ISBN: 978-0-9929657-5-4 Cover image Ina Nuzi Designed & produced Clare Hamman First published January 2021 Printed London ÂŠ University of Westminster
MA Architecture Introduction Theses
MA Interior Design Introduction Theses
MA Urban Design Introduction Theses
Architecture, Planning and Tourism Research groups Books & Articles
Department of Architecture Staff Sponsors
MSc Air Transport Planning & Management Introduction
Architects and Books
Beyond the Studio
MA International Planning & Sustainable Development Introduction
RIBA Part 3
MSc Transport Planning & Management Introduction
MSc Architecture & Environmental Design Introduction
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THAT MORE 2020 is happening at all is testament to the tenacity of our students and staff – and a determination to celebrate the work of our postgraduate school and our research. In particular the endeavour and creative achievement of our Masters students who had to carry out the last six months of their courses online, and deserve this finale to their studies. The final months of any course are always gruelling but are usually experienced with the immediate support of our peers. In 2020 our students worked virtually alone. That they have managed to produce such good work reflects their strength of character, and also the inventiveness of the School’s staff who moved everything online to create a vital online community of learning. The School’s researchers have had to cope with the strictures of the pandemic as well, and yet have managed to produce pioneering and insightful
work. MORE 2020 celebrates these achievements in developing resilient practice in, and creative crossdisciplinary connections between, Strategic Design, Place, Mobilities, Making, Territorial Transitions and Professional Practice. All underpinned by shared concerns of the climate crisis, social justice, and changing technologies, and benefitting from the diversity and exchange of our students and staff. That MORE 2020 takes place in 2021 seems an appropriate anomaly given the year we’ve had, which, while difficult, has been revelatory. We have jumped in our digital capabilities. We have suspended assumptions, habits, judgements. The challenge, now, is to hold on to the things we’ve learnt about social worth and environmental value, and to understand that new ways of doing things are not only possible, but critical. MORE2020 reflects the School’s commitment to this. Please enjoy the show / webinar / publication. . Harry Charrington Head of the School of Architecture + Cities
Welcome to MORE 2020
Masters | MA Architecture
Nasser Golzari (Course leader), Richard Difford, Maja Jovic, Krystallia Kamvasinou, Dirk Lellau, Samir Pandya, Yara Sharif, Filip Visnjic Nasser Golzari is a senior lecturer and senior partner of Golzari (NG) Architects. His research and build projects have won a number of awards including RIBA Award for Research, Holcim Award and Aga Khan Award. Filip Visnjic is an architect, curator and a media technologist working at the intersections of art, media and technology. He is editor-in-chief at CreativeApplications.Net, director at HOLO Magazine and FRAMED*. Krystallia Kamvasinou is a senior lecturer, an architect and a landscape architect. Her research on the topic of Interim Spaces and Creative Use has been published widely in academic journals and books.
MA Architecture Students: Soumaya Abdallah, Alia Althinayyan, Suraj Andhare, Fatima Al Hamadani, Shirin Azizi, Mansi Dixi, Salomeh Emani, Elena Evgenieva, Kamal Gundogdu, Merve Karatas, Iman Keaik, Shubham Lohe, Sergiu Moscaliuc,
Ina Nuzi, Sirach Osei-Bonsu, Anuja Panicker, Rabia Pirbai, Valeria Rici, Omer Sabah, Vannasa Schenhdorf, Kawthar Sinaidi, Rana Soliman, Rahaf Subaidie, Prahabat Tripathi, Jiajun Zhao
THE ARCHITECTURE MA course offers a dynamic and unique programme on advanced postgraduate study combining a high level of design and theoretical investigation with innovative representational methods and critical approaches to contemporary discourses in subjects of design and theory.
their own pathway by selecting and combining relevant modules that meet their individual requirements. The range of optional and specialist modules offered allows students to develop their individual learning trajectories, involving design and theoretical components as well as practical applications.
The programme is both wide ranging and flexible, facilitating alternative modes of study and creative methods in design, representation and research. The course team of academics and practitioners offers full skills and intellectual support for students to develop their own Thesis subject, concluding in a design or written thesis project. The course allows for specialism through its three pathways: Cultural Identity and Globalisation; Digital Media; and History and Critical Theory. Alternatively, students can also create
The work shown over the following pages represents a small selection of the outstanding work produced by a dynamic cohort of students who, despite the difficult constraints imposed by Covid-19 on the final stages of the academic year, battled through with continued high spirits and extensive energy to create this dynamic and wide-reaching array of research. Thanks also go to the course team whose commitment and energy to support the students this year was especially evident.
Guest Critics: Abdullah Almurigeb, Vladimir Bojkovic, Alastair Blyth, Simon Cole, Alejandro Fabragat, Kate Jordan, Prajakta Kalamkar, Rim Kalsum, Charlotte Khatso, Ruchita Kanpillewar, Jusik Lee, Rebecca Neil, Angelikie Sakallario, Mireille Tchapi, John Walter 6
MA Architecture | Masters
Iman Keaik Social Carpet in a Machine-Like City
THIS THESIS REVOLVES around a series of hypothetical scenarios that can construct conditions within a fast-moving and sometimes exclusive city, where collective access to city rises is limited and marginalisation concealed. Challenging the Thatcherism ideologies of London's Canary Wharf, the proposed ‘social carpet’ is designed to break the imposed, financially-driven boundaries of the business district and reutilise it to provide inclusive social and cultural spaces for the marginalised and the traditional working-class communities in the Isle of Dogs.
Like any carpet, it is inspired by everyday narratives of a place or people. When used and touched with respect, the rhythm of walking is slowed down. When used to collectively sit on and gather around it, the collective and inclusive spirit rises in a communal environment. When using a carpet in a versatile function, it can give freedom by softening the rigid system. The ‘social carpet’ is the best example of social cultural suitability; as in Persian carpets, the more they are used the more they last and the more valuable they become.
Masters | MA Architecture
Suraj Andhare Socio-Environmentally Sustainable Public Space in Kharghar, Navi Mumbai
THE DESIGN THESIS ‘Socio-environmentally sustainable public space in Kharghar, Navi Mumbai’ offers a way to implement the principles of socio-environmental sustainability in today’s Indian architecture. The emphasis is on creating a public space with an integral blend of human and nature, with community interaction and involvement to spread the knowledge of socioenvironmental sustainability in surrounding developing areas of Kharghar, Navi Mumbai.
The design thesis starts with research of a systematic framework and transformation of Indian architecture, followed by live precedents which helps to shape the theories to physical ideas. Later a holistic design approach has been implemented to create various design scenarios which impact the community and the environments. The proposed design intervention is an integral solution in which human social well-being is taken into consideration while designing public spaces in relation to the environment.
MA Architecture | Masters
The Physicalisation of Data: Natural archives of artificial knowledge
THIS THESIS EXPLORES digital media as a means to transform data into an architectural space with physical attributes and qualities resulting from the data that is preserved within. Placed within a speculative sociological context of a not-sodistant future, where mankind is forced to leave its home planet in an effort to retain a connection, a piece of human history is inscribed into the ground of the Earth. Perhaps rediscovered long after we are gone, the Earth becomes an archive, a museum, to be explored by future visitors.
The project explores the possibility of preserving this knowledge by translating data into a physical form through its conversion to image, sound and arrays of numbers. The device inscribing this converted information is made up of a series of operations, each of which acts as a cog in a larger mechanism. The physical canvases of this project are the ice planes of the Arctic and Antarctic regions. These represent the ideal site because of the data-retaining ability of ice: the material, due to its inherent narrative properties, has been collecting and storing information about our planet since long before we started walking on it.
Masters | MA Architecture
MA Architecture theses 2020 contd. Soumaya Abdallah
Beyond Placemaking: Investigation of locative media placemaking practices and the This thesis aims to rethink the media façade as a skin production of power
Rethinking Media Façades as an Interactive Light Space
bringing together the mystical and cultural qualities of light with a new type of physical interface. By focusing the light in a prism, a physical space is created which acts as an interactive design layer connecting viewers to a new sensory light experience.
This thesis proposes a conceptual framework that interrogates the role of locative media in urban place-making and in developing the right to the city, as propounded by Lefebvre, to better analyse the opportunities and challenges afforded to city dwellers by locative media.
Collective Memory – London Between Remembering and Forgetting
The art of the Islamic world reflects its cultural values. This thesis explores how geometric patterns, created using digital tools, could be embodied within architectural space. It conceptualises and speculates on their future role in the context of architecture and digital culture.
Representing collective memory in the city can play a manifest social, cultural and historical role between communities of the city. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how collective memory can change the perspective of the city.
A New Home in Between
Educational Architecture for the Users’ Wellbeing: The benefits of educational Gentrification is leaving the city naked, void of the mixed environment design
Focusing on the Iranian diaspora in London, this thesis explores at various scales how possible interventions in a major city could act as an intersection between the host and the immigrant societies, engaging in the local culture whilst maintaining links to her rooted culture and identity.
Island of Silence: Varosha
elements that formulate any city’s character. This thesis This thesis-by-writing investigates how educational considers a new typology for the city, between the architecture could foster and benefit its users’ wellbeing. obsession for heritage and its gentrification, by imagining The fluid definition, complex nature and conceptual origin of wellbeing was explored through environmental an habitable bridge linking people, spaces and ideas. psychology and its translation to architecture. An holistic framework is used to analyse and critique case studies.
This thesis questions if there is an alternative to the capitalist plutocratic drive to gentrify a city and the tensions this creates between different parts of society. The Wonder Bridge proposes using architecture's ability to offer a transition of hope by creating an alternative platform through which power can be challenged and alternative opinions voiced, heard and acted upon.
Geometric Patterns from the Perspective of Digital Culture
The Naked City: Undressing the invisible layers of Ahmedabad
The Wonder Bridge: The right to London
This thesis looks at the socio-cultural development and economic impact of the urban waterfront in the city of Varosha, Cyprus. The project explores how a sense of place can improve the relationship between the people and the waterfront, developing an awareness of its role to the city’s identity and populace.
(left-right) Mansi Dixit; Anuja Panicker; Fatima Al-Hamadani
MA Architecture | Masters
Self-Reliant Commune: A new eye to the invisible Majuli Island This thesis re-reads the lost identity of the Iraqi people This thesis challenges the fragmentation of the urban The Walking Memorial
Reclaiming Collectivity in The Broken City
of Basra, changed from the peaceful Babylon era to the ruins and fear of today. It portrays the rich layers of the city’s history as a memorial, a space where imaginary meets reality, using architecture to design a place for memorial in where citizens could reconnect to their city.
fabric caused by shopping malls, their pseudo-public spaces and the effect of consumerism. It offers a new perspective to create a hybridised shopping pattern that unifies the urban fabric by combining modern recreation patterns and collective-based environments.
Set against the backdrop of 2020’s first Covid-19 lockdown in London, Reality Check is an exploration of representing the modern-day technological hyper-object and its relationship between human and architectural scales through film, visual effects and augmented reality.
Architecture As a Host: Nature integrated design
Speculating Social and Spatial Mechanisms Through Simulation
This thesis explores the relationship between built, natural and biological environments by developing design principles that augment nature’s processes, forms and sequences. It proposes alternative, speculative solutions that imagine buildings with biological materials that adapt, respond and interact with their surroundings.
Simulation mechanisms are often used to understand behavioural statistics in a population. While questioning aspects of our daily lives and the forces that affect these systems, this thesis attempts to develop answers to the way systems become modes of control and highlight how personal actions have global consequences.
Reclaiming the New Voids of Cairo: City of Public Augmentation The case of the parliament – from ‘House Public space is important to the lives of a population, of Representatives’ to ‘House of People’ but the appearance of physical space is not easily subjected to change. This can change through the use of augmentation and mobile devices, putting transformation in the hands of the public to experience their chosen scheme applied to their existing daily environment over which they have no power to change.
This thesis-by-design focuses on the communities in Majuli Island, Assam, an area facing regular flooding and land erosion, resulting in hardship and the loss of life. It explores how appropriate architectural design tools may be embedded within cultural practises of the community with high levels of participation to turn flooding instead into a form of power and economic advantage.
Based on the form of Naguib Mahfouz's novel, The Epic of Al Harafish, this thesis imagines characters occupying the recently-vacated parliament buildings at the heart of Cairo. The city is transformed into a celebration of collective empowerment, an alternative typology embracing soft power and promising hope.
(left-right) Rahaf Alsubaie; Sergiu Moscaliuc; Rana Soliman
Shell: Fashion and architecture beyond enclosure This thesis explores the potential scope of selfexpression implicit to both fashion and architecture and how it can drive more than the design of the external envelope, leading to new forms of order in the field of design.
Masters | MA Interior Design
Lara Rettondini (Course Leader), Dusan Decermic, Tomazs Dancel-Fiszer, Matt Haycocks, Bruce Irwin, Maja Jovic, Joe King, Debby Kuypers, Lola Lozano Lara, Filip Visnjic
MA Interior Design Full-time students: Fernanda Albuquerque, Seyma Dilber, Brikena Haxhiu, Yuying Huang, Masuda Karim, Nevenka Krzelj, Zitong Liu, Marina Magalhaes Furlanetto, Mallyn Nelson-Homiah, Ngoc Nguyen, Cong Sun, Gopika Sunil, Yi Tong, Isha Tripathi, Yi Jiahui, Yumeng Zhang
Part-time students: Adeline Waldron Pratt
OUR INTERIOR DESIGN MA (Interior Architecture MA from 2020-21) promotes a conceptual and speculative approach to the design of interior environments. In doing so, it places an emphasis on research that seeks to expand the boundaries of the discipline as well as challenge standardised processes and traditional methodologies. The programme affords multiple avenues of creative engagement, giving students the opportunity to pursue their particular issues of interest in interior design, or specialist areas of three-dimensional design, through in-depth and focused studies under the guidance of research-active and industry-experienced staff. Over the years, the course has continued to grow and is now an internationally sought after Master’s programme that sits within the School of Architecture + Cities, based at our well-equipped central London campus.
expanding the students’ technical skillset. With a critical pedagogical agenda we challenge students to strive for a rich, mature synthesis of their learning from these modules, a process aimed at preparing them towards the challenges and opportunities of the complex professional world.
Our course covers a range of specialist areas, both theoretical and practical. The curriculum is delivered through a diverse set of taught core modules including: the vocational Retail Design; the theory-based Decoding the Interior; and the student-led Thesis Development and Major Thesis Project. We also teach specialist modules which support the use of digital technology as well as
Guests and Critics: Alan Farlie (RFK Architects), Tom Piper (artist), Jo Prosser (Royal Academy), Manuela Vibi (RFK Architects) 12
Our three distinct theory and practice research areas, Domestic, Urban and Expanded Interiors, inform the development of students’ thesis topics. By embracing the intellectual, spatial and material complexities inherent in the subject of interior, students engage with the research areas both by working individually and in collaborative groups. The following pages document the results of a wide range of thesis projects that our students have developed following a process involving meticulous investigation and detailed design resolution. Some have uncovered traces of history by carefully repurposing buildings and places; others have dealt with social, cultural and political issues through critical spatial proposals. The work produced is rigorous and ambitious; a reflection of the quality of our programme and an indication of the diverse professional careers that our students will progress on to in the years ahead.
Yumeng Zhang: Echoed Through London – A journey of Oriental melody
MA Interior Design | Masters
Lara Rettondini is Senior Lecturer, architect, and co-director of Studio X Design Group, a London based architecture and interior design practice. She is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and the recipient of the Westminster Teaching Excellence Award 2017.
Maja Jovic is lecturer in architecture, planning and tourism. Her research investigates how conflict and national identities re-shape destinations.
Joe King is an award-winning artist working within the field of the moving image, using innovative techniques and animation to combine Dusan Decermic is an architect who engages with both theoretical and manipulate photography, film and sound. and design practices in architecture and interior design. He set up his Debby Kuypers is an architect, and joint founder/director of own practice, arclab, in 1999 and has worked with numerous clients, RFK Architects, an architecture and design practice based in London including the Royal National Theatre and fashion designer Issey Miyake. that specialises in retail, commercial and art/museum projects. Tomasz Dancel-Fiszer is an architect and associate at MJP Architects Lola Lozano Lara graduated from the Architectural Association, where with involvement spanning from masterplanning to detail design. she is currently enrolled as PhD candidate. She teaches architecture Matt Haycocks is Senior Lecturer, designer and maker. His research at various UK universities and is founding director of the research and concerns domestic and family photography, the historicisation of public practice project Forms of Living. space and the politics of place-making and branding. Filip Visnjic is an architect, lecturer, curator and a new media Bruce Irwin is a designer, teacher and curator, and is founder and technologist. He works at the intersection of art and technology, directing web, print and event-based projects while also contributing to co-director of SCAN Projects. a number of blogs and magazines.
Masters | MA Interior Design
(top left) Yi Tong: Exchange Station – A market in the Stockwell Garage (top right) Mallyn Nelson-Homiah: The Centre for the Voice – A creative space to help the youth make an impact (bottom) Cong Sun: Future Urban Community – Repurposing commercial space 14
MA Interior Design | Masters
(top left) Seyma Dilber: London Mosque – An adaptable model for converted mosques (top right) Ngoc Nguyen: Skateboarding Hub – A community centre for the youth in Peckham (bottom) Nevenka Krzelj: Collectivist Villa – The commodification of intellectual production in the metropolitan city
Masters | MA Interior Design
(top left) Fernanda Albuquerque: Track to the Future – Creating a support network for London’s runners (top right) Isha Tripathi: Space for Production – A catalyst for avantgarde cinema in London (bottom) Zitong Liu: Memory Museum – A community space for the elderly 16
MA Interior Design | Masters
(top left) Masuda Karim: Masjid An-Nisa – A mosque for women (top right) Yuying Huang: Urban Oasis – Re-imagining the public bath (bottom) Yi Jiahui: Intergenerational Centre – A collaborative space for playing and learning
Masters | MSc Architecture and Environmental Design
Rosa Schiano-Phan (Course Leader), Joana Goncalves, Benson Lau, Mehrdad Borna, Jon Goodbun, Kartikeya Rajput, Amedeo Scofone, Juan Vallejo
MSc Architecture and Environmental Design Full-time students: Alessandro Cirillo, Mary-Joe Deccache, Eleni Maragkaki, Lalaruk Sohail
Part-time (yr 1): Diana Criollo Guaman, Liam Rollings
IN 2019/20 THE Architecture and Environmental Design MSc focused on the investigation of the environmental performance of work environments in London. Semester 1 case studies included offices of architectural and consultancy firms in the London Bridge area. This study led to the semester 2 design brief on ‘Work environments for London 2050’. Proposals for the complete re-imagination of the studied sites were offered by the students with attention to the climatic, social and economic sustainability of each project.
Graduate course, while gaining Learning Affiliate status with the Energy Institute. The industry partnerships have been very successful and have allowed our students to develop their thesis topics of mutual interest for the course, students and the industry partner. These range from parametrically optimised façade design in Dubai to carbon neutral urban blocks in Athens and the environmental retrofit of existing office buildings in the UK as well as of heritage sites in the Walled city of Lahore, Pakistan.
The course successfully continues the Collaborative Thesis Programme with Industry and the BREEAM Approved
Guest Critics: Shashank Jain (Studio 4215), Jose Puchol-Salort (Imperial College London) 18
Special Thanks: Carine Berger, Scott Batty, Meital Ben Dayan (Architype), Christian Dimbleby (Architype), Negin Esmailzadehanjani, Noemi Futas, Julia Galves, Jon Goodbun, Catherine Harrington (Architype), Mina Hasman (SOM), Dean Hawkes, Mohataz Hossain, Joao Matos Da Silva, Phil McIlwain (Westminster Council), Kartikeya Rajput (Urban Systems Design), Zoe Shattock (Elmbridge Building Control Ltd.), Minh Van Mary-Joe Deccache, Liam Rollings, Lalaruk Sohail: Tower Bridge Creative Business Incubator
MSc Architecture and Environmental Design | Masters
Rosa Schiano-Phan is an architect, consultant and academic who has worked in environmental design consultancy and research for the past twenty years. Rosa taught at the Architectural Association and coordinated numerous interdisciplinary EU-funded research projects at Nottingham University. Joana GonĂ§alves is an architect and academic working as a Visiting Lecturer for the MSc AED. She is Associate Professor of Environmental Design at the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of SĂŁo Paulo, and has taught at the AA and Harvard University. She is a Director of the PLEA conference and author of several international publications.
Masters | MSc Architecture and Environmental Design
Alessandro Cirillo The Retrofit of 1970s Office Buildings’ Curtain Walls in London
THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT accounts for 44% of the UK's greenhouse emissions, of which 18% is from non-domestic buildings. Although new buildings are becoming more and more environmentally friendly, low retrofit rates for older buildings offset this trend (1% for commercial buildings, UK Building stock Carbon Reduction Commitment). Considering façades cause more than 50% of energy consumption, their upgrade is fundamental to achieving the London 2050 zero-carbon goals. Curtain wall façades of London's 1970s office buildings have been analysed as they present similar features and issues like poor insulation, fire risk and air infiltration which negatively affect interior comfort and energy consumption. Moreover, in most cases, natural ventilation is not possible due to the façade design, resulting in mechanical systems being responsible for high cooling loads.
A study of the Euston tower was conducted to investigate the main reasons for the energy demand of this building type. The results were then used to inform a general EDSL Tas model representing a more extensive office building stock. Parameters such as orientation, occupation, floor height and glass percentage are examined as the main factors influencing internal gains and different environmental design solutions are tested to reduce them. The resulting new module prototype includes alutimber window frames, natural ventilation and different window to wall ratios, according to floor height. Vertical/ horizontal shading devices and low G-value glass are also applied. Moreover, the design outcome also includes a design for the office spaces.
(left) Ventilation strategy for the typical floors of a retrofitted office tower; (top right) Section of typical open plan office and materiality of building elements; (bottom right) 3D model of Euston Tower as case study building
MSc Architecture and Environmental Design | Masters
Mary-Joe Daccache Adaptive and Climate Responsive Façades for Commercial Buildings in Dubai
DUBAI’S SUBTROPICAL DESERT climate has long been challenging to achieve indoor comfort passively. The abundance of oil and cheap electricity results in high energy consumption to cool buildings. The government’s regulations, climate change, population growth, commercial buildings' energy consumption, and their inoperable façades, are all problematic issues that will result in an increase in energy demand, uncomfortable conditions for users and deterioration of the environmental performance of buildings. The design study focuses on a multicriteria analysis to prove a parametric method of work that offers guidelines to achieve adaptive and climate responsive façades. Using critical observation of a literature review, and an occupant satisfaction survey, an environmental assessment of built precedents is done to deduce and implement useful
The parametric’s study matrix of design solutions
envelope strategies on a shoebox model where analytic work is done including parameters of the outdoor, indoor and envelope conditions. The outcome is a series of parametric studies with varying results of energy and daylight responding to the variable input conditions. The proposed study responds to orientation, obstruction, air quality and noise pollution in the future climate of Dubai to achieve useful daylight, solar control, natural ventilation and thermal comfort in commercial buildings. The parametric design offers solutions to commercial buildings’ envelopes to ensure comfortable indoor conditions in relation to the outdoor microclimate and the conflicting requirements of Dubai’s hot dry climate. The design study is done in collaboration with Hilson Moran for their future use as design recommendations, and to potentially influence the architectural practice in Dubai and similar climatic regions.
Masters | MSc Architecture and Environmental Design
Eleni Marina Maragkaki Carbon Neutral Urban Block in Athens 2050
THE EXTENSIVE URBANISATION of Greece, and especially Athens’ city centre, has left a degraded urban environment. The extreme heat caused by more frequent heat waves, the heat island effect on a city made of concrete with no green areas, and surrounded by mountains indicate the need for actions towards indoor and outdoor comfort, which is related to the energy consumption of the buildings. The average energy consumption per dwelling in Greece increased by 5% per year from 1997 to 2010. In collaboration with Urban Systems Design, this work’s aim is to create a carbon neutral block in Athens 2050. This is achieved by illustrating how architectural creativity, together with clear understanding and application of the principles of environmental design (from concept to detailing), can produce buildings of better environmental performance, creating good quality spaces and even overcoming predetermined energy consumption targets. The first step of this work was a literature review that could provide information and evidence for the definition of the carbon neutral block and research on the energy consumption and efficiency in Greece. The next step was the optimisation of the block’s form based on principles of environmental design and climatic analysis in order to enhance its environmental benefits. Simulations on the energy performance of the block and calculations on the ability to cover the energy loads by renewables were the next step. Finally, to meet zero carbon neutrality, the connection with the neighbouring blocks was established to balance the excessive/missing energy. This connection can help reduce carbon emissions beyond what the buildings can do in isolation. The results demonstrate the benefits of a bioclimatic, carbon neutral building design in Greece and provide a practical prototype which can be adapted by architects and governmental institutions to other projects, thereby enabling the shift to a more efficient and environmentally-friendly built environment. 22
(top) Seasonal bioclimatic behaviour of proposed urban block; (bottom) Proposed carbon neutral block in Athens
MSc Architecture and Environmental Design | Masters
Lalarukh Sohail Mitigating Daylight Issues in Organic Towns Through Environmental Stategies: Lalarukh Sohail A case study of the walled city, Lahore
DAYLIGHT IS ONE of the best renewable resources that can be employed for illumination purposes, especially in hot climatic regions. The utilisation of daylight through efficient design and planning strategies can dramatically reduce energy consumption and the carbon footprint of a building. This, in turn, helps mitigate the anthropogenic factor responsible for global climate change. Before the advent of electricity, natural daylight was the primary means of illumination in buildings. Urban designs of ancient towns were such that all zones, public (streets) and private (houses), received adequate daylight through intelligent integration of planning strategies.
The invention of electricity effectively relaxed this constraint, especially in hot climatic regions, where daylight is taken for granted. It is no longer an important criterion for building design, particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. The Walled City of Lahore has evolved over time and has gone through extensive transformations in the built environment due to interventions and encroachments made over the years. In the selected neighbourhood of Gali Surjan Singh, this transformation in the built environment can be seen clearly. Until now, little study has been conducted to analyse the daylight performance of this area after transformation in its built fabric. The study focuses solely on daylighting of the area, Gali Surjan Singh and analyses the current daylight performance of the selected neighbourhood. The study suggests measures taken to optimise daylighting in the neighbourhood.
Mitigation strategies for the improvement of day-lighting in the heritage buildings of the Walled City of Lahore
Masters | MA Urban Design
David Mathewson (Course Leader), Roudaina Al Khani, Bill Erickson, Simone Gobber, Irena Itova, Krystallia Kamvasinou, Michael Neuman, David Seex, Johan Woltjer David Mathewson is MA Urban Design Course Leader. He has more than 20 years’ urban design and architecture practice having worked as a senior designer at SOM, AECOM and PLP Architecture on large-scale masterplans in Africa, the Middle East, China and Brazil. Roudaina Al Khani is an architect and urban and regional planner. She is founder and director of Platforms for Sustainable Cities and Regions. Bill Erickson is a Principal Lecturer and architect with extensive experience in urban design. He has practiced in Australia, Italy and the UK. Krystallia Kamvasinou is a Senior Lecturer and an architect and landscape architect who has published widely and recently completed a Leverhulme Fellowship on ‘Interim Spaces and Creative Use’.
MA Urban Design Students: Sebastian Barrios, Andrew Chan, Destiny Conely, Wafa Fadhel, Eleanor Hatto, Sanket Khivansara, Jamie Nayar, Anupriya Pandey, Tushar Sharma, Nora Taupier
THE MA URBAN DESIGN course at the University of Westminster provides a coherent approach to challenges facing cities today, combining structured academic study with live design projects, allowing students to develop practical skills alongside a theoretical understanding and an informed approach to sustainable urban development. As a multidisciplinary field, it overlaps with and incorporates elements of town planning, architecture, landscape design, urban regeneration, geography, transport planning and infrastructure planning, drawing students from all these backgrounds. Cities are at the centre of modern life, are the places where most people make their homes, the hubs of economic and social life and where the majority of resources are consumed. They have evolved over time with important city images and urban profiles that attract investment while serving as cultural assets reflecting the values of their inhabitants, around whom shared experiences revolve and daily activities are shaped. This process is well understood in the West, however in a global context the pace of change is both dramatic and accelerating, creating new challenges for city design and management, particularly in the developing nations of the global south.
Drawing on the cultural and economic forces acting in the city, the urban design course focuses on understanding and shaping the physical setting in which these processes take place: the manner in which buildings, streets and urban spaces are combined to create distinct environments that nurture daily life, provide efficient urban systems and form memorable places valued by their inhabitants is carefully considered. The work presented here is based on student dissertations and major design projects in which particular impacts on the design of cities are identified and how, in the light of these effects, urban form can best be adapted to current and future needs. The practice of urban design has been emerging as a distinct profession since the 1970s and is underpinned by a growing knowledgebase informed by research and tested through spatial analysis and design proposal; these studies represent a critique of current responses to urban challenges and provide a unique contribution to urbanism’s body of knowledge.
Sebastian Barros: Granary Square, Kings Cross, London
MA Urban Design | Masters
Masters | MA Urban Design
Sanket Khivansara Can a Smart City be Sustainable in the Developing World?
FOR THOUSANDS OF years there has been a steady growth around most parts of the globe, but this has changed drastically since the Industrial Revolution. According to the UN, more than half of the global population live in cities. Developing nations are experiencing increased urbanisation compared to the developed nations, which now has raised problems such as demand and supply gaps in infrastructure services and utilities, and an increase in traffic congestion, pollution and a significant decrease in natural green cover. Many such prevalent issues will get worse over the coming years, especially in developing countries. In the past few decades, strategic planning for urban growth has been oriented towards making cities more sustainable
and livable which is why the developed nations came up with the concept of the 'Smart City' development as a sustainable approach to these growing urban problems. Similarly, in order to cope with increasing urbanisation, developing countries have started to adopt the idea of smart cities; focusing mainly on infrastructure, they ignore the fact that the countries are already struggling to provide people with basic amenities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current scenario of smart and sustainable development in the developed and developing world through reviewing literature and to find out whether or not the smart cities of the developing world are sustainable by means of case studies.
Rapid development and transportation, Kuala Lumpur [pexels]
MA Urban Design | Masters
Eleanor Hatto Artificial Lighting as an Urban Design Tool
THERE IS SIGNIFICANT potential for artificial lighting to play a more central role in urban design. This dissertation sets out to evaluate artificial lighting design in the centre of towns and cities from an urban design perspective. This dissertation conducts a review of the phenomenon of light and artificial lighting itself which reveals a potential to influence people’s experiences and perceptions of place. This emerges as a key theme as part of this study. Lighting design theory is then discussed with a view to how it is approached. This uncovers a tendency for lighting design to reflect a design-led or engineering-led approach. Furthermore, lighting tends to be classifiable as having a functional/utility purpose, or an evocative/ decorative purpose. The study discusses the ethics of lighting design and identifies the overlaps between urban design principles and lighting, such as when considering urban experience, placemaking and wayfinding. The current practice of lighting design is examined and critically evaluated through a series of case studies. These include regeneration projects in Hull, Bristol and Luton. In these examples, it was found that artificial lighting already contributes significant value to the overall design, and highlighted that artificial lighting would have been more effective if it were better integrated as part of the original design process. The conclusion is that urban design would benefit from considering artificial lighting as a tool for design. It presents a strong argument that artificial lighting should be a valuable component for enhancing or altering the appearance of the built environment. In conjunction with other design components, lighting design is fundamental to creating a ‘place’ at night. Lighting design can be used to facilitate more diverse and better use of valuable space.
MA Urban Design theses 2020, contd.
Urban Regeneration and the Recreation of the Inclusive Public Realm The practice of urban regeneration has become a popular solution for addressing areas that have been in decline, however there are some issues. Creating design guidelines with an emphasis on the public realm will help create successful regeneration programmes.
Tactical Urbanism: An approach for addressing social and management challenges in mixed-tenure housing development neighbourhoods This research recommends two tactical urbanism strategies for improving social challenges and practices in mixed-tenure communities. City officials and developers are introduced to tactical programmes and communication exercises, while residents and managers respond to housing concerns through tactical design projects.
A Study on Sustainable Urban Mobility and Impact on the Local Development in Vancouver West Broadway Sustainable mobility plays a vital role in sustainable urban development, as it affects the urban structure, neighbourhood quality, and permeability in a city. As Vancouver continues to increase its focus on sustainability, it has become apparent that the city’s goal may be achieved through improving the public transportation system.
The Participatory City: Participatory approaches to placemaking for public space design This research project explores the role of public participation in the production of local scale public space in Peckham, South London. Inspired by the ‘Right to the City’, the framework critiques the role of power and inclusivity in contemporary placemaking. 28
(top left) Sebastian Barrios; (bottom left) Andrew Chan; (top right) Destiny Conely; (bottom right) Jamie Nayar
Public Art: A catalyst for change or merely a distraction This thesis explores the role of public art as an integral part of place-making. Examining the challenges faced by artists today, including funding difficulties, accessibility of working environments and institutional bias, it looks at the efficacy of artworks in the public realm by considering the importance of offering art within a freely accessible stage of exhibition and its impact on the general population.
Connectivity and the Reuse of Existing Infrastructure to Develop the Public Realm and Contribute to Placemaking
An Exploration of the Role of Computational Analytical Methods in the Urban Design Process This thesis explores the use of computational analytical methods on the urban design process, incorporating emerging real-time digital urban data (Geographic Information Science) to provide an empirical framework to inform reasoned decision-making in the urban design process. It argues that the advancement in technology has opened up new ways to conduct empirical investigations within the rational design process and enables stakeholder participation at the core of the design process.
(left) Jack Luscombe; (top right) Jamie Nayar; (bottom right) Nora Taupier
Connectivity in urban design is defined through three separate aspects: physical connectivity, social connectivity, and ecological connectivity. This thesis brings new ideas and questions to the debate around the topic of adaptive reuse and place-making, and how new types of connectivity can be introduced in urban areas, specifically the Parkland Walk in London.
Masters | MA International Planning and Sustainable Development
Tony Lloyd-Jones (Course Leader), Krystallia Kamvasinou, Roudaina Al Khani, Lindsay Bremner, Robin Crompton, Bill Erickson, Ripin Kalra, David Mathewson, Michael Neuman, Johannes Novy, David Seex, Giulio Verdini, Johan Woltjer Tony Lloyd-Jones is an architect, urban designer and planner involved in international development research and practice. He is Reader in International Planning and Sustainable Development and Director of Research and Consultancy at the Max Lock Centre. Krystallia Kamvasinou is a Senior Lecturer and an architect and landscape architect who has published widely. She recently completed a Leverhulme Fellowship on ‘Interim Spaces and Creative Use’.
MA International Planning and Sustainable Development Students: Tarleen Bansal, Jennifer Beresford, Dhavanit Champaneri, Barbara Chibvamushure, Clare Clark, Eliana Cossa, Dorottya Faludi, Anna Gibbs, Natalia Guerra Molina, Alejandro Henao Mejia, Zuliya Heydarova,
Ragene Palma, Radhika Patel, Lan Pham, Jephin Philip, Svetlana Radviliene, Sarang Raveendran, Colten Redman, Ida Skalnes, Natalie Tyaba, Louise Virrey
THIS COURSE EXPLORES contemporary theories, policy and practice in planning and urban design for sustainable, inclusive and resilient development in cities, regions and communities in a rapidly urbanising world. It spans both developed and developing world contexts, in locations facing a wide range of growing climate change and other environmental, economic and social pressures and risks, reflected in the student project work noted here.
Habitat Partner University, with several students who have worked as interns with UN-HABITAT. The curriculum draws on the hands-on experience of the Max Lock Centre, an international development unit that has been actively involved in action- and policy-focused research across the developing world since 1995.
There are two pathways through the course. The Spatial Planning Pathway has a strong urban design component and an emphasis on development planning. The Urban Resilience Pathway provides a sustainable developmentfocused route with a core emphasis on climate change risks, adaptation planning and natural hazard risk management. Both pathways are grounded in three core modules: Planning in a Globalising World; International Spatial Planning Practice; and Sustainable Neighbourhood Development.
The MAIPSD is aimed at full-time international, UK and EU students, but it is also open to part-time UK-based students who want to explore an international development planning career pathway. The MA course (both pathways) is fully accredited by the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) as a ‘combined planning programme’. Graduates from this course find employment as planners and urban designers, urban regeneration or environmental management specialists in private consultancy, local and national government, and non-governmental sectors in their own country or internationally, including international development agencies.
The MAIPSD is aimed at those with a relevant background who wish to gain an in-depth understanding of planning and sustainable development, whether to improve career prospects in their country or enter UK or international practice. It is aligned with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals and New Urban Agenda and we are a
The course is structured around written assignments and studio-based projects undertaken in group workshops and supported by seminars, tutorials and site visits and a range of lectures delivered by the teaching staff and visiting speaker from the industry. Recent international field trips included visits to Brazil, Indonesia and Instanbul, Turkey.
Guest Critics: Darshana Chauhan (CoPlug), Martyn Clark (Tripleline), Prof. Ian Davis, Tim Edmundson, Sebastian Loew (Urban Design Journal), Prof. Peter Newman, Geoff Payne (Geoffrey Payne Associates), Federico Redin, Robert Sadlier 30
Special Thanks: Judith Allen, Camillo Boano (DPU/UCL), Angelique Chettiparamb, Malcolm Moor, Michael Mutter Prof. Marion Roberts, Prof. Pat Wakely (DPU Associates), Prof. Ya Ping Wang (University of Glasgow) Alejandro Henao Mejia
MA International Planning and Sustainable Development | Masters
THE INFLUENCE OF REGULATORY SPATIAL PLANNING SYSTEMS IN THE INFORMAL URBAN GROWING. CASE STUDY: MEDELLIN, COLOMBIA
Slums are human settlements that lack adequate access to essential services of water, sanitation, urban infrastructure, adequate housing structure and security in the tenure status. It is projected that by 2030 a third of the current world population will live in slums, especially in cities located in the 47 least developed countries which are facing an exponential population growth (UN, 2003). Nevertheless, the demographic explosion is not a cause of slums growing by itself; this phenomenon is rooted in the urban poverty, the real estate market pressure over the price of houses and land, the financials' hurdles for low-income people to access loans, the affordable house shortages; and especially the failure of planning, housing and land policies to narrow down the gap to afford a legal shelter what ends up pushing low-income communities to squat. This research explores the direct incidence of regulatory spatial planning systems in the increasing number of squatting areas in developing countries, having Medellin city in Colombia as case study. The analysis starts by identifying the main failures in planning regulations, planning standards and administrative procedures based on a literature review. This stage is followed by a secondary spatial data analysis that uses Geographic Information Systems to identify the informal settlements growing patterns in Medellin which do not follow the land use zoning for future developments established by the planning authority. To conclude, the research identifies the main weaknesses in Medellin's planning systems using an 'audit for improving access to legal shelter for the urban poor' proposed by Payne and Majale (2004). The key findings are given as recommendations to improve regulatory spatial planning systems that can be applied to Medellin. It points out the importance of implementing more 'discretionary' planning tools that allow communities to propose new developments according to their needs and expectations, to allocate affordable land and housing zones protected from the real state market speculations, to set up financial tools that fit the informal economy dynamics, to ease the planning procedures and the standards required to get planning and building permissions and to move to a more sensitive housing and land policies system that allows lowincome householders to access shelter solutions in the formal market. ALEJANDRO HENAO MEJIA MA International Planning and Sustainable Development
Payne, G.K. and Majale, M. (2004). The urban housing manual: making regulatory frameworks work for the poor. London ; Sterling, VA: Earthscan. United Nations, Human Settlements Programme (ed.). (2003). The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements, 2003. London ; Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications.
Masters | MA International Planning and Sustainable Development
Clare Clark â€ƒ
xisting Pathways to Planning Participation in England and Wales take us nowhere: E Creating a road map for community engagement in a digital age
THIS PAPER POSITS that the legal and practical structures of our existing planning system are not fit-for-purpose, given apparent aspirations for participatory planning and the technological capacity of our digital age. Qualitative and quantitative research was compiled in a political context The paper looks at several key participatory themes: 1. The academic articulation of the importance of planning participation - The contribution of key planning theorists over the last forty years and the criticisms of collaborative planning theoryâ€™s key themes are explored: capacity-building, communication, representation and inclusive participation. 2. The legal obligations and existing government expectations that encourage or hinder participative behaviour - The existing legislative and guidance framework is detailed, and the documentation
where a Government White Paper Planning for the Future effectively threatens a reassertion of top-down planning in the built environment and an abandonment of the participatory experiment to date.
produced by one LPA is assessed for compliance. As the accelerator impact of Coronavirus loosens statutory requirements temporarily, the paper considers whether we are on the cusp of change notwithstanding the potential White Paper overhaul. 3. The general appetite for and evidence of online participatory tools - The paper considers evidence of an appetite for change and key impediments to digital tools being used. Case studies (including Facebook) provide learning points on how they have already been employed in the built environment. 4. Implementing digital engagement in practice - A practical end product involves the creation of two route maps for those LPAs with the appetite and will to engage online.
A Caring Urbanis MA International Planning and Sustainable Development | Masters
Ragene Andrea Palma
Embracing the ‘Other’ through a City that Cares: Recognising impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on London’s Filipino health and care community
THIS DISSERTATION EXPLORES the condition of London’s Filipino health and care community during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing on concepts from the world city, in particular the call for coevalness in London’s coproduction by migrant workers, this research takes interest in how a certain group of Londoners are not equally visible as other urban dwellers. The Filipino community, which has a critical role in the city through their presence in the health and care sectors, is, compared to other ethnic groups, much less discussed in the understanding of the urban.
This research problematises their invisibility, and uses it as a hinge point to investigate how the community coped in the pandemic, as well as how the community fosters care among its members and the spaces they move in. Using
in-depth interviews, surveys and investigative netnography for empirical basis, this research situates the Filipino community in contemporary London, but also reveals longstanding issues – othering, racism, even abuse, and physical proximity in work and homes have exacerbated how they cope with COVID-19.
This research reimagines London: the city has a symbiotic, cyclical duality of hostility and care, and, from the eyes of the Filipino ‘other’, the city has become a cage. This research yields spatial concepts, such as how Filipino relations and virtue ethics create ‘spaces of care’, which, in turn, can be used to rethink how London (and other cities) can become ‘cities of care’.
Th ro ba In gr cit at do ch pr en pa si ch
Masters | MA International Planning and Sustainable Development
MA International Planning and Sustainable Development Theses 2020 contd. Tarleen Bansal
Managing the Urban Heat Island in London Boroughs: A case study in climate change This study focuses on London’s Queen Elizabeth policy and regulation he Impact of Urban Regeneration on T Communities
Planning for London’s LGBT+ Communities: Creating safe and inclusive urban spaces
Olympic Park and questions the efficacy of event-led The study assesses how planning policies can contribute regeneration on the surrounding area and its impacts on to reducing urban heat islands in urban planning, using the three boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Islington and a variety of communities. Hackney as case studies.
Developing Integrated, Inclusive and Cohesive Communities: An exploration of the role of parks for increasing social integration
This dissertation explores the role of parks in society in developing more inclusive and cohesive communities through the opportunities they provide for social interaction, and how good planning and design can maximise their potential.
This paper explores the concept of LGBT+ friendly cities; how the notion of friendliness is used to define LGBT+ spaces, and how a formalised understanding of what constitutes ‘friendliness’ can help create safe and inclusive cities for LGBT+ communities.
Natalia Guerra Molina
Building Community and Social Resilience to Opportunities & Challenges of Implementing Planning Regulations for Climate Resilience in Extend the Benefits of Aid for Informal Rural Settlements During the COVID-19 Pandemic Beira City, Mozambique
In 2019, Beira City, Mozambique, was impacted by a significant cyclone (category 3) that caused massive destruction, across all sectors and heavy damage in multiple infrastructures. The project focuses on an integrated approach of planning and climate resilience for Beira City.
The research uses the case study of informal rural settlements in Chocó, Colombia to evaluate the implications of adopting a ‘Sustainable Livelihoods’ approach in a disaster emergency response framework, rather than the reactive shock relief efforts of humanitarian aid and Government disaster responses.
Alejandro Henao Mejia
The Influence of Regulatory Spatial Planning The Impacts of Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Urban Conflicts in Global Contexts Heritage Buildings on the Sense of Identity and Systems in the Informal Urban Growing: Case study – Medellin, Colombia This thesis recognises the forms of urban conflict in cities Social Sustainability with different global contexts and the major destructive nature they have on the fabric of cities and the lives of those populations. It expores how an urban conflict management framework could offer better solutions to curb conflicts.
Exploring two case studies, the research found that while adaptive reuse generally strengthens the sense of identity in regenerated areas, and may also enhance social sustainability, it is highly dependent on the new uses of the industrial heritage buildings.
This research explores the influence of policies, bureaucratic procedures and strict standards from regulatory spatial planning systems on the affordability of legal shelter for low-income householders, aiming to propose strategies of improvement based on discretionary planning tools.
(left)Alejandro Henao Mejia ; (right) Dhavanit Champaneri :Mala
MA International Planning and Sustainable Development | Masters
Healing our Cities Naturally: A study of planning and policy for nature-based solutions The dissertation focuses on the transformation, of Complex relations have developed between the six in Oslo and London Urban Development and Challenges of PostSoviet Transformation
The Effective Urban Planning Measures that Deliver Sustainable Flood Resilience
post-Soviet states, looking at the decentralisation of commercial functions, socio-economic polarisation and changing urbanisation. It argues that the spatial transformation is due to the socio-economic change that has significantly influenced urban development.
countries traversed by the Mekong River in light of rapid development in the region and increased pressure on the river’s resources to help in their transformation. This study explores, from the perspectives of Laos and Vietnam, how they are managing their desired development goals and their interactions with the river.
Socio-economic Development in Laos and the Sustainability of the Mekong River With growing socio-economic development, Laos has begun to take advantage of its natural resources to serve energy demands in SE Asia. However this comes at a cost to the Mekong River which is facing concerns over its future sustainability.
Influence of Environment-friendly Design and Planning on Improving Sustainability in Modern Cities
g Urban Floods in Kampala’s Informal This study looks at the application of sustainability nts practices in the designing and planning aspects of urban
Through the study of planning policies in two European capital cities, this dissertation argues that if planning policy reflects the many benefits associated with nature-based solutions, cities could be transformed into settlements that better nurtured human physical and mental well-being, while mitigating climate change and improving biodiversity.
Managing Urban Floods in Kampala’s Informal Settlements
This thesis investigates how an adaptive governance framework and community ownership of drainage areas using secondary and primary research methods. service provision can reduce the vulnerability of urban Lan Pham It uses Copenhagen as a case study, as well as primary poor residents to regular flash floods plus enhance A InternationalThe Planning and of Sustainable Development Potential Social Media to Boost data from participants in Greater London. sustainable implementation and management of flood Community Resilience Duringand Times of Crisis ownership of to how an adaptive governance framework community resilience measures in the Bwaise area of Kampala. This thesis on understanding terms of socialto regular flash provision can reduce thefocuses vulnerability of urbanthe poor residents media and community resilience through the importance ce sustainable implementation and managment of flood resilience measures of engagement between different actors, the importance of social capital within community resilience, and the Colten Redman Louise Virrey Green Stormwater Infrastructure: A policy importance understanding crisis communication. NatalieofTyaba l MA International Planning and Sustainable Development The Life after Death of Heritage Spaces:
Managing Urban Floods in Kampala’s Informal Settlements framework for enhancing sustainability for
The social dynamics of the revived Battersea Powerstation, Nine Elms Taking lessons learned Portland, Seattle flash and drainage service reduce the vulnerability of urban poorfrom residents to regular Urban Planning andprovision Climate can Change: Existing communities often see regeneration as stagnant Baltimore in the US, this dissertation has established a enhance sustainable implementation and managment of flood resilience measures Thefloods Asianplus context or even negative as it usually does not bring benefit to Canadian West and Coast Communities An investigation framework community ownership of Jephin Philip into how an adaptive governance
Bwaise area. Theinstudy looks at urbanisation and urban planning policy framework to help implement green stormwater policies in the context of two Asian cities – Mumbai and infrastructure in small North American west coast Singapore. It recommends energy efficiency, stakeholder communities. participation, economic and social equity, and linked policies and laws to integrate climate change concerns into the urban planning and design systems in cities. STUDY AREA: Bwaise is a neighbourhood located 5 km from the city centre is regularly cited as Kampala’s oldest informal settlement Bwaise is a bustling commercial centre of informal activity and residential area estimated to accommodate 35,000 people and 7000 households
NG: ched wetland and in a lowland (valley) waste management blocking drainage system
(left)Natalie Tyaba ; (centre) Eliana Cossa ; (right) Alejandro Henao Mejia a lack of community involvement is currently affecting the legitimacy and resilement projectsCAUSES in Bwaise the findings demonstrate an absence of the primary OFas FLOODING: governance to stimulateon these factors that facilitate a sustainable collaborative 1. Location encroached wetland and in a lowland (valley) :
them and often causes displacement. However, when heritage is instrumentalised in regeneration projects, these have evolved from physical amplification of a place to the incorporation of social and economic factors.
STUDY AREA: Bwaise is a neighbourhood located 5 km from the city centre is regularly cited as Kampala’s oldest informal settlement Bwaise is a bustling commercial centre of informal activity and residential area estimated to accommodate 35,000 people and 7000 households
Masters | MSc Air Transport Planning and Management
Nigel Dennis (Course Leader), Anne Graham, Andrew Cook, Frances Kremarik Nigel Dennis is the course leader and a specialist in airline economics, forecasting, scheduling and marketing; he has served on international committees including those of the Transportation Research Board in the US and the Association for European Transport. Anne Graham is a specialist in airport economics, finance, management and aviation issues related to tourism; she is author of the book Managing Airports published by Butterworth-Heinemann. Andrew Cook leads the department’s air traffic management research and sits on national and international ATM committees; he also lectures on air transport market research and data analysis. Frances Kremarik assists with the day-to-day running of the course and specialises in airline networks and the North Atlantic market as well as air travel statistics and surveys.
MSc Air Transport Planning and Management
THE MSC AIR Transport Planning and Management is a very practical course that brings together academic content with a large number of specialist contributors from the aviation industry. It is uniquely taught in block mode where students attend for modules of five days’ duration, making it very accessible to part-time students working in the aviation industry both in the UK and internationally. Additional activities are arranged for fulltime students in-between the module blocks, including tutorial and discussion sessions, guest lectures and visits to airport facilities and outside events. Students come from a range of disciplines (first degrees have included Economics, Geography, Engineering, Languages and Music). No prior knowledge of the air transport industry is assumed but a passion for aviation is one of the best qualifications taken in conjunction with a formal academic background or equivalent appropriate work experience. Students take three taught core modules: Air Transport Economics; Air Transport Management and Operations; Air Transport Forecasting and Market Research; and three taught option modules, currently from a choice of
four: Airport Finance and Strategy; Air Transport Policy and Planning; Airline Marketing and Business Models; and Air Traffic Management, Scheduling and Network Planning. Students also have the possibility of a free choice module from another suitable programme in place of one of the three options. Most modules include a group workshop or business game in which students apply their knowledge to work as a team in a competitive environment. The Research Dissertation is also a core module undertaken in the second half of the study period. A wide range of aspects of the aviation business can be studied and previous dissertations have covered subjects as specialised as the future of airline catering, demand for commercial space travel, flight booking and payment systems, and the potential for a new supersonic aircraft as well as more mainstream topics such as a business plan for a new start up airline, choice of a new hub for a cargo operator, scope for night time flights on short-haul routes, evaluation of rival commercial aircraft, and environmental implications of airport development.
Guest Speakers: Carole Blackshaw (Aviation Lawyer), David Bowen (SESAR Joint Undertaking), Robert Boyle (formerly IAG), Guillaume Burghouwt (Schiphol Group), Beth Corbould (Civil Aviation Authority), Nick Fadugba (African Airlines Association), 36
Jerry Foran (British Airways), Laura Faucon (Aeroports de Paris), Kelly Ison (American Airlines), John Twigg (Manchester Airports Group)
MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management | Masters
Marzena Piotrowska (Course Leader), Julian Allen, Mengqiu (Matthew) Cao, Jacques Leonardi, Maja Piecyk, Allan Woodburn Marzena Piotrowska is Research Fellow and lecturer whose primary research interests focus on city logistics, urban freight consolidation and transport policy. Her current research centres on the role of urban freight consolidation facilities in supporting sustainable city logistics. Julian Allen is Senior Research Fellow. His research interests include the role of transport policy in reducing the negative impacts of logistics operations, developments in retailing and their relationship with logistics and transportation systems, and the history of freight transport. Mengqiu (Matthew) Cao is Senior Lecturer in Transport and Urban Planning at the School of Architecture and Cities. He has worked in both academia and industry, specialising in an interdisciplinary research field crossing transport analysis and urban studies. Jacques Leonardi is Senior Research Fellow with 19 years’ experience in developing, testing and evaluating sustainable logistics solutions. His research focuses on supply chain energy and global logistics, applying survey methods to evaluate new technologies and policy impacts. Maja Piecyk is Professor in Logistics. Her research interests focus on the optimisation of supply chain networks, GHG auditing of businesses and the sustainability of freight transport operations. Piecyk is a Chartered Member of the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (UK). Allan Woodburn is Principal Lecturer in Freight Transport and Logistics, with 25 years’ teaching experience, and often working on industry research and consultancy. His research focuses on different aspects of rail freight including policy, operations, sustainability and efficiency.
MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management Students (Full time): Magdalena Domagala, Alexandra-Georgiana Gheaburcu, Muhudin Hassan, Paola Kolodziej, Jakub Lempicki, Simona Nedeva, Nwabugo Oradiegwu, Ravi Sahu, Batyr Saparaliev
THE MSC LOGISTICS and Supply Chain Management was introduced in 1998 and is one of the longest established logistics postgraduate courses in the United Kingdom. The course has been designed to combine logistics concepts and principles with ‘real world’ experience, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to freight transport (i.e. product flow) within the supply chain. The course delivery encourages reflective and critical thinking in helping students to extend existing skills and competencies. In particular, students are given guidance on developing their skills for undertaking personal research, and a considerable amount of time is spent by the student on personal study for the Research Dissertation. The course can be taken full-time over 12 months or parttime over 2 years, starting in September. We also offer a Logistics and Supply Chain Management Postgraduate Diploma and a Logistics and Supply Chain Management Postgraduate Certificate. The Postgraduate Diploma usually takes one year to complete full-time, and the Postgraduate Certificate usually takes six months to one year to complete part-time. Each taught module occupies
Students (Part time): Anuradha Ramalingasiva Postgraduate Certificate (PG Cert): Jaideep Singh
a three-hour slot per week. Modules use of teaching and learning methods including lectures, seminars, tutorials, case studies, guest site visits, small group exercises, and group and presentations.
a variety academic speakers, individual
The course attracts a diverse, international group of students, which is of a particular benefit to a programme that focuses strongly on international logistics and supply chains. Over the years, students on the course have come from all parts of the world and have brought a huge variety of educational and professional experience. The course team is highly active in freight-related research and consultancy projects, with a particular focus on freight transport efficiency and sustainability. The curriculum is updated regularly based upon our research which ensures that the course content and overall strategy reflect current issues in logistics practice, preparing students for careers in this area. We work closely with clients and project partners in both the private and public sectors.
Masters | MSc Transport Planning and Management
Enrica Papa, Rachel Aldred, Mengqiu (Matthew) Cao, Tom Cohen, Luz Navarro Eslava, Jeff Howard, Holly Weir Enrica Papa is Reader in Transport Planning. Her research is positioned at the intersection of urban, transport and economic geography. She is a board member of the Association for European Transport and leads the Association of European School of Planning research group. Rachel Aldred is Professor in Transport having joined Westminster in September 2012. Her research interest is in sustainable mobilities, especially active transport, and has been funded by ESRC, AHRC, Blaze, TfL, DfT, British Cycling, CILT and others. Mengqiu (Matthew) Cao is a Senior Lecturer in Transport at the University of Westminster. He has worked in both academia and industry. Tom Cohen is a Senior Lecturer in Transport at the University of Westminster. His research interest is in Transport Policy. Luz Navarro Eslava is a Doctoral Researcher in Transport Planning at the University of Westminster. Jeff Howard is a Doctoral Researcher in Transport Planning at the University of Westminster. Holly Weir is a Doctoral Researcher in Transport Planning at the University of Westminster.
MSc Transport Planning and Management THE MSC TRANSPORT PLANNING and Management course aims to develop the students’ abilities to initiate and undertake qualitative and quantitative analysis and research in the areas of transport policy, planning and operational management.
skills. The course is accredited by the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT), and graduates are exempt from the Institute’s exams. The Course also forms part of the pathway to the Transport Planning Professional (TPP) qualification.
The course intake is diverse in terms of background and sector experience. Students without experience in the sector are enabled to equip themselves with knowledge, techniques and methodologies required to take policy decisions or to provide the necessary information/ knowledge for others to take such decisions. They benefit from learning from the experiences and knowledge of part-time professional students, who in turn benefit from the opportunity to critically reflect on their own practice, and examine transport, policy and planning issues from a wider perspective than their present employment.
Students following this course develop a critical, in-depth understanding of key transport issues, alongside the skills that will help them progress careers within the sector. The course team is in regular contact with key employers, many of whom regularly both sponsor current employees and employ our recent graduates. Such employers regularly provide information about vacancies and come into the University to speak about the opportunities that they offer. Some offer to partner with full-time students on key dissertation topics of interest, for example providing data for analysis, which can be an excellent route into the industry.
The overall objectives are to provide all students with a stimulating academic environment within which to study transport issues, to ensure students are aware of current transport policy and planning issues and to prepare them for a wide range of potential employment within the transport sector by developing relevant transferable
Many of our graduates have progressed to senior levels in management and policy-making, within transport operators, public bodies, consultancy companies and nongovernmental organisations.
MSc Transport Planning and Management | Masters
MSc Transport Planning and Management Theses 2020
Walkability and Equity: Socio-economic consideration in walkability in London Borough of Newham
Phase–Out Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) within the Road Transport System in City Centres (London – UK)
Is Cycling a Beneficial Side Effect of COVID-19? A mixed methods investigation into changes in cycle commuting during the pandemic
Christopher Loughran McMenamin
An Investigation into Incentivising Sharedcycling as Part of a Multi-modal Trip with Public Transport
Reviving London’s High Streets: Pedestrian perceptions in new courtesy crossings
Environmental Sustainability in the Airline Industry: Towards a change in consumer behaviour
Barriers to Cycling in Leicester
Daniel de la Fuente
Parental Perception of Safe Space for Children and Young People on Bikes: Exploring the limits and details of acceptability through parents’ experiences during the spring 2020 COVID-19 lockdown
The Propensity for Active Travel Tool: A framework planning tool to quantify the active travel impacts of residential development
HS2 and AVE Comparative Study: The business case and the wider economic impacts assessed. A literature review case
David William Fevyer
Cycles of Violence: Analysing media discourse in the newspaper reporting of bicycle users and road fatalities*
Disruptive Events and Travel Behaviour: Investigating if the COVID-19 pandemic is a catalyst for triggering travel behaviour change in London?
* Awarded with the 2020 Best Dissertation prize sponsored by WSP
The Workplace Parking Levy: What are the barriers to implementation in London?
Step-free Railway Station Access: The true value of inclusive design
Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Approaches to the redesign of urban mixeduse streets
What Affects Millennials’ Use of Shared Mobility Services in London? Investigating current behaviour and future trends
Incentivising Sustainable Travel: How can new housing developments encourage sustainable travel from day one? The case of the Harlow and Gilston Garden Town
Cycling Injury Risk Variance by Season and Time of Day
Masters | MSc Transport Planning and Management
Cycles of Violence: Analysing media discourse in the newspaper reporting of bicycle users and road fatalities
David William Fevyer
THE DISSERTATION ANALYSES the representation of cyclists in news reporting of road fatalities in the London's Evening Standard using a Critical Discourse Analysis method. The analysis found that reporting on cyclist fatalities was framed in relation to other similar events in order to establish a road safety theme, but that this contrasted with a control sample of articles reporting on pedestrian fatalities that were not so framed. The analysis also found that the linking of cyclist fatalities was narrowly focused upon the cyclists themselves rather than institutional or infrastructural factors that might account for such incidents. This indicated a road safety discourse that occluded a potential road danger discourse through which issues of infrastructure and the relative differences of physical power and protection afforded by different road vehicles might be articulated. Meanwhile reporting on pedestrian fatalities did
not even present a road safety discourse, depicting these as isolated incidents. These insights are important, because the reporting of bicycle rider and pedestrian fatalities shapes public and political understandings of what problems exist, what the causes are, and therefore what policies and interventions might address them. The findings suggest that current news reporting of cyclist fatalities engenders a discourse that misdirects attention from both the objectively measured prevalence of casualties and the wider institutional causes of them. Without representing the road safety problem involving bicycle riders as a road danger problem involving unequal power relations between different transport modes, the public and political agenda to address it remains limited.
Benjamin Stutman The Workplace Parking Levy: What are the barriers to implementation in London? THE WORKPLACE PARKING LEVY (WPL) is increasingly considered among councils both in London and across the UK, acting as a potential transport policy solution to worsening congestion and air quality in UK cities. This dissertation investigates the barriers facing local authorities in implementing a WPL in London. The study uses interviews with council officers, surveys with businesses and analysis of census data. The findings present two key political barriers, including the issues of business and public acceptance, and the short-term view of businesses, both of which create significant risk. The primary economic barrier revealed is the concerns of local businesses, of which the majority surveyed were opposed to a WPL scheme in 40
their Borough. The findings of social barriers gave rise to the issue of social equity, whereby some ethnic groups in London rely more on car or van travel to their place of work than others and are therefore more vulnerable should a WPL be introduced. Three recommendations to policy makers that are currently considering, or may consider in the future, implementing a WPL were developed that address the barriers uncovered in the findings. These are: undertake proactive consultation and engagement; define and explain future plans for transport improvements; and consider implementing a WPL scheme based on PTAL. It is argued that London faces similar barriers to implementing a WPL to other UK cities.
MSc Transport Planning and Management | Masters
Michael Tisdell Where the Rubber Meets the Road: Approaches to the redesign of urban mixed-use streets THE PLANNING AND design of streets has in recent years been characterised by a shift in focus. The transportled paradigm of street planning and design that achieved dominance in the twentieth century has increasingly been replaced with one which demands a greater focus on the non-transport needs of all streets as ‘places’.
A broad review of relevant literature, including policy and guidance specifically related to the redesign of urban streets, is supported by a series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with those engaged in the planning and design of urban streets, from both transport and what are considered here ‘urban design’ specialisms.
The extent to which efforts at a policy level to re-position the design of streets under this new paradigm have been reflected in the approaches of professionals actively engaged in the planning and design of streets is the primary focus of inquiry here. Specifically, this report looks at approaches to redesigning mixed-use urban streets, which carry importance both for ‘movement’ and ‘place’ and are suggested to lie at the intersection between transport and urban design.
It is suggested that whilst significant steps have been taken towards reforming street design away from a dominance of the concerns of transport, real divergences in interests and understandings remain between urban design and transport specialists. An emerging view across disciplines, however, appears to be one which embraces complexity, pragmatism and compromise, with an acceptance that it is in the nature of existing urban streets that any ‘perfect’ solution is likely to remain elusive.
What Affects Millennials’ Use of Shared Mobility Services in London? Investigating current behaviour and future trends
SHARED MOBILITY SERVICES are increasingly becoming a mainstream mode of transport within certain cities across the world. London has seen a rise in these services in both the private and public sphere, but these services are not without their controversies. Therefore, understanding how they will be used in the future is imperative when planning the future of transport within cities. This study aimed to gain an understanding of how millennials use shared mobility services to ascertain any future trends. An online questionnaire was conducted for millennials living and/or working in London to provide insight into whether they use shared mobility services or not and their reasons why. Expert interviews were undertaken with experts who
work with or study shared mobility services or who plan future transport networks. Findings suggest that millennials will have different transport behaviours to previous generations as no generation before millennials has grown up with technology to the same extent. It is recommended that technology should be a priority for transport planning in the future as millennials become more reliant on this when travelling. This technology should integrate shared mobility services as part of a multi-modal transport network. An informed transport decision on the most convenient mode can encourage higher use of shared services and encourage use of other modes away from private vehicles.
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & CITIES
School of Architecture & Cities | RIBA Part 3
RIBA Part 3 Alastair Blyth, Wilfred Achille, Susanne Bauer & Samir Pandya
THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER Part 3 course has over 450 students working in a broad range of architectural practices – more than 230 practices based in London and the south-east. The students come from a wide variety of backgrounds including overseas schools of architecture. Architects who trained outside the UK also attend the course to gain an in-depth understanding of the complexities of UK practice. Following the requirements of the ARB/RIBA Professional Criteria, Part 3 is structured as a series of building blocks with clear assessment points throughout the year. The lectures, delivered by industry experts, and this year delivered online, allow students to balance attendance with work commitments and are recorded for easy future access. Students’ professional development in the workplace is supported by a team of 40 professional tutors – all
architects in practice – who provide one-to-one tutorial guidance on project-based coursework. Professional examiners consistently comment on the high, critical standard of the coursework which we attribute to the structured tutoring system where students are challenged to think about practice differently. The different student backgrounds, as well as the types and number of practices represented on the course, along with the tutors and examiners gives an unprecedented reach into the architectural profession. This enables the course to both draw from the breadth of practice experience as well as contribute to it. The Part 3 Course was validated by the RIBA for a further five years in November 2017 and the Visiting Board gave it a Commendation citing its scope and delivery, dedicated Chair of Professional Practice and dedicated administrative support. It was revalidated by the University in 2018.
Wilfred Achille is Co-Course Leader. Wilfred completed a major study on Broadwater Farm, Tottenham after the eighties riots. Founder of Mode 1 Architects specialising in estate remodelling projects and urban regeneration, he is developing new Turn-key solution business models for architectural practice. Alastair Blyth is Assistant Head of School and Co-Course Leader. He spent ten years in the Directorate for Education and Skills at the OECD developing a research programme on learning environments. Publications include books on Briefing (Routledge, 2001, 2010); and education environments (OECD 2009, 2012). He collaborates with architectural practices in Sydney and Mexico on school building projects. Susanne Bauer is Senior Lecturer in the Professional Practice in Architecture and the Architectural History and Theory courses. She has practiced in offices in the UK and Germany, including Foster + Partners and AHMM, and previously taught at Norwich University of the Arts and Birmingham City University. Samir Pandya is a regular visiting critic and examiner at architecture schools, both in the UK and internationally. Following a career in architectural practice, his involvement in profession-related research has included projects for the RIBA, CABE, the Equality and Human Rights Commission, and the UK Government Department for Innovation, Universities & Skills.
RIBA Part 3 | School of Architecture & Cities
Lecture-based Modules The two lecture-based modules are delivered during the first semester. The lecture programmes are delivered by differing industry experts, including construction lawyers, construction managers, architects and surveyors, and are
repeated to allow students to balance attendance with work commitments. Lectures are video recorded for easy future access. Each series concludes with an open book written exam.
Architectural Practice Management
English Law, Regulations, Construction Procurement and Contracts
This module is delivered as an intensive short course in January with a written examination held in May. The 12 lectures cover general management, marketing, and practice management as well as managing health and safety, different forms of architectural practice and the role of the professional and regulatory bodies.
This module is delivered as a programme of evening lectures from September to December with a written examination held in January. The module starts with an overview of the English legal system, the regulatory framework that architectural practitioners work with, the procurement of construction projects, the range of contracts used in practice and dispute resolution. Throughout the course students are encouraged to place the issues covered in the context of their practice as well as other experience they will have had.
Yara Sharif / NG Architects: Bethlehem Natural History Museum
School of Architecture & Cities | RIBA Part 3
RIBA Part 3 Work-based Modules These are supported by a team of 38 professional tutors – all architects in practice – who provide one-to-one tutorial guidance and act as the students’ professional studies advisors for the year. Tutors arrange a mix of group and individual tutorials as well as provide individual advice
by email where needed. The work-based modules are also supported by a lecture programme. Students may defer submission of the coursework for the work-based modules for either six or twelve months to enable them to respond to their workplace context
Professional Development and Experience
This work-based module tracks and supports the student’s professional development in the workplace. A student’s professional development is discussed with their Professional Tutor who provides guidance on the professional Curriculum Vitae and the Career Evaluation as well as guidance on preparing for the oral examination. Coursework, comprising the CV, Career Evaluation and PEDR sheets, is submitted in June and assessed in July. Students are required to complete PEDRs for the duration of the course and the PEDR sheets are reviewed on a quarterly basis.
Oral examinations for both modules take place in early September, with interviews generally lasting 45 minutes. Professional Examiners are paired and will see six students over a day. Their role is to assess the candidate’s performance at oral only and the interviews are based on the Professional Case Study and the Professional Development coursework submitted. The written coursework will have been marked already and the examiners will see the feedback given to students.
Matthew Bloomfield / Allies and Morrison: Stratford Waterfront sketches and site construction
RIBA Part 3 | School of Architecture & Cities
RIBA Part 3 Work-based Modules contd
The Professional Case Study The aim of the module is to bring together studentâ€™s knowledge of practice including management, legal frameworks, procurement and critically analysis in the context of a construction project drawing substantially on their own experience. It aims to build on the theory studied in the lecture-based modules, and provide an opportunity to make professional judgements. The case study covers the practice, the design team, appointment, regulatory framework, procurement, and the construction stage. Students are asked
to analyse their project against best practice, and make recommendations for future practice based on their analysis. Students submit a draft case study in March and receive formative assessment and feedback in April. The final coursework is submitted in June and assessed in July. Guidance is given on preparing for the oral examination which takes place in September.
Nichola Czyz (left) Quality Hexagon, comparing the factors that contribute to a project's quality; (right) Case study sketch
Beyond Studio |
Arch-ive Dominic Eley https://arch-ive.xyz/
ARCH-IVE IS AN online platform started by Dominic Eley towards the end of 2019, which interviews architects and designers about the literature that has influenced their practice. It aims to showcase architects' relationship with books and the way in which they utilise, interrogate and display architectural resources. The first edition is due to complete at the end of 2020, with notable interviewees including Patrick Lynch, Tony Fretton, Assemble and Alpa Depani. Working from a set of prescribed questions, the interviews often digress into a conversational manner, whereby the practitioner’s life and work is unpicked through a literary lens. This aims to create a loose, yet productive dialogue on the role that literature can play in the creation of architecture and design, ultimately leading to the dissemination of knowledge. All interviews are available at https://arch-ive.xyz/, whilst various social media platforms are used to highlight specific conditions and highlights, as discussed in the interview process.
Arch-ive has very gratefully received funding from the University of Westminster's '125 Fund' to undertake a trip to Belgium, which will be conducted towards the beginning of 2021. The excursion will see Arch-ive travel to Brussels, Ghent and Antwerp to interview various practitioners, aiming to shed light on the literature that has influenced one of the most forward-thinking countries for architecture and urbanism.
During lockdown, Arch-ive took part in the Architecture Foundation’s ‘100 Day Studio’, where a live interview discussed the literary influences of Níall McLaughlin. This discursive dialogue touched on multiple buildings throughout McLaughlin’s esteemed career, including the Bishop Edward King Chapel in Oxford, Phototropic in Northamptonshire, and the Alzheimer’s Respite Centre in Dublin. The recording of the interview is available at the Architecture Foundation’s Youtube channel.
A small section of Ellis Woodman's library
| Beyond Studio
Unsettled Subjects/Confronting Questions: Reading Group Nick Beech
UNSETTLED SUBJECTS / CONFRONTING QUESTIONS is a reading group, based in the School of Architecture and Cities, open to students, scholars, professionals and others beyond Westminster. The group was established in the context of the Black Lives Matter movement and the ongoing challenges we face to recognise the systemic and structural legacies of British imperialism, colonialism and slavery within the built environment; and the marginalisation of dynamic and transformative practices of indigenous and diasporic communities of former colonies and the metropole. The aim of the group is to:
‘provide its members with some terms – some languages – to talk about the things we need to talk about, but find ourselves not talking about, because we find it too difficult: identity, race, ethnicity, gender, sex, sexuality, class, power.’
The group convenes online, and has a growing number of readers and followers. In the summer, the group read Stuart Hall, The Fateful Triangle: Race, ethnicity, nation, edited by Kobena Mercer (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017), and this semester Paul Gilroy, There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack, Routledge Classics (London: Routledge, 2002). Readers are regularly updated with events, publications and resources on the mailing list. If you are interested in joining Unsettled Subjects / Confronting Questions just contact firstname.lastname@example.org for further information. Unsettled Subjects / Confronting Questions is just one part of a wider programme of activities co-ordinated by Nick Beech, Kate Jordan and Shahed Saleem, in collaboration with Neal Shasore, Secretary of the Society of Architectural Historians Great Britain. Nick Beech will be on research leave from January to the end of April 2021, to complete writing of his book From Progress to Possibility: The urban imagination of the New Left. Based on extensive research of published and archival materials, the book argues that the ethics and politics of the New Left can be understood through debates on architecture, arts, and the urban environment.
Reading Group texts, 2020
THE YEAR 2020 has been a remarkable one for our research. Not only because the School continued to produce influential research on issues around the design of environmentally and socially sustainable places and mobilities in urban contexts, but also because of the national Research Evaluation Framework (REF) exercise: a period of intensive data-collection, stock-taking, review, and reflection on research done at each university between 2014 and 2021. The REF-exercise reveals a group of almost 80 staff members involved in producing research relevant for REF and around 45 individuals working on their MPhil and PhD research, the largest ‘unit of assessment’ for REF at the University of Westminster. The size of the submission represents a dramatic increase in the research intensity of the School, more than doubling the number of staff submitted from the previous REF in 2014, and demonstrates representation from all the disciplines that make up the School of Architecture and Cities: architecture, urban planning, transport studies, tourism and events. The principle research outputs (mainly journal articles, books, book chapters and nine design folios) have been selected from nearly 1,000 outputs published and created between 2014 and 2021, and judged by internal and external review; many of these point to world-leading quality in terms of originality, significance and rigour. A supporting element of the REF process involves reflecting on five detailed ‘Impact Case Studies’ demonstrating the real-world impact of practices and
policies in urban sustainability, transport planning, urban planning and tourism. A final component is the REF ‘Environment Statement’. While activities are often London- and UK-based, the School’s research has a strong position in Europe and the Asia-Pacific (South-, Southeast- and East-Asia). A prominent strength for the School is in its ability to submit and run successful research bids. Between 2014 and 2021, it has hosted 82 externally-funded projects, utilising opportunities arising from research councils, EU funding, industry and the charitable sector. REF has confirmed that the School truly has local, national and global presence. The School has leadership roles for influential publications, projects and in international networks for the disciplines relevant to the school (architecture, transport, planning, tourism). Staff members represent the School widely, through visiting scholar- and professorships, peer review bodies, learned institutes, and as editors for globally influential journals. The School has an impressive collection of honours and awards. It is particularly active in organising and hosting conferences, seminar and workshops (well over 100 larger events since 2014), both at the Marylebone Campus and overseas. MORE provides a bit of a flavour of this dynamic and vibrant research culture. A culture we can be truly proud of, and one we should cherish for the years to come.
For further details about our research groups, visit: https://www.westminster.ac.uk/research Johan Woltjer SA+C Research Director
Research | Groups
PLANNING RESEARCH GROUPS
Air Transport & Air Traffic Management Group
Sustainable Mobility and Cycling
This group specialises in the closely integrated research areas of Air Transport and Air Traffic Management. The former encompasses airline and airport research at the level of route planning, economics of operation and competitive analysis. The latter specifically covers the operational practices and management of Air Traffic Control. The team is working on numerous applied research projects and has â‚Ź8m of major research in its current portfolio.
Sustainable mobility research covers topics including planning for sustainable accessibility, transitions to lowcarbon mobility, walking, cycling, wheeling, e/micromobilities, reducing car use, and active travel. The group includes the new Active Travel Academy, and a wide range of funded projects.
Freight and Logistics Group Research in Freight, Transport and Logistics is carried out by a leading international research team with the majority of the projects involving national and international collaboration. It features work for a large variety of partners from distribution and logistics firms and industry, predominantly concerned with the sustainability of freight transport and logistics operations both in the UK and internationally.
Centre for Urban Infrastructure This centre concentrates on the theoretical, policy and applied aspects of urban infrastructures. A particular emphasis is to clarify the benefits of sustainable infrastructures (including transport, green and water infrastructures), their governance, and contributions to well-being in cities.
Max Lock Centre The Max Lock Centre focuses on international sustainable development in all parts of the world, including: public policy and professional practice in urban and regional planning, poverty reduction, management and governance in the built environment, community empowerment and building resilience and the creation of sustainable livelihoods at neighbourhood, city and regional levels. Sustainable Urbanism The Sustainable Urbanism Group focuses on issues of planning, engineering, design, and governance for sustainable towns, cities, and regions. The emphasis is on the integration of sustainability, infrastructure and urban development. Tourism and Events Group The Tourism and Events Research Group has a track record in city tourism, mega-events, sport events/tourism, and air transport research, as well as emerging interests in experience design and sustainable tourism/events. Their work is internationally focused, reflecting the cosmopolitan profile of staff and host city.
Groups | Research
ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH GROUPS
Architectural History and Theory
Experimental Practice (EXP)
The group explores the ‘what, why, how and for whom?’ of architectural and building custom and practice, and the various changing meanings and interpretations which have been placed upon them both in the past and in contemporary culture. Members of the group are engaged in a wide range of research into architectural history and theory, cultural studies, urbanism and heritage.
The group supports and promotes research in innovative and experimental architecture. It explores the experimental projects – buildings, books, artworks, imaginary, ‘paper’ and teaching projects – which act as a laboratory for the architectural profession.
Human Architecture Group The group draws together closely related strands of research in the School of Architecture + Cities: environmental and ecological design, and practice driven research into the history and technological development of architecture. Specific areas of interest include novel construction technologies, innovative and efficient material use, systems building design, day-lighting, acoustics and airquality all in relation to human perception, well-being and comfort. Expanded Territories This group is an umbrella for researchers, scholars and designers working in and around architecture, such as global mobilities, rural landscapes, resource extraction sites, and the atmosphere. Framed by an awareness of the planetary scale of urbanisation, the discovery of the anthropocene, and the ethical imperative to work with the agency and rights of human and non-human actants in the shaping of built environments, it evokes an innovative cultural project rather than merely a research field.
Representation, Fabrication and Computing In an age in which digital technology has facilitated a wealth of new opportunities for creative practice, it has never been more important to question the role of architectural representation. Cutting across disciplinary boundaries, scholars, teachers and designers explore the nature of drawing and making in their broadest sense, encompassing a range of activities from historical analysis and the science of visual perception, to design-based research and the exploration of innovative new fabrication technologies. Production of the Built Environment (ProBE) ProBE is a joint initiative between the Westminster Business School and the School of Architecture + Cities. The Centre has a rich programme of activities, including research projects, oral history, film, exhibitions, seminars and other events. It provides a focus for interdisciplinary and international activity related to the production of the built environment as a social process.
Research | Publications
Selected Staff Publications and Research Proceedings, REF 2020
Bottazzi, R. 2018. Digital Architecture Beyond Computers: Fragments of a Cultural History of Computational Design. (London: Bloomsbury Academic) Bremner, L. (ed.) 2019. Monsoon [+ other] Waters. (London: University of Westminster, London Monsoon Assemblages) Jordan, K. and Lepine, A. (eds) 2018. Modern Architecture for Religious Communities, 1850-1970: Building the Kingdom. (London: Routledge) Pandya, S. (ed.) 2018. Architecture and Nation (London: Taylor & Francis) Rattenbury, K. 2018. The Wessex Project: Thomas Hardy, Architect. (London: Lund Humphries) Saleem, S. 2018. The British Mosque: An architectural and social history. (Swindon: Historic England) Sharif, Y. 2017. Architecture of Resistance: Cultivating Moments of Possibility Within the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict. (London: Routledge) Spencer, D. 2016. The Architecture of Neoliberalism: How Architecture Became an Instrument of Control and Compliance. (London: Bloomsbury Academic) Stringer, B. (ed.) 2018. Rurality Re-imagined: Villagers, Farmers, Wanderers and Wild Things. (San Francisco: ORO Editions)
Chapters in Books
Ayuso, A. 2015. ‘Adventures in Angelic Material Imagination: The Baroque and the Digital as Recounted by Putto_1435’. in: Mindrup, M. (ed.) The Material Imagination: Reveries on Architecture and Matter. (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate). pp. 197-214. Bauer, S. 2015. ‘The Default Materiality of Whiteness in Southern Modernism and its Connection to the International Style’. in: Leal, J.C., Maia, M.H. and Farré Torras, B. (eds) Southern Modernisms: from A to Z 54
and back again. (Porto: CEAA/ESAP-CESAP; Lisbon: IHA/FCSH-UNL). pp. 299-324 Charrington, H. 2016. ‘Artek and the Aalto Atelier in Postwar Finland’. in: Stritzler-Levine, N. (ed.) Artek and the Aaltos. (New Haven: Yale University Press). pp. 573-604 Griffiths, S. 2020. ‘Architecture Without Plans’. in: Soberg, M. and Hougaard, A. (eds) The Artful Plan. (Basel: Birkhauser). Inkson, C. 2019. ‘Unplanned Expansions: Renting Private Homes to Tourists’. in: Smith, A. and Graham, A. (eds) Destination London. (London: University of Westminster Press). pp. 37-59 Lau, C. 2019. ‘A contemporary reading of the Accession Day Tilts in relation to festival and the Elizabethan notion of “lost sense of sight”’. in: Brown, J., Frost, C. and Lucas, R. (eds) Architecture, Festival and the City. (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge). pp. 35-48 Laws, C. and Deverell, K. 2019. ‘Events management for the end of life: mortality, mourning and marginalisation’. in: Walters, T. and Jepson, A.S. (eds) Marginalisation and Events. (London: Routledge). pp. 222-241 Spankie, R. 2019. ‘Within the Cimeras: Spaces of Imagination’. in: Psarra, S. (ed.) The Production Sites of Architecture. (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge). pp. 42-58 Williams, J. 2016. ‘Site parade’. in: Brown, J.B., Harriss, H., Morrow, R. and Soane, J. (eds) A gendered profession: the question of representation in space making. (London: RIBA). pp. 79-85
Aldred, R., Croft, J. and Goodman, A. 2019. ‘Impacts of an active travel intervention with a cycling focus in a suburban context: One-year findings from an
evaluation of London’s in-progress mini-Hollands programme’. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 123, pp. 147-169. Alkhani, R. 2020. ‘Understanding Private-Sector Engagement in Sustainable Urban Development and Delivering the Climate Agenda in Northwestern Europe – A Case Study of London and Copenhagen’. Sustainability. 12(20), 8431. Allen, J., Bektas, T., Cherrett, T., Bates, O., Friday, A., McLeod, F., Piecyk, M., Piotrowska, M. and Wise, S. 2018. ‘The scope for pavement porters: addressing the challenges of last-mile parcel delivery in London’. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2672 (9), pp. 184193. Bailey, N. and Pill, M. 2015. ‘Can the state empower communities through localism? An evaluation of recent approaches to neighbourhood governance in England’. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. 33 (2), pp. 289-304. Balm, S., Browne, M., Leonardi, J. and Quak, H. 2014. ‘Developing an evaluation framework for innovative urban and interurban freight transport solutions’. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 125, p. 386–397. Beech, N. 2017. ‘Social Condensation in the Metropole: Locating the First New Left’. Journal of Architecture. 22 (3), pp. 488-511. Blyth, A. and Velissaratou, J. 2019. Analytical Framework for Case Study Collection. Paris: OECD Publishing. Bremner, L. 2020. ‘Sedimentary logics and the Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh’. Political Geography. 77, p. 102109 102109. Cao, M. and Hickman, R. 2018. ‘Car dependence and housing affordability: An emerging social deprivation issue in London?’ Urban Studies. 55 (10), pp. 2088-2105.
Publications | Research
Cascone, P., Galdi, F., Giglio, A. and Ciancio, E. 2018. ‘Architectural self-fabrication’. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems. 32 (sup1), pp. S39-S53. Cohen: Lovelace, R., Parkin, J. and Cohen, T. 2020. ‘Open access transport models: A leverage point in sustainable transport planning’. Transport Policy. 97, pp. 47-54. Cook, A.J., Delgado, L., Tanner, G. and Cristobal, S. 2016. Measuring the cost of resilience’. Journal of Air Transport Management. 56 (A), pp. 38-47. Cullen: Snyder, K., Cullen, B. and Braslow, J. 2019. ‘Farmers as experts: interpreting the “hidden” messages of participatory video across African contexts’. Area: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society. 51 (4), pp. 779-787. Dasgupta, N. and Lloyd-Jones,T. 2018.‘Heterogeneity and Vulnerability in the Urban Informal Economy’. World Development Perspectives. 10-12, pp. 64-72.
Architecture of Resistance investigates the relationship between architecture, politics and power, and how these factors interplay in light of the Palestinian/Israeli conflict. It takes Palestine as the key ground of spatial exploration, looking at the spaces between people, boundary lines, documents and maps in a search for the meaning of architecture of resistance. Stemming from the need for an alternative discourse that can nourish the Palestinian spaces of imagination, the author reinterprets the land from a new perspective, by stripping it of the dominant power of lines to expose the hidden dynamic topography born out of everyday Palestine. It applies a hybrid approach of research through design and visual documentary, through text, illustrations, mapping techniques and collages, to capture the absent local narrative as an essential component of spatial investigation.
Difford, R.J. 2014. ‘Conversions of Relief: on the perception of depth in drawings’. Journal of Architecture. 19 (4), pp. 483-510. Project Southern Modernisms (EXPL/CPC-HAT/0191/2013)
CEAA I Centro de Estudos Arnaldo Araújo and IHA - Instituto de História de Arte, 2015
CEAA - IHA
Dolezal: Novelli, M., Klatte, N. and Dolezal, C. 2016. ‘The ASEAN community-based tourism standards: looking beyond certification’. Tourism Planning & Development. 14 (2), pp. 260-281.
Routledge titles are available as eBook editions in a range of digital formats
SOUTHERN MODERNISMS: from A to Z and back again Joana Cunha Leal Maria Helena Maia Begoña Farré Torras Editors
SOUTHERN MODERNISMS: from A to Z and back again
Deriu, D. 2018. ‘Skywalking in the City: Glass platforms and the architecture of vertigo’. Emotion, Space and Society. 28 (August), pp. 94-103.
Cultivating Moments of Possibility within the Palestinian/Israeli Conflict www.routledge.com
The British Mosque An architectural and social history
Dennis, N. and Pitfield, D.E. 2018. ‘A tale of two cities: The impact of airline mergers and consolidation at London and New York’. Transportation Research Record. 2672 (23), pp. 1-7.
Delgado: Montlaur, A. and Delgado, L. 2017. ‘Flight and passenger delay assignment optimization strategies’. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies. 81, pp. 99-117.
Architecture of Resistance
YARA SHARIF is a practicing architect and an academic, she is a lecturer at the University of Westminster and a partner at NG Architects London, an award winning practice that has developed a reputation of working on sustainable community projects with specific interest in issues of cultural identity and responsive design. Her work generally stretches internationally where she mainly looks at design as a means to facilitate and empower forgotten communities, while also interrogating the relationship between politics and architecture. Sharif has cofounded Palestine Regeneration Team (PART); a design-led research group that aims to search for creative and responsive spatial practices in Palestine. Her research by design has been granted the 2013 commendation award – RIBA’s President Award for Research for Outstanding PhD Thesis.
Front cover The minaret of the Brick Lane Mosque, east London. [Author]
Back cover A worshipper reads the Quran at the Sheffield Islamic Centre. [DP143326]
Mosques final dustjacket.indd 1
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The British M
An architectura Shahed Saleem
The British Mosque An architectural and social history Shahed Saleem
This book presents the fi architecture in Britain, fr the late 19th century to t Key architectural stages alongside the social histo growth. The analysis focu mosque as a new cultura adapted into the existing towns and cities, and ho then impacted its urban and architecturally. The British Mosque is social history, and descri Muslim communities thro built. By presenting this a first time, the book open Islamic architecture. The course from the earliest m conversion of houses, to through to purpose-built the emergence of an Islam in Britain. The mosque is not so architectural style, but a cultural meaning. The bo observation into the char practice and how these h buildings. The future of I is also considered, and h growing cultural and soc Muslim communities.
Shahed Saleem is an arch at the University of Westm
Research | Publications
Selected Staff Publications and Research Proceedings, REF 2020
Graham, A., Kremarik, F. and Kruse, W. 2020. Orefice, C. 2018. ‘Designing for Events – A new ‘Attitudes of Ageing Passengers to Air Travel Since perspective on event design’. International Journal of the Coronavirus Pandemic’. Journal of Air Transport Event and Festival Management. 9 (1), pp. 20-33. Management. 87 101865. Pandya, Samir 2020. ‘Affective disorder: architectural Gurtner: Bongiorno, C., Gurtner, G., Lillo, F., Mantegna, design for complex national identities’. National R.N. and Miccichè, S. 2017. ‘Statistical characterization Identities. 22 (4), pp. 441-462. of deviations from planned flight trajectories in Papa, E. and Bertolini, L. 2015. ‘Accessibility and air traffic management’. Journal of Air Transport Transit-Oriented Development in European Management. 58, pp. 152-163. metropolitan areas’. Journal of Transport Geography. 47 Kalra, R. 2020. ‘Can urban ponds help tackle domestic (July), pp. 79-83. water scarcity and build resilience?’ Journal of Regional Pappalepore: Duignan, M.B., Pappalepore, I. and and City Planning. 31 (2), pp. 180-198. Everett, S. 2019. ‘The “Summer of Discontent”: Kamvasinou, K. 2017. ‘Temporary Intervention and Exclusion and Communal Resistance at the London Long Term Legacy: Lessons from London Case 2012 Olympics’. Tourism Management. 70, pp. 355Studies’. Journal of Urban Design. 22 (2), pp. 187-207. 367. Lau, B.: Hossain, M., Lau, B., Wilson, R. and Ford, B. 2017. ‘Effect of changing window type and ventilation strategy on indoor thermal environment of existing garment factories in Bangladesh’. Architectural Science Review. 60 (4), pp. 299-315. Mathewson, D. 2018. ‘Historic Institutionalism and Urban Morphology in Jakarta: Moving Towards Building Flood Resiliency into the Formal Planning and Development System’. Journal of Regional and City Planning. 29 (3), pp. 188-209. Morgan: Jackson, C., Morgan, J. and Laws, C. 2018. ‘Creativity in Events: the untold story’. International Journal of Events and Festival Management. 9 (1), pp. 2-19. Neuman: Webb, R., Bai, X., Smith, M., Costanza, R., Griggs, D., Moglia, M., Neuman, M., Newman, P., Newton, P., Norman, B., Ryan, C., Schandl, H., Steffen, W., Tapper, N. and Thomson, G. 2018. ‘Sustainable Urban Systems: Co-design and Framing for Transformation’. Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. 47 (1), pp. 57-77.
Tankard, J. 2020. ‘A Few People, a Brief Moment in Time: Architectural Education Experiments 1987-91’. Charrette. 6 (1), pp. 93-120. Verdini, G. 2015. ‘Is the incipient Chinese civil society playing a role in regenerating historic urban areas? Evidence from Nanjing, Suzhou and Shanghai’. Habitat International. 50, pp. 366-372. Wall, C. 2018. ‘“Nuclear prospects”: the siting and construction of Sizewell A power station 1957-1966’. Contemporary British History. 33 (2), pp. 246-273.
Watson, V.A. 2018. ‘Rurality and Minimal Architecture: An inquiry into the genealogy of Tate Modern’s Piecyk: Holden, R., Xu, B., Greening, P., Piecyk, M. and Bankside gallery spaces’. AJAR: Arena Journal of Dadhich, P. 2016. ‘Towards a common measure of Architectural Research. 3 (1), p. 4. greenhouse gas related logistics activity using data Wilkinson, C. 2020. ‘Distortion, illusion and envelopment analysis’. Transportation Research Part A: transformation: the evolution of Dazzle Painting, a Policy and Practice. 91, pp. 105-119. camouflage system to protect Allied shipping from Richens, P., Bhooshan, S., Bhooshan, V., ElSayed, M., Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 1917–1918’. Chandra, S. and Shepherd, P. 2015. ‘Applying dynamic Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia relaxation techniques to form-find and manufacture de Arte et Educatione. 14 (No 304), pp. 5-15. curve-crease folded panels’. Simulation: Transactions of Woltjer: Rahayu, P., Woltjer, J. and Firman, T. 2019. the Society for Modeling and Simulation International. ‘Water Governance in Decentralising Indonesia’. 91 (9), pp. 773-786. Urban Studies. 56 (14), pp. 2917-2934. Roberts, M. 2017. ‘Urban design, central London and Woodburn, A.G. 2019. ‘Rail network resilience the ‘crisis’ 2007-2013: business as usual?’ Journal of and operational responsiveness during unplanned Urban Design. 22 (2), pp. 150-166. disruption: A rail freight case study’. Journal of Transport Schiano-Phan: Aparicio-Ruiz, P., Schiano-Phan, R. and Geography. 77, pp. 59-69. Salmeron-Lissen, J.M. 2018. ‘Climatic applicability Zhang, J. 2019. ‘Towards a New Normal: The Blurred of downdraught evaporative cooling in the United Landscape of Architectural Research in China’. States of America’. Building and Environment. 136, pp. Architectural Design. 89 (3), pp. 120-125. 162-176.
Smith, A. 2019. ‘Justifying and resisting public park Novy, J. 2018. ‘“Destination” Berlin revisited. From commercialisation: The battle for Battersea Park’. (new) tourism towards a pentagon of mobility European Urban and Regional Studies. 26 (2), pp. 171and place consumption’. Tourism Geographies: An 185. International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment. 20 (3), pp. 418-442. 56
Stevenson, N. and Farrell, H.C. 2018. ‘Taking a hike: Exploring leisure walkers embodied experiences’. Social and Cultural Geography. 19 (4), pp. 429-447.
Publications | Research
Research | Expanded Territories
Monsoon Assemblages Lindsay Bremner Principal Investigator: Professor Lindsay Bremner Post Doctoral Research Fellow: D r Beth Cullen (anthropologist) Research Fellow: C hristina Geros (architect, landscape architect) Research Associate: John Cook (architect) PhD: Harshavardhan Bhat (political scientist) and Anthony Powis (architect) MArch Studio DS18: Aligned with the project 2016-2018
Monsoon Assemblages is a research project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No. 679873).
THE AMBITION OF this research project has been to enquire into changing monsoon climates in three of South Asia’s rapidly growing cities – Chennai, Dhaka and Yangon. This has been undertaken at a time when climate change and urban development have conspired to produce unlikely futures for urban survival. Extreme weather events, all attributed to the monsoon’s capricious nature, have resulted with increasing frequency in water shortages, power failures, floods, out-breaks of disease, damage to property and loss of life. In approaching these circumstances, the project has challenged conceptions of the monsoon as a natural meteorological system external to society and proceeded from the understanding that lived social environments are co-produced by it and entangled within it. The project has advanced research of lived environments as emergent natural, social and political assemblages and proposed models for studying and contributing to them through cartographic and ethnographic research. Its research team has comprised architects, a landscape architect, an anthropologist and a political scientist. It has assessed the political, theoretical and aesthetic agendas for the spatial design disciplines and the environmental humanities its approach has opened up, and engaged critically with the climate change adaption paradigm through the idea of climate co-production. MONASS ran MArch design studios in the School of Architecture and Cities for three years from 2016 to 2018, the first in Chennai, the second in Dhaka, and the third in Yangon. It is currently preparing an online exhibition of its work, which will be launched in March 2021 alongside an artists residency, a series of public events and a limited exhibition in Ambika P3. 58
(top) Lindsay Bremner: Arun Villa Rooftop, Chennai, 13 July 2017; (centre) Beth Cullen: Field work in Chennai, students from the Department of Architecture, University of Westminster, 4 December 2016; (bottom) Beth Cullen: Road to Kanchipuram, 3 December 2016
Expanded Territories | Research
John Cook: Map showing the atmospheric forces over the Arabian Sea, the South Indian peninsula and the Bay of Bengal during the North-East monsoon, November 2015, using NASA Earth Observations, NOAA and NCEP Climate Forecast Analysis data
Research | Sustainable Urbanism
Can Urban Local Ponds Help Tackle Domestic Water Scarcity and Build Resilience? Ripin Kalra Kalra, R. (2020). ‘Can Urban Local Ponds Help Tackle Domestic Water Scarcity and Build Resilience? with Reference to South Asian Cities and City Regions’, Journal of Regional and City Planning, 31(2). (doi:10.5614%2Fjpwk.2020.31.2.5)
FOR DECADES TO COME, cost-effective and environmentally-appropriate water systems will be a priority for managing water scarcity and building resilience in the rapidly expanding cities and city regions of South Asia. Many large cities in South Asia are meeting their growing demands for water by transferring it thousands of miles each day. This study initiates research into urban local ponds and the potential of linking them with water systems to build resilience.
policy support for local rainwater capture, groundwater is over-exploited and urban local ponds (and tanks) have not been integrated with urban water provision schemes, particularly in recent decades. Wetlands and ponds built over hundreds of years in several cities continue to disappear at a staggering rate due to urbanisation. For instance, in the economically bustling ‘silicon valley of India’, Bangaluru, only 10 of the city's recorded 267 reservoirs are currently in a condition to hold water.
A framework of questions guided the research with reference to ponds and prevalent water systems in South Asian cities and city regions. The wider issues of water stress in South Asian cities and the general limitations of prevalent water supply systems were studied through the lens of a literature review. The paper then draws upon observations in three cities in the South Asian countries of Bangladesh, India and Nepal.
It was concluded that local urban ponds can facilitate resilient water supply provision by making them an integral part of the urban waterscape. This paper highlights a multitude of benefits that ponds can potentially bring to urban resilience, in particular by: offering affordable and accessible water provision with low environmental footprint; managing climate shocks or stresses; restoring biodiversity in urban areas; and potentially generating new skills and livelihoods for communities. The overall suggestion is that local urban ponds should be networked into the water provision for cities and their wider region, thereby linking them to wider arrangements for urban and regional governance and resilience.
The research showed that a majority of the tens of thousands of ponds and tanks that are still visible all across South Asian urban and agricultural regions were the result of investments by philanthropic, governance and community efforts over hundreds of years. Despite
Urban and agricultural ponds are ever more important in resolving water scarcity in fast growing cities across South Asia, yet are threatened by urbanisation
Human Architecture Group | Research
The Architecture of Natural Cooling Rosa Schiano-Phan Ford, B., Schiano-Phan, R., Vallejo, J. (2019). The Architecture of Natural Cooling, (London: Routledge)
THE ARCHITECTURE OF NATURAL COOLING is a practical manual for architects and designers to approach the architectural integration of passive cooling in buildings. The book provides an opportunity for historical and contemporary reflection and a ‘call to action’ in the context of the Climate Emergency that we are facing. As overheating is commonplace in buildings, the book describes how we can keep cool without conventional air-conditioning. Beginning with an historical introduction of the origins of natural cooling, which we refer to as being part of an ‘empirical tradition’, this is followed by a methodological approach to bio-climatic design and to the architectural integration of various cooling strategies, systems and components, with a focus on evidence-based methods of performance prediction at the various stages and scales of design. Part 2 focuses on contemporary and pioneering case studies which employ various cooling strategies. These were analysed post-occupancy, allowing identification of emerging performance issues and useful lessons to be learned for future improvements in design practice and building operation. The case studies cover a wide range of climates and strategies. These buildings, although small in scale, are significant in what they represent in terms of performance, occupants’ perception and architectural integration. They have been reviewed based on the design intent they respond to, climatic context, cooling strategy and their performance, as perceived by the building's occupants. Caution must be taken when comparing case studies which are in very different contexts from each other, both climatically and culturally. Nevertheless, the overall conclusions relate to the importance of strategic design (role of the architect) and building operation (role of the user, maintenance and control). :Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling (PDEC), SDE 2010, Madrid
Research | Architectural History & Theory
Artists Hidden from Human Gaze Kate Jordan Jordan, K. (2020). ‘Artists Hidden From Human Gaze: Visual Culture and Mysticism in the Nineteenth-Century Convent’, British Catholic History, 35 (2), pp. 1-31. (doi: 10.1017/bch.2020.18)
THE ARTICLE 'Artists Hidden from Human Gaze: Visual culture and mysticism in the nineteenth-century convent', offers a reading of nineteenth-century Roman Catholic theology through the sacred art produced by and for nuns. The practices and devotions that the article explores, however, are not those that drew from the institutional Church but rather from the legacies of mysticism: convents were seats of mystic theology until the Counter-Reformation and much of the literature of medieval and early modern mysticism was written by nuns. Scholars have proposed that mysticism was stripped of its intellectual legitimacy and relegated to the margins of theology by post-Enlightenment rationalism, thereby consigning female religious experience to the politically impotent private sphere. The article suggests, however, that, although the literature of women’s mysticism entered a period of decline from the end of the Counter-Reformation, an authoritative female tradition, expressed in visual and material culture, continued into the nineteenth century and beyond. The art that emerged from convents reflected the increasing visibility of women in the Roman Catholic Church and the burgeoning of folkloric devotional practices and iconography. This article considers two paintings as evidence that, by the nineteenth century, the aporias of Christian theology were consciously articulated by women religious through the art that they made: works which, in turn, shaped the creed and culture of the institutional Church. In so doing, the article contributes to the growing body of work on the material culture of religion.
A key contribution that this article makes to scholarship is the first close reading of the highly influential 'miraculous' fresco, Mater Admirablis, which is in the Trinità dei Monti convent in Rome and was painted in 1844 by Pauline Perdrau, a novice nun who was trained by members of the Nazarene of School. Jordan worked with the art historian and Nazarene scholar, Cordula Grewe, to uncover new information on Perdrau and her relationship with the Lukasbund.
Pauline Perdrau's 'Mater Admirablis' fresco, Trinità dei Monti, Rome [photo: Kate Jordan]
Interior Architecture | Research
Travelling Companions Ro Spankie arbart.crassh.cam.ac.uk/travelling-companions-online-exhibition/
TRAVELLING COMPANIONS WAS an exhibition conceived by Ro Spankie, in collaboration with two artists: Fay Ballard and Judy Goldhill. It opened on 2 March 2020 at the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) building, University of Cambridge, and remains closed due to COVID-19 until further notice.
We are on less familiar ground when we consider objects as companions to our emotional lives or as provocations to thought.’
The exhibition explored these ideas, contrasting the work of the two artists. Fay’s mother died on a family holiday in Spain when she was seven years old. The work exhibited is a series of intricate pencil drawings of objects belonging In her book Evocative Objects: Things we think with, to her mother that she found when clearing her father’s Professor Sherry Turkle, a psychologist at MIT, suggests house forty years later. In contrast, Judy photographs the that objects act as emotional and intellectual companions expanse of the night sky, utilising the massive observatories that anchor memory, sustain relationships, and provoke and telescopes that allow us to look beyond this new ideas. ‘We find it familiar to consider objects as world. Traditionally, constellations of stars have acted as useful or aesthetic, as necessities or vain indulgences. navigational tools, guiding travellers and giving direction, acting as a different sort of travelling companion to Fay’s more domestic objects. From a souvenir fan charged with significance, to a star guiding you across the globe, the exhibition contrasted the two scales, the personal and the collective, exploring how familiar objects act as travelling companions, both in the present and as remembered (internalised) objects, their function and the stories they tell changing over the course of a life time. Alongside the exhibition fellow travellers were invited to describe their travelling companions in image and text. Released in digital format, these can be viewed online. Ranging from representations of self, of home, of someone loved, to more practical things that the individual cant travel without, these objects both expanded on ideas in the exhibition and formed the basis of a Symposium entitled ‘Who or What is Your Travelling Companion?’
Two Interiors: A photograph of the interior of the MacMath-Pierce Solar telescope at Kitt Peak in Arizona by Judy Goldhill hanging next to a pencil and crayon drawing of a Playtex Girdle by Fay Ballard [photo: Ro Spankie]
Research | Architectural History & Theory
Affective Disorder: Architectural design for complex national identities Samir Pandya Pandya, S. (2020). ‘Affective Disorder: Architectural design for complex national identities’, National Identities, 22 (4) special issue ‘Architecture, Nation, Difference’, pp. 441-462. (doi: 10.1080/14608944.2020.1812826)
Other contributors to ‘Architecture, Nation, Difference’: Clare Melhuish, Sarah Milne, Shahed Saleem and Victoria Watson.
'ARCHITECTURE, NATION, DIFFERENCE', a special issue of the journal National Identities, 22(4) – edited by Samir Pandya – explores the hermeneutic potential of architecture's relationship with national identity. It advocates neither for ‘nation’ nor ‘identity’, conceding that both are reductive concepts founded upon exclusion, and that architecture which advances ideas of national identity will be complicit. The featured articles reveal, complexify, or transgress the oppressive bond between architecture and national identity and, although thematically divergent, they share two key concerns. Firstly, an interest in how ‘difference’ disrupts narratives of nationhood in architectural contexts. One aim in this respect is the identification of counter-hegemonic practices which articulate voices and values excluded by dominant power structures and cultural representations of nationhood. The second concern is the deprivileging of form as the primary source for advancing our understanding of architectural nationalism. Rather than suggest its lack of agency, the deprivileging of form annunciates the need for a rigorous and conceptually ambitious grasp of relations between form, context and exteriority vis á vis collective, large-scale and long-range forms of identity.
Australia, which relies on formal incoherence to represent the plurality of national identity. This in turn leads to a consideration of ‘affect’ as a non-reductive design hermeneutic through which to reflect the lived plurality of ‘nation-space’. This consideration is extended through a second building study – the Institut du Monde Arabe – utilised to examine the relationship between form (representation) and affect (non-representation) and the relative merits their association may bring to a re-thinking of design in contexts of complex national identities.
Pandya's article, ‘Affective Disorder: Architectural Design for Complex National Identities’, speculates on the relationship between built form and the experience of difference. It critically examines the use of postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha's conceptualisation of nation to frame specific works of architecture in the writing of Felipe Hernández. This analysis is used as the foundation for two building studies. Firstly, the National Museum of
48°50'56.8"N 2°21'25.7"E [photo: Samir Pandya]
Architectural History & Theory | Research
Architecture and Faux-nationalism: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Gavin Stamp Victoria Watson Watson, V. (2020). ‘Architecture and Faux-nationalism: Reflections on a remark made by the British architectural historian Gavin Stamp about the German-American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’, National Identities, 22 (4) special issue ‘Architecture, Nation, Difference’, pp. 471-478. (doi: 10.1080/14608944.2020.1803576)
WHEN I WAS INVITED to contribute to the special edition of National Identities: Architecture, Nation, Difference, I saw it as an opportunity to further my research into the phenomenon of the avant-garde. Avant-garde is interesting in the context of national identity because the avant-garde outlook is hostile to all identifiers, or differentiators, that are not freely chosen, whether they are determined politically, socially, culturally, biologically, or in any other way one cares to mention. In critical discourses, where architecture, nation and difference are debated, the avant-garde spirit has become neglected, or is treated superficially and misunderstood. I was able to introduce the avant-garde into my National Identities article, because I focused on the nationalistic slur, aimed at the avant-garde architect Mies van der Rohe, by the ‘young fogey’ architectural historian Gavin Stamp. Stamp hated Mies’ proposal for a glass tower and open plaza for a site in the City of London, opposite Mansion House (today the site is famous for the building by James Stirling, known as no.1 Poultry). Stamp was smart enough to realise he could not counter Mies’ avant-garde architecture with a direct, anti-avant-garde attack – in short, because avant-garde is inherently negative and thrives on direct, negative critique, which mirrors and completes it. As a kind of short-cut to criticality, Stamp constructed a fauxnationalist argument, based on a superficial attack on Mies’ national identity. He claimed, because Mies was German, so too was his proposal and therefore, by implication, inappropriate for a site at the heart of the British capital city. In fact, at the time Mies worked on the proposal, he was not German, he had become an American citizen long before the opportunity to design a building for London arose. However, Mies’ nationality was beside the point; it was his avant-garde spirit that upset Stamp and is what my article tried to show. Mies van der Rohe’s proposal for the London City site. [photo of the model shown at the RIBA exhibition: 'Mies van der Rohe + James Stirling: Circling the Square', The Architecture Gallery, RIBA, 8 March - 25 June 2017]
Research | EXP
REF Architecure Design Folios Kester Rattenbury
ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE, PURSUED at high level, offers characteristics essential to research: originality, rigorous testing, new contributions to knowledge, peer review and real significance. Yet much of the knowledge generated remains tacit: embodied in building projects or ongoing investigations, shared using sophisticated, but rarely explained, professional and cultural skills and networks of information which themselves vary substantially because of the range of design work, and the vast range of knowledge contexts across which any given practice may operate. Despite a culture which typically shares and disseminates its working processes and projects, itâ€™s extremely rare for designers to have to set out their work in terms of research: of research questions, methodologies, findings, outputs and explicit contribution to knowledge. Yet these all exist and, periodically, the Research Excellence Framework asks us to complete this audit. Drawing on the Practice-based research methodologies developed at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, the 2021 REF submission process set up a series of public and private forums, with critical discussion, writing and editing support to enable the highly diverse, rich and impressive work generated by our superlative design and teaching staff working across so many different fields to be set out publicly for the impressive contributions to knowledge they represent.
The work showcased here includes: the substantial body of innovative and award-winning built housing projects which offer a real alternative to commercially driven housing provision in London; a small award-winning Womenâ€™s Centre in flood-prone rural Bangladesh which tested improvisatory co-design methodologies; a prototype for remodelling and environmentally upgrading the 1.7 million 1960s detached houses in the UK; an ambitious and muchacclaimed series of projects linking digital innovation, new compostable materials and crowd-funded procurement methods; an internationally-acclaimed body of live research exploring the possibilities of the garden as a device for stitching, healing and empowering, working both on the ground in occupied Palestine and through international exhibitions; the development and construction of a new typology through the worldâ€™s largest commercial cohousing project; a rewilding project in rural France which fuses New Materialist thinking with architectural practice to propose a new model for environmental architecture; a series of tiny projects for local schools in London which demonstrate new kinds of school building projects optimising tiny resources in the age of austerity; and a series of digitally-based knowledge exchange platforms which seek to test and develop new forms of intellectual exchange in the fast emerging digital era.
:Architecture REF design portfolios, 2021
EXP | Research
Research | Sustainable Mobility
Reimagining Mobility: Digital innovation and sustainable transport Enrica Papa
THIS RESEARCH PROJECT explored the impact of digital technological innovation on our travel behaviour. This research was shaped by the context of the coronavirus lockdown and the unique experiment it imposed of a low-travel future, with the potential of replacing physical meetings with connecting to others via digital technology. However, the research has sought to discuss and imagine the future of mobility more generically: to investigate shocks to the transport system, of which the coronavirus crisis was one, through scenario planning. The future mobility scenario exploration was undertaken during an online workshop in March 2020. The workshop explored four future mobility scenarios along two scales: demand and precautions. Forty transport professionals and practitioners from all over the world attended and contributed to the creation of four future mobility
scenarios and common threads between the different scenarios. The workshop used the liberating structures workshop approach pioneered by Keith McCandless, entitled 'Critical Uncertainties'. The main deliverables of the project are: (1) a research report; (2) one article published on the Conversation portal; and (3) one article submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Furthermore, the project activity led to the submission of three large bids (total request fund € 4M). The project has been financed by SCUE Sustainable Cities and the Urban Environment Research Communities at the University of Westminster. Read more at: http://reimaginingmobility.org
The Reimagining Mobility workshop and the online collaborative process of scenario planning
Sustainable Mobility | Research
Transport Equity in Beijing, China Mengqiu (Matthew) Cao Cao, M. and Hickman, R. (2019) ‘Understanding travel and differential capabilities and functionings in Beijing’, Transport Policy, 83. pp.46-56.
THE SOCIAL IMPACTS of transport systems and new transport infrastructure have often been overlooked and undervalued, partly because the relationship between transport and social equity is indirect and difficult to quantify. Researchers have usefully investigated the relationship between transport and social exclusion, focusing on aspects such as access to opportunities and activities by different population cohorts such as income, class, age, ethnicity and gender. The analysis has focused on addressing the imbalance in the distributional effects of transport provision, and accessibility planning has often been a central tool of analysis. This research seeks to build on the aforementioned research, employing Amartya Sen's Capabilities Approach as a theoretical
framework to explore how an individual's capabilities and functionings differ in relation to transport. Beijing is used as a case study, with analysis from three stations on the Beijing subway line 1 and its extension to the Batong line, namely Guomao, Sihui and Tuqiao. Martha Nussbaum's Central Human Capabilities Approach is used to frame the analysis. The results show that functionings and capabilities differ according to an individual's socioeconomic characteristics and geographical location, meaning that both the opportunities to participate in life and also the actual activities themselves differ. This is an important distinction that the Capabilities Approach offers, and it is useful to consider if the potential for achieving improved social equity is to be realised.
Case study of east Beijing – Tuqiao Underground station (a peripheral area)
Research | Air Transport & Air Traffic Management
Ageing Air Passengers: Supporting inclusion within the air transport door-to-door journey Anne Graham Graham, A., Kremarik, F. and Kruse, W. (2020). ‘Attitudes of Ageing Passengers to Air Travel Since the Coronavirus Pandemic’, Journal of Air Transport Management, 87, pp.101865-6. (doi: 10.1016/j.jairtraman.2020.101865)
IMPROVED STANDARDS OF living, nutrition and medical treatment are extending human life expectancy and enhancing quality of life with the result that an increasing number of ageing passengers were travelling by air (up until 2019). This ‘grey boom’ can present certain demands on providers of air transport and airport surface access, and a thorough understanding of these is crucial to ensure that inclusive policies and practices are used to enable ageing passengers to be given equal opportunities to fly as others, and to encourage well-being and mobility for all within an urban context. This is particularly important looking forward given that this age group has been disproportionately affected by COVID-19.
pandemic. A key finding was that the most important factors affecting the choice of surface access transport were ease of undertaking the journey and its overall comfort, rather than its price. In November thirteen in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken to further explore issues identified in the two surveys. This research has been funded by Westminster’s Sustainable Cities and the Urban Environment Research Community (jointly with the Diversity and Inclusion Research Community) and it is intended that it will inform a much larger research project in this area.
Hence the aim of the research was to develop an understanding of inclusivity and ageing travellers in relation to the air transport door-to-door journey. Two online surveys of 1,200 65+ aged UK residents were undertaken in June and September 2020. A key focus of the first survey was on attitudes to air travel since the coronavirus pandemic, with the findings (published in a journal article) having various implications, ranging from the use of selfservice technology, the generation of commercial/ancillary airport revenues and the design of surface access policies. The subsequent online survey was primarily focused on surface access issues before and since the coronavirus
(left) Survey showing factors influencing choice of transport to the airport of UK residents over 65; (right) Waiting for a flight [pexels]
Freight & Logistics | Research
Higher Capacity Vehicles (HCVs) Julian Allen Allen, J. and Piecyk, M. (2020). 'Higher Capacity Vehicles (HCVs) Briefing Report – Executive Summary', SRF Technical Report, CUED/C-SRF/TR16/S.
THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTMINSTER is a member of the Centre for Sustainable Road Freight (SRF), a collaborative project with other UK universities (Cambridge and HeriotWatt), companies (including John Lewis, UPS, Sainsbury's and Volvo), trade associations, and the UK Department for Transport. SRF is funded by the UK Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council and by industry. The purpose of SRF is to research engineering and logistics operation solutions to make road freight transport more economically, socially and environmentally sustainable, as well as assist the UK industry to meet its voluntary pledge to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 15% by 2025 (from 2015 levels) and contribute to net-zero GHG by 2050. As part of SRF, the University of Westminster has recently carried out research into the role that the use of Higher Capacity Vehicles (HCVs) could play in GHG emission reductions. HCVs are road freight vehicles that are greater in terms of volume and/or weight carrying capacity than those currently permitted. The work involved reviewing all the research into, and field trials and implementations of, HCVs across the world over recent decades in order to identify evidence of their advantages and disadvantages in terms of road freight vehicle activity, environmental impact, safety, and operating and infrastructure costs. The research concluded that a well-loaded HCV will, through its greater load capacity, result in a reduction in vehicle journeys and hence vehicle kilometres, and that this in turn will lead to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollutants than conventional road vehicles per unit of goods carried, as well as reductions in total vehicle collisions and injuries. The research has been published as a briefing report to help inform those involved with public policy and corporate decision-making. The report recommends that the UK government reconsider its policy regarding the adoption of HCVs.
Read more at: http://www.csrf.ac.uk/
Centre for Sustainable Transport technical report cover
Research | Sustainable Urbanism
Health, Wellbeing and the City Post-COVID-19 Krystallia Kamvasinou Rachel Aldred Nina Smyth (Psychology, School of Social Sciences)
OUR TEAM FIRST came together to investigate the ‘Reuse of urban transport infrastructures as green space for people’s wellbeing’ when we received seed funding from the University of Westminster’s Sustainable Cities and Urban Environment's Research Community in December 2019. Our project would look into unusual types of green space that have been produced as a result of the abandonment of railway lines or other types of transport infrastructure, and survey their reuse as green spaces/trails for wellbeing-related activities, including active travel and physical fitness, recreation, relaxation and contact with nature. However, as we were getting ready to proceed with fieldwork, COVID-19 hit. Instead of abandoning the research, we decided to take it online, adjusting its scope to an evolving situation.
the current public health emergency as an extreme situation that allows for spatial experimentation, we reconsider two main public realm types – green space/ parks and streets. The research will be ongoing through 2020-2021. We believe that our findings will influence policy and contribute to a growing body of research on wellbeing in post-pandemic cities.
‘Green space in London during COVID-19’ was our adapted proposal. To examine people’s experiences and get an insight into the impact of confinement and of daily exercise, we developed an online questionnaire survey. The survey run from early June to the end of July 2020 and owes a lot to the work of our Research Associate, Ameera Akl. We received nearly 1200 responses which was a remarkable achievement, indicating the importance of the topic for Londoners. Concurrently, we run a survey on ‘running through lockdown’, led by our Research Associate Holly Weir, as well an analysis of Twitter discourse around parks and exercise. Further pilot research has since been funded by the Quintin Hogg Trust under the title ‘Adaptation of the public realm to COVID-19 and the impact on future planning and design of sustainable and healthy cities’. Acknowledging
Parkland Walk, London, 3rd October 2020
Sustainable Urbanism | Research
Globally-Informed City Climate Pedagogy and Practice: Decolonising urban and architectural curricula for effective climate actions Giulio Verdini A project funded by SCUE (Sustainable Cities and the Urban Environment) Community of the University of Westminster (2019), as part of the UN-HABITAT Initiative ‘Planners for Climate Actions’.
University of Westminster Team: Giulio Verdini, Johan Woltjer, Roudaina Alkhani, Nicholas Beech, Paolo Cascone, Sabina Cioboata, Terry Lamb, Michael Neuman International Advisory Board: Olivia Bina (University of Lisbon), Steven Bland (UN-HABITAT), Hassan Radoine (Mohammed VI Polytechnic University in Morocco).
INNOVATIVE FORMS OF climate pedagogy are emerging in urban and architectural curricula across the world. They are more considered of notions of ‘inclusion’ and ‘diversity’, and, at the same time, more inclined to incorporate climate resiliency at the core. This research aims to understand how architects and urban planners should be educated to tackle climate change effectively by adopting a de-colonial perspective. This is based on two considerations: 1. Universities across the world have been challenged as institutions failing to recognise the limits of their knowledge production, and have been asked to incorporate a diverse contribution of people and approaches. This is part of the broad ambition to decolonise Universities.
Taken together, these two strands point to the need to develop a broader (globally-informed) and more context-sensitive knowledge, as highlighted in postcolonial architecture and urbanism. At the same time, it suggests that universities need to embrace an overall transformative education model, which implies reconsidering both the process of knowledge production, and the development of suitable skills, values and dispositions to deliver a more ambitious education for sustainable development, as promoted by UNESCO. This research contributes with interviews, podcast and a BLOG: http://blog.westminster.ac.uk/ccpp/blog/ to the UNHABITAT Initiative ‘Planners for Climate Action’: https://www. planners4climate.org.
2. Urban and architectural knowledge, and therefore solutions for urban problems including climate adaptation strategies, has been predominantly produced in the Western world and, more critically, used in the Global South where most of the urbanisation is today occurring.
(left) The challenge of retrofitting modernist buildings in Casablanca; (right) Overheating and informal settlements in Soweto, Johannesburg
Sustainable Mobility | Research
Active Travel Academy Rachel Aldred Tom Cohen
‘ACTIVE TRAVEL’ IS used increasingly as shorthand for walking and cycling and, though the evidence for the benefits of these forms of travel is now overwhelming, they have tended to receive less attention and funding than they should.
funded project is calculating a road injury metric of risk posed to others for Department for Transport. The Academy is also exploring the scope to make signalised junctions more convenient for pedestrians and asking what the likely traffic impacts of e-scooters would be.
This was the rationale behind setting up the Active Travel Academy which was launched at University of Westminster in September 2019 with the support of the Quintin Hogg Trust. Under the leadership of Professor Rachel Aldred, the Academy combines research, teaching and outreach, all with the aim of increasing access to and understanding of the evidence base relating to active travel.
The Academy’s staff have been busy setting up a journal, Active Travel Studies, that will bring the latest evidence concerning active travel to a wide audience, by offering its publications on an open-access basis. The role of the media in communicating the facts of active travel has also been receiving attention, with the Academy holding the Active Travel Media Awards in November to recognise good practice in active travel reporting.
Below are some of the activities that have taken place at the academy in its first year. Four students have started working toward their doctorates, exploring topics that range from e-scooter policy to the impact of reducing motorised traffic around schools on behaviour. Over the same period, ten transport and planning students chose active-travel topics for their summer dissertation projects. The Academy’s first taught module launches in 2021, with students learning about modifying transport behaviour. Several research projects have been taking place, including a major investigation into the concept and potential of carfree mega-cities, in collaboration with Possible. Another
There has been plenty of outreach, too: the existing seminar series, Cycling@Tea-time, migrated to the Academy in 2020 and was joined by Walking@Teatime. And, though the Academy’s planned 2020 fellowship programme has seen changes due to the pandemic, early in 2020 Francisco Paillie Pérez and Ximena Ocampo from Mexico’s Derive Lab gave a public lecture and conducted a week of research walks, attended by Academy staff and interested others. Finally, responding to a clear need for research in this area, the Academy has just opened a call for research into ‘Justice in and for active travel’.
(clockwise from top left) Active Travel Academy team; one of the Derivas London walks exploring green space and waterways [Photo: Derive Lab]; Research walk choreography; Active Travel Academy Media Awards 2020
Research | MPhil
Sharmeen Khan-Pathan Supervisors: Dr Rosa Schiano-Phan, Dr Nasser Golzari
Re-Addressing The Window: Environmental performance of adaptive fenestration for indian climate
THE PRIMARY FUNCTION of building fenestrations known to mankind is to provide daylight, fresh air and a view. However, with the emergence of mechanical systems, the purposes of space heating and cooling, ventilation and lighting are widely fulfilled artificially. The comprehensive focus of this research is to investigate the role and evolution of windows to date, the factors that have influenced them, their effect on human psychology, and their contribution to creating better living spaces. The Indian government’s scheme of constructing 20 million homes by 2022 and about 15% rise in the use of air conditioning units per year in Indian cities can be directly associated with the persistent shortage in electricity supply which has led to power cuts of around 16 hours a day in mostly rural areas of the country, and particularly during the summer months. Hence, it is of specific importance to undertake this research to understand how windows will
evolve in the future and what their influence will be on design and attainmentment of comfort. This research will contribute by portraying ‘window’ as an adaptive tool since they have the potential to create diversity, flexibility and social interaction alongside providing thermal and visual comfort for users. It will be achieved by readdressing passive design elements prevalent in the traditional Indian buildings, by documenting the current trend in window design and user preference, and by testing the documented windows through computational analysis to understand their impact on the thermal comfort in a modern residential unit setting. Through this study there is a hope to shift the focus from mechanical systems and emphasise on the window as a comfort regulating adaptive tool, to provide the users with the flexibility to control their indoor environment and synchronise with external weather conditions.
Examples of contemporary and traditional windows in India
PhD | Research
Carine Berger Woiezechoski Supervisors: Dr Rosa Schiano-Phan, Benson Lau, Dr Joana Goncalves
The Applicability of Hydroponic Rooftop Farming in Existing Buildings in the Tropical Region
BY 2020 IT is estimated that 43% of the world's population will be living in the Tropical region (United Nations, 2019), increasing the importance of providing not only liveable spaces but food security and resilient food systems. Particularly with growing urban environmental concerns, the potential of vacant rooftop spaces to be transformed into productive areas for food production has emerged as a viable option to contribute to the actual food chain. Hydroponic rooftop farming (HRF) is a lightweight water system with high yield production that demands less water and no pesticides (Lagomarsino, 2019). The system can be integrated into existing buildings' rooftops, which can reduce food miles, enhance buildings thermal comfort and mitigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. The combination of all these factors raises the fundamental question for this research which aims is to evaluate the different HRF, vertical and horizontal, energy and thermal efficiency, and compare it against other systems also
driven by environmental issues (i.e. roof pond, extensive and intensive green roof, double roof and integration of PV panels) in the tropical region. The fieldwork will be conducted on test cells at UNICAMP, Brazil to validate the parameters. Then, an applicability study focusing on urban areas will assess the cultivation techniques to avoid the need for mechanical cooling; this could result in substantial energy and CO2 savings, contributing to tropical regions reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with buildings' energy consumption in the future. The conclusions drawn from this research will validate quantitative results comparing the performance between the different roof systems, whether and to what extent the HRF is able to minimise thermal and energy on the host building and microclimate producing vegetables simultaneously, with a lower environmental impact than conventional agriculture, providing guidance for the application of HRF in the Tropical region.
Research | PhD
Joao Matos Da Silva Supervisors: Dr Rosa Schiano-Phan, Dr Joana Goncalves
Green Infrastructure in Urban Environments: The environmental performance of schools’ open spaces in São Paulo as a case study for tropical megacities THE INSERTION OR withdrawal of nature into the urban design of dense urban settlements can culminate in multidisciplinary repercussions. The impacts are usually complex and multiple and require analysis through consideration of more than one criterion. Accordingly, this doctoral research will be a multicriteria evaluation, so it can be feasible and still provide a meaningful contribution to knowledge. The focus will be on the impacts of green infrastructures in urban environments, using public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil as case studies. To achieve a proper understanding of the mentioned impacts, three main subjects will be studied: comfort, wellbeing and health. Even though there are diverse parameters related to each topic just mentioned, this research will focus on specific performance indicators, aiming to quantify and evaluate green infrastructure effect. The investigation on comfort will be developed using the performance indicator of thermal perception through microclimatic conditions. To measure health, the performance indicator will be air quality, quantifying pollutants concentration. Regarding wellbeing, the performance indicator will be the psychological effects on users, through qualitative work. The doctoral research will follow an overall approach reflecting on applied research (with a pragmatic focus), followed by qualitative studies according to social sciences and quantitative analysis. Quantitative studies will be built from an evidence-based approach to design research (not from a statistical point of view).
The work will aim to explore to what extent can green infrastructure within the dense urban context of tropical megacities improve the microclimate, concerning typology, configuration, layout and areas of vegetation. The final intention will be to propose guidelines which will investigate different typologies, arrangements, and amounts of vegetation in the context of their integration within the urban environment. The proposed generic guidelines will have the potential to be replicated in various contexts with similar climatic conditions and urban characteristics.
City of São Paolo, Brazil
PhD | Research
Mehrdad Borna Supervisors: Dr Rosa Schiano-Phan, Dr Krystallia Kamvasinou
Designing Healthy Cities: The impacts of urban form on concentration of air pollution at pedestrian level
IN 2010 THE World Health Organisation stated urban air pollution as a critical public health problem. The same report accentuated that nearly 4.2 million deaths per year worldwide were caused by the effects of urban outdoor air pollutants. For instance, in a developed city like London, there were more than 9,000 early deaths in 2015 caused by the pollutants such as Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5) and Ozone (O3). Considering the above, this study postulates that there is an association between urban form and urban air quality.
Therefore, the core focus of this research is to highlight potential improvements that can be achieved through the manipulation of urban form which is thought to stimulate a more positive impact on the formation of urban microclimates which can increase the dilution and dispersion of urban air pollutants and respectively reduce its adverse impact on human health. In so doing, this research piloted a study on The Regentâ€™s Place which is located adjacent to one of the most polluted roads in London (Euston Road). The study began with administering detailed fieldwork and spot measurement of both pollutants and microclimatic parameters, which was followed by modelling a variety of real-life scenarios by using computational simulation studies for validation and prediction. The results of these studies will aid the production of a more comprehensive urban design guidance capable of dispersing and reducing concentrations of road traffic and non-road traffic related air pollutants in active urban pockets. In this respect, the timing of this investigation is of particular importance, especially as a result of rapid urban population growth and construction of tall buildings in dense urban centres which have worsened and increased the concentration of urban air pollution.
ENVI-met simulation of PM 2.5 concentration at pedestrian level at Regent Place Plaza, Euston Road, London, 3 August, 2018, 13:00
School of Architecture & Cities | Staff
Roudaina Al Khani
Ruth Cuenca Candel
Luis Delgado Munoz
Gwyn Lloyd Jones
George van der Straeten
Tania LĂłpez Winkler
Chloe van der Kindere
Lola Lozano Lara
Luz Navarro Eslava
Izis Salvador Pinto
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