Energy Matters Winter 2019

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ISSUE 19 | WIntEr 2019/20


A green tomorrow for island ferries n

Park life: where renewable technologies come together n Bigger blades raise transport stakes n On hold: new code slows telecom progress

WELCOME CliMatE change has been making headlines all year and protests such as the worldwide school strike suggest the issue will get much bigger. the Swedish teen activist Greta thunberg has emerged as a global environmental champion, and the UK Government has committed to zero carbon emissions by 2050. Business, and property in particular, will play a huge role in the looming energy transition, and the focus will be on innovation as we look to move to cleaner, greener energy sources. the challenges are at least as great as the opportunities. In this issue we explore the role of energy parks (page 2), efficient homes (page 4), a greener shipping industry (page 6), carbon capture (page 8), how the windpower market is evolving in Scotland (page 16) and what’s involved in moving big turbines (page 20). On page 12 we look in depth at how energy storage is set to revolutionise electricity supply. As we see on page 11, the Smart Guarantee Scheme cannot match the benefits of the Feed-in tariff it will replace. Some subsidy will continue to encourage investment, drive innovation or kick-start projects, but taxpayer-funded incentives are becoming less popular, in the UK and elsewhere. renewable technologies must deliver performance and compete on their merits. We’ll continue to highlight the big issues and explore the detail as we move forward. Mike Reid, Head of Energy

GALBRAITH is a leading independent property consultancy. Drawing on a century of experience in land and property management, the firm is progressive and dynamic, employing 240 people in offices across Scotland and northern England. We provide a full range of property consulting services across the commercial, residential, forestry, rural and energy sectors. Galbraith provides a personal service, listening to clients and delivering advice to suit their particular opportunities and circumstances.


4 A family home that doesn’t need heating, even in a Scottish winter.

6 COVER STORY: How wind and water could power island ferries.

7 Telecomm Code keeps network development on hold.

8 New ways to capture carbon dioxide.

10 A sensitive approach to a major heating scheme.

11 New energy subsidy gets a luke-warm reception.

12 Energy storage innovators.

16 Wind-power in a post-subsidy world. Land use and climate change.

18 Speeding up the switch from pump to plug.

19 New technologies improve surveying.

20 Access solutions for bigger turbine blades. Broadband developments.

22 A busy year at the shows. Improving a private water supply.

Follow us on twitter: @Galbraith_Group Galbraith_ENRGY Like us on Facebook: facebook. com/GalbraithPropertyConsultancy See us on Instagram: Join us on LinkedIn:

Energy Matters is produced by Allerton Communications, London, and designed by George Gray Media & Design, St Andeux, France. © CKD Galbraith LLP.

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Integrated renewable-energy parks incorporating different technologies are the future. Mike Reid reports.

SCottiSh Power’s announcement of plans to connect an industrial-scale 50MW lithium-ion battery storage facility to Whitelee Wind Farm to obtain more power from the 215-turbine site is one of the most ambitious energy storage projects in Europe. the combination of different renewable technologies and battery storage, creating energy parks, looks to be the future for efficient renewable energy generation to fully utilise the available grid connection. We are seeing developers looking to combine energy production from wind power, hydro power and solar power with integrated battery storage and, in some instances, supplemented by gas generators to create renewable energy parks, but efficient, affordable battery storage is the key to being able to maximise renewable energy from any site.

Energy parks: A joined-up solution for renewables

the challenge is finding suitable locations with the potential to host these renewable energy parks.

the US energy storage market doubled in 2018 and it is expected to double again in 2019. Improvements in battery storage efficiency and reductions in costs have helped to accelerate deployment, but the UK market is only at an early stage of development. Integrated renewable energy solutions that incorporate different technologies should be part of the future. ‘Sleeved’ power purchase agreements, in which a utility acts as an intermediary, distributing the energy produced to local businesses, topping up any shortage and handling payments, are a further potential advantage. the challenge is finding suitable locations with the potential to host these renewable energy

parks as it is sometimes difficult combining renewable technologies. However, the technological advances being made in renewables such as solar power are opening up potential deployment in areas previously thought unviable. Historically, grid connections were seen as expensive and potentially a restriction on development, but this cost has probably been partly helped responsible for the drive to develop renewable energy parks in Scotland. 01334 659984 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 3

This is the house that John and Karen built ...and it keeps their family warm for next to nothing When John Pullen and his wife Karen wanted a warm, eco-friendly family home, they consulted an active advocate of ‘passive’ technology. Why doesn’t everyone live like this?

WhEN we told our family and friends we were building our new house in North East Scotland with no central heating, everybody thought we were mad. Moray is known for its pleasant climate but we still get our fair share of snow and sub-zero winters. As I’m Galbraith’s engineer specialising in construction and renewable energy, most assumed we had replaced traditional central heating with some novel heating gizmo. We hadn’t. We had instead appointed a very clever architect specialising in low- and zero-energy houses that don’t compromise on comfort and make the most of the light and views. Kirsty Maguire Architect Ltd is an award winning practice based in Dundee, promoting a “Fabric First” approach to building design. rather than specifying expensive heating technology, by concentrating on the detailing and insulation of the building itself, the heating requirement can be significantly reduced to approaching zero. Any of the tiny remaining energy demand to keep the lights and wifi on can be supplied by small-scale renewables or more traditional means. the low-energy community in Scotland is small but very friendly. Our research took us form Ayr to Ardgay and the message was clear that such construction in Scotland was not only possible, but that everybody should be doing it. Getting the details right took time but it was worth it. the house was no more expensive to construct than a traditional house, nor did it take any longer. As soon as the insulation was installed (more than 300mm in the walls and roof) the tradesmen worked in t-shirts – this was in January and long before the electricity was connected. Four years on, the house is still a joy to live in. A very small wood-burning stove provides hot water during the winter, while simple solar panels provide it during the summer. the household appliances and people generate the vast majority of the heating with the stove on for only one or two hours during the coldest of days. the house maintains a constant 19 to 21˚C all year with a gentle trickle of fresh air constantly provided by a small fan under the stairs. We can also open the windows to hear the birds sing or speak to the kids outside. With heating accounting for more than 80% of an average household’s energy consumption, it makes sense to give this serious thought during the design process. three-quarters of that heating requirement is space heating, so

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John Pullen’s new family home is clad in timber felled and milled close to the site. It is heavily insulated (right) – and the thermal image testifies to its heat effiiciency.

reducing this to near zero represents a significant monthly saving. the remaining heat demand is for water, so gaining around six months free of charge reduces any bills considerably. Our total energy consumption is less than £75 a month. And as well as energy savings, the comfort of a house like this is fabulous. We would recommend that anybody undertaking a new property development gives serious consideration to the low-energy route. In these days of escalating utility bills, total cost of ownership should be factored in right through the design process. Like those before us, once you’ve lived in a low-energy house you can’t help but ask – why isn’t everybody doing it? 01463 245372

LOCAL MATERIALS, LOVELY VIEWS AND NO NEED FOR CENTRAL HEATING Architect Kirsty Maguire explains the thinking behind the Pullens’ house. LIstenInG to John and Karen’s ideas and dreams for a new house at the start of the project, they kept returning to the connection with the surrounding landscape, feelings of light and spaciousness and creating a warm and comfortable eco home. they loved their current farmhouse home and were keen to create something with the same feeling of homeliness but without the challenges and costs of living in a traditional stone house. We explored how best to do this – creating a space they love to be in as well as the technical side of comfort and energy use. We worked with the Passivhaus standard as a tried and tested tool to focus on the building fabric for enjoyment of the spaces, low maintenance and good return on investment. this reduces the energy use to a minimum, removing the need for conventional heating systems and ensuring energy bills are tiny while keeping comfortable and cosy all year. In turn, any renewables that are installed are small scale, reducing capital cost and upkeep. Using the Passivhaus modelling software allowed the clients control over specification and budget choices too.

the house maintains a constant 19 to 21˚C all year with a gentle trickle of fresh air constantly provided by a small fan under the stairs.

the Pullens’ house, located on a rural site a few miles from the Moray coast, is a fresh take on the traditional farmhouse. Designed to reflect the massing and materials of local buildings, it opens up for modern living to the light and views across the surrounding farmland. the layout is compact yet feels light and spacious due to the long views and large volumes inside the home. the doubleheight sitting room opens on to the kitchen and dining room with a seating area above. It is also designed to be extended in the future if required. Materials were chosen to minimise environmental impact, tie in with the landscape, give excellent performance and reduce or eliminate the use of toxic materials. the house has been built from, clad in and is powered by wood. the cladding and fuel are scottish timber with the cladding grown, felled and milled a mile or so up the road. Bringing all these layers to the design creates a high quality building and, as John says, why would you want anything else? Kirsty Maguire Architect Ltd offers a full architectural service from project conception to handover, integrates energy and eco design into all projects and are specialists in this field. The firm also offers specialist consultancy to other architects and designers. | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 5

Wind and water could turn Western Isles ferries green Experts are looking to sustainably produced hydrogen to power sea transport. Katherine Imlay reports.

thE Scottish Government is aiming for a 37% fall in transport sector emissions by 2032. the shipping industry has one of the highest energy consumptions and in order to achieve sustainable transportation, we need to drive towards alternative transport fuels with zero emissions. One solution is to ‘green’ the marine transport sector and leading the way with this innovation is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be a zero carbon fuel when it is made using renewable energy to power the process of electrolysis. Surplus renewable electricity from wind turbines can be used to drive an electrolyser, which splits fresh water into oxygen and hydrogen. the hydrogen can then be stored in a fuel cell to power ferries with 100% renewable energy. the recent publication of the Scottish Western Isles Ferry transport Using Hydrogen (SWIFtH2) feasibility study is the first step towards decarbonising the shipping sector. the study assessed the suitability of using hydrogen produced with power from local wind farms to operate ferries on the west coast of Scotland, with a particular focus on nine ferry routes from west coast islands to the mainland. Wood Group, a multinational energy services company, collaborated with industry experts and

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modelled the size of the wind farm against multiple variables required to produce enough hydrogen for each ship operating the ferry route. the leading example is the Stornoway to Ullapool route, which would need 3,676 tonnes of hydrogen and could be powered using 15 turbines on the Isle of Lewis. the saving in carbon emissions would be equivalent to taking more than 4,700 cars off the road. Green hydrogen has a promising future to add value to local economies through local resources. Scotland has the best wind resource in Europe yet grid export is constrained on many of the west coast islands. Galbraith is currently working on the Western Isles to facilitate wind turbine development where network operators are seeking to reinforce existing assets. nevertheless, there is potential for greater generation beyond current capacity. Production of hydrogen sourced from local wind turbines would not rely on increased grid capacity and might be a solution to the Western Isles becoming a trailblazer in achieving a 100% renewable transport solution. 01738 448141

Telecoms: Code chaos keeps development on hold

the saving in carbon emissions would be equivalent to taking more than 4,700 cars off the road.

New sites and lease renewals have stalled since the introduction of new rules on phone masts. As Mike Reid reports, the solution lies in appropriate payment levels.

thE Digital Economy act 2017 introduced a new Electronic Communications Code to make it easier for network operators to install and maintain apparatus, such as radio masts, on public and private land. Almost two years later you would expect some clarity on how the code would work in practice and new agreements being put in place to progress the Government’s objectives of better mobile connectivity, but the reverse has been the case. Deployment of new sites and lease renewals have almost completely stalled. the code introduced new provisions and it will take time for all parties to adjust to these changes. One of the most controversial aspects of the new code has been the revised assessment of the rent, now called site payment. Whereas previously this was a market rent it is now assessed on the combination of a consideration and compensation payment.

Site payments Operators are assessing the site payment based on the underlying value of the land by taking an equivalent rental return from a whole farm and then apportioning a pro rata payment to the – relatively small – site area required. there have been no definitive tribunal cases to give clarity on the correct level of any site payment but the Upper tribunal case of CtIL v Compton Beauchamp Estates made comments on the assessment of a green field site payment. the tribunal confirmed that it was unconvinced by the operator’s pro rata site payment assessment, commenting that “this exercise inevitably results in a tiny sum when converted to a leasehold annual figure”. However, this is still the approach we are seeing from many operators before they offer an additional small uplift to try to obtain an agreement. It is these site payment offers that are causing the most resistance and resentment from landowners to new sites.

lease terms Landowners are being approached by operators requesting new leases and lease renewals. these approaches for a consensual agreement can appear quite aggressive with the operator often threatening the use of code powers if agreement cannot be reached. the terms proposed by the operators often give them more rights than are granted by the code and limit their liabilities while confirming their proposals are in line with the code. Whereas the parties cannot contract out of the code and additional rights can be granted, some approaches make these additional rights look like

standard provisions of the code rather than being of additional benefit to the operator.

Negotiated settlements In practice it is possible to achieve a negotiated code agreement which grants the operator the powers they need but also significantly protects the landowner’s position. However, negotiations stall over the site payment that is being offered, which in most cases is seen as being well below the figures that the landowner considers reasonable for the rights to be granted.

Redevelopment Due to the level of site payment offered, landowners often now look to resist having a telecommunication mast on their land whereas previously they generally welcomed them for the additional income and coverage they provided. A landowner can bring a code agreement to an end if he intends to redevelop all or part of the land to which the code agreement relates or any neighbouring land and couldn’t reasonably do so unless the code agreement comes to an end. the Upper tribunal case of EE Limited and Hutchison 3G UK Limited v the trustees of the Meyrick Estate Management trust considered this issue where the Meyrick Estate was proposing to erect its own mast for estate broadband coverage and proposed the operators should share the mast. the tribunal found that the Meyrick Estate’s plans were conceived in order to defeat the operators’ claims for code rights being implemented rather than having a viable development scheme. therefore, for a landlord to terminate a code agreement in this way the development plans must be genuine and not linked to the application for code powers by the operator or be an attempt to frustrate the implementation of code powers.

Professional fees the reasonable professional fees incurred by a landowner for progressing a code agreement should be payable by the telecoms operators so anyone affected by a new code approach or lease renewal should obtain professional advice on the terms and implications of any agreement.

Cracking the code Whereas we expect further tribunal cases later this year, the key to cracking the code is an appropriate level of site payment. Once this has been agreed the market will start to move again, bringing increased connectivity to the UK. But compromise will be required from both sides in order to find a way forward. 01334 659 984 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 7

Turning CO2 into something useful... and turning a profit Carbon dioxide emissions from industry, transport and modern living are blamed for climate change. Now businesses in Scotland and elsewhere are devising ways to capture and store the greenhouse gas. Richard Haggart reports.

thE UK and Scottish governments have committed to being carbon neutral by 2050 and 2045 respectively – and the number of companies looking to make money from carbon dioxide is growing. reports suggest that of the estimated 37 gigatonnes of CO2 emitted each year these new industries could lock up seven gigatonnes. these companies are not claiming to resolve the climate change issue – rather to help in reducing their carbon footprint and hopefully reward green investors with profits along the way! Efficiency and cost dictate that if energyintensive firms which rely on burning gas to fuel their processes can use some of the CO2 produced as a raw material for other products profits can be gleaned and the uneconomical requirement to capture their carbon and bury it can be reduced. Carbon dioxide is already being used in novel

the founders of MacRebur – nick Burnett, toby McCartney and Gordon Reid – plan to turn plastic bottles into roads from their base in Dumfries and Galloway.

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ways to create products including fertilisers, proteins and building blocks. In Scotland, the langoustine processing firm Cuantec extracts a natural substance from the processing waste called chitin. It is already being used in the making of medicines, pesticides and fertilisers and it could soon become a completely compostable alternative to traditional polymer fish packaging. An alternative to traditional asphalt road coverings is being developed from waste plastic by Macrebur in Dumfries and Galloway. A onekilometre stretch of road made with its patented mix would use the equivalent of around 684,000 plastic bottles or 1.8 million single-use plastic bottles. In Leeds, Carbon 8 Aggregates has produced building blocks by mixing chimney ash from a waste incinerator with water to form artificial limestone which permanently captures the

carbon and forms the main ingredient for building blocks and other purposes. Digestate, the by-product of anaerobic digestion, is already spread on fields as fertiliser but by mixing it with nutrient-rich wastes from industry, sewerage plants, farms or the food industry and using CO2 to bind the nutrients and sludge, higher-grade fertiliser pellets are being produced by CCM technologies in Swindon. In Suffolk, horse muck and straw from newmarket racecourse are put through a bio-digester to create a gas. Using membranes, food-grade CO2 is separated and sold on to a local brewery to put bubbles in drinks.

Dr Cait Murray-Green and her team at Cuantec, based in Motherwell and Oban, are turning waste product from the langoustine industry into chitin and chitosan, which can in turn be used to make a biodegradable food wrap.

A Swiss company, Climeworks, has developed a plant that draws in air and chemically binds the CO2 it contains to a filter. Once saturated, the filter is heated to 100°C. this releases the CO2 which is collected as concentrated CO2 gas for customers or for ‘negative emissions technologies’. CO2-free air is released back into the atmosphere and the continuous cycle is ready to start again. the filter is reused many times and lasts for several thousand cycles. these companies are at the forefront of recycling technology. As the political landscape develops in its desire to become carbon neutral these companies may well lead the way in making profits from carbon. 01786 434635

swiss firm Climeworks uses fans and filters to capture CO2 directly from the air. | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 9

Heating scheme leaves farmland in good heart When considering energy infrastructure projects, such as a university biomass scheme, terms need to be agreed to mitigate any land damage. Mike Reid reports. thE University of St andrews Biomass District heating Scheme had a budget of £25 million and is transforming the old Guardbridge paper mill. the resulting 21st century energy centre will use an estimated 17,000 tons of locally sourced wood annually to heat the university campus, reducing CO2 emissions by around 6,000 tons and creating a significant number of jobs. With Guardbridge being some distance from St Andrews, the challenge for the university was to install 10.6km of underground heat network pipes and other infrastructure across privately owned land. During the scheme, the university often was in hot water rather than benefitting from it! Galbraith was instructed to act on behalf of landowners who controlled more than two thirds of the route. We negotiated heads of terms for the legal agreement as well as commercial terms and working conditions for the installation of the infrastructure. We also agreed option payments, access agreements, additional working areas and storage compounds. the purpose of the agreement, from the landowner’s perspective, is to ensure all relevant commercial and other terms were agreed prior to entry and to agree working conditions that mitigate the impact of the scheme on the land. As with many schemes, not everything always went to plan and issues arose such as inadequate preparation of storage compound sites, works extending outwith the working width, infrastructure not being buried deep enough to avoid interference with agricultural operations and access being taken across topsoil bunds. Due to the robust terms and conditions agreed, all these issues were able to be resolved before any significant longterm damage was caused to the land. this required appropriate supervision

and professional experience to recognise the issues at an early stage where they deviated from the agreed conditions. the land is now coming back into full production and the impacts of the scheme have been mitigated. renewable energy projects can provide significant benefit to communities and to Scotland’s climate change targets but it is important to ensure any schemes are carried out in an appropriate way to mitigate the impact on any land affected. It is critically important to agree all terms before access is granted and to take into account all aspects of any scheme. 01334 659 984

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the land is now coming back into full production and the impacts of the scheme have been mitigated.

Smart Export Guarantee gets a luke-warm reception The Feed-in Tariff subsidy kick-started renewable energy take-up but its replacement has yet to set eco-friendly hearts racing, says John Pullen.

MaNY properties and commercial buildings now have to be fitted with solar panels to offset their energy usage in order to pass modern building standards. However, the Feed-in tariff (Fit) closed to new entrants on March 31, 2019 and at the same time the guaranteed export payment was also removed. this meant that during periods of high generation and low onsite demand, electricity would be exported to the grid for no compensation. the small-scale generator would in effect be subsidising the big six electricity companies by providing them with energy for nothing. to mitigate against the potential political backlash, the UK Government introduced the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) which will be available from January 1, 2020. It will provide a means of compensating small-scale generators (less than 5MW) for energy exported to the grid. Usage must be tracked by a smart meter. Licensed suppliers with more than 150,000 domestic customers are obliged to provide at least one export tariff. As of July 2019, only two suppliers, Octopus Energy and E.On, had announced their plans.

the rate paid under the Smart Export Guarantee must be “more than zero” – as such it hasn’t been enthusiastically endorsed by the industry, with the Energy Savings trust noting that “for most, installations will remain an environmental rather than a financial decision”. Scottish renewables similarly highlighted the very limited appeal with “the SEG only supporting a small segment of the market – i.e. supporting some rooftop solar PV development but little else”. With political interest directed elsewhere there is little focus on supporting and developing the renewable industry. Like the Feed-in tariff, the SEG is a step in the right direction of encouraging domestic energy to be a two-way process. new entrants to the electricity supply market, such as Octopus Energy, want to encourage their modern, tech-savvy customers to consume, store and sell energy in a flexible and generally smarter way. Whether the SEG will do enough to encourage the widespread adoption of this is yet to be seen. 01463 245372 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 11

Power grid gears up to fast pace of change Storage innovators are developing new systems to address the risk of renewable energy downtimes in a decarbonised electricity grid. Calum Innes reports.

iF thERE’S one thing we learned in the 9 august blackout, it’s that we cannot take the UK’s power transmission and distribution network for granted. the way power is generated and distributed in the UK has been transformed in the past three decades, reflecting major changes in society and economics. But access to energy at the right time and price, and in the right volumes, is as important as ever. traditionally, energy from large, oil- and coal-fired generation plants kept the lights on in homes and workplaces across Britain. Demand was largely predictable, even down to the spike during ad breaks on Coronation Street when millions put the kettle on. this centralised, top-down approach is giving way to a more diverse, dynamic market. Demand remains predictable, but lifestyle changes mean many of us work from home, no longer commuting at set times, and the digital boom has revolutionised employment and entertainment and led to a proliferation of screens, which we view when we wish. Another big change, still in the early stages, is the move away from oil and coal to gas and lowercarbon fuel sources. this is mainly to comply with emission targets but also to lessen reliance on imports from potentially unstable sources abroad. Britain will close its last coal-fired power plant by 2025 to meet its climate goals and comply with

A Connected energy 1.2MW e-stOR system being commissioned in Belgium.

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UK carbon taxes and obligations under the European Emissions trading System. May saw our first coal-power free week in more than a century. Coal power provided 5% of electricity last year compared to 30% a decade earlier. Ignore for a moment that China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of coal, emitting more carbon dioxide than any other country, and that Asia now accounts for 75% of global demand for coal. the UK Government is committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions to almost zero by 2050 under its latest plan to tackle climate change, announced in June. Meanwhile, renewable energy is increasingly popular with UK consumers.

industrial, commercial and domestic users by 14 licensed distribution network operators (DnO), each responsible for a regional distribution services area. For geographical reasons, customers can’t choose either their transmission network, or their DnO. But they can choose their electricity


this brings complexity and challenge, for unlike an always-on coal or nuclear plant, much renewable energy is weather-dependent – turbines need wind to generate electricity, solar needs sun. tidal, while more reliable, is less developed than either.

the way power is generated and distributed in the UK has been transformed in the past three decades, reflecting major changes in society and economics.

the transformation puts a big burden on the system for moving electricity from where it’s generated to where it’s consumed. Britain’s transmission network carries highvoltage electricity from where it’s produced to where it is needed throughout the country. the wires, pylons and larger substations making up the network are owned and maintained by regional companies – Scottish Power transmission, Scottish Hydro Electric transmission, and for England and Wales, national Grid Electricity transmission. the system as a whole is operated by national Grid Electricity transmission – responsible for ensuring the stable and secure operation of the whole transmission system. Electricity from the transmission grid is carried to | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 13


supplier. this could be one of the ‘big six’, a retail chain such as Sainsbury’s, or a newcomer such as Good Energy, Ovo, Ecotricity or private equity-backed Octopus Energy, which is buying up struggling rivals. Some firms are trialling systems allowing customers to store electricity for use by neighbours. Soon, motorists will be able to use their electric vehicles as mobile batteries and sell electricity back into the grid. the supply system is evolving through market forces, guided by regulation. teething problems have plagued household ‘smart meters’, but their eventual adoption looks likely, as customers switch to new appliances and track their use through hand-held apps. Meanwhile, both Government and the industry regulator Ofgem are exploring how technology-rich ‘smart grids’ can better monitor and control generation and demand in near real time, providing more reliable, cost-effective distribution and supply. Energy supply is dynamic and changes are occurring in most parts of the market. new entrants offer domestic and business consumers ‘behind-the-meter’ (i.e. customer-operated) solutions such as solar photovoltaic and data-driven energy efficiency systems. Some of these firms are being targeted for acquisition or external investment by energy companies keen to cut their exposure to oil and gas. So-called aggregators are introducing efficiencies to help large users such as retail chains, hospitals and sports clubs to lower their consumption, then ‘selling’ the cost savings back to the grid, which benefits by paying generators less. As we decarbonise, the biggest threat to supply comes from weather-dependent technologies such as wind and solar. to ensure we get through longer spells uninterrupted, we will have to address the intermittency problem – days and weeks of low wind or sun, not minutes or hours.

BATTERY CHARGE: THREE COMPANIES LEADING THE STORAGE RACE CAR batteries can still hold up to 70% of their capacity when they’re no longer suitable for electric vehicles (eVs), making them perfect for storage. Connected energy has developed the world’s only commercially available stationary energy storage system that uses electric vehicle battery packs after their lives on board vehicles are over. the company works with Renault, Jaguar Land Rover and nissan, building energy storage units for commercial, industrial, and utility use. Manufacturers and local authorities use its modular systems to cut energy and connection costs, generate revenue from grid services, protect against shortages and optimise renewable generation. the company’s current total installed capacity is 2390kWh is – equivalent to lithium-ion batteries from 160 vehicles – but eVs are gaining popularity and next year the company starts building systems with several thousand. Based in newcastle upon tyne and operating in the UK and europe, Connected energy raised more than £5m from sumitomo Corporation, enGIe, Macquarie Group and others in June, to fund further overseas growth and is now developing opportunities in the Us and Japan.

As an example of renewable energy growth, the installed capacity of wind generation is forecast to increase by just over two-thirds from 487GW in 2016 to 817GW 2021, according to the Global Wind Energy Council. to maintain our living standards, industry requires renewable electricity on demand and the grid needs to deliver security of supply as we move to greener energy sources. new storage technologies will make this happen. the Government is investing £246 million in the ‘Faraday battery challenge’ to encourage full electrification and zeroemission vehicles and benefit other sectors, such as aerospace, rail and energy distribution. Meanwhile, a growing number of UK entrepreneurs, investors, advisers and university researchers are finding new ways to serve a global battery energy storage market expected to be worth £18bn by 2023. 01738 456075

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Matthew Lumsden, Connected energy’s CeO, said: “With an increasing interest in embracing the circular economy, interest in our systems is increasing and we are now working on projects of up to 24MW. We aim to assist eV original equipment manufacturers by providing a pipeline of projects to capture 2nd life batteries as they become available whilst also offering lower cost, more sustainable systems to our customers.”

Another company, Highview Power, has developed a ‘cryogenic’ energy storage system that cools air to below -196°C (-320˚F), to liquid. this can then be regasified by exposure to normal temperatures, expanding 700fold in volume to drive a turbine and create electricity without combustion. the technology, which was developed out of Leeds University, has the capabilities of pumped hydro storage, as used in scotland, without the geographical limitations, making what Connected Energy CEO Matthew Lumsden, and, below, banks of renault Kangoo batteries installed in an EStOr system.

Highview Power’s ‘cryogenic’ energy storage system uses super-cooled air to drive turbines during periods of high demand. this plant is at Pilsworth, Greater Manchester. Below: Highview’s CEO Javier Cavada.

looks an extremely efficient way to address renewable-energy intermittency. And it’s flexible. the large-scale, longduration technology can be built from 50MW to 200MW+ power output, with a storage capacity of 200MWh to more than 2,000MWh, powering up to 200,000 houses for a whole day. Using off-peak or excess electricity to liquify air, the system operates at 60% efficiency in standalone mode, or 70%-plus by utilising waste heat or cold, for example from peaking generation, steel mills or liquid natural gas terminals. Developed in partnership with the waste company Viridor and £8 million UK Government funding, a 15MWh commercial demonstration plant has operated since April 2018 in Greater Manchester, showing how to create short-term operating reserve (stOR) and support the grid during winter peaks.

system for making the copper/zinc battery rechargeable using a key component missing from the original – an ionically permeable separator. the batteries are very scalable, designed to operate at 1MWh to more than 100MWh and are ideal for bridging the gap between renewable electricity generation and consumption – for customers in infrastructure, micro-grids and electricity-intensive industries such as mining. Cumulus claims a winning mix of reliability, scalability, low stress, a lifespan up to 30 years and greater than 80% round-trip efficiency. Copper and zinc are abundant and the batteries are 98% recyclable – all adding up to the lowest levelised cost of storage (LCOs) globally. With financial support from the UK Government and investors, sheffieldbased Cumulus has extended to san Francisco, its laboratory facilities

Javier Cavada, CeO of Highview Power, said: “As renewable deployments continue to rise, longduration, giga-scale energy storage will become more important and will need to be flexible and gridsynchronous. Otherwise, it will be very difficult to make renewables a baseload power. Our technology does that and it is available now.”

Cumulus energy storage is enabling more renewable electricity to be delivered at the right time; developing energy ‘super-storage’ systems by combining 200-year-old battery technology with processes used widely today in the mining and metal-refining industries. the first primary (single use) battery was invented by Alessandro Volta in 1799, using copper and zinc electrodes. In 2014, Cumulus engineers developed a patented

As renewable deployments continue to rise, long-duration, giga-scale energy storage will become more important.

developing full-scale, grid-connected systems. Cumulus recently completed a further £400,000 fundraise to facilitate a series of increasingly large demonstrator energy storage systems and is currently raising further equity finance to fund production capacity. Cumulus CeO nick Kitchin said: “Cumulus rechargeable copper/zinc batteries complement rather than compete with lithium-ion, by providing longer duration storage for stationary applications.”

Cumulus copper/zinc batteries and lithium-ion each offer different advantages Lithium-ion

Recyclable copper/zinc Energy density

Efficiency (%RTE) nick Kitchin of Cumulus Energy Storage. right: A chart explaining how copper/zinc and lithium-ion technologies complement each other.

Lifetime (cycles)

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

% Recyclability

Power density

OpEx (MWh/$)

CapEx (MWh/$)

EoL Value (Recyclability) | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 15

How the wind power market is evolving Post-subsidy, wind power is here to stay and, as Mike Reid reports, landowners and communities are embracing onshore development. thRoUGhoUt the ages new technologies and ideas have been embraced by some although they haven’t always been successful. But once a new idea succeeds, confidence grows and more people become involved. On-shore wind farms are following this pattern. Initially this was led by developers incentivised by the renewable Obligation scheme who tackled the uncertainty of planning consent, grid connection, turbine reliability and often local opposition. the risks were great but so were the rewards. Looking back, these initial developments are now seen as very profitable, but this tends to ignore the schemes that developers weren’t able to progress or were rejected for one reason or another.

developments looking to maximise subsidy payments. Whereas there is less profitability now due to the end of subsidy support, landowners and local communities are generally far more comfortable with the principle of on-shore wind farm development as confidence grows in the sector. Increasing numbers of landowners and communities are looking to become actively involved in renewable development projects rather than just leasing land for a developer to take the risks and rewards. Of course, some landowners will still prefer to just lease out their land and some communities will be happy to receive community benefit payments rather than being actively involved. Joint ventures may become the preferred structure for wind farm developments for those that want to take an active role in any development affecting their land or community.

However, without this initial incentive to develop on-shore wind farms the industry wouldn’t be where it is today.

As confidence grows in the sector alongside technological improvements and cost reductions there will be opportunities for all involved. the demand for renewable electricity looks set to increase as the preferred source of power for a sustainable future.

As reported in Energy Matters issue 18 there is renewed interest in on-shore wind farm development across Scotland, with larger turbines being proposed to maximise electricity production – a welcome change from 01334 659 984

SUBSTATION LAND SALE In LAte 2018, Galbraith was approached by east Lothian Council to provide it with initial specialist land valuation advice relating to its recent acquisition of the former Cockenzie power station and landholdings around the power station.

number of economic and wider development opportunities in supporting the local, regional and wider economies.

Cockenzie was a coal-fired generating station which operated between 1967 and 2013 and was a landmark on the Forth estuary with its twin chimneys. these chimneys were demolished as part of the decommissioning of the power station.

Galbraith, having wide experience in offshore windfarm development, was able to provide valuation and negotiation advice following the approach by Red Rock Power to acquire a small part of the land to house the landfall for the offshore cables from the Inch Cape Offshore Windfarm and to accommodate its onshore substation, which needed to connect into the national grid at the Cockenzie substation.

the council acquired the land from scottish Power Generation in 2017 and undertook a master planning exercise for the total landholdings of 200 acres or so between the communities of Prestonpans and Cockenzie. As a strategic site the council has identified a

We await further evolution and development in and around the wider landholdings, which are of strategic importance to east Lothian having very good road connections, port potential and its own railway link on to the national railway network.

Page 16 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 |

Land use decisions and climate change Concerns over climate change are affecting land-use decisions and the trend looks set to accelerate. Gareth taylor reports.

hoW we use land is under increased scrutiny from a leading panel of scientists due to its contributing role in climate change. A report by the Un’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) highlights that 28% of global climate change emissions are from agriculture, forestry and other land uses. We might imagine that the majority of emissions are caused by deforestation or cattle ranching, but the report on Climate Change and Land makes clear that western farming techniques are not without blame, with agriculture accountable for 82% of nitrous oxide being produced by the agricultural industry (generally associated with fertilisers). However, the report also acknowledges the part that land plays in feeding populations. It also highlights the role that land can play in mitigating and slowing down the effects of global warming and the UK is lucky to have peat bogs and afforestation opportunities, both of which are carbon sinks. At Galbraith we have recently seen a rise in clients making land-use decisions based on, or giving consideration to, their carbon emissions impacts; one individual chose to sacrifice an income stream by not renewing a lease for peat extraction (for garden compost) to reduce their carbon footprint. We have also seen a slow rise in enquiries for carbon offsetting opportunities via afforestation. Interestingly, native birch forestry locks up more CO2 than commercial woodland and can be planted in areas where commercial forestry would not be viable. Government incentives are likely to continue to evolve away from food production towards payment for environmental services, which will also present opportunities to those who are prepared to adopt change. As the effects of climate change are felt more acutely, the role of land mangers will change, but weight should already be given to both the emissions of land use and the economic opportunities of mitigation when making policy decisions over future uses. 0131 240 6962 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 17

Switching from pump to plug Electric vehicles are already here but the move away from traditional fuels will soon gain pace and, as nick Morgan reports, preparations are well in hand.

this is a big task, considering the investment required to facilitate the required electrical infrastructure as well as managing where the power comes from to supply the increased demand by cars, all while minimising any disruption.

ExPERtS predict a big increase in demand for batteries for electrifying road transport, with the market estimated to be worth £5 billion to the UK and £50 billion to Europe by 2025.

the connection process itself remains subject to the usual format in that those wishing to connect a charge point would start by applying for a connection via their relevant distribution network operator (DnO), which will be able to advise on timings and any grid refurbishment requirements needed to provide an effective connection to that specific part of the network.

In the UK this is driven in part by Government’s plan to ban new conventional petrol and diesel vehicles by 2040 to be replaced by electric and zero emissions vehicles. the UK Government is investing in research and innovation projects alongside building new facilities to scale up and advance the production, use and recycling of batteries. While this spending will focus on the automotive sector initially, ministers believe this investment will also help to advance battery development for other applications for an electrified economy. Galbraith have been involved with a number of stand-alone projects in which we have negotiated grid connection consents for electric vehicle charging points. We work closely with Scottish Hydro Electric Power Distribution plc, which recently announced a Government-backed partnership with Scottish Power Energy networks to electrify the A9, also reaching beyond to more rural areas.

At Galbraith, we are well placed to advise on the consenting process to facilitate electricity connection work to enable these charging stations as they generally require to be tied into the grid. Among the areas on which we can advise are land referencing over routes of wood poles and securing consent from the relevant planning authority, Scottish Government and third-party land interests. We are working with existing clients, classed as independent connection providers (ICPs) who provide electrical engineering support to anyone looking to connect their own charging stations into the grid. 01738 456063

Page 18 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 |

Ministers believe this investment will help to advance battery development for other applications for an electrified economy.

Surveying: Speed and accuracy on the move with live data New technologies come into their own when surveying open ground for cable routes or to assess land damage. Grace Campbell reports.

aS SURvEYoRS we are often required to review existing and proposed underground cable routes for clients. this can be for a number of reasons, for example to carry out records of condition – setting out environmental aspects of a property at a particular time, or general site familiarisation by taking a walk out into the countryside, often over peat bog and remote locations. Previously these records would have been taken using paper maps, with the cable routes drawn separately, using approximate locations, or using routes delineated by clients using their software. now, however, we can utilise GPS co-ordinates and walk along a route using our tablet to guide us accurately, or even along a path lacking boundary features, such as on open hill ground. Galbraith has adopted QField, an application that enables us to create a map on and upload it to a mobile device, and from here we can collect data on the move the technology is extremely useful in many situations. It comes into its own just prior to construction work, when an accurate record of condition needs to be carried out. Previously,

this would have involved making a best guess at the new cable route, and photographing general areas of interest. now we can make an accurate record, instantly. Equally, this work is increasingly being programmed into drones, with routes flown providing aerial imagery. However, in our wayleave and land manager capacity, recording features on the ground can be the difference between a client saving and spending money on a compensatory matter. During on-site inspections, we can walk with the tablet and plot the full area measurement accurately, for losses or reinstatement. Using tablets, we can proactively mark areas of interest, mapping sites that a new cable route or construction traffic might look to avoid, or measuring areas of land damage or crop loss for compensation purposes after a project has been completed. Photographs of these areas of concern can be ‘geo-referenced’ using a tablet, and information imported directly into our mapping software. By using a combination of mobiles devices and modified apps, we’re doing the same sort of work we’ve always done, but with live data and enhanced precision. 01738 456074 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 19

Bringing faster broadband to rural areas Investment in broadband may eventually help the rural economy to connect. Gareth taylor reports.

FaSt broadband is of immeasurable importance both for business and daily life, and network investment is critical to increasing access to high-speed broadband. Openreach began upgrading the network to fibre in 2009 and now 27.6 million homes and businesses in the UK have access to fibre broadband. In spite of this success, Ofcom estimates that about 40,000 premises, mainly in rural and remote areas of the UK, do not have access to good fixed broadband (over 10Mb download speed) or 4G coverage. to increase competition and boost investment, Ofcom took steps in 2017 to deregulate the telephone network industry and it now operate a tenderbased system. Originally Bt and more recently Openreach were responsible for the hardware associated with the network. this included all fibre upgrades and there had been claims that Openreach was failing to invest sufficiently. network upgrades are now put out to tender to a wider range of companies. Internet service providers, such as Virgin Media, Citryfibre, and Gigaclear have been making use of the regulation change and the Government-subsided Broadband Delivery UK programme to extend their networks and infrastructure into rural areas. Boris Johnson in his Conservative leadership campaign set out his ambition to bring forward the 2033 full fibre target to 2025. It is hoped that this new process and the accelerated targets will speed progress and increase investment, resulting in a surge of upgrade works in rural areas. these developments will provide obvious benefits to communities but may also bring disruption to landowners. Galbraith regularly acts for landowners and occupiers against utilities companies looking to take rights and uses this experience to also advise utility companies over rural land rights strategies, including land referencing and GIS data management. 0131 240 6962

Size matters when it comes to turbine blade transport Access constraints are reducing due to technological advances in the on-shore wind industry but, as Mike Reid finds, some problems remain.

thERE are many considerations when developing an on-shore wind farm and most of these focus on the site of the turbines themselves. However, grid connection and access are two important aspects for any development which may have constraints many miles away from the turbines themselves. Access pinch points for oversail – when equipment swings across land owned by other parties – and overrun – where delivery vehicle wheels run over land –

Page 20 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 |

need to be secured before any project can progress. Developers don’t normally benefit from any compulsory powers to obtain these rights so will often need to negotiate terms with a landowner. As reported in Energy Matters Issue 18 there is renewed interest in on-shore wind farm development in Scotland with larger turbines which have tip heights in excess of 200 metres. these turbines have longer blades and will require more land in order to

Longer turbine blades mean increased access problems when installing – and maintainng – wind farms.

Hydraulic lift trailers are one solution to overrun and oversail.

obtain access around tight road corners than would be required for smaller turbines. Developers looking to extend or re-power existing schemes will find that more land is required and some corners that weren’t previously an issue will now become a constraint to the project. the traditional method of blade transport uses delivery vehicles able to carry, but not manoeuvre, the blade. Segmented blade technology is developing, and last year in the United States GE announced its new 5.3MW turbine system with a segmented 77 metre long blade. this has the potential to open up previously constrained wind farm opportunities and reduce the access requirements on other sites. However, according to the US wind energy expert Ian Baring-Gould, these blades will incur additional manufacturing and maintenance costs and the larger overall dimensions will increase component weights. Another option is to use hydraulic lift trailers where the blade is secured behind the cab and can be raised, with the delivery trailer being shortened, to navigate difficult pinch points. these

trailers will remove some, but not all, of the need to obtain third party consents. Even if the trailer remains on the public highway, the blade could still oversail adjacent land. there may also be issues with overhanging trees or powerlines. Another consideration is that although hydraulic lift trailers can be used during the initial construction of the wind farm there is still the challenge of securing access under any operation and maintenance agreement when a hydraulic lift trailer would be required again should replacement blades be required. As turbine dimensions increase, additional access consents will be required unless technological advances resolve these difficulties. For the moment we anticipate that developers will wish to secure the certainty of access agreements to ensure the deliverability of any project. 01334 659 984 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 21

Another busy year on the show circuit The Galbraith events calendar is busier than ever, says Robyn Mitchell. NoRMallY as we go to print with the winter edition of Rural Matters we are nearing the end of our show and event season. this year, however, we find ourselves with a calendar that is full all year round so we still have many more events to come. We have had a very busy and successful 2019 so far, having already attended well over 35 shows and events from the royal Highland Show and the Game and Wildlife Conservation trust Scottish Game Fair to Moy Highland Field Sports Fair, Fife Show and Stewartry Show. Our busiest show of the season is the royal Highland, and this year was another roaring success. We met many new and existing clients, strengthening our relationships and hopefully building some new ones. As sponsors of Edinburgh rugby, we were once again to be joined by players on our marquee and this led to appearances from Jack Stanley, David Cherry, Lewis Carmichael and Murray McCallum. the Edinburgh rugby Community team was also on hand to pull in the crowds with reaction tests and a sled-pull challenge. these games were extremely popular with clients, visitors and staff alike, with competition extending to United Auctions staff members and even Police Scotland joined in to try to top the leader board.

like the Chariots of Fire Beach race and the Belsay Horse trials. As well as attending events Galbraith are not shy when it comes to hosting our own. Once again we successfully hosted our annual seminar in Ayr at the start of the year on the topic of rural house building and we are very much looking forward to our upcoming seminar with nFU Mutual on the subject of protecting your assets. We also celebrated the success of our Elgin office by throwing a 10th birthday party for clients and staff.

As well as being a very successful business networking event, this year’s royal Highland Show also provided a convivial atmosphere for colleagues from our recently merged offices in northern England to meet, mingle and get to know our clients and staff members. Another successful event was the Game & Wildlife Conservation trust Scottish Game Fair. this year the fair was important for us not only for client interaction but also because it gave us a large platform to celebrate the re-launch of our travel experience company, Ossian. We were also lucky enough to welcome Keith Brockie to our stand to launch his new book about wildlife on Glenquaich Estate, Glen of the Lapwing, and to showcase his phenomenal paintings from the Perthshire estate. Galbraith has grown this year and so has our event offering. Our recent merger with Land Factor has allowed us to broaden our market and expand into events south of the border. So far this year we have attended a number of shows in England such as northumberland County Show, the Penrith Show and the Glendale Show and we won’t be stopping there.

top: the Galbraith marquee at the Royal Highland show. Middle: the Galbraith stirling Bull sales. Bottom: Fun with edinburgh Rugby at the Royal Highland show.

Agricultural shows are not the only events that we have attended as a firm. We like to have a well-rounded schedule so we attend a range of seminars and conferences such as the SLE Spring Conference in Edinburgh and more active events Page 22 | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 |

the show season may be coming to an end but we certainly are not slowing down. We still have the northern Farming Conference and Agriscot to look forward to as well as another round of Galbraith Stirling Bull sales in October, where we are proud to continue as sole sponsor, as well as a number of events in London before the end of the year. It has been an exciting year for Galbraith and we owe the success of these events to the enthusiasm and energy of our staff members who volunteer each day. We are already planning and looking forward to a packed 2020 show season. Keep an eye on the events page of our website, where you will find a full list of all our events. 01292 292313

A private water supply brought up to standard Rachel Russell reports on a recent improvement project. i REPoRtED on the introduction of the Water intended for human Consumption (Private Supplies) (Scotland) Regulations 2017 in Energy Matters issue 16. Since then, I have had practical experience of the annual testing regime, which took place on a managed estate and resulted in the installation of a water filtration system. the estate’s existing private water supply is from a natural spring which serves seven residential properties. Having collected and sent water samples for analysis, which identified the presence of bacteria, we have been working closely with the client, Fife Council and contractors to improve the private water supply. the estate decided to install a particulate and UV disinfection unit and two smaller treatment systems at property level. the installation involved exposing the route of the existing water supply, ducting this supply and an electricity supply through a new concrete base, before housing the filtration system in a purpose installed kiosk. the work took about two months from start to finish and came at a considerable cost to the

client, who was, however, eligible for a Private Water Supply Improvement Grant, which amounted to £800 per property served. this made a significant contribution to the cost of the installations. Under the instruction of Fife Council, Galbraith, as acting agents for the landlord and at the landlord’s cost, provided bottled water to the tenants during the installation period. the result is a safe and manageable water supply with the only maintenance required being the replacement of the UV filters every six months. We have recently had the particulate filters replaced as part of this routine maintenance, which will again take place in six months’ time along with the replacement of the UV filters. With annual testing and five-yearly risk assessments, Galbraith will continue to work closely with the client and Fife Council to ensure the supply continues to meet appropriate quality standards.

the recently installed water filtration system.

If you own let properties which are served by a private water supply, Galbraith is on hand to liaise with local authorities, tenants and contractors on your behalf. 01334 659 989


Domestic Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) Applications submitted for the period 1/10/2018 – 30/12/2018

the Galbraith energy team has researched the current subsidy regime to produce this reference guide for the most popular technologies. subsidy levels are subject to change, so the figures given here are for guidance only.


Tariff p/kWh

Biomass boilers and stoves

Current details of FIt rates, ROCs and CFDs can be found at the Feed-in tariff and the Renewables Obligation scheme have both closed to new projects.


Air-source heat pumps


Ground-source heat pumps Solar thermal

20.89 21.09

Source: Ofgem.

Non-Domestic Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) Tariff name

Eligible technology

Eligible sizes

Small commercial biomass

Solid biomass including solid biomass contained in waste

tier 1 tier 2 tier 1 tier 2

3.11 2.18 3.11 2.18

tier 1 tier 2

3.11 2.18

Medium commercial biomass Large commercial biomass Solid biomass CHP systems Water/ground-source heat pumps

Solid biomass CHP Ground-source & water-source heat pumps

Air-source heat pumps All solar collectors Small biogas combustion Medium biogas combustion*

Air-source heat pumps Solar collectors Biogas combustion

All capacities tier 1 tier 2 All capacities <200 kWth <200 kWth ≥200 kWth ≤ 600 kWth ≥ 600 kWth

Large biogas combustion* Source: Ofgem. Tariff rates are in displayed in pence per kWth and for installations with an accreditation date on or after 22/5/2018.

Tariff p/kWh

4.51 9.56 2.85 2.75 10.98 4.74 3.72 1.18 * Commissioned on or after 4/12/2013. | Energy Matters | Winter 2019/20 | Page 23


Anaerobic digestion Battery storage n Biomass n Buying, selling and due diligence n Hydro power n Investment in renewables n Land Referencing n On-shore wind n Off-shore wind n Planning n solar energy n telecoms n Utilities and infrastructure n Valuations n


01224 860 714 AYR & CASTLE DOUGLAS David Corrie 07824 690 199 BLAGDON Matthew Williamson

01670 789 621 CUPAR Mike Reid

01334 659 984 STIRLING & PERTH Richard higgins

07717 581 741 EDINBURGH Gareth taylor

0131 240 6962 HEXHAM Roddy Findlay

01434 405 962 INVERNESS & ELGIN Dougal lindsay 01463 245 380 GALASHIELS & KELSO harry lukas 01896 662 829 PENRITH athole McKillop

01768 800 830

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