probloa of

aontroi of SlUwit building under aniatlng

aoeaeado ooaditiona*

In ganarals tha houaaa of the law tnoona group, both rural and urban aro tra*

ditiooally ewoar-built, on rantad or rent>fraa land* tha land la ownad in largo

traota by indlvldualB or ooapaniaa who hwta littla or no raapooaibillty for iopwoo*

nanta, or it la publio land on which lharw la no anforoaoont of auoh raguli tlooa aa

do aalot* Senlt^ faoilitles are praotioally n«i»-«adata<itt although usually uatraatid watar is awailabla to thoao liwli^ in urban ahaak aattlaeianta« In 1940# tS per oant* of all urban and rural renting units had rants of betwaau tl and |6*9Q aeaa^h* lyi T6#6 patr oant* of all ownaiwKiocuplad houaaa had tan valuaa under |900s im simtxai m&mm 19m

Insular Oowamamt fartioLpatloii up ta 1066

,5 8 dulyMdliti tiia Klae of ipaim wiaauad an ordimnoa "Ibrprovided dlaoovwrlaa* now ^ paolflaationa*# Puerbt •>*«« AUMuum# emwe proeiuaa wnaa iwaiii Rise inaludid# whlali tmt "ahina

aia

and

*e ahall ahell ba be built Stv rWv. iMPrahanta mmtuAuaaitm and mw.A tliaae shall .I^lt iZ i-L- ftrat to bo ^ liouaos bt tha built and tm ^ia all the aottlera of tha IbMn shall oantrlbuta# Mid a nndafato ttti almll bo

lapoaod an goods •« that thoMi bdilittaca my bo builf# ihi. i. tgTreSrd orwhat


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«ni« protAbXy th* first putlioly suboiO&soa housing la ths ^rsstsm lunidsphstv* tbrnv sppsars U haw b««tt m pahXlq hoaoia® •ttort frcn 187S uatll 101S# whsa Iho Ledslaturs «r«atsd a mrnnimA OsnnlssloD* dttslgaod* so fkr as its limited r»» eoaroes perolttsd* to laskv amdlable to fisalliee of low inoowpi

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(h) Ftnsnoiac i'w h<»» ooaatruotlonf '

(e) Land sold wader ssctsaded tlwi psjnMats fisr maII Itanit in itani^ areas#

Jim oriclnal Ugitlation orwatlae th9 Ifaosetaad CooRdssloa sarrisd m

tioa of only C800# with ihe result that no real start was pos«ll»le until ttw latore authorised the sale of im^OOO wo-th of bonds by tint aeenw in 1917# Later apI>ppnations la 1920 and 1921 bwught the total world^ ospltal of the OomLsslon to S015#000#

la 1020 the dredflnc of San Juan Isuiboiar basan» neeesaitatlnf; tha reaoval of a sesiay elnw# Puerta d» fUrra# adjaoont to the bafbour# Hie Oaniestoad C<saalssl<ai ^rohaaod a «2-acre traot of land on tlw perlphayy of ttn olfy, naawd It Barrio

Obraro (workors* wHlags), anti, after InstaUiac ordlmry awiiolpal ii^oiwmts# ^ V

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opm^ area fc»r aottloBMnt# Oo tipaats of tho ssaap 9hm ,/ f,^ the •»•««» area warn wore wwrw oosMsated for the ,lose of" their htwws by roo»lwl«c parUaXly paldH^ oontraota forwapaowaiwc dswlUne sltea in the now worlwrs* trlHage# Jlthln two yaars 408 houses were bulllu aBda t»» tal of I, lid houses were oonstrueted by 1988# But tho attssot to am low f^09^

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Miles ftam a oeotra^ looated slum to a wsoant ptrlph(^ site was not sueoeasful, Xbe report of the CogsalaaiQn Chalnwai for 1982 atatosi "I do not believe that 28

iferkt^mto settleent are oooupled by fovwer rosl^!L 1 and the ^ Intention Ben*# ef i^ormer sweep slue dwellers usually sold thalr pwrshase eentraoto, toe Utlalature was Ifustoatod# F«wiwew

^ »frt^bllely spsnsor^ lioaein,S for toe low Ineom cro«^ was Initiated In

j: InwsdUtely ^ afterpesple ef Afiiadtlla bouses were the destroyed a tidalthe wevw toe earto^^utoe ef IIwlK»a» Oetober I9l«# protestbyLeluded Cradln* end partial uettec streeto# and toe lastallatlon of a water supply and •mmt sysM A reUef eoead^, hnoen as toa l>re«4c«»dllla Oeaedttoe,^ sad for toe purpose ef dlstrlbutlac the funds deatod to help toe boneless BeeoS^

^ testslatm net In spesUl session snd apprsprlated liOsOOO# »ito to# mmmw tlon of toe Oovwrnor* toe Conlesltsnw ef the In ten off the. Red cross and toeLMst csownlttoe^ it was deal dad to undertton toe worif la aeeerdsnee with prelladinrv

Ittttotlen wasIsatallatlsns ie bwlld a seporate smII for eato dJimtory^pywi^ ssnltary iWr every fourhmist hoows# Hais Itollyr^h eaeh fJSw ni. Big^ heve prlva^ In addltlen to towlsw eanltapy ssacrwniegnaNi* the sveleei wa ««rried eut and toMwei were <lmated to heawlese Miles aftor tovestoSSJrjrL#^ But Its sueseas was ehorVUvwd# and at tos preesnt tSns nene of tto

reenvwd bouiea as plfts rernln in toe prinJeSto tod^lHe Lw liSfiw oeesed to fisMtien toeauee of nodleot# Ihie is snetM iTiftoiiSi of

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After a cerious fliN# liv 1919 had destroyed nash of the worst sliawi of Areoibo* the Insular OovsnunsBit built anotfaer Bwrrio Obrero project west of the town# consist

ing of tnore than a hundred snail fraws houses with nlninun eanltary facilities* Eie nanagensnt snd nalntsosno# of the project have beffio Irrcuolar* and this village Is little better today then other urban slun areae*

Several aaaller aunioipalitles for exanple# Santa Isabel# have fpoa Idxae to tine

puroliaBed lend from surrounding famland owners and have rented snail building lots to low ineoon families* ^^Mle this provided some relief to the oroe'ded conditions

of the workers* families snd was succsssful irsn a fiscal point of view in that the rents received exceeded the taxes formerly collected# poor eontrol of the lead result ed in the develoisamt of new slums*

In the opinion of those who now handle the affairs of the CsssaisslQn# it has

proved a mistake to Invest publio funde in a housing development end then to dispose of lands sod housss to individuals* 5he lew Inooms itoillcs reoelvlne the aid qulek-

ly liquidate their equities# frequently at a disootmt to others not needJdag the mibsidy* further# la the absence of public ossitrol over the properties# these rapidly degenerate into sluae#

Bxperleaoe has also been gained In oonstruotiott nethode* 3be Bogeestiad Ctmedeslsn financed the construotloa of wooden houses that cost sn average of |?Q0 eachi

hiMilhly payments ranged frssi ^1*60 to |6* it also finaaoed ooacrete hotMss with an

average cost of $2*460# snd these were sold on monthly payments of |G to $9* Time was quick tN» prove ths folly of building woodsn houe es* IHe report of the annager for ^e year 1922-23 staUs that "the wooden houses# on aeeeont of bsing tse years old* aro in very bad condition** A local speeios of tomdte sad both dry and damp rot dlsintegrato all but the stost durable of local and imported woods at a rapid rats* Insular and Psderal acenoloi are both beglnniag to roaliso the poor eoonowy of ohoap framo buildings*

ISimiQASB mXtSF* 1988 and 1982 In Sepitntber 1928* a hurricane with a velocity of 160 xdlos per hcur struofc J>uerto Rioo# leaving a total of 184*000 buildings damaged or dottanqrad* The Amariaam Red Orosa undertek an inoediato pregrssSMs of r elief# vrhi#). indlirik od distribtttlea of rations and oUthing# previaiwc of t4sqperary Sholter# and vddo-

spread msdioal md nursing aid* Ihe aheltor programmo m» confined to free diatributlon of building materials* It did not ssdts available land# labour# fimsnoes# or

professional advioe* It (ddd distribute to Sf*OQO dostdtute familioe approieismtely 47G0#000 worth of luidbor end a consiuorable sssmmt of eerrt^eatod iron roofind and naila. Biae^ per cent# of this aid wae sKtsndod to rural {Snilies# among whom the suffering was greatoet* This prograssw aided mere famllios than any prior «r subao-

4|u#nt single ati^Mft* but it was palliative# a kind of shaek reeea* truetiea pregrenAftsr the San Cipriaa hurrieano of 1922* the fUerte Rice Rnsrgeney Belief AdNinlstratien* with Federal funde# eeaetanieted eeveial inaall frame heusiag prejeeti*

the Xai^eet were at Anaeae* ^unaee aad Areeibe* 9mm hamm§ ae in previcue eases


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pum 4aoiiti»a to n«0<i^' Ithotliooi iad# vlttet inodtt* to a«it ]Mutiog«iiii&% «t» wltttwaikbcw «9«t8» tfae dovoXopcaeats d0j£«»«r*tod toto olumo la « Cm tSB H0I«B OitaiSRS* LOAH C0Ri?03UfIC«» 1034

dating tho •orlsr dopressloo yof»*o* tho Federicd Coogrofo orwkted th« Qoiai Omors* I(»«a Qovpwatim to eoko loime to hont amors ot low rotoo oF ii>> torofft* for tho purpooo of prommtias loreooOoolo taortpieo forealooQroo* XooG^tom loiMcio totollinii $x«800t000 woro nodo to 688 olionts in Fuorto Rloo* Qw ninount of

tho loan# ov*r«c«d lot«ml« it oon bo borrowom* inooMM of tho Corpearatloii

05#O2O# Oinoo tho lo«a*e liSid not oxoeod 80 por oont« of tho mlm oeanaod that tbo ovoroeo oollatorol mtt in oaeoooo of |4»000« Iho «voro(;^d $160 nont^^o ^Qmmmi Hguroo indionto tfaot tho olionto wnro woll abovo tho low inoom gmip* m QimATim ix iwn

A 1380 ounroy of tho gcnorol hooolnf oituotian Ibr fOalXloo of low Inoooo woald hAV9 rowonlod tho followiai; fiaotot

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The inouUr OovomMmt had finoaotd ono loriKO and aorvoral mnll

urban projooto# All thooo had boon mdortokon ao eroopa of indlwldual hocuioi*

Nono

woro doalcnod« bttilt« or oporatad ao oontdxminc, oolf-outtadnlae profproMMO# ttm jSoneraUy aoooptod oolutioa to tho pcoULm of rohouoinc; tho low inaaaw otmif wno

tho prmotlon of hocat* nod ofton "oha^* ounorihlp* alnoe poooliiir olrounotinooo

•ooiMKi to farour that oc^utim*

(2) "San inottlar ^owomiMint Soaootoad Coondiolon had sold 1«828 fwrttt* aoora|ciB£ 14 aoroo oa<d)« althoosh fund* woro not ovailftblo for farm hoNi omotruotton*

Floanoinc arranconemts to prow»t» hooo omondiip woro nado awalldhlo imdor too to

tnintf«y<^ oontraot« to Auallioo in tho "okillod awolanio* inooM* lowol# Ihlo work wao ourrontly bolne oorrlod on in 1886* (8)

flloiM woro erowlne at a ropld rato*

Iho Inoolar Qowmwot hod no

(4) Ha ftdoiikl (hmiwttt had ontAfod

lor ooot heuolac flold only

oonttaulnc iMouiins poll<^* in oortain onorsonoloo*

ivixRAL ooTKMoninr Aonod

tta IhMirto lioo BoomatmHon AdHtndatoatlai

tho Fuorto Rioo JtoooAotniotion Adolniftfiition <f*S*l*d*) noi oroatod Iv tho

ftd.t*! a««c>«M to Ortrttf ^ Ito 1,1.b4ijm^U mMrtac

tho Iwarriooaoo of 1088 ond 1988* ao woll ao trm tho coaoral doprtooion* Hho

trm

p^»R*A* mt tho n«o% iiaportiint Monifaotiatiai of tho %ow Joal* In fuorto Utoo* fi«di «ig?«»dod in tho paat oooaa yoaro lomuatod to f» adllioa dollart* of whloh aboat 10 wAllim woro doootod to hoaoins oaaotmotlai ma wkitte aoall fava plola

availablo tb odroea^# in tho oorly yoaro of oiwNration*^ thlo afonoy urar aha ih»w<|


, J'f --' '0 '■f

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Itst iDrtttlar Gixt&nmmii in togm of mtml oxpendituro and ttaafiw of oaployooii

OQottltutod a klad of at^jHO^OTOSattfiat^ duplloatinc

of t)h« laawlar Oownawnt* i

fdotlcas*

ilouBiae mM but ooo of «ow»l atopii tnkaa by tho ia i^Mrwardin® ita mxrpoao of «oola3.* aciwiaa# ®ad ooonotido reimbllltation* but it« pcograait iaaus^^ od tho diroot ontey of tho fodoral Oowracoaiit into tho fiold of houalas for tho low Inocwo gvw^$ aad It produood th# lar^oot procracno xxj^ to dato# Ihlo progfowno totallod e»?08 trodtii 6t8l8 jmral aad 898 wbtni# Ono oialn objoetlTi of tho P»R»Jl«A# mo

to pogwerato tho rural llfo of tho i«lmd» It im« theroforo mtupal that 88 pet

o«Bife« of ito feouolag aaa intoftdod fa* loi» laootao agrtoultural w>rkor«*

mo unnoual nothod of P»8«a»A« rural land aoqiuioltloh dotonslnod tho rural

pattom* l»«t of mo houoot woro built la onall groopo oa <ho taarglaia lando of largo fbraw, although a fow ktrgo projeoto wore built oa tUeo aoqolrod by ordlnftry purdhaoo* toad owaoro woro granted PHBA*-pald rollof labour to rohabllltato land

<toiia|od by tho 1952 horrieaoi# In roturo iOr idiioh a apoolflod aoroago of land mo

•old tho P.E#Il#A# at ono half of tho igppralood TaXuatlon. Ao a part of tho land pur-

oha#o agrooRjoat* tho P«a#a»A# agrood to build a masibor of oorktro* housoo on tho purohaood load# mia procr«a«9o prapolclod rollof (in oork) fhr tho rural aorkor* re

habilitation for «» otom dwagod fanw* and pormanont houalng for tha acrlaatairal workort <md It tandtd to otataUo fartt labour oupply near tho work* Co far aa It want, it haa boan conorally ooaoldorod aatlafaotory* tho prograano *aa oarrlod out

In tho noantalnouo roglooa produoing ooffoo# tobooooi and frultat uhoro land "mluoa aoro low* Ooaatol raflona mro not in<)luded« ainoo oono growing ma battor ablo to rohabllltata Itaalf and land mluoa waro too hl^ to juaUfy uao eC tha land for •ubalatanoe oropo*

Praotioally all tho rural houaoa mm built oa anall aubaiataaoo plota of about throe aoroa* itmy dlfforcnt typoa of oonatruotion ware tried* oood» hrlok, ooo*

crato* golmaiaod ahaot iron* and rannad earth* i^Miro ooneroto mtorlala aoro amilablo* tfaa ooftoroto faouao with ahoot iron kitohon baoaaa tho atmdard* A typlcod houao oonaiata of a ooateimtlcn litine-dialng, roon* alto 10 by 18 faot* too 9 by 10-

fOot badrooM* with a Q-'t/Z by 8-fOot attaahad kltolMNa« lyoTlaion waa uaoally aado

for oolXaoting roof mtar in a elatanu vihanamr poaaiblo* tha heuaoa wore lii^tod with olootrloilv'a Ooaarally thay aould not bo legated adjiaoant to a road*

Ronm in tho rural amm mry ttm |l to td mrnVtikir par dwolling unit* acacdnd-

utllltloa* In oertain araaa* but not all* ranta are on an inereaaiag aaalt up to tho third y»«r of ogoupanoy* mia la done to roduoa oaah damnda on tananta until tho aubaiatnaoo plot booaaioa produoUm*

Hananto of F«Ti,8*A* houaoa who horn aorfod a probatioiiary period aro oUgibln to purohaoo their haoioa if thay hero Made ptmiWM rant paptaanta on tine* If thay

)*K«o talaan coed oaro of tho daallinf unit* and if thay ham oonUmaoui^ oultimtod thair paroaX of land* Altar approiaal of tha houoa and land* a aaloa auboldy it dotMwjLnod upon*

tho iOMMniV ^

Iho mnunt of the aubol^ dopoauto upon the ftOManl inonaa laml of

^

^ looot«i* irurying Ipgn. 80 to ft per oant* Qio


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•aUf oontraot {urorids* f«r neinthl:^ pa^pont* «v«r a p«rlod of ti*«nty»fiv» y*ar«» iMi a rosuXt of tho aubtidjr* 6 tonont* a noatbly pasmmta aro Id ctacQr oasos lowar aftor tiba oocociutiott of tha salaa e<mtraot« Hw perforas all naoesaas^ r«paira« miBt«aanoa« or roplaonamta mtil full tltla paaaas to tasant puroltasera* Currently aboot SO per cmt* of all rural houaea are beixi^ bonifibt by tenazxta*

Urban booalne pro^oota were built oo only t!upee alteat

(a) A <lea»lopiiant far dook «»rleers in San <ioaii Imean aa "Palanaterlo** oonaiatinc of 2X9 dMrelliec tmita* waa built in 10S6« at a total daeaXopnent ooat of

$9*968 per unit* lianta mry fr<» $2 to 04 tmekly per apartcamt* exoXudlxm; b^rcea for utiiltiof* Tbe buiXdinsa aro i^ea-stoay reinforood oonoreta apartiaanta* built around an interior court* and ttaa projeot inoXudea a ooManliy oantre*

(b) A group of (^7 idngXo*lb»d.ly deolXinga end r«ne»hoaoei* one atorey high* of reinforoed oonorete waa built near San Juan aa a auburb of Rio Piodraa* tbe total davelopMant ooat aweragod $9*999 per dwelling unit* Henta fortRO-bedrooa

houaea wary trm $9*60 to C12 aootbly* eaoludiac c^argee for uUlitiea* ^broOMbed* roaii houaea rent for C16»20 to $18 laonthly* o>ioludiag utiXitlea* ihia projeot haa a a<dao(A* a dmroh* and a oo-operatlwa atora abicb baa baaa auooeaafuX* but l»a no

other oconnnity bulXdlnga* At the tisM the projeot waa built It wac not oonteapXated that It would be aoli to indlwlduala* bat the deaire for hoew oaaaorahlp aawng PaertM»

Rioane baa reaulted in a ohanfie of policy and tenanta oay now buy their houaea by ad ding $1 per cionth to thoiv rent for 990 taontha*

(e) A group of 190 itWiilMmiaa and deta<^d aingXo-lbadly dwoXlinsa* one ateray bigh* of rolnforood oenoreta taia bolXt near Poooa* All tho hmtaot oontalo

two bedroona* and renta are from $6 to $9 axNatbly* oxoluding dhargea £br uttlltlaa* Ihia pro>ot baa no ooonunity faoilltiea* bMunta here* aa in tho other projeobi* hmna the prlwUege ef pw^aaiiig a dwellins unit adding $1 to the rent far 800 montha* *

ifhan renta in tbeae three urban projoota are oaiiptu^ with tha aearag# wage ef the lev Inoooe wetdaar in Ih&arte ttioa mOO per acnwid* it om ba aeen that thla bouaing ia hardly idthin tba readb ef the najotlty of auoh QaKllieo* 38K niliSAi FU»iXC tOSlEi A£KC]fl&m7i(m* 1989

ibirlog 1989* the Publie tsarba AAniniatratien (P» if* A.) Ilouainc i^dwtalon built two urban t|fpa projeeta in Puerto Hlae) one at Oaguaa and one ia the auburba af 9an

Joan* IbMa were of dorabla reinforoed eonoretw aanebruetlan witb ainple* adaquate* doawaUo and aaaitary faollitjLea* Ibiy bawa bean oentittaettaly oe««i*9 by ^ ineeaw group far wblab they wore doaigneda Hmy lorta ImA aontdaoaoa aBnajcaawnt

by tha r« «* li, a* for nearly aawan yaara. and* fron the wloopaint bath afdlSiir —u.t .ta*r

t»T Utor

911118 ifitia mxima mta(mn» 1999

^ Withlathe Atfttoa OauaingaAuthon^ 8* a* a. )%of gapgroaa IWf* the l^adaral 0^4 Oanwstwent ialtdattd parmnaat(p. tatlenal pollay


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subsidising houaing aad slum olearonoss tho support ot tho fsdoml Oovaraamt mui SiTsn to a i;rogrs»Si in iribiob inltlatioij^ exeoutlQa, omtrship* and xoanagssMmt of pro^oots Has in tbo hands of local housLog au-lh(ritios«

TSm d^lallad provislono of tha law creating tids aganoy pmotratod tho pxoblOtt daspor than any provioua l^^^lslatlon In tho llnitod $tatas« Ite TJ«S#H*A« was a

fisoaX and standardkaotting agency* doing no slum oloaranoa or building itself* but lauding to local houoing authoritloa as mch as 00 par oent* of tho dwoolopEttant

Qoat of m apprcnrod projoot* loan oontmcfea oallad for ropayiaoat In lUll ^7 looal

authpntlaa within a period not to ascaad alarty yoara* la addltton* Iho waa outhoriaad to atko ataaml cronta to oparatlae agendas to bring rentals within tha Msaas of low inooiae fanilioe* provldod tho looal goaomawnt mdo oocitnbationa oqittiTaXant to 80 par cent# of thla anoant in cash* tax ownptlca* or tax resdeeltaxi and pofldad Inainltary thsBUlng units ware elMiiated in un aaount at least amal t» im nudmi* of saw mits built*

ibnasoy la

aided projaota la rostriotod by Imwr to faidlies previously

living in MbatandarddMllinea with Inoonea of not aero than five tiaas tho rant

and east of utilltlaa* fhallioa with thrao or a»ro children asy bo admittod if thalr inoono ia net iaere than aix tlaaa tha rent plus uttllttaa cost* Daua a duel ling oasting 94 te 86 aonthly in r«nt aad oooidng luel and utlUtiaa would ba availdale only to faadlisa having a groaa inoono of not more than 8240 te 4860*

mo L^alatura of l»uarto Rico authorised tho croatloo of local housing authoritias in 1086* htaoioipal authorltlss were aatsbXlshod in throe prindpal dtles of tho ialn&dt San Juan* Ponoe* and hayagoes* and on Inaular authority was ostn* hllahod to handle tho problona of tha ai^l towns and rural areas* la ^eowsbar 1038 tho n*S.II»A» opaned an offlot in San Juan*

IB four yo^ of oonstwuetlon «^aratl«o, 841 fSJdly daolliag units were built

in Baa Juan* 1*801 uni^ in Pooos* 014 la ?4S^gaes* In twelve aaall towne a total

ef 2*118 units wera built* m# awiiwga total davelopseat ooat p«r unit was 82*068

in urban araaa md 82*081 in rural araaa* Orban rwata vary frcae 93*00 to 89 nor

dualling unit par «th, induding utllltiae. wltli an avsrsge iSf 84*80 per dMdliiig

unit per aan^

rural rents *ry trm 12*80 te 8« Inolutilng utlUdoa* wi^

an average ef $4*80*

*

<% •8*800*000* Iha aoxiSMa annual ^ subsidyheuiing authorities totalUaG appredante* ly en projaots aow la oparatlon wtdoh la

ts losa euthoi^des by

1881*104* Interest and anortlaatioci on

leans mmm% to apprsadaai.aly 1874*000*

_ iewlviag ?** p^«H«4*-alded tha first public hsuilng pregrsMSMimin SdSe au antwalprogrsmo aubaliy* ma it was tha first houalsg undartakcn a fUerte taint

aim ess we mpnaels plaaed en lasaagasnnt by leesl aulhsrltiae to prevent daterio—

ratlin and te i^evantee ssntimd eeoupsasy hy Miles sf low iasnSt*

•,


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AU U,S«H«A*-*id(iid itrbwa pro^oots wp» tadlt of roinforeod oc»or«t»

oaiy too OKcoptlonii* thoy wo twn^otoPijr fiatit# VtmX doaoltlM fei^os por aoro# ikIX ftoiiilos wore giw iadlirldia yardi# and pt©>ot-fflaltttalaod ww {mro bold to a

Coaataniotian laaterialo Kid doolfpii ooro suoh ao to produo*

not only lo» Initial oo«t bat alio lone Ufb «ith a isdnims of mlntmanoo md oonooquontly low r«at* Iho follcndac 1" «a aaftlyaio of a typical 0d»8O wmlMy rontal»

Itowc Inoladcd la «a»thly rental

5

Sknageairot aalarica* laeal# and othor i»nae««»nt 03Eptnae»»f#»»

1#08

Jtmlterlal# rofuao

"

Water#

Ecpninie niaintenimoa# iioplaoe3ont*«*«««*«**»»«»*«*««**<»«*«***«

vollootioift lotaea# Inauranoo# and ■vaoanoy allowanoot**********

.0*86.

Itetal Q^x%Uxiti fBtp«nao***#****#******»*******»«**««***** Hot oporatlni; laoawo************************#************

5*47 ,. m

Ikntly r«ntal#«»*******#********#********»**«*»****e**«*a

It a twnaeit paid m "ooanewio rwat*#

■^.'h

i*'"^

,■

Is# iiithout tubali^# tax

maiaelott, or fro# mtar* tba nontbly rent would be aa followat Oporatdne aiiqpanaa*#*##**********#*****#*##*************** Praacnt 0<»S«n«A« aabaidy*************#*******************

^mq^arty twowi (preaant tax roEdaeion)#

3*47

4*38 4*65

Wikter (piwaant »u&i<^pal donation}###******************** Hatal rant«**#»#***««******«**#********«*********««*«

xe*06

Una it nan ba 4baarv»d that it la tlw aubaidy faatura of o*3#H#A* booting ifbiob aakat it awailaUa to low inaeiaa tacamta* tlblla tba aubaidy la naaaaaary to

giwa ataurii^ to tdia rwat and flaanoial atruotora to law ineNnaa group hooalag* it la not paid unloaa naadad* In mat of tha iaUnd projaota* oparaUng Inoonaa bawa baan largw ttam a atlnatad and the aubaidloa s>aid will ba oorroapandingly laaa* In

nwoy dowoloiaunta tba inoonaa af th# taoanti haww Sjioraaaad and tha ran^ bawa

bnaa raiaad with oanaatpiant raduatlcn in au^ldy* It ia ixpaotad that aawaral proiaata af tha ouriwnt prograaaia any* wi^ln a law yaara* mmm out of tha aubaidiaad grmp*

Iha Wawln ftu'idl froeranaa« IQiila baoaing aondlUona among low inoama feualllaa nay ba daaorlbad aa bad In nil aaaticna af tha ialandi thaaa canditiona art imat abnrioiit and ara moat fraquant

in tha lar£;« altiaa and aami»rur«l araaa#

iCha planning Ibr a aaMi«^runil pragraaaia

oanaiatad af aavantaan projaeta af tbant 800 daaUlnga aaab* naar anaii|b ^ towna ta moiar ^ aalMMlai tba ahRtribaa* tha awvlaa* and alaatrla li||ita and watrnff


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walkinis <ii«t«aoe of th« vrork oithitr In ths towi or m th» ft <yiioaat af.riouXt^tr«X land* Baoh stQftll wut pXao«<S on a paroeX of an acre or half an aor« of sood Xand« Studio* havo ohoan that a OiXleent tonant oan raleo ottlniotaaoo pro** duM of oash Taluo atxmt oqEuXoalont to tim n»nt| bono* tl^ not oost of ohoXtor lo «rtr«B»ly low# Urn fmm ''Land axtd utlXitdloa* i^Joota

Iho IXl offoots of lM|>rop*r houflil-:^ tn

Hioo arloo prinolpaXXy fro» too

dofloifstoioai (X) Xaok of doeoot fMtnltatlon and good mati^ at^lyi and Iz) laok of •oourlty and protooticn in use of tha landt uhlx^ diaoouinagoa mlntnianoo and ti»» prormamt of tho property or the dwelling* In an effort to « atlsiy ttoeee mods at BdnifflUBi coot md to reaok the graafeeet posoltXe nurtber of faaiXlee lith liodted iunde*

tho housing authespily of Ponoe* adth t][»G»n*A* aid* bulXt ofeat oane to be leneMn a« "land and utlXltiee'' projoote*

Iheee projeots wore decided upon ae a resuXt of etudiee made by the fonce housing authority* It was foond that a subetantiaX naeher of families liwini; in sXuna oottld net afford to piy tine 14*60 menthXy rant wltlidi. the tMuslng authority de«> teradned as a praotloaX mlniwiwi in its first prodeet of ecnorets apartmentes Vm pXaimers of thia pro^eot felt that the slum faolXiee ehouXd be rehoused without in»

<ar9a8ing the amount they wore aocuslxnaed to pay for land rent* and that was aotoally aoconpllshed*

Land was urbmaltod at a dundty of ten bulXOing Xoti per aore* affording eatdn ttadXy a 65 by GO*foot lot* with pavwd streete* aidewalkda* and atreet lij^ticg# At Idle Interseotdon Of eaoh four buiXdlns Xete a reinforoed ocnorete utility unit built* providing teilet* thower* and laundry faoiliUes for eaoh family wiHiin in

dividual 5 by 4»feet oMpartawnte* Boustng wae provided by moving tenanlMiained •hadui fiwm slums ts the site of the new prejjeot sad waWng neoeseary repairs* Ade*

^aate play areas ana a bathing pe^ were protided* A oommmity oentre will 1^ built after the war*

Ihe tetal development ooet per detlling unit in the first "lend and utiUties"

prejeot amounted to sppyoaclsately 1600—laao fourth of the ooet of a oenereto apartffisnt*

r*nt is riaated to the tenanth Inoeme* varying tirom 80 oente to one dollar

anmHay (tenant inoomec rsng*

9sm to 1*10 psr year)* JtmiUef earning msre

lemn |510 per jear are inellglblo Ibr temaney* Rmat inoludei water* whloh it fur nished free by the monioipallty* hut deee not inslude oleetriidty* the growing of utilities late uixlie gf fear* vhiifds previdei Indlvldaal faellittee far ea#! fmrnlly* results in a eavinc ef mere then 60 per osnt* of the water and eower piping evetmse*

b are built iTom Imported mterlale* Sine# the croup utlll^ bulldlagii rouulre XitUe in t ho way of "eoereh* mterlale* this eethed of inotnilaUen holM te il*

ninate one of the meat serioue obetaelee*

Ihe tinente are esnelderad reeponsible far proper ears of the wtUitlee pt»«

vtded* end an entra eharge is imu^ far uenoeoiaery dniagoi but it haa net been neooe*

v^m rnimmm this ree-rwpenaiHlity* leeel !SJ?I pnbUe hmui»g etttharlty aeeiMea ^e east ofof neoeeeery pairo* MKinteoaaeo* end rsplaeiMmte* in the asua l«adl«r#*tenNnt ralatiemehip*

V?v


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Mthln the ttret y»ar*e oiMiretlea of Caeerio Borlnq,tttt& (the flret lead end - ^

atllitgr developostti of 210 unite) ^ reeponee of tbs t^aimte denonetrated the

;

•etmdrteoe of tho pliet* the of hotteee# the use of pturoeXe* the <Mre of fie* oiXitlee provided# and the rent oolleetien were «3coeIleat*

She firet pro;}edt of tMe

ma so eaecoeeXViX that the Fenoe authority

Imllt a seoond and Iw^er one of the a «ae Idad*

Following theeo eaMeplea* the

heuelng autliority of Uhjaguea la tulldlac; one ehldh lo approaohlng ocnplotiate Qeneral aooeptanee haa heen ouch that it oan he aafely predloted that aftor the war

thla type of pro;3oot idll he tiuilt en a greatdy inoreaaed aoale* m nmm. mmm Afiiiirifimiioir# 1999

the Federal Houelnc Adadnistratloa# the Federal agonoy whloh inaiuree private aertfage loans# hegan funotloalns In Puerto Rico In July 1080# and einee that date haa ieauod l«057 oenedtmanta# totalling $8||608#800« the avwrage eeenltiaant hae

heen appfeil»ately $6i800# and the range $700 to dlO«OOOtt AocordlaiA?* F«H«A« haa not heen en iaportant faotor In rehouaing low incmm fanllloo# 9iat la# the large noeber of fhadllea whose tnciawea range dewiMard froa 9500 per year and who oannot

generally afford# on a ooanereial hasla# houeea coating wore ^n about $800«

Purlher# beoauae the eamlnge of poor faallies are too meertaln to met present F#fi#A# atendai# of rlek for Mortgage Inewranoe# aid aleo beoauoe few euch ituailloa

oan aoeuflulftte the neoeasary eqully Ibr pwohaalng a house on a oonsnroial hasia# there la little expeatatdon that the f#H#A» fbranla vdll beom* an Important flaotor in low InooBw housing in I\ierto Sloe* m FAiut sEOjaxiif AUixxismnoir# i9«i

ibm Fum heourity ^talalatratlon created by tdui Federal (Mwrnmnt on 1

Septuoiber 1957 began operatinc in Puerto Eloo in 1941# but its programs thm far hmalng irobliaii#

haa not baan a aa^or lhatgr In helping to aolvw

aetivltlea af the ivuna Seourtty tdntniatratlen are ef two typeai (I) Oporatlonal loena to lOiOOO low Inoone Aumera* A total of

|li000#000 haa bean loaned In anounta varying from $85 te $500« Amrtlsatloa runa

fron one te five years at 5 par eent# Interest* A oonaldarable part of this progranm is dwveted te a kind ef adult edneatlon* aaalatlng berrewert in probleeii ef agriooltore# nutrition# and aanitatlen*

(8) The Adnlnlatratlan has nade 580 loans avaraging |4*590> te otialifled agrieultMral day labeorere who wmt to eatablieh HiMielvea as emll fhrmra* iheae loaaa include appreadmtely $1#000 fir house oanatruetlan* leena are te be

asKHrtiwed in fer^ ymra with intareat at 5 per ««nt*

letabl t itaMnt ef a lend Aaitherity by ^ Insular OemrmMnt# 194A* innd refit* hat bean a alvll laaoe Sn Fuerte Riee alnoe the flret Qrtanli

Aot* whleh atti^ to IMt eerpemte land holdinge te 600 aeret*

the yvefiot Inmlar OeveiMwat la ef*edle4 In ihe lend Antiierlly Aet efliSa 9»e leiii Aathirity eriated thifiiy la anyewii'ei te de three thlaga*

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(X) !te profld» txm qu«irW of «a oofo of load troe to oil ogro£odo fio» *alHoi in Poorto Pdoo# idio oloo hairo tho jirlvilotjo of twyioc ot ooot oa oddltlcaol thro# <jaoftoro of la ocaro# tho load Auliwfity boo plodcod Itoolf to jpovldo 1/4 oore poroolfi of load for *11 of ti» proocat totol of 48f5d4 "Xbro yioro

oftor oaoptlon of tho lot, opproadmtoly 2$Qm fwalUoo lad boon o«^l(^ on

ooXo, but no titJoo hoTo boon troooforrod to tndivlduol foallioef Hio Land i>utbor«» luui opanoorod o ponding osMMidmnt to this Mt, ohldh iadll grant ogrofodo foad.*

Jioi Xlfotino froo tonaaoy, but witiiout Utlo to ttoo Xond*

Hm Aet roqulroi ttoat oottloonnto fOr ogrogodo ftollioa <lioXl bo loootod oXong-

•iOo or noor nwalolpal or inoular roodi, not jDarther apart than 6 kllafflotroo (3 niXoo), and tiuit tho oiao of oottloaMsnto ohaXX oonoiot of not loos than 86 nor noro t!un 600 pwo*!"* ^ Authority ooy »Jeo individual loan# to ogrogndo fa»l» Xloi up to 5^160 for tho purchaoo of house ooootruotlon sMtorlols* Ihio prorisloa of tho Uw has so fhr not boon usod# Iho agroiSado ooontaltlof establlahod to doto

baicro sot fonorally boon prowldod tdth «ator or sonitary eystooo or olootrlolty# It It oatpootod tlMit the land Aatliorlty *lXi atttiopt to prctrlda thoto fhollltlos aftor

tho mr# Xho ooiatHunlUoa are roni^fTOOt and Mnactennt oantr«^ It not oonlonpXatod* 8tt<te ttroott at aro laid adll b» under eotatrol of tho iiopartaoat of Vb» Intorlor# C8) 5!0 aoqolro landt flpoo large eorporatlant and loato tho» to tocperlonMd faxewrt in paroolt vsiylnc; In tlto trm. 100 to 100 aorot# t» bo operated on a

prolit tharing baalot Faroort will bo rotiulrod to prooldt free porramtnt tmtncy to a gngadoo on land plots varylac froa t wo to thro# aorot In site* thit pragrtatu hso botn Inltiattd by tht porohato of ono «»600»aort tugar oano famwhloh will pvwrido iiono tltot for 1,200 agregado f andllot, at well at ttiploy 4,800 workort tn

a profit tharlng Walt* (6)

3» aoqolro largo land aroat and tubdlwldt thoa Into fwma wwtylng

tfm 10 to loo aoroa oaoh, and to toll thta to {hmtrt on paytwntt oxtondlng oter a fortyi*yoar period#

tho land AntlMnlty hat avalla'Uo |8«SS00#000, of idbdtli (^1,800,000 It epotlfieal^ Iho tagltlaturo hat an#

1# oamarbod for tht rototUtntnt of agrogade faalllit#

thorlood tho Ittuanot of tn adiitlenal j}8,000f000 In bondtt hut It It oUdtnt Hat tho land Authority It net tkow fSnoaood to eopo with It* potential iashs* It h autboritod by the land Aet to ObtaJdk Ihdtval aid# but ti\lt prowltian of th» law hat

not yat botn utod#

mit agtiM^ it of tpotial Intomt booauto It Is tntlroly looal, or Intular, in origin and oharaotor* Itt (rogramio la otnoldarod a dMnnatratlon that tho

low inootti group la Puorto Kioo ^tam for tooure land touurt noro than i^^r^dng olto* mffiKai aouaiKi

cnly a ftw dolioot hontlng pp^oots have boon bulU by thi An^ and itoy Sw tbtir yorsiWkol l» otitiootlon wltk the towral mr ottaiaithinintt in fuort# »!«•♦ thoto bofw Uttlo bearing m iho prbbltn of houtlag fanllltt of low inoooo, and

.1

frobObly little «ere eudh heuelng wlU be built#

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3SB POS^&-iiAR miWW ■ C«n»tui fen* 1040 tabulftto* tb* rtrnttli md "vmlu^a of S85»626 do»l*

line# ta ?»»rto Rioo# k oxabatwatlol portion of tl» taiwat-ooouplod liousoo rentod for loos than U per taani^» ond about ^u-ee fouri^ rmtod for lose than per non%« k IweP inaA)or of tlw ooner-ooouplod diwUlnea bad oaluot under $10O» mtX ovor 00 per oent* had wluot undar 0700# Moaaurod ofon tho relatlTolf low ataodardi of thla trq^loal l«land« abcmt 80 por o«t« of the hoaaea« or torn S00«000« aft

ooarotl;^ ouitablo as lining quarttrt and i^tould bt tither Inpitttd or roplaoed* INlt flfput i« an IndiK tf the »lm prohlta of IHiortt Mot* ih ottt Iht houalnc suetda of ite net Inortait in populaticin» Puerto Riot i(Ktt%

build e>000 now dwollliHst owry ytar* Ytt in the year 10B&HU5 pomitt for only 1#866 now dowlllaes wore i««uod« lhat ropiweoott the nuatoor built la aooordenoo with tho repilatlont of tho Uepartawnt of Boalth# and ceo be oonaldorod a» the nunbor of 4tt«it« eaf»« and tanltary houaot oroeted in Puerto Rleo dvtrinc tbat year# Re

atatiatlot am avalUblo on tho oonatruotlan of aubatandard abaeka without pomlta*

but It la probable tbat there waa a net gain of «»T00 auoh dwoUlnga in the oaao year* Ibo oooupante ef the 0»7OO new abaeks are the group fbr «hioh priwato «at«r» priae tne not been able to provide deoent* aafe* and ewoitary houalng* Ibii the pre^en ie bigger than that*

if tba aluM are to be ellrainatod aver a teenty^'year periodt 15*184 additleDal new dwellloe units will have t> be built annually to re«^ house the $08*550 fanlUiS now living in sabetandard houaea* do that basis, the on** ntua need is 8S,75i new filings* fiowsvwrs svsn this relatlvwly hi# figure doss net take into aooouat the upeard ourrs of pn^olatioa, vMsh Indloatea a pepulabt on of miar^ 5»000«OCX) in Puerto Rise by lOflOs In the slxwyear period 105f to IMS Inolusivs, the Xneular end federal Qev«r»* swnto previ^^ only 12,{XX> dselXing units, or 2,000 dwelling units smually, tmr tnn^ adlies sf lew Inoecw* this is svidiotly about 10 per sent* ef the annual need for homing of that sheraetwr*

if « beildtng sad utdllty saastirtieldsn tsehniqas e«n ba devised utiliiing a bl# prc^rtlsn ef lesslly predussd watsrlals, the eenstruotlah indastry sdll bare a basis far satpansisttt

fteveral slues are here euggsstedt

(1) the swtsndid smhi ef IssaUy aisis esesnt pips far water aupply and diipesaXs this dssiffdi iirab flses^ sines ths greatsst used is ihr gesd water ma6 swoitatlon*

(g) Buildings sen be sonstrusted ef naehiae<*ioade ssnerete inesiiir mitw adthsut use ef weedsn feiws, thus radseing the use ef Itaiber, nails, ete« Iha ae»

'

aisnit is new aeiailable leeally*

(8) Certain typea et maU bsdldiiigs em be bifilt with walla and areb» tirpe rsufb ef oaMt^stsfellsed earth* Cenaiderable smperimsital mtk has been dane by the Puerte Rloo Reeanatrustlsn adi^stration, the United States ivw, and the Agrleultttpkl ISsperinant Statiott at neysguei* further aufertweitatiaia seeas ^ustiflled#

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(4)

Urn tt»e of t«mtto«»rosiota&t beuaftioo for b tr\)oturol bolXdliai; fmaoo*

M used in Soutb ond Ooatml iowrio*. should t}« tnoourogod* furthor# hoadsoo hoB hood U6«d for roinf(Mroonwt of o^meroto t»a»o isid aloha in t^o Orimat^ tmd a rooocit toat

at tho A^oulturol ha^rinmt StaUon at JiayBcuoa Indioaius tlto praotioa'bdlli^ of fuoh uBO*

Um Cnlvoroity of Falpinc in China has puhliahod a hook In this euhjoot#

disouasioG laboratory asitorlaonte oonduotod lo China* dapaa# and Gortwny*

lha

Ikiitod titatos Aragr rooantdy mdo a stut^ of fdds aob^ool^ hut proaant roatrdotloKui

on the puhlloatdm of roaulia of laboratory srork ralated o tho war offort do not poT"

lalt a atatacMOt of reaults at ^a tint*

(8)

Sfto fuorto I^loo Xadna trial CorporaUon* recently aatahlishod with

Insular Qamratmt ftnads* ia plonnine: to build a fihro hoard fnotory utiUdne oan* fihrt*

After treatSMmt to prereut iteaasa by termltna and waatlior# 'tiida nato^dal

ibould prora to bo a good luMlM»r auhatltttta for certain uses* 00KCLU8108

lha c^^t problwas of houain^ In Puerto Hloo are otill far frcce total eidutlan« annm theucb it «^;>peara tiukt proportionat4^y aora has bean dona there by covamtscntal aoticat than in any other apxl'vaXant area In the world* that la* nore for fanlliea

vlioaa jpnrahaainj; poiHNr la extranely low* Aa with tha roat of tha world* houainc for worfeara* IhEdliaa in Puerto Itloo ooeiatitutaa one oomar of the Inaaparahla trianfla

of sheltert lanitaticsi* and lend* But hooBlng atandards tuna ritan fhatar than tha purohaalss powar of tha low ineooa workart la Puarto Hiooi tho aooeqi^tad raquiranaota for haalth and aalf^reapaot aotroaoh tha eapaoitar to pay for tha land* lateidala* ant labour naadad to naat thoaa raqairamenta out cd* tha woideare* am wagaa*

In

Puarto Rloo* particularly in the oitdaa* thia diaorapanoy la wldar than in noet otoar parta of tha thiltod Qtatoa*

Uraditlanally tha indiwidaal low waca aomer Ima prowidad his am hut or ahaok* laprofnamt by IMLwidual affwrt has naoaasarily basn wary slow Indsad# Savaral

mnrgmof aaperlaints in houslnc by tha loeal Qamvrmmt hma profod not wary auo* atmtaX* llnally* durine the paat daoada* tha Fadaral Qawemiaft* of tha United 8tat«a ha« aasunad a share of tha raspansibility for lai^roaed law inacMM houiiaa in Puerto Kieo*

tho flrat raoordad partielpatlQn by OovenuMnt waa that of tha Inaular Oovtoii-

atot In 1918* thraufih the Beawstaad OaMndasicn* lha profpransi waa ralatiwaly analX* and it ia now raaamlsad that thia aaparienoa uneowarad a fourth oanaar to toa pmbliB of lew inetMM houaiae In thaaa alreutiiatanoaii Umi CaMnlaalm dealt with

•halter* land* and aandtatlea (aa far a« ita anall appreyrlatiaoa wauld «•)* but*

in r aoegnltien af tha aaawaad airtoaa af ladlwtdual )mm owaarthay* tto houaa end their plota ware aald wtthaut aatabliahini: any arransaaMMat far aentUMtiaa mnaieeaat

end w^twnanaa ar far owMibr aarrlfMie Aa a reault* tha Camdaal^a prai3aato hare dafanapatad until thay are aoaroaly diatinguialMhla fra« the wral and wbesi alMW thay ware intandad ta r^laoa#

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Afttr th« •ftrtbquAk* tlOiO. wv» of 10X8« tlio insular Oovurmamt pnvids4 rs* Hsf liouslnc «hloh sgftln rooognlssd ths tripls problsas of lonti, shsltor, and utlliUos* Iwt again l^rsd the natter of omtlnwlnf Banagownt and nmlntenanoa for ooloniaa of poor fwrdllosft Ihia work aleo fallad to aohlairo the purpooe of provldine;

satisfaotory housine owr a lone period of yoaro* Ae relief aftor tho hur rloane of 102B, the Rod Croae deoatod abouttesnt^ dollars* worih of Itnaber t» oaoh of §<m

S7«0Q0 fMilllos# for use In rabulldlnfi tbolr om lOwolcs* Xhls asslstsooo allmlstod the hardship rosultlne frm tha hurrloanot hut It did not offoot any sisasurahlo prvmmat In the standards of loir IncgcM houeing, sonltatlaoi and land tonure# In 1955 tho Fadaral Sewnrawt otartod a smrMoo of masuros to assist housing

in l\(orta Hioo* In that year tho Puorto Rloo Rooonatruotion Adndnlotratlan «ao oo* tahXlahed» in a eonsOji to oarry tho hesr Deal to fuorto Rloo* Iho P* R* R* A# oonstru: od ahout $10*000*000 worth of houslnc* ihlch prorldad noir sholtar for a<MMi 5*900 rural fmllloa and oona 000 urhan fuallieo*

Thoso projooto woro sot up with oontl*

ooing aanagsalntt and so far thoy oonstltoto wollHwnlntalnod ooiacinltlost althouch tho tvhan projootw do not oorwo the Ineoaw grotqps anst In ood of bettor houslnc;* ^o houses of tho P*R*R*A* are now In sroooso of bolag sold off to Indlwidual fsisl* lies* sad the preblon of oosnnnltgr wanageaont and owanunliy sorrloes will again bo raiead*

In 1956 tha first looil honstog authorities wore eotabllshod by the insular

Qvmcxmmt sod swreral nnnlcdpal goTemasnts* and wore enpowomd to xwoelww iSm

flnanoial and teohnlMl asslstanoe of the Uultod States lloueing Authority* ^s waa the first ontarprlsa la whlob looal agsn<d>ea dsslgned* built* mA nHaagsd low rmtal housing through tho use of fbads tv^liod laresly by the Podorsl Oowsmnsnt* ivhout a million dollars of leoal InseetMsnt* togothsr with about 99«900*000 of tJ*&*n*A* loana* hare protidod nearly 5*000 dwolllag unltoi all pormsnont* substantial* soouro* and liwAs in* snd providing for oontlnuod Muiagosnat and oonoMni ty sorvloes* Iho projoota are of throe dlotlnot typesi urban housing* "soal«>rural'' housing looatad

ad^aoont to swall tosKMl and preildliig largo gardsn plots* sod "land and utllltloi*' projaets*

tho "land and utllltlos** prsijoots have boon divwliipod la undortsiking

roaoh

fuBlllas of oxtrenoly lev Inossio* bMy rweomlso thai in thio tAimtm the problosm of land and utilitdas (oanltatloo) are were orueial tiaan the «haraotor of the aheltar Itoolf* in these prsjeets the tonure of ado^to plots of land has been wads soouro* modem saaltatlsn hae boon prsivlded In oeeiMWdoal group units* end sontlanlag nsaa*

rsnt and snlntsosoos have been ssiured* the howses thsMselvws have bssn provided

mm tmdltlsnal woy by ths fbad^ bnilding er navlng its ewn little house or hut onto Its aselipted plot of ground* l^s Is probably tho nest Intorostlag lew laesiis type ef hsuilag doTwldpasnt in I'^to Rloe thns for* and nay provo •uaeeptlblo of

a#tatiib to other parts of ^ world* Imng ether vlrtaes* this type ef dssolop* nant re^aeos the maml eest per <ftmlilttg ts a flgwro where mOa a smll subslf^ it retrod ts bring the rsnts dssn te very lew figsno* ' V "i :

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Iht aMrtciLC<>*l&«ur«tioo «y*tea df tho i^^ral Eoa»lne Admitdetrcitlon ms int:^ ^<^4 in Pu«)rtn r^ioo in 1080* In oontrftot to tte ^d» u«o of tlio r*n*A* caa ^ oontdnont* and toowuao this foroulo. maohos roXati'Voly hl£^«r inoMSs# It !ma Msistodl only « «aaXl trolusRi of houso oonstruoticoi in Puerto Hioo*

f ■

Ihm advent of tho wur (and tb* ustional deoioicm to dsnrote oaterials* troaspor*

tntionj) and tau^^omn* to nor purposoo hovo intorrupod these eevoral housing prt^raoe* Hoooeor* there is now oeain that proopeot of a tmrplue of mni^^ooor in Puorto

Rioo* and tho Insular Ooveroneat is desirous ef (^rcotint; this surplus into prodao*

lo^ houstnf for low inooae croups* Ihe pressnt Oovornnent or ti>o islmdihas osto*

bllshed a Land Authorl^* primarily to protrlde plots of ground for thp landloset ^t shelter and s anitaticm ond oontizmous nonagMpnt and naint nonoo nay also bo prowlded through ^ Insular Ekiusine Authority* Regotiatlcms hsro besn bogun to reinstltuto tho tyston of Fodsral leans an d subsidiss to the agen^ee of the Ineular end local

Oevemwnts* in antioipation of a eery largo low in ocas housing propnwnw* possibly daring tho later etogos of the war* od particularly aftor the w«r«

Ihe history of housing fsr low inocms groups in Puerto Rlos hae thue boon one of trial and oxporloMnt*

Hm devoloptmnt of housinc policioe in tho Coribbosn is*

land hae been related to that in tho rest of the t^nited States* partioularly sinoe IO8S1 tsut tho adaptation of thooo polioioe to Puerto Hioen oondltidna has produood print! pXos iatl nothods which nay bo of more intoroet t» other ootmtrios than to tho

oontinentaX Statc^e of tho United Stat e* the prebloaw of housboe end sanitatloa in all tho tropiool and ssi»i*troploal areae of Aaerioa faavw auoh in OMnon v! th those in

Puerto Hioo* Xrr^roveciente are needed tor nany mHUone of ikailieo in thoee areas*

Iho oicpsrisaoo of Puerto Hioo* particularly suoh dswoXopownts as tho "land end tttiliUes'* typd of projeot and the experlaantatlon with new nethode of oonstruotlan

and new awthode of lakaagenent* should have wide wlue throughout the great territory to the west and Htm eeuth*

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Worker's Housing in Puerto Rico [1940]  

By Jacob Crane, Director of Urban Development, Office of Administrator, U.S. National Housing Agency.

Worker's Housing in Puerto Rico [1940]  

By Jacob Crane, Director of Urban Development, Office of Administrator, U.S. National Housing Agency.