2024 Juneteenth Timeline Booklet

Page 1


A timeline celebrating the history leading to June 19, 1865, and beyond.

What is Juneteenth? Juneteenth (short for “June Nineteenth”) marks the day when federal troops arrived in Galveston, Texas in 1865 to take control of the state and ensure that all enslaved people be freed. The troops’ arrival came a full two and a half years after the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation. Juneteenth honors the end to slavery in the United States and is considered the longest-running African American holiday.

A special thank you to the Newberry Museum and members of the Newberry Juneteenth Committee for curating this timeline, artifacts, and videos for the Official 2024 Newberry Juneteenth History Display.

Artwork: Rendering of historical timeline by local artist, Robert Matheson, 2021 The piece is an artistic rendering pulling key figures from the historical timeline of Black history written in this booklet. Read along to learn more. Figures and moments depicted are in burgundy and noted with a star. Videos:

“What is Juneteenth?” – ABC7 KGOTV “Lift Every Voice and Sing” – Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture. Timeline: Historical Timeline covers over 100 points in African, African American, and Black History. While not all of Black history’s influence can be fully captured in these points, we hope this timeline helps explain the historical experience of Black persons in the United States, South Carolina, Newberry, and even beyond. Newberryspecific points are noted in green. Items with additional historical information in the Newberry Museum are noted with two stars.


1. HUMANITY STARTS IN AFRICA: Humans first evolved in Africa. Fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa. 2. AFRICAN KINGDOMS: In our earliest history the continent of Africa held many vast kingdom nations. Lands rich in resources, culture, and accomplishment. Depicted in the artistic rendering is Queen Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba. She is known for her rule during the rapid growth of the slave trade and fought for independence of her kingdoms against the Portuguese.* 3. MID-15TH CENTURY: TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE BEGINS: Slavery of citizenry had long existed in nations across the world, but it wasn’t until the start of the transatlantic slave trade that Africa entered a relationship with Europe that led to the devastation and depopulation of Africa, while contributing to the wealth and development of Europe. Portugal was the first recorded nation to kidnap people from the coast of Africa and take those they had enslaved back to Europe. Subsequently, many other European nations followed suit.* 4. 1503: FIRST RECORDED ENSLAVED AFRICANS TAKEN TO THE AMERICAS: The Spanish took the first African captives to the Americas (today Latin American and South American nations). 5. 1619: FIRST RECORDED ENSLAVED AFRICANS TAKEN TO THE BRITISH AMERICAN COLONIES: Over 20 enslaved Africans are kidnapped and taken to the English colony of Virginia, beginning the Transatlantic Slave Trade to the Colonies in North America. 2

6. 1773: PHILLIS WHEATLEY: Comes to London where her poetry had gained a following. She becomes the first African American author to publish a book of poetry. 7. 1775-1783: AMERICAN REVOLUTION 8. 1780: SUGAR LEADS TO WORLDWIDE SLAVE TRADE: Globally sugar is grown using slavery. By the mid-18th century, sugar becomes England’s dominant import, which fuels the Atlantic slave trade, building the international trade system’s complex web of insurance and credit. 9. 1781: 132 ENSLAVED AFRICANS THROWN OVERBOARD: Captain Collingwood throws 132 sick Africans off the slave ship Zong to collect insurance money for them. The incident galvanizes support for the movement against the Atlantic slave trade. 10. 1804: THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION: Results in the establishment of the first independent Black republic of the Americas. The revolution notably destroyed slavery in the most profitable Friend colony. 11. 1807: US CONGRESS ABOLISHES TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE: “Importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States… from any foreign kingdom, place, or country,” is abolished. At the time, a self-sustaining population of over 4 million enslaved people 3

lived in the South, leading some Southern congressmen to join with the North in the vote. The trade of African captives to Brazil and Cuba continued until the 1860s. 12. 1817-1820: THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY: The society is formed and pays for 80 African Americans to be repatriated back to Africa (as an alternative to emancipation in the United States). They are later followed by others, establish a colony, and go on to establish Liberia (1847). 13. 1831: JAMAICAN SLAVE REBELLION: The movement starts as passive resistance to become an open rebellion against slavery. The uprising is credited with leading to full abolition a few years later. 14. 1834 HENRY MCNEAL TURNER: The notable Newberrian was born this year and would later become the first African American Chaplain to serve in the US Army under the First Regiment of the Colored Troops during the Civil War.**

15. 1838: FREDRICK DOUGLASS: He escaped to freedom in 1838. Prior to his escape Fredrick learned to read and write and shared his ability by teaching other enslaved people. He continued his work to benefit enslaved persons by becoming an outspoken abolitionist, author, and publisher. He also was a proponent of women’s right to vote. * 4

16. 1849: HARRIET TUBMAN: She escaped bondage from her Maryland plantation in 1849. With the help of the Underground Railroad, she traveled 90 miles north to freedom. Harriet would return to the south to lead her family to Philadelphia via the Underground Railroad. She went on to free at least 70 enslaved people, “I never ran my train off the track, and I never lost a passenger.”* 17. 1850: THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT: This allowed freed and fugitive workers in the north to be captured and enslaved. Underground Railroad conductors began to lead enslaved people into Canada. 18. 1852: HARRIET BEECHER STOWE’S UNCLE TOM’S CABIN IS PUBLISHED: It becomes an instant bestseller, polarizing opinion on the issue of slavery in the United States. 19. 1862: ROBERT SMALLS SAILS TO FREEDOM: In Charleston, SC, Robert Smalls quietly commandeered a heavily armed Confederate ship, responded with proper signals at two Confederate checkpoints, and delivered 17 passengers from slavery to freedom. Smalls went on to fight for the Union and later became a congressman for South Carolina.* 20. 1863: ABRAHAM LINCOLN ISSUES THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION: Although stated free, word travels slowly and the proclamation only freed those of African 5

descent in confederate states liberated by the Union army. 21. APRIL 9, 1865: CONFEDERATE TROOPS SURRENDER, ENDING THE CIVIL WAR: It would be another 16 months before President Andrew Johnson would declare a formal end of the conflict in August 1866 due to the slow travel of news and the need to sign surrender agreements with multiple confederate armies. 22. JUNE 19, 1865: JUNETEENTH – On this day, enslaved African Americans in Galveston, Texas, (believed to be the last enslaved in the United States) were told they were free. Now, 155 years later, people in cities and towns across the U.S. continue to mark the occasion with celebrations. “The people of Texas

are informed that, in accordance with a proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of personal rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired labor. The freedmen are advised to remain quietly at their present homes and work for wages. They are informed that they will not be allowed to collect at military posts and that they will not be supported in idleness either there or elsewhere.” —General Orders, Number 3; Headquarters District of Texas, Galveston, June 19, 1865. *


23. DECEMBER 6, 1865: THE 13TH AMENDMENT TO THE US CONSTITUTION, OFFICIALLY ENDING THE INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY, IS RATIFIED. 24. 1865: 12 MILLION AFRICANS HAD BEEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN TO THE AMERICAS: More than one million of these individuals died during the voyage. 25. 1865: THE BLACK COWBOY: Black Cowboys are established as a part of the American west. 26. 1863-1877: RECONSTRUCTION 27. 1865-1968: JIM CROW LAW: This collection of state and local statutes that legalized racial segregation was named after a Black minstrel show character. The laws—which existed for about 100 years, from the post-Civil War era until 1968— were meant to marginalize African Americans by denying them the right to vote, hold jobs, get an education or other opportunities. Those who attempted to defy Jim Crow laws often faced arrest, fines, jail sentences, violence, and death. 28. 1869: THE HODGE SCHOOL: built as a freedman’s school in 1869 at Caldwell and Reese Streets in the Gravel Town section of Newberry. The School closed in 1922 and was replaced with Drayton Street School.** 29. 1870: HIRAM RHODES REVELS: Revels is elected the first Black member of the US 7

Congress. Over the next decade, 15 more Black men would take seats in the House and Senate, including South Carolina Congressman Robert Smalls. In a direct response to Revel’s election supremacists began terrorizing and intimidating Black men to prevent them from participating in their government. Jim Crow laws then instituted poll taxes and other racist measures to prevent Black participation. By the early 1900s Black participation in government was practically nonexistent. 30. 1884-85: SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA: European powers gather in what is called the Scramble for Africa. Great Britain, France, Germany, and Belgium lay claim to African territory, establishing colonial rule. National boundaries are crudely drawn splitting the needs, history, and languages of different African peoples. This lays the fuel for the fire of long-running ethnic tensions and event civil war seen in the modern era. 31. 1888: SLAVERY IS ABOLISHED IN BRAZIL: Brazil to this day is home to one of the largest populations of the African diaspora (the dispersion of African people from their original homelands). 32. 1909: THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE IS FORMED: It becomes a major force in the fight to gain the vote for African Americans. The idea of one of its founders, WEB Du Bois, was 8

to influence Black activists throughout the world. 33. 1910: MALCOLM LESESNE is hired by the City of Newberry as Fireman. “Mac” is believed to have been the first African American Fireman in South Carolina. Lesesne is best known for being the trainer for “Old Joe” the champion firehorse.** 34. 1914-1918: WORLD WAR I: Learn more about this era, the Harlem Hellfighters, and the Harlem Renaissance at the Newberry Museum’s special exhibit- 1300 Friend Street.** 35. 1921: THE TULSA RACE MASSACRE: A thriving Black community in Oklahoma, dubbed “Black Wall Street,” endured two days of attacks by white mobs resulting in the deaths of up to 300 people, 10,000 left homeless, and 1400 businesses destroyed. 36. 1926: NEGRO HISTORY WEEK: Carter Woodson, known as the “Father of Black History,” establishes Negro History Week in the US. At this time lynchings, were common, white supremacy was bolstered by Jim Crow law, and Africa and the Caribbean were under colonial rule. 37. 1936: JESSE OWENS WINS GOLD: Owens wins the 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, and 4x100 meter relay at the Berlin Olympics. Germany’s Nazi leader Adolf Hitler had hoped


the event would demonstrate Aryan supremacy. 38. EARLY 20TH - MID 20TH CENTURY NEWBERRY’S BACK STREET BUSINESSES BOOM: The Blackowned businesses that once lined Friend Street in downtown Newberry were referred to as “The Back Street.” Gloria Magnum Glasgow recalls, “There was a feel of ease in the ‘back streets’ community — absent of fears and discrimination as one walked about and interacted; experiencing a feel of comfort, and a sense of belonging and pride.”** 39. 1937: DR. JULIAN E. GRANT ESTABLISHES NEWBERRY’S PEOPLE’S HOSPITAL: This hospital was the first and only hospital for African Americans in the County until Newberry County Memorial Hospital integrated in 1952. Today a park is named in his honor at the former location of the hospital.** 40. 1948: DR. ODELL RICHARDSON REUBEN, a native of Silverstreet in Newberry County, becomes the president of Morris College in Sumter, SC, and held that position until 1970. Our local Reuben Elementary School is named after him.** 41. 1950 THERMAN RUTH, of Pomaria in Newberry County, forms the Larks and goes on to perform and record as part of a music career that led to his induction into the Gospel Hall of Fame.** 10

42. 1951: CATO COLEMAN opens Quality Shoe Repair on McKibben Street, where he worked as his own boss until his passing in 2021. Quality Shoe Repair still stands and is the only remaining Newberry “back street” era business left today.** 43. 1954: BROWN VS. BOARD OF EDUCATION: US Supreme Court outlaws segregation in public education via Brown vs. Board of Education 44. 1955: EMMETT TILL: Emmett Louis Till was a 14-year-old African American boy who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store. Till’s mother insists on an open-casket funeral so all could see how badly he was beaten. This gains national traction, but the murderers were acquitted of the crime. 45. ROSA PARKS STARTS THE MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT: When she refuses to give up her seat for a white passenger in Alabama. This launches the civil rights movement in the USA. 46. 1957: LITTLE ROCK NINE: President Eisenhower calls for federal troops and the National Guard to make sure that 9 Black students in Little Rock, Arkansas, can get to school safely through crowds of white supremacists.


47. 1960: FREEDOM RIDES AND LUNCH COUNTER PROTESTS: The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee mobilizes students to challenge segregation. Actions include freedom rides and lunch counter protests. 48. 1961: THE FRIENDSHIP NINE: A group of Black students from Friendship Junior College picketed McCrory’s on Main Street in Rock Hill, SC to protest the segregated lunch counters at the business. Nine of those arrested used the “jail, no bail” strategy, choosing 30 days hard labor at the York Prison Farm over the $100 fine. The strategy gained national attention as one to relieve the financial burden of protest from the movement and call attention to the frivolous arrest. 49. AUGUST 1963: “I HAVE A DREAM”: Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his landmark, “I Have a Dream” speech to more than a quarter-million people at the March on Washington. * 50. 1964: THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT: In July, the Civil Rights Act is enacted, making it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin. 51. 1964: MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. IS AWARDED THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE in October. 52. FEBRUARY 1965: MALCOM X, A NOTABLE CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER, IS ASSASSINATED*


53. BLOODY SUNDAY 1965: That March 25year-old activist John Lewis led over 600 marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, and faced brutal attacks by oncoming state troopers. Footage of the violence collectively shocked the nation and galvanized the fight against racial injustice. John Lewis went on to become a US Senator. 54. AUGUST 1965: THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT: The act passes, paving the way for ease of access for Black peoples to vote. 55. JUNE 1967: Interracial relationships are made legal nationally in the Supreme Court case of LOVING VS. VIRGINIA. 56. SUMMER OF 1967: OVER 40 RIOTS AND 100 DISTURBANCES break out across the United States, stemming from the frustration of poverty, unemployment, systemic denial of employment opportunities by whiteowned/lead businesses and city services, and mistreatment by mostly white police forces. 57. FALL OF 1967: THURGOOD MARSHALL, the first African American Supreme Court justice, is elected. 58. ISRAEL BROOKS JR. of Newberry becomes South Carolina’s first Black Highway Patrolman. In 1994 he becomes the first Black US Marshal for the District of South Carolina.**


59. 1968: MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. IS ASSASSINATED. 60. 1968: PROTEST IN SPORT: Tommie Smith and John Carols give the black power salute during a medal ceremony at the Mexico Olympics. The image has resonated throughout history as one of defiance and protest in sport.* 61. 1968: SHIRLEY CHISHOLM: She becomes the first African American woman elected to Congress in 1969. She also became the first African American person to run for president under a major party and was the first woman to run for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination, in 1972. 62. 1968: RICHARD SLIGH of Newberry starts his NFL career with the Oakland Raiders.**

63. 1969: MAYA ANGELOU PUBLISHES I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS. 64. 1972: EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ACT: Affirmative Action to redress racial discrimination is enacted through the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. 65. 1972: GRACE EVELYN YOUNG of Prosperity in Newberry County is named Miss Black America of SC.** 66. 1974: DONNIE SHELL of Whitmire in Newberry County is drafted to play for the Pittsburgh Steelers.** 14

67. 1976: NEGRO WEEK BECOMES BLACK HISTORY MONTH 68. 1977: THE TELEVISION SERIES ROOTS AIRS: At the time is secures the highest TV ratings in history. 69. 1980: JOHN CALDWELL is elected as Newberry County’s first Black County Councilman.** 70. 1981 WILLIE SCOTT of Newberry is drafted to play for the Kansas City Chiefs, and later the New England Patriots.** 71. AUGUST 1983: GUION BLUFORD JR. becomes the first African American to go to space via the Orbiter Challenger.* 72. 1986: THE OPRAH WINFREY SHOW AIRS 73. 1989: COLIN POWELL becomes the first African American to head U.S. armed forces. 74. 1990: ZEBBIE GOUDELOCK becomes councilman for District 3 in the City of Newberry. Mr. Goudelock would go on to serve for 30 years until his passing in 2020. One of Newberry’s first Black councilmen and longest serving, he was a leader of great influence in the community.* 75. 1992: BEATING OF RODNEY KING: Riots ensue in Los Angeles after four white police officers 15

are acquitted following being filmed by a passer-by beating African American Rodney King. 76. 1993: TONI MORRISON becomes the first African American woman to win the Nobel prize for literature. 77. 1995: THE MILLION MAN MARCH ON WASHINGTON OCCURS: The aim is one of “atonement” for African American men. 78. 1997: THE MILLION WOMAN MARCH OCCURS IN PHILADELPHIA: The focus is on family and what it means to be an African American woman in America. 79. 2000: REGGIE TAYLOR of Newberry begins his career in the MLB with the Philadelphia Phillies.** 80. 2000: TRAVIS DAWKINS of Newberry plays for the US Olympic Baseball team.** 81. 2001: CONDOLEEZZA RICE becomes the first woman to serve as National Security Advisor and the female African American Secretary of State, in 2005. 82. 2005: HURRICANE KATRINA: The storm passes over the gulf coast, killing an estimated 1700 people. The Black community of New Orleans bears the brunt of the floods when levees break, and the federal government is slow to respond. 16

83. 2008: SOUTH CAROLINA RECOGNIZES JUNETEENTH as a special day of celebration, although not an official holiday. 84. 2008: BARACK OBAMA IS ELECTED PRESIDENT: He is the first African American to become president of the United States.* 85. 2009: JORDAN HILL of Newberry is drafted to play for the New York Knicks, starting his NBA career.** 86. 2010: TREVOR BOOKER of Newberry is drafted to play for the Washington Wizards to start his NBA career.** 87. FEBRUARY 2012: TRAYVON MARTIN: The unarmed 17-year-old wearing a hoodie and holding skittles candy, is shot dead by George Zimmerman. A year later Zimmerman is acquitted and the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter is used for the first time. 88. 2014: BLACK STORIES IN THE MOVIES: The Movie 12 Years a Slave, wins Best Picture at the Oscars. In the years following Black moviemaking reaches new nights: hits include Get Out, Hidden Figures, and Moonlight (which takes Best Picture in 2017). Black Panther, the Marvel superhero movie, becomes one of the most-watched movies of all time. It is shown in Newberry’s Memorial Park in 2018 to a record crowd of 250.


89. JULY 2014: ERIC GARNER: He dies after being put in a chokehold by officers in Staten Island. The video is later released where Garner is heard pleading “I CAN’T BREATHE,” 11 times. AUGUST 2014: MICHAEL BROWN: After being shot six times by a white officer in Ferguson, Missouri, large-scale protests take place. Demonstrator’s chant, “HANDS UP, DON’T SHOOT.” A complicated story, it is reported that following an altercation, Brown had his hands in the air, facing the officer when he was shot. The officer reported that brown was charging him. The division between protesters and police was that militarized response resulted in Brown’s death. Black Lives Matter becomes an internationally known campaign. NOVEMBER 2014: TAMIR RICE: The 12-yearold child is shot dead by an officer while holding a toy gun in a park. Tamir was shot almost immediately after the officer arrived on the scene. After a series of high-profile killings of Black men, many Americans begin to feel outdone. 90. 2015: CARL EDWARDS JR. of Newberry debuts with the Chicago Cubs. He went on to play in the World Series in 2016.** 91. 2015: ROY MCCLURKIN becomes the City of Newberry’s first Black Chief of Police. He retires in 2021 after 37 years of service.* 92. APRIL 2015: WALTER SCOTT: He was murdered by now ex-officer Michael Slager, in North Charleston, South Carolina. The incident 18

is captured on video, where Scott can be seen running away before he is shot in the back multiple times. Slager was sentenced to 20 years in 2017. JUNE 2015: EMANUEL AME: Nine African Americans are shot dead by a white supremacist during a Bible study at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston.* Newberry holds a community vigil event at the Newberry Opera House. More people attend than there are seats and fill the lobby and the event spills outdoors. 93. 2016: THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE OPENS in Washington DC as part of the Smithsonian. 94. SEPTEMBER 2016: COLIN KAEPERNICK chooses not to stand during the national anthem during a preseason game. He explains, “I am not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses Black people and people of color.” He is vilified, but “taking a knee” becomes a symbol of resistance to racial oppression worldwide. A new era of protest in sport ensues. 95. JANUARY 2017: THE END OF THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION 96. AUGUST 2017: CHARLOTTESVILLE: White Supremacists rally in Charlottesville, Virginia. They march day and night shouting racist and antisemitic slogans. On the second day of their rally counter-protestors arrive. During the 19

event, a neo-Nazi deliberately drives into a crowd, killing counter-protestor Heather Heyer. Tensions become extremely heightened following her murder. 97. 2018: PEOPLE OF COLOR IN OFFICE: Elections see a wave of persons of color joining the halls of Congress. This wave is continued into 2020 when additional persons of color are voted into the House and Senate. Both instances credit grassroots campaigning focused on voter registration, particularly in the south. 98. 2020: THE CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC GRIPS THE WORLD: COVID-19 spreads and statisticians see that it disproportionately impacts Black, Asian, and other people of color. Health workers and those in frontline jobs face the biggest risks from the coronavirus. The pandemic is depicted by a daisy in the artistic rendering.* 99. FEBRUARY 2020: AHMAUD ARBERY: While out jogging in a neighborhood in Georgia, he is confronted by two white residents of the neighborhood and shot dead. Initially, police take no action, but when a video of the incident is made public months later and goes viral, charges are brought.* MARCH 2020: BREONNA TAYLOR: The 26year-old medical worker, is shot dead by plainclothes police while asleep in her home in Kentucky. This was a result of a miscalculated no-knock warrant arrest.* MAY 2020: GEORGE FLOYD: While being 20

arrested in Minneapolis on suspicion of using a fake $20 bill, Floyd is filmed being held down by the neck, under the knee of a white police officer, Derek Chauvin. Chauvin holds his knee on Floyd for 8 minutes and 46 seconds. Floyd loses consciousness after 4 minutes and is killed by Chauvin’s actions. The incident is captured on multiple cameras and passers-by plead with officers to stop but are prevented from intervening. The youngest witness to the murder was 9 years old.* SUMMER 2020: Floyd’s death, compounded with the deaths of Arbery and Taylor, sparked international protest, in what became the largest protest movement in history. A year later Chauvin is found guilty on all charges.* 100. JUNE 2020: NEWBERRY UNITY RALLY: A month of protests for Black lives break out across the world. In Newberry, a Unity Rally is held in downtown. The rally involves local NAACP, other Black-led organizations, local protestors, and caring neighbors alongside local police and sheriff’s deputies in a unifying call to care for our community and to care for the Black lives that are a part of our patchwork. 101. JULY 2020: JACKIE HOLMES is voted in as Newberry’s first Black City Councilwoman, representing District 5. That fall she presents the idea for the Newberry Juneteenth festival. * 102. DECEMBER 2020: CARLTON KINARD is voted in as Newberry’s youngest serving City Councilperson, representing District 3, 21

following the passing of Mr. Zebbie Goudelock who served in the position for 30 years. * 103. 2021: KAMALA HARRIS: Kamala Harris becomes the first female US Vice President, and the first African American, to hold the office. AMANDA GORMAN the first youth poet laureate of the United States, reads her moving poem, The Hill We Climb, at the inauguration of the 46th President. The poem is a moving tribute to the imperfect union of the United States. Gorman reflects that progress doesn’t happen at once but is slow and sometimes a painful “climb” up the “hill” of justice. The climb takes patience and humility ending with the line, “for there is always light, if only we’re brave enough to see it. If only we’re brave enough to be it.” 104. JUNE 19, 2021: NEWBERRY HOSTS ITS FIRST OFFICIAL NEWBERRY JUNETEENTH CELEBRATION! 105. Judge Ketanji Brown-Jackson: confirmed as the first African American female Supreme Court Justice, on April 7, 2022. 106. JUNE 18, 2022: NEWBERRY HOSTS THEIR 2ND ANNUAL JUNETEENTH CELEBRATION! 107. JUNE 17, 2023: NEWBERRY HOSTS THEIR 3RD ANNUAL JUNETEENTH CELEBRATION! 108. JUNE 15, 2024: NEWBERRY HOSTS THEIR TH 4 ANNUAL JUNETEENTH CELEBRATION! 22

* Depicted in the artistic rendering. ** Learn more about this at the Newberry Museum (1300 Friend Street, open Tuesday-Saturday 11 am-4 pm). References: https://www.history.com/news/what-is-juneteenth https://www.history.com/news/7-influential-african-empires http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/africa_article_01.shtml#:~:text=The%20transatlantic%20slave% 20trade%20began,they%20enslaved%20back%20to%20Europe. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html#:~:text=The%20American%20Colonization%20Society%20 (ACS,the%20independent%20nation%20of%20Liberia. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-abolishes-the-african-slave-trade https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/13th-amendment-ratified https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/harriet-tubman https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/which-slave-sailed-himself-tofreedom/ https://www.pbs.org/wnet/african-americans-many-rivers-to-cross/history/what-is-juneteenth/ https://www.nytimes.com/article/juneteenth-day-celebration.html https://www.naacp.org/naacp-history-carter-g-woodson/ https://www.britannica.com/story/the-riots-of-the-long-hot-summer https://www.postandcourier.com/news/judge-upholds-michael-slagers-20-year-sentence-for-killing-walterscott/article_ed4b79c4-a14f-11eb-8d5e-7ffbbaf76933.html https://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2020/jul/11/black-history-timeline https://humanorigins.si.edu/education/introduction-humanevolution#:~:text=Humans%20first%20evolved%20in%20Africa,different%20species%20of%20early%20hu mans. https://www.oldeenglishdistrict.com/points-of-interest/mccrorys-building-lunch-counter https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-death-of-emmett-till https://www.history.com/topics/early-20th-century-us/jim-crow-laws https://www.history.com/news/first-black-congressman-hiram-revels https://www.newberryobserver.com/news/32403/the-legacy-of-dr-grant https://www.newberryobserver.com/opinion/33441/as-i-remember-a-black-history-moment https://www.litcharts.com/poetry/amanda-gorman/the-hill-we-climb



Turn static files into dynamic content formats.

Create a flipbook
Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.