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Archaeological Assessment for the Diamond Specific Plan Project, Riverside County, California Prepared for JIC-CP Diamond Development 7777 Center Avenue, Suite 300 Huntington Beach, CA 92647

Prepared by

McKeehan Environmental Consultants

May 2009


ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE DIAMOND SPECIFIC PLAN PROJECT, RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Prepared for JIC-CP Diamond Development 7777 Center Avenue, Suite 300 Huntington Beach, CA 92647 Prepared by Judy McKeehan, M.A., RPA McKeehan Environmental Consultants 252 Calle Cuervo San Clemente, CA 92672 jdmckeehan@sbcglobal.net May, 2009

Project Location: 1953 USGS Lake Elsinore Quadrangle (photorevised 1988), Township 6 South, Range 4 West, Section 9, San Bernardino Base and Meridian


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MANAGEMENT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Purpose and Scope: McKeehan Environmental Consultants was retained by JIC-CP Diamond Development to conduct a cultural resources study of an 87.2-acre parcel of land as part of the California Environmental Quality Act review process for a proposed Specific Plan, a master planned, mixed-use development. The project is located in the City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California. These services entailed records and literature searches, a pedestrian field survey, Initial SB-18 Consultation, and a follow-up assessment. This report documents the results of the study. Dates of Investigation: The records search of Riverside County cultural resources was conducted at the Eastern Information Center, University of California, Riverside, on December 10, 2008, as a part of the current investigation. The Native American Heritage Commission was contacted requesting a tribal consultation per SB-18 and a Sacred Lands File search on January 16, 2009 by Judy McKeehan. The NAHC responded with a letter dated January 16, 2009. The cultural resources intensive field survey was conducted on January 14, 2009, with a follow up survey of the geomorphology on May 8, 2009. This report was completed in May 2009. Findings of the Investigation: The 87.2-acre project area, of which 26.5 acres has been previously developed, is located on private land. The records search indicates that 24 cultural resources studies have been conducted within a 1-mile radius of the project area. Twenty-two cultural resources studies have been conducted within the vicinity of the project area, five of which involved the of the project area itself. Five additional studies provide an overview of cultural resources in the general project vicinity. One of the cultural resource properties occur within the boundary of the project area. Investigation Constraints: Constraints on the cultural resources assessment of the proposed project area consisted of plow furrows and vegetation that affected ground visibility. Parts of the project area are covered by existing buildings and paved parking. Recommendations: Additional cultural resources work is recommended for the project area. This is based on the positive findings of the records search and intensive survey for cultural resources within the project area, additional background research, ground surface conditions during the survey, and the likelihood of finding cultural resources within the project area. A subsurface testing program and investigation for potential buried resources should be conducted Should cultural resources be encountered during any ground disturbing activities (e.g., trenching, grading, brushing, soil testing), work in the area must be halted and a qualified archaeologist notified immediately to evaluate the resource(s) and to recommend pertinent mitigation measures for potentially significant resources consistent with CEQA Guidelines Section 15126.4(b). Although unlikely, the discovery of human remains is always a possibility; State of California Health and Safety Code Section 7050.5 covers these findings. This code section states that no further disturbance shall occur until the County Coroner has made a determination of origin and disposition pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 5097.98. The County Coroner must be notified of the find immediately. If the human remains are determined to be prehistoric, the McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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Coroner will notify the NAHC, which will determine and notify a Most Likely Descendent (MLD). The MLD shall complete the inspection of the site within 48 hours of notification, and may recommend scientific removal and nondestructive analysis of human remains and items associated with Native American burials. Disposition of Data: This report will be filed with the Eastern Information Center, located at the University of California, Riverside, with the City of Lake Elsinore, JIC-CP Diamond Development, and with McKeehan Environmental Consultants.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS MANAGEMENT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT ......................................................................... ii UNDERTAKING INFORMATION/INTRODUCTION ....................................................... 1 LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE CHECKLIST ......................................................................... 2 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING ........................................................................................ 6 CULTURAL SETTING .................................................................................................... 6 Prehistoric Overview ..................................................................................................... 6 Early Man Period /San Dieguito/Paleo-Coastal/Early Holocene (ca. 10,000–6000 B.C.) ................................................................................................................. 7 Milling Stone Period (ca. 6000–3000/1000 B.C.) /Middle Holocene (5600-1650 B.C.) ................................................................................................................. 7 Intermediate Period (ca. 3000/1000 B.C.–A.D. 500/650)/Late Holocene (1650 B.C.-A.D. 1769) ................................................................................................. 9 Late Prehistoric Period (ca. A.D. 500/650–A.D. 1769) ................................................. 9 Ethnographic Overview ................................................................................................ 10 Luiseño ................................................................................................................. 10 Historic Overview......................................................................................................... 12 Spanish Period (1769–1822) ................................................................................... 12 Mexican Period (1822–1848) ................................................................................... 13 American Period (1848–Present) .............................................................................. 13 Local History ............................................................................................................... 13 Lake Elsinore Area .................................................................................................. 14 BACKGROUND RESEARCH ......................................................................................... 15 Literature Search and results ........................................................................................ 15 Additional Research ..................................................................................................... 19 Riv-2798/H ............................................................................................................ 19 Riv-4042 ................................................................................................................ 21 Initial Native American Consultation .............................................................................. 22 SURVEY METHODS .................................................................................................... 22 RESULTS.................................................................................................................... 23 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................ 23

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Project Figure 2. Project Table 1. Cultural Table 2. Cultural

Vicinity Map .............................................................................................. 4 Location Map ............................................................................................ 5 Resources Studies Located within a 1 Mile Radius of the Project Area ........... 16 Resources Located within a 1 Mile Radius of the Project Area ...................... 18

CONFIDENTIAL APPENDICES Appendix A: Records Search Results Appendix B: Native American Contacts

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UNDERTAKING INFORMATION/INTRODUCTION Contracting Data: JIC-CP Diamond Development retained McKeehan Environmental Consultants to conduct a cultural resources study of an 87.2-acre parcel, of which approximately 26.5 acres has been previously developed, in the City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California. Purpose: This study was completed under the provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). Public Resources Code Section 5024.1, Section 15064.5 of the Guidelines, and Sections 21083.2 and 21084.1 of the Statutes of CEQA were also used as the basic guidelines for the cultural resources study (Governor’s Office of Planning and Research 1998). Public Resources Code Section 5024.1 requires evaluation of historical resources to determine their eligibility for listing on the California Register of Historical Resources (CRHR). The purposes of the CRHR are to maintain listings of the state’s historical resources and to indicate which properties are to be protected from substantial adverse change (Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation 1997). According to Section 15064.5(a) (3) (A–D) in the revised CEQA guidelines (Governor’s Office of Planning and Research 1998), a resource is considered historically significant if it meets at least one of the following criteria: A. Is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of California’s history and cultural heritage; B. Is associated with the lives of persons important in our past; C. Embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, region or method of construction, or represents the work of an important creative individual, or possesses high artistic values; and/or D. Has yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. The format of this report follows the Archaeological Resource Management Reports: Recommended Contents and Format (Office of Historic Preservation 1990). The Phase 1 Archaeological Survey Report Outline provided by the County of Riverside Planning Department also was followed. Undertaking: The project entails development of an 87.2 acre parcel for a proposed mixeduse area in Lake Elsinore. The project area lies within the City of Lake Elsinore and is subject to the East Lake Specific Plan Amendment 9 (SPA-9 or Amendment 9). Project Limits: The project is located in the City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California. Figure 1 displays the project location in its regional and local contexts. The project site is located along both sides of Diamond Drive between Lakeshore/Mission Trail and Malaga Road, with a small portion on the south side of Malaga at the southwest corner of Malaga Road and Diamond Drive. The undeveloped portion of the project site is approximately 61 acres. Major Findings: Twenty-two cultural resources studies have been conducted within the vicinity of the project area, five of which involved the of the project area itself. Five additional studies provide an overview of cultural resources in the general project vicinity. One of the cultural resource properties occur within the boundary of the project area. McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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Summary of Recommendations: Additional cultural resources work is recommended for the project area. This is based on the positive findings of the records search and intensive survey for cultural resources within the project area, additional background research, ground surface conditions during the survey, and the likelihood of finding cultural resources within the project area. A subsurface testing program and investigation for potential buried resources should be conducted Should cultural resources be encountered during any ground disturbing activities (e.g., trenching, grading, brushing, soil testing), work in the area must be halted and a qualified archaeologist notified immediately to evaluate the resource(s) and to recommend pertinent mitigation measures for potentially significant resources consistent with CEQA Guidelines Section 15126.4(b). Although unlikely, the discovery of human remains is always a possibility; State of California Health and Safety Code Section 7050.5 covers these findings. This code section states that no further disturbance shall occur until the County Coroner has made a determination of origin and disposition pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 5097.98. The County Coroner must be notified of the find immediately. If the human remains are determined to be prehistoric, the Coroner will notify the NAHC, which will determine and notify a Most Likely Descendent (MLD). The MLD shall complete the inspection of the site within 48 hours of notification, and may recommend scientific removal and nondestructive analysis of human remains and items associated with Native American burials. Personnel: The cultural resources records search was initiated by Judy McKeehan, MA, RPA archaeologist/project manager, and was conducted by the Eastern Information Center (EIC), California Historical Resources Information System (CHRIS) at the University of California, Riverside. Ms. McKeehan also contacted the Native American Heritage Commission (NAHC) regarding a proposed project subject to SB-18. The City of Lake Elsinore sent letters to the Native American contacts. Judy McKeehan, M.A., RPA, authored this report.

LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE CHECKLIST For Historical Resources Project No:

APN: □ Potentially Significant

□Less than Significant

Impact

With Mitigation Incorporated

APN:

□ Less than Significant Impact

For Archaeological Resources Project No:

□ Potentially Significant

X Less than Significant

Impact

With Mitigation Incorporated

McKeehan Environmental Consultants

□ Less than Significant Impact

EA Number: X No Impact

EA Number: □ No Impact

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Historic Resources Would the project: a) Alter or destroy a historic site? b) Cause a substantial adverse change in the significance of a historical resource as defined in California Code of Regulations ยง15064.5? c) Is the resource listed in, or determined to be eligible by the State Resources Commission, for listing in the California Register of Historical Resources (Pub. Res. Code ยง5024.1)? Findings of Fact: None Proposed Mitigation: None Monitoring: None Archaeological Resources Would the project: a) Alter or destroy an archaeological site? b) Cause a substantial adverse change in the significance of an archaeological resource pursuant to California Code of Regulations ยง15064.5? c) Disturb and human remains, including those interred outside of formal cemeteries? Restrict existing religious or sacred uses within the potential impact area? Proposed Mitigation: Monitoring Proposed: archaeologist.

Phase II testing Required on all portions of the project unless otherwise directed by the

Prepared By: _

McKeehan Environmental Consultants

___________________________________ Date: May 30, 2009

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Figure 1. Project Vicinity Map

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0 0

1,000 250

2,000 Feet 500

N

Meters

Source: USGS Lake Elsinore Quadrangle (rev. 1988) Township 6 S Range 4 W Section 9 1:24,000

Project Location Map Diamond Specific Plan

Figure 2. Project Location Map

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ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING The project is located in the City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California. The channelized San Joaquin River is adjacent on the west and the distance to Lake Elsinore varies from 300 to 1,300 meters (900 to 4,000 feet) The project site is located in the City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California. Figures 1 and 2 display the project location in its regional and local contexts. The project site is located along both sides of Diamond Drive between Lakeshore/Mission Trail and Malaga Road, with a small portion on the south side of Malaga at the southwest corner of Malaga Road and Diamond Drive. The undeveloped portion of the project site is approximately 61 acres. Portions of the project site were previously plowed. There is non-native ruderal vegetation on the site. The northern portion of the site is occupied by a retail business and parking lot; the southern portion is occupied by a baseball park. Elevations range from a low of approximately 1260 feet above mean sea level (amsl) along its eastern boundary to a high of about 1,280 feet above sea level in its northern half.

CULTURAL SETTING PREHISTORIC OVERVIEW Numerous chronological sequences have been developed over the past century to explain cultural changes for various areas within southern California. These sequences have all focused on localized or regional cultural projects. The latest chronologies have been recently advanced by Erlandson and Colten (1991:1-2) and depart markedly from the previous chronological/cultural nomenclature and methodology by using the major climatic points in the Holocene Period. This approach was also followed by Bryan F. Byrd and L. Mark Raab in 2007 because of the increasingly complex nature of cultural development resulting from archaeological work in the past decade that utilizes new methods, approaches and techniques. These scholarly works emphasize an older-to-younger approach to archaeological data that stresses changing environmental factors, as opposed to the previously ethnohistoric perspective of anthropology. Their chronologies are designated: Early Holocene (9600 cal B.C. to 5600 cal B.C.), Middle Holocene (5600 to 1650 ca. B.C.), and Late Holocene (1650 cal. B.C. to A.D. 1769). Other recent seminal works on California archaeology of note were produced by Moratto (1984) Chartkoff and Chartkoff (1984). These summaries continued to build on early studies on data synthesis while incorporating newly available scientific techniques and practices. However, for the southern California coastal, near-coastal and many inland areas regions, Wallace’s (1955, 1978) prehistoric chronology still the most widely used today. In addition to Wallace’s classic summary, a regional synthesis developed by Warren (1968) is often used in tandem. This synthesis is supported by a larger archaeological database for southern California, which includes the advent and increased use of radiocarbon dating after the 1950s. The summary of prehistoric chronological sequences for southern California coastal and nearcoastal areas presented below is a composite of information chronologies developed by Wallace (1955) and Warren (1968), as well as more recent studies, including Koerper and Drover’s McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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(1983) results of excavations at a multi-component village site (CA-ORA-119-A) near the University of California, Irvine in Orange County. Details of localized adaptations are treated in these references and are not repeated here.

Early Man Period /San Dieguito/Paleo-Coastal/Early Holocene (ca. 10,000– 6000 B.C.) The earliest accepted dates for occupation of the southern California southern coastal and nondesert inland areas are from two of the northern Channel Islands, located off the coast of Santa Barbara. On Santa Rosa Island, human remains have been dated from the Arlington Springs site to approximately 13,000 years ago (Johnson et al. 2002). On San Miguel Island, Daisy Cave clearly establishes the presence of people in this area about 10,000 years ago Channel Islands (e.g., Erlandson 1991; Moratto 1984; Rick et al. 2001:609). Known sites dating to the Early Man Period are sparse in western Riverside County. One exception is the Elsinore site (CA-RIV-2798-B), which has deposits dating as early as 6630 cal. B.C. (Grenda 1997:260). This site is noted as a major trans-Holocene site (Byrd and Raab 2007:218. Recent data from coastal and inland sites during this period indicate that the economy was a diverse mixture of hunting and gathering, and on Pleistocene lakeshores in eastern San Diego County (see Moratto 1984:90-92). At near-coastal and inland sites, it is generally considered that an emphasis on hunting may have been greater during the Early Man Period than in later periods, during which a major emphasis on aquatic resources developed in many coastal areas (e.g., Jones et al. 2002). In Riverside County, only one isolated fluted point has been identified on the surface of a site in the Pinto Basin in the central part of the county (Campbell and Campbell 1935; Dillon 2002:113). Use of the atlatl (spear-throwing stick) during this period facilitated launching spears with greater power and distance. Warming and drying conditions towards the end of this period resulted in the displacement of populations as the Pleistocene lakes and streams began to shrink and less moisture in the interior regions meant the need for exploitation of plant and animal species over a wider region (Erlandson 1991).

Milling Stone Period (ca. 6000–3000/1000 B.C.) /Middle Holocene (56001650 B.C.) Today this period is recognized as being much more diverse than previously thought. Sites along the San Diego coast document continuity in occupation from the previous period (Byrd et al. 2004; Byrd and Reddy 2002, and references there). Recent paleoenvironmental data support extreme local differences in both time and magnitude of changes in drainage and estuarine habitats (Altschul et al. 2005; Anderson and 1998; Pope 1997). Evidence accumulating from the presence of Olivella grooved rectangle (OGR) beads at widespread Channel Island sites is drastically changing the belief that extensive long-distance trade did not exist at this time. This rare type of manufacture from the purple olive shell sis thought to be an indicator of a 5000-year-old trade network extending from the Southern Channel Islands through the Mojave desert, and to the Northern Channel Islands as far north as Oregon (Raab and Howard 2000; Raab et al 1994; Vellanoweth 1995; Jenkins and Erlandson 1996). It is also posited by some of these researchers that OGR the trade route is linked linguistically to the Shoshonean Wedge‖ (see also Kerr and Hawley 2002). McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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The Milling Stone Period (Encinitas Tradition of Warren, 1968) is traditionally characterized by an ecological adaptation to collecting (Wallace (1955, 1978), accompanied by the dominance of the principal ground stone implements generally associated with the horizontal motion of grinding small seeds; namely, milling stones (metates, slabs) and handstones (manos, mullers), which are typically shaped. Milling stones occur in large numbers for the first time, and are even more numerous near the end of this period. The mortar and pestle, associated with the vertical motion of pounding foods, such as acorns, were introduced during the Milling Stone, but are not common. Stone chopping, scraping, and cutting tools are abundant, while projectile points, rather large and generally leaf-shaped, and bone tools, including awls, are generally rare. The large points are associated with the spear, and probably with the advent of the atlatl. Items made from shell and evidence of weaving or basketry is present at a few sites. Kowta (1969) attributes the presence of numerous scraperplanes in Milling Stone sites to the preparation of agave or yucca for food or fiber. The cogged stone and discoidal are considered diagnostic of the period, most of which have been found within sites dating between 4000–1000 B.C. (Moratto 1984:149). Cogged stones and discoidals are found mainly in sites along the coastal drainages from southern Ventura County southward, and in abundance at some Orange County sites (Dixon 1968:63; Moratto 1984:149). The cogged stone is best described as a ground stone object that has variant forms of gear-like teeth on the perimeter, which is produced from a variety of materials. Their function is unknown, but has been interpreted as ritualistic or ceremonial in nature (Dixon 1968:64-65; Eberhart 1961:367). Similar to cogged stones, discoidals are found in the archaeological record subsequent to the introduction of the cogged stone. Both discoidals and cogged stones have been found together at some Orange County sites, such as CA-ORA83/86/144 (Van Bueren et al. 1989:772), and Los Cerritos Ranch (Dixon 1975 in Moratto 1984:150). Emphasis on occupation seems to be focused on the resource-rich bays and estuaries (e.g. Gallegos 1992; Warren and Pavesic 1963, Crabtree 1963). Subsistence patterns varied as groups became better adapted to their newly developing regional or local environments. Milling Stone Period sites are also common at many inland locations including the Prado Basin in western Riverside County and the Pauma Valley in northeastern San Diego County (e.g., Herring 1968; Langenwalter and Brock 1985; Sawyer and Brock 1999; Sutton 1993; True 1958). Research indicates that residential bases or camps were moved to resources in a seasonal round (de Barros 1996; Koerper et al. 2002; Mason et al. 1997), or that some sites were occupied year-round with portions of the village population leaving at certain times of the year to exploit available resources (Cottrell and Del Chario 1981). Subsistence strategies included hunting of small and large terrestrial mammals, sea mammals, and birds; collecting shellfish and other shore species; extensive use of seed and plant products; the processing of yucca and agave; and nearshore fishing with barbs or gorges (Kowta 1969; Reinman 1964). Wallace (1955, 1978) and Warren (1968) relied on several key coastal sites to characterize the period. These include the ―Oak Grove Complex‖ in the Santa Barbara region, ―Little Sycamore‖ in southwestern Ventura County, Topanga Canyon in the Santa Monica Mountains, and at La Jolla in San Diego County (D. Rogers: 1929). McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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Characteristic mortuary practices during the this cultural period include extended and loosely flexed burials, some with red ochre and few grave goods, such as shell beads and milling stones, interred beneath cobble or milling stone cairns. ―Killed‖ milling stones, exhibiting holes, may occur in the cairns. Reburials are common in the Los Angeles County area, with flexed burials oriented to the north common in Orange and San Diego Counties. Evidence of wattleand-daub structures and walls have been identified at some sites in the San Joaquin Hills and Newport Coast area spanning all cultural periods (Koerper 1995; Mason et al. 1991, 1992, 1993; Sawyer 2006; Strudwick 2004).

Intermediate Period (ca. 3000/1000 B.C.–A.D. 500/650)/Late Holocene (1650 B.C.-A.D. 1769) Temporal placement of the Intermediate Period was generally recognized as ranging between 3000 B.C. and A.D. 500 as characterized by a shift toward a hunting and maritime subsistence strategy, along with a wider use of plant foods (Wallace 1955; Warren 1968). A more recent evaluation, based on some 1,300 calibrated radiocarbon dates from sites in Orange County, suggests a date of 1400 B.C. for the start of the Intermediate, marked by single-piece circular fishhooks and coinciding with the transition from the Middle to Late Holocene (Koerper et al. 2002:67–68). Although sites in the Prado Basin and Perris Reservoir area have cultural components that date to this period (Bettinger 1974:160; Grenda 1995:25), the Intermediate Period in western Riverside County is still not as well documented as it is in coastal areas (e.g., Van Bueren et al. 1986:11). A pronounced trend toward greater adaptation to regional or local resources is demonstrated through the remains of fish, land mammals, and sea mammals in increasing abundance and diversity in sites along the California coast. Related chipped stone tools suitable for hunting are more abundant and diversified, and shell fishhooks become part of the toolkit during this period. Larger knives, a variety of flake scrapers, and drill-like implements are common. Projectile points include large side-notched, stemmed, and lanceolate or leaf-shaped forms. Koerper and Drover (1983) consider Gypsum Cave and Elko series points, which have a wide distribution in the Great Basin and Mojave deserts between circa 2000 B.C.–A.D. 500, to be diagnostic of this period. Bone tools, including awls, are more numerous than in the preceding period, and the use of asphaltum adhesive is now common. Characteristic mortuary practices include fully flexed burials, placed face down or face up, and oriented toward the north or west (Warren 1968:2–3). Red ochre is common, and abalone shell dishes infrequent. Interments sometimes occurred beneath cairns or broken artifacts. Shell, bone, and stone ornaments, including charmstones, are more common than in the preceding Encinitas Tradition. Some later sites include Olivella shell and steatite beads, mortars with flat bases and flaring sides, and a few small points. The growth of trade, particularly during the later part of this period, is attested to by the broad distribution of steatite from the Channel Islands, obsidian from distant inland regions, and other items.

Late Prehistoric Period (ca. A.D. 500/650–A.D. 1769) Wallace (1955, 1978) places the beginning of the Late Prehistoric around A.D. 500. In all chronological schemes for southern California, the Late Prehistoric Period lasts until European contact occurred in A.D. 1769.

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The emergence of the bow-and-arrow around 500 B.C. and ceramics circa A.D. are hallmarks of the period. Surpluses of food (including extensive use of acorns), and the adoption of more sedentary and complex social organization and cremations are also cited. Research during the past 20 years has demonstrated that the timing of these adaptations varied greatly within the region, typically earlier in the east and very late or minimally in the west (Byrd and Raab 2007: Byrd 2003; Gallegos 2002; Gamble and Russell 2002; Griset 1996; and references there). During this period, there is an increase in population size accompanied by the advent of larger, more permanent villages (Wallace 1955:223). Large populations and, in places, high population densities are characteristic, with some coastal and near-coastal settlements containing as many as 1,500 people. A resulting over-exploitation of staple food items caused a reliance on more costly food resources and intensification of procurement. (e.g. Byrd 1996; Koerper et al. 2002; Raab and Yatsko 1992). Examples include a shift from the hunting of large sea mammals and shellfish to intensified fishing, small sea mammal hunting and collection of small shellfish species on San Clemente Island (Garlinghouse 2000; Porcasi et al. 2000; and references there. Similar changes in subsistence practices are extensively demonstrated from data at Camp Pendleton (Byrd and Reddy 1999, 2002) and along the Newport coast and San Joaquin Hill (Koerper et al. 2002:70-72). There was an increase in the use of plant food resources in addition to an increase in land and sea mammal hunting. A greater number of small, finely chipped projectile points, steatite cooking vessels and containers, the increased presence of smaller bone and shell circular fishhooks, perforated stones, arrow shaft straighteners made of steatite, a variety of bone tools, and personal ornaments made from shell, bone, and stone, all accompany the new social adaptation. A refinement of regional environmental changes that sometimes occurred swiftly has given researchers a better understanding the necessity for localized adaptations. The best example of this is impact of the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (Jones et al. 1999).

ETHNOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW Southern California native languages derive from the western Takic subgroup of Uto-Aztecan language family. The greater Menifee Valley area lies within the Cupan linguistic territory. This subgroup of Takic comprises the Luiseño, Cupeño, and Cahuilla ethnographic groups, which show closer affinities with the Gabrielino than with the Serrano, reflecting a fairly recent UtoAztecan intrusion, possibly within the last millenium. Some traces of Yuman phonologies indicate that at least part of the Cupan territory was previously occupied by speakers of the Yuman sub-family of languages known to the south (Golla 2000:75).

Luiseño The term Luiseño is derived from the Mission San Luis Rey, and later applied specifically to the Payomkawichum ethnic nation who resided in the region near the mission. Luiseño territory included the northern half of San Diego County and western edge of Riverside County. Along the coast their territory extended from Agua Hedionda Creek northward to Aliso Creek, and inland to the Palomar Mountains at the south and east of Santiago Peak towards the north (Bean and Shipek 1978). Their neighbors were the Cahuilla to the east and the Juaneño (Acjachemen) to the west, who spoke a Luiseño dialect. McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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The Luiseño resided in permanent villages with 50–400 people, but during certain seasons inhabited camps that included many fewer people. Village social structure revolved around lineages and clans. Smaller villages generally included a single lineage, whereas larger villages were clan-centered with people from multiple lineages. Each clan/village owned a resource territory that was politically independent, but maintained ties to other nearby clans through economic, religious, and social networks. Luiseño nuclear families resided in dome-shaped dwellings (kish) made of willow poles covered with interlaced tule reeds. The chief’s residence was generally larger than the others to accommodate his large family, ceremonial regalia, and ceremonial food processing activities. Other village structures included a ceremonial enclosure (vamkech), a semi-subterranean sweat lodge, and menstrual huts. During acorn harvest season simple lean-tos were constructed in the upper foothills. The ceremonial enclosure and chief’s home were generally located in the center of the village. Luiseño socio-political structure included three hierarchical social classes: (1) an elite class that included chiefly families, lineage heads, and other ceremonial specialists; (2) a ―middle class‖ of established and successful families; and (3) people of disconnected or wandering families and war captives (Bean 1976:109–111). Native leadership focused on the Nota, or clan chief, who conducted community rites and regulated ceremonial life in conjunction with a council of elders (puuplem) composed of lineage heads and ceremonial specialists. The council discussed and decided matters of community significance, which were then implemented by the Nota and his staff. Luiseño mortuary practices included cremation and internment. Specific individuals were tasked with managing the cremations and compensated for their services. A specialist practiced ritual cannibalism on high-ranking shamans. The death of those of high rank, and perhaps others, was commemorated on the first anniversary. Like other indigenous California groups the primary food staple was the acorn (Bean and Shipek 1978:552), with other plant resources, fish, shellfish, waterfowl, marine and terrestrial mammals supplementing the diet. Villages were situated near reliable sources of water to facilitate daily leaching of milled acorn flour, and to provide potable water. Acorn mush (weewish) was prepared in various ways and served as gruel, cakes, or fried (these were sometimes sweetened with honey or sugar-laden berries), or made into a stew with greens and meat. Other plant foods like pine nuts were in the diet, as were seeds from grass, manzanita, sunflower, sage, chia, lemonade berry, wild rose, holly-leaf cherry, prickly pear, and lamb’squarter. Seeds were parched, ground, and prepared in ways similar to the weewish variations. Greens in the diet included thistle, miner’s lettuce, white sage, and clover, among others. Thimbleberries, elderberries, and wild grape were eaten raw or dried. Cooked yucca buds, blossoms, pods, and stalks provided an important addition to the community’s food resources. The diet also included bulbs, roots, and tubers, as well as mushrooms and tree fungus. Various teas or medicinal cures were made from flowers, fruits, stems, or roots. Large and small mammalian prey included deer, antelope, rabbit, jackrabbit, wood rat, mice, and ground squirrel. Birds such as quail and duck were included in the diet, as were fish including trout and salmon from rivers and creeks. The first direct European contact with the Luiseño was in July 1769 by the Spanish expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá. During the next six years, eight missions and forts were founded McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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north and south of Luiseño territory. In 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano was founded in close proximity to the Luiseño, causing the population of the five northern Luiseño villages to be halved within 15 years. In 1798, Mission San Luis Rey was established within Luiseño territory, and the proselytizing among the Payomkawichum began in earnest (Engelhardt 1921:8). The Luiseño were not forced to live at the mission; consequently, the disruption of traditional lifeways and deaths from introduced diseases were less devastating than was experienced by many other indigenous California groups. Several Luiseño leaders signed the statewide 1852 treaty—locally known as the Treaty of Temecula (an interior Luiseño village)—but the United States Congress never ratified it. By 1875, however, the government established reservations for the Luiseño in the Palomar Mountains and nearby valleys including Pala, Pauma, Rincon, Pechanga, La Jolla, and San Pasqual (CIAP 2003). No reservations were established for the remaining coastal people, whose lands had already been usurped by the Mexican ranchos. Today, the San Luis Rey group is actively petitioning the Bureau of Indian Affair’s Office of Federal Acknowledgement to review their request for federal recognition. By 2003 there were 1,340 enrolled members on four Luiseño reservations; today there are over 2,000 Luiseño, including non-enrolled but active members of the community.

HISTORIC OVERVIEW Post-contact history for the state of California is divided into three specific periods: the Spanish Period (1769–1822), the Mexican Period (1822–1848), and the American Period (1848– present).

Spanish Period (1769–1822) The first Europeans to observe what would come to be called southern California were members of the A.D. 1542 expedition of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. Cabrillo and other early explorers sailed along the coast. Despite being within the territory claimed by Spain, exploration of Alta (upper) California between 1529 and 1769 was limited. During this nearly 250-year span, there were only brief visits by Spanish, Russian, and British explorers. The beginning of Spanish settlement in California, which marked the devastating disruption of the culture of indigenous Californians, occurred in the spring of 1769. Gaspar de Portolá established the first Spanish settlement in Alta California at San Diego in 1769, and with Father Junipero Serra founded the first of 21 missions (Mission San Diego de Alcala) built by the Spanish and Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823. Portolá continued north, reaching San Francisco Bay on October 31, 1769. Pedro Fages, who sought a site for a mission, and Lt. Colonel Juan Bautista De Anza, a Spanish military officer from Tubac, Arizona, who surveyed an overland trail from the Mexican interior to San Francisco Bay, made later expeditions to Alta California in 1772 and 1774, respectively (Grunsky 1989:2–3). De Anza’s diary provides the first recorded Euro-American entry into the region. De Anza later led a group of colonists and their livestock through the San Jacinto Valley and across the Santa Ana Narrows on their way to settle San Francisco Bay between 1775 and 1776. The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail—approved by Congress in 1990 and mapped by the National Park Service in 1996—and the National Millennial Trail (designated in 1999) both commemorate the trail as a heritage tourism automobile route (California Highways 2007).

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Mexican Period (1822–1848) After the Mexican Revolution (1810–1821) against the Spanish crown, all Spanish holdings in North America (including both Alta and Baja California) became part of the new Mexican republic. With the onset of the Mexican Period, an era of extensive land grants was begun, in contrast to the Spanish colonization through missions and presidios. Most of the land grants to Mexican citizens in California (Californios) were in the interior, granted to increase the population away from the more settled coastal areas where the Spanish had concentrated their settlements. The Mexican Period is also marked by exploration by American fur trappers west of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

American Period (1848–Present) With the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, ending the Mexican–American War, California became a territory of the United States. The discovery of gold in 1848 at Sutter’s Mill near Sacramento and the resulting Gold Rush era influenced the history of the state and the nation. The rush of tens of thousands of people to the gold fields also had a devastating impact on the lives of indigenous Californians, with the introduction and concentration of diseases, the loss of land and territory (including traditional hunting and gathering locales), violence, malnutrition, and starvation. Thousands of settlers and immigrants continued to pour into the state, particularly after the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1869. One year after the discovery of gold, nearly 90,000 people had journeyed to the gold fields of California, and a portion of Captain John Sutter’s Mexican land grant, known as New Helvetia, became the bustling Gold Rush boomtown of Sacramento. Largely as a result of the Gold Rush, California became the 31st state in 1850. By 1853, the population of the state exceeded 300,000 and in 1854, Sacramento became the state capital.

LOCAL HISTORY The establishment of the Land Commission, the U.S. Land Survey of California by the General Land Office in 1851, and passage of the Homestead Act by Congress in 1862 led to an influx of settlers into the areas of present Riverside and San Bernardino counties. By this time the old Temescal Road and the San Bernardino Road had been established, facilitating travel into this area. The California Southern Railroad was constructed through the Temecula canyon and Perris Valley areas in 1882, helping to bring new settlers to these valleys. One, a young man named l. Menifee Wilson came into the area to try his hand in gold mining. Other would-be miners streamed into the valley, founding additional gold mines, however by 1892, agricultural activities began to displace mining in the area and immigration slowed. Today’s Riverside County was formed 40 years later in 1893, from parts of San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. The City of Riverside, which is the county seat, was founded in 1870 on the Santa Ana River channel. In 1950, about 100 families lived in the 50 square miles of Menifee Valley. Between 1980 and 1990 Riverside County was the fastest growing county in California, with the number of residents increasing by more than 76 percent (Riverside County 2005). Today this panorama of pastoral landscapes is home more than 65,000 people.

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Lake Elsinore Area

1858 to 1890 The town of Lake Elsinore first appears in the land records as part of the Rancho La Laguna, the original land grant of three, square leagues given to Julian Manriquez by the Mexican Governor of California in 1844. The grant was roughly oval in shape and included all of the lakebed and shoreline. In 1858, Abel Sterns sold the original Laguna land grant containing the future Lake Elsinore and surrounding shoreline to Augustin (or Augusto) Machado. Augustin (or Augusto) Machado, his wife Ramona, and their twelve children lived on the land in an adobe located on the west and southwest side of the modern shoreline of Lake Elsinore. The Machado Adobe was a regular stopping place for the overland stage with the route running from the Temecula Station up the valley, passing through Murrieta, Wildomar, and along the westerly side of the lake to the adobe. From there the stage route went diagonally towards Perris. The Machado ranch subsisted on raising beef and sheep, for food and wool. There were multiple structures on the rancho with orchards, vineyards, and vegetable gardens. Machado died in 1865, and after receiving the patent for the land in 1872, his wife and eleven of their children sold their shares to Charles Sumner in 1873. When Charles Sumner settled in the area in 1873, there were three structures in the area, all located on the lakeshore around the west end. Although Sumner lost all the lake and surrounding property in 1877 by defaulting on his mortgage loan, he was the first Anglo to recognize the curing properties of the hot mineral springs located on the northeast shore of the lake. Sumner's land was purchased by a partnership of businessmen; Franklin Heald, Donald Graham, and William Collier. The town of Elsinore was established and set out to attract new residents by exploiting the curing properties of the hot mineral spring centrally located in town. By 1885, the partnership had been able to pay off the mortgage that was held on the property with the proceeds from the sale of plots of land in the new bustling town. To accommodate the burgeoning vacationers and tourists to the area, the Lake Dale Hotel, designed by the famous architect Stanford White, was built on a prominent hilltop overlooking the lake. The Crescent bathhouse was built in 1886, for visitors and residents to bath and take the waters of the mineral spring. The Crescent bathhouse has been renamed The Chimes and still stands today. In the 1880s, a price competition between the two transcontinental railroads led to the price of a ticket to California within the reach of anyone. The attraction of a healthy climate, the booming economy and opportunities, led to an overwhelming influx of new residents to California and to the new town of Lake Elsinore. The California Southern Railroad ran a spur to within two miles of the town, making it easy for settlers and tourists to move into the area. By the late 1880s, Elsinore had a population of approximately two thousand, with two banks, two hotels, two bathhouses, a water supply system, a schoolhouse, three churches and a rail connection. McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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1890 to 1933 The lake became a large recreation center in the 1910s and 1920s. A lakeshore pavilion had been erected in 1912 at the foot of Spring Street, with the Lake Elsinore Boating and Bathing Resort opening in 1915. In 1926 a pleasure pier was erected on the north shore. The pier was equipped with swings and a pavilion. On the south shore there was an imitation paddle wheeler that would take tourists on excursions around the lake. It was also at this time, in 1924 that the excavation started for the Southern California Athletic and Country Club on the south shore of the lake, near the intersection of Grand Avenue and, the future, Ortega Highway. The entire lake and many acres of adjoining land were bought for the development of a golf course and clubhouse. By 1930, the Country Club had fallen into bankruptcy and it was turned into a military school in 1933.

1934 to 1963 In the early 1920's, Riverside and Orange Counties realized the economic possibilities by establishing an ocean-to-lake highway connecting Lake Elsinore to San Juan Capistrano. The construction began in 1929 and was completed in 1934 and named in honor of Jose Francisco Ortega, a Mexican sergeant with the Portola Expedition in 1769. Ortega was the first European to travel through San Juan Canyon. Highway workers would have resided in the Lake Elsinore region while the highway was being constructed. When the Ortega Highway opened in 1934 it allowed recreational visitors to access the mountains from both the north and south. During the Depression, Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) crews created public campgrounds along the highway, including Trabuco Canyon and Tenaja Canyon. To support the burgeoning tourist and recreation industry, workers would have built and lived in small single family dwellings around the lake to be in close proximity to the various enterprises located in town and in the surrounding countryside. The town was dependent upon natural resources for the water level in the lake until 1963, when the State of California created the Lake Elsinore Recreation Area, which included the purchase of well water to fill the lake and buffer it from seasonal droughts.

BACKGROUND RESEARCH LITERATURE SEARCH AND RESULTS To determine if prehistoric or historic resources were previously recorded within the project area the California Historical Resources Information System’s (CHRIS’s) Eastern Information Center (EIC), located at the University of California, Riverside, performed a cultural resources records search for the proposed project area on behalf of McKeehan Environmental Consultants on December 10, 2008. The EIC houses cultural resources records for Riverside County and the primary purpose of the CHRIS records search is to identify any previously recorded cultural resources known to exist McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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within or adjacent to the project area. The records search also reveals the nature and extent of any cultural resources work previously conducted within the project area. The records search included a 1-mile radius around the project area. The following sources of information were consulted by the EIC as part of the records search:       

National Register of Historic Places – Listed Properties (2007) California Register of Historic Resources (2007) California Inventory of Historic Resources (1976 and updates) California State Historical Landmarks (1996 and updates) California Points of Historical Interest (1992 and updates) Directory of Properties in the Historical Resources Inventory (Office of Historic Preservation 2007) California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) State and Local Bridge Survey (1989 and updates)

The CHRIS records search identified 22 previously conducted cultural resources studies within a 1-mile search radius. Five of the prior studies included the current study area. In addition, five studies provide an overview of cultural resources in the general project vicinity. All of the studies are listed in Table 1. All documents are on file at Eastern Information Center, University of California, Riverside. Table 1. Cultural Resources Studies Located within a 1 Mile Radius of the Project Area Report Number

Title

Author and Date

RI-0002

Miscellaneous Field Notes – Riverside County

Malcolm Rogers, San Diego Museum of Man, 1953

RI-0535

Cultural Resources and the Devers-Mira Loma 500 KV Transmission Line Route (Valley to Mira Loma Section): A Study of the Paleontology, History and Archaeology of the Vicinity of the Line

Cultural Resource Systems, Inc, 1979

RI-0840

An Archaeological Assessment of Proposed Wastewater Treatment Facilities at the Southeast End of Lake Elsinore and Railroad Canyon, Riverside County, California

C.E Drover, 1980

RI-1147

Letter Report: Canyon Lakes Right-of-Way, CA-8652

Bureau of Land Management, 1980

RI-1793

Cultural Resources Assessment of the Proposed Lake Elsinore MK Lerch, GA Smith, San Bernardino Management Project Riverside County, California County Museum Association

RI-1794

Continuity and Change: 8,500 Years of Adaptation on the Shores of Lake Elsinore

Donn R. Grenda, Statistical Research, Inc., 1997

RI-1896

Canyon Creek Archaeology: A Report on Archaeological Investigations at Sites RIV-2764 and RIV-2765 on the Canyon Creek Property, Railroad Canyon Area, Riverside County, California

Scientific Resource Surveys, 1985

RI-1897

Cultural Resources Survey of the Canyon Creek Property, Railroad Canyon Area, Riverside County

Scientific Resource Surveys, 1984

RI-2059

The Luiseno Village During the Late Prehistoric Era

Joan Oxendine, 1983

RI-2334

Archaeological Assessment Form: Lake Elsinore Highlands

Scientific Resource Surveys, 1987

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Report Number

Title

Author and Date

RI-2412

An Archaeological Survey of the Railroad Canyon Road Project Area, City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California

Susan M. Hector, Regional Environmental Consultants, 1988

RI-2682

An Archaeological Assessment of the 80-Acre Grunder Property Near lake Elsinore, Riverside County

R. White, Archaeological Associates, 1989

RI-2893

Lakeshore Drive Bridge, Lake Elsinore, Negative Archaeological Survey Report

Ronald Bissell, Caltrans District 8, 1991

RI-2894

Negative Archaeological Survey Report: Detour Road Right – Carmen Weber, Caltrans, 1992 of-Way for the Existing Lakeshore Drive Bridge Replacement Project

RI-2999

Environmental Impact Evaluation: An Archaeological Assessment of the City Center Project, Lake Elsinore

CE Drover, 1990

RI-3333

Cultural Resources Survey and Test Excavation, Lake Elsinore, California

PR Hampson, MT Swanson, EJ Skinner, Greenwood and Assoc and Infotec Research, Inc., 1991

RI-3376

A Cultural Resource Survey of the Proposed Ranch-Temecula SA Wade and SM Hector, RECON, Effluent Pipeline from Temecula to War Springs in the 1989 Elsinore Valley with Additional Consideration of the Surface Water Discharge into Temescal Wash

RI-3545

Cultural Resources Survey for the East Lake Specific Plan

RI-3604

The Development of Cultural Complexity Among the Luiseno Carleton Jones, 1992

RI-3652

Test Level Investigation at CA-RIV-3504/3505 in the City of Lake Elsinore, County of Riverside, California

RI-4201

Cultural Resources Assessment of the Proposed Temecula Brian Dillon, 1999 Valley Regional Water Reclamation Facility Effluent Pipeline, Riverside County, California

RI-4877

Cultural Resources Assessment of the Proposed Temecula Valley Regional Water Reclamation Facility Effluent Pipeline, Riverside County, California

Peak & Associates, 2003

RI-5319

Cultural Resources Assessment, Daigle Subdivision 31532, City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California

Goodwin Riordan, LSA Associates, 2004

RI-6466

Historical/Archaeological Resources Survey Report, Lake Bai Tang, Michael Hogan, Matthew Elsinore Ford Project, City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, Wetherbee, Daniel Ballester, CRM CA Tech, 2005

RI-7418

Archaeological Survey Report for Southern California Edison Koji Tsunoda, 2007 Company Deteriorated Pole Replacement Program for Pole #1931027E (WO #6077-4800, AI#7-4821, Rockridge 12 kV) in the City of Lake Elsinore and Pole #2225832E (WO#60774800, AI#7-4833, Carancho 12 kV) near the City of Temecula, Riverside County, California

RI-7783

Cultural resources Monitoring Report for Stages1 and 2 (Tract 31920) of the Summerly Project, Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California

SWCA Environmental Consultants, 2007

RI-7789

Cultural Resource Survey for the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District Phase I Recycled Water System, Riverside County, California

Carolyn E. Kyle, Kyle Consulting, 2008

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Lisa LeCount and Carmen Weber, Chambers Group, 1992 Patricia Jertberg, Petra Resources Inc.

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The EIC records indicate that 24 cultural resources properties have been previously documented within the 1-mile search radius. One property occurs with the project area; they are listed in Table 2. There are no National Register, California Register, California Points of Historical Interest, or California State Historic Landmarks on or within the project area. All site records are on file at Eastern Information Center, University of California, Riverside. An examination of the 1901 USGS Elsinore, California 30-minute historic map shows no structures located within or near the project area. Streets are shown in the vicinity of the City of Lake Elsinore. Table 1. Cultural Resources Located within a 1 Mile Radius of the Project Area Primary Number/Site Number

Description

Source and Date

CA-RIV-2765

Bedrock grinding features

D. DeSautels, H. Johnson, 1984

CA-RIV-3504

Bedrock grinding features and

M Davis, S Hector, C 0.75 mile Bowden, 1988; update: C.E. Drover, DM Smith 1990

CA-RIV-3505

Midden deposit

M Davis, S Hector, C 0.75 mile Bowden, 1988; update: C.E. Drover, DM Smith 1990

CA-RIV-3506

Milling features, flakes and tools

M Davis, S Hector, C Bowden, 1988

CA-RIV-4037

Milling station with lithic scatter

C.E. Drover, DM Smith 1990 0.5 mile

CA-RIV-4042

Lithic scatter with fragments of groundstone

RP Hampson, JA Schmidt, 1990

On site

CA-RIV-4647/334647

Sparse lithic scatter that was not relocated during the update

L LeCount, P Helvey, 1991; update: SWCA, 2008

0.75 mile

33-7161 to 337164

Camp Haan Barracks (currently used as American Legion Hall) and associated buildings

Theresa Borchard, 1982

0.5 mile

33-7195

1924 residence

Theresa Borchard, 1982

0.9 mile

33-8916

Isolate; not relocated during update; area now destroyed

L LeCount, P Helvey, 1991Update: SWCA, 2008

0.75 mile

33-14711

Concrete footing and trash scatter

D Ballester, 2005

0.5 mile

33-14712

Groundstone isolate

D Ballester, 2005

0.5 mile

33-14713

Groundstone isolate

D Ballester, 2005

0.5 mile

33-14714

Groundstone isolate

D Ballester, 2005

0.5 mile

33-15073

Lithic isolate (flake)

N Harris, 2006

0.9 mile

33-15074

Lithic isolate (hammerstone)

N Harris, 2006

0.9 mile

th

Distance from Project Site 0.75 mile

0.75 mile

33-15945

Bottle neck, early 20 century

R Schultz, S Underbrink, 2007

0.75 mile

33-15946

Lithic isolate (point)

R Schultz, S Underbrink, 2007

0.75 mile

33-15947

Lithic isolate (point and flake)

R Schultz, S Underbrink, 2007

0.75 mile

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Table 1. Cultural Resources Located within a 1 Mile Radius of the Project Area Primary Number/Site Number

Description

Source and Date

33-16821

Groundstone isolate

L Tift, L Pick, K Hovland, B Welsh, J Huval, N Doose, 2007

0.9 mile

33-16822

Groundstone isolate

L Tift, L Pick, K Hovland, B Welsh, J Huval, N Doose, 2007

0.5 mile

A Noah, K Doose, 2007

0.75 mile

33-16823 (CA-RIV- Historical artifact scatter 8801)

Distance from Project Site

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH After results of the EIC records search had been attained, an important study that is significant to the current project came to the attention of the author. This pertinent work (Grenda 1997) was completed for the Army Corps of Engineers in order to mitigate the impacts of the enlargement of an outflow channel, Warm Springs Creek, located approximately one mile northwest of the current project. Both Riv- 4042, within the project boundaries, and Riv-2798/H, along Warm Springs Creek, are located above the shore of Lake Elsinore at 1270 feet above mean sea level (amsl). Data recovery excavations at Riv-2798/H revealed human occupational periods extending from the Late Prehistoric period to 8,500 years ago along an ancient shoreline of the lake. Evidence of these occupations extended to nearly three meters below ground surface. Because important data was obtained at Riv-2798/H, and similar conditions may exist at Riv4042, it was important to understand the potential relationship of these two sites in more detail in order to present a comprehensive set of recommendations for the treatment of impacts to Riv-4042.

Riv-2798/H Geology During the early Holocene, when annual precipitation was higher, site morphology was dominated by fluctuating rates between lake levels and channel cutting/depositional events, resulting in depositional layers alternating between lacustrine and fluvial. Unstable lake levels during the late Holocene resulted in an accumulation of gravelly bands along the fluctuating lakeshore lines, eventually forming a beach ridge barrier allowing development of a lagoon (Grenda 1997). Thus, two distinctly different cultural activity areas were preserved and buried up to a depth of nearly three meters, each representing adaptations to these two climatic environments spanning thousands of years.

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Archaeology There is clear evidence of Early Holocene occupation along Lake Elsinore (Grenda 1997; Hampson 1992) at RIV2798/H and RIV-4505). Grenda's (1997) study of the early-to-middle Holocene site of RIV-2798/H suggests to him that the social organizational and settlement shift from autonomous bands to larger, multi-family interdependent bands took place very early as an adaptation to the broad environmental changes created by the onset of the Altithermal at the early-middle Holocene transition. This contrasts with Koerper et al.'s (1991) emphasis on technoeconomic causes (use of milling stones to grind seeds) for the transition between the San Dieguito to La Jolla Cultures. Grenda (1997) also argues that the distribution of relatively large sites during the Middle Holocene was very patchy and limited to the coast, offshore islands, around some desert lakes and around Lake Elsinore, where the resource base was large enough to support more people. Otherwise, sites were very small during this period and they may often be missed. Additional inventory and the evaluation of sites within the project area should keep these issues in mind when conducting surveys and assessing site significance. It is important that all potential sources of information be studied to obtain information on prehistoric diet in the Project area: stone tool morphological and use-wear analysis, invertebrate and vertebrate faunal analyses, stone tool animal and plant protein residue analyses, pollen and phytolith analyses, and macrobotanical analysis.

Ethnohistory According to Grenda (1997:6), RIV-2798 is not only significant archaeologically, but ethnohistorically as well. Both the lake and hot springs located 200 m to the north are ethnogeographically named in both the Juaneno and Luiseno languages (Du Bois 1908:134; Harrington 1978; O'Neil and Evans 1980), and Kroeber (1925:Plate 57) situates the village of Paiahche just north of the lake. The Juaneno referred to Lake Elsinore as Paayaxtci and the Luiseno refer to it as Paahashnan. According to Harrington (1933:81), the San Juan Indians (Juaneno) stated, "man was created out of the mud of the lake (Elsinore)." The area around the hot springs was known to the Luiseno as `Atengvo ("hot springs") and these hot springs are important in local creation myth. The place, Itengvu Wimowmu, is named in a song about the death of Wiyot, a famous religious leader who led the people in their migration to the north. When Wiyot was thought to be dying, the people took him to various hot springs to try to cure him. The last of these was the Elsinore hot springs where Wiyot died (Du Bois: 108; Harrington 1978:199, as cited in Grenda 1997). Lake Elsinore was recorded as a site in 1982 and is viewed as a traditional cultural property (3311009). The study of the cultural resources of the Project region, including consultation with appropriate Native American groups, will keep in mind the issue of traditional cultural properties as inventory, evaluation and impact assessment continues. Location of Ethnohistoric Villages Kroeber's (1925) location of Paiahche near Lake Elsinore led one to believe that it corresponded to RIV2798. Interestingly enough, however, excavations at RIV-2798 did not produce a major Late Prehistoric/ Ethnohistoric component. It is not known whether this is because the village was in another location or whether settlement during this period consisted of small, seasonal, resource procurement camps, instead of a large habitation site (Grenda 1997:6). McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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Riv-4042 Geology The project property is located near the mouth of the San Jacinto River where it empties into the eastern end of Lake Elsinore, forming a delta. During various past climate periods of wet and dry conditions, deposition from the river has meandered back and forth across this delta and has varied from very fine to very coarse sediments. These have been mapped by Morton (2005) and Engel (1959) as follows: Quaternary fan deposits (Qyf) Young fanglomerate composed of pebbles, gravel, cobbles, and boulders deposited from erosion of the Sedco Hills to the east is present over much of the property. This rock unit occurs as benches and fan slope accumulations at the mouths of canyons along both sides of the Elsinore trough and in most areas is around 10 feet thick, but can exceed 60 feet. Quaternary fluvial deposits (Qw) On the project area, these deposits consist of mostly of silt and sand, with minor amounts of gravel and are present along the western boundary in the San Jacinto River drainage. Based on water well drilling logs, these fluvial sediments reach a thickness of 160 feet at the northwest end of the Lake Elsinore. Quaternary lake deposits (Ql) Exposed in the extreme southern and western portions of the property, the lake deposits of Lake Elsinore consists of clays and silts. These deposits increase in age with depth. The property was surveyed by Mark Roeder and Judy McKeehan on May 8, 2009, to attempt to discretely identify these deposits within specific areas of the property. It was determined that the southeastern portion of the property consists of a resistant fanglomerate surrounded by low-lying eroded areas. The entire central portion of the property consists of fluvial deposits from the San Jacinto River, grading into lake deposits. The northern portion of the property, containing the archaeological site, appears to consist of fluvial deposits possibly underlain by fanglomerate. The surface in this area was stable for a time period that allowed soil development. This stability may be owing to a fanglomerate base or to the fact that river deposition moved to the east and south as this area filled with sediment. Previous to the dredging of the current outlet channel, the river bed was not near the site, but meandered toward the base of the hills to its east.

Archaeology The depositional history of Riv-4042 would seem to be dominated more by fluvial fluctuations than that of Riv-2798/H because of the much larger and more dynamic drainage basin commanded by the San Jacinto River as opposed to that of the Warm Springs channel at RivMcKeehan Environmental Consultants

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2798/H. A large delta consisting of very fine to very coarse materials within a relatively small area is evident at Riv-4042. Therefore, even though the resources of the lake margin attracted cultural activity at both sites, their micro-environments and therefore, cultural adaptations and periods of occupation may have been quite different. Other than millingstone fragments, no potentially time-sensitive artifacts were reported in the original survey. No groundstone was observed during the current study. The surficial expression of Riv-4042 indicates that it was utilized as a lithic resource gathering and reduction site with at least temporary or intermittent occupation (Hampson 1990). The soil is cobbled and the site is slightly higher in elevation than that of the surrounding landscape except for the fanglomerate described above and the commercially developed land immediately to the north. It is possible that the site originally extended northward but has been obscured by development (Photographs 1 and 2).

INITIAL NATIVE AMERICAN CONSULTATION On January 16, 2009, Judy McKeehan contacted the Native American Heritage Commission on January 16, 2009, requesting: A list of Native American contacts that may have additional knowledge of cultural resources within or near the project area, and A Sacred Lands File search A tribal consultation per SB-18 (Government Code §§ 65352.3, 65352.4, and 65352.5) on behalf of the City of Lake Elsinore The reply from the NAHC, dated January 16, 2009, states that the search failed to indicate the presence of Native American sacred lands or traditional cultural properties within the immediate project area. Letters requesting SB-18 tribal consultation for the project were sent out to the contacts provided by the NAHC on February 19, 2009, by the City of Lake Elsinore. Copies of these letters and the resulting responses are included in Appendix B. The responses of any Native American contacts are considered confidential under SB 922.

SURVEY METHODS Judy McKeehan and Mark Roeder conducted the cultural resources intensive field survey of the property on January 14, 2009, with a follow up survey of the geomorphology on May 8, 2009. During the initial survey, the archaeological site Riv-4042, which was recorded and submitted to the Eastern Information Center, California Historical Resources Information System on September 4, 1990 was relocated and assessed for accuracy and current condition. Artifacts observed during the survey were pin flagged and mapped using a hand-held Garmin GPS. The site boundaries were re-established. Photographs were taken before removing the pin flags. The GPS mapping was transferred to Google Earth aerial photography. McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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RESULTS One previously recorded cultural resource site was relocated within the project area during the records search and intensive pedestrian survey. Survey of the portions of the project area was slightly restricted by the presence of vegetation. Based on the CHRIS records search and additional research for the project, twenty-five cultural resource properties are located within one mile of the project area. One of these properties included significant buried resources to a depth of nearly three meters. The location and boundaries of Riv-4042 were assessed to be accurately recorded. The condition of the site was disturbed by recent plowing. Some of the artifacts, described as ―basalt‖ in the site record, were deemed to be coarse, angular, volcanic gravel from the Santiago Peak Formation, and had probably been imported to the site in the historic past. Based on these findings, the expectation for finding surface or subsurface cultural resources in the project area is high.

RECOMMENDATIONS McKeehan Environmental Consultants recommends additional cultural resources work within the project area to mitigate potential significant affects to cultural properties. This is based on findings described in the records search and follow up research, on the intensive survey for cultural resources within the project area, and on the potential for finding buried cultural resources within the project area. If the these mitigation measures are followed, the project would cause no substantial adverse change in the significance of a historical resource as defined in California Code of Regulations, Section 15064.5. or restrict existing religious or sacred uses in the area. Before the City grants a grading plan permit for Planning Area 2 (Diamond Specific Plan Draft EIR, 2009): 1. A subsurface testing program shall be developed and implemented that will evaluate the significance of the recorded historical property, Riv-4042. This will include: a. Subsurface test pits and one-meter units sufficient to evaluate the horizontal and vertical extent and nature of the site shall be dug, b. A backhoe trench shall be placed adjacent and parallel to the eastern boundary of the recorded cultural property to determine whether sediments with the potential to contain buried resources are present. The trench should be at least 140 meters in length. A profile of the trench face shall be interpreted and drawn by a qualified geoarchaeologist or geomorphologist. c. Resulting data shall be analyzed and a technical report prepared to CEQA standards. Such data may include, but is not restricted to: stone tool morphological and use-wear analysis, invertebrate and vertebrate faunal analyses, stone tool animal and plant protein residue analyses, pollen and phytolith analyses, and macrobotanical analysis. McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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2. Based on the results of the evaluation, mitigation per Section 15064.5(a) (3) (A–D) in the revised CEQA guidelines (Governor’s Office of Planning and Research 1998) shall be considered sufficient, or Phase III data recovery excavations may be required. 3. An updated site record and technical report will be submitted to the Eastern Information Center, University of California, Riverside after completion of the fieldwork and analysis. 4. Monitoring of all earth disturbing activities on the project should be monitored by a qualified archaeologist and Native American monitor, unless deemed otherwise by them according to their observations. If during ground disturbance activities (e.g., trenching, grading, brushing, soil testing), unique cultural resources are discovered that were not assessed by the archaeological report(s) and/or environmental assessment conducted prior to project approval, the following procedures shall be followed. a. All ground disturbance activities within the immediate vicinity of the discovered cultural resources shall be halted until a meeting is convened between the developer, the archaeologist, the Native American tribal representative and the Planning Director to discuss the significance of the find. b. At the meeting, the significance of the discoveries shall be discussed and after consultation with the Native American tribal representative and the archaeologist, a decision shall be made, with the concurrence of the Planning Director, as to the appropriate mitigation measures for potentially significant resources consistent with CEQA Guidelines Section 15126.4(b) (documentation, recovery, avoidance, etc.) for the cultural resources. c. Grading or further ground disturbance shall not resume within the area of the discovery until an agreement has been reached by all parties as to the appropriate mitigation. Although unlikely, the discovery of human remains is always a possibility; State of California Health and Safety Code Section 7050.5 covers these findings. This code section states that no further disturbance shall occur until the County Coroner has made a determination of origin and disposition pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 5097.98. The County Coroner must be notified of the find immediately. If the human remains are determined to be prehistoric, the Coroner will notify the NAHC, which will determine and notify a Most Likely Descendent (MLD). The MLD shall complete the inspection of the site within 48 hours of notification, and may recommend scientific removal and nondestructive analysis of human remains and items associated with Native American burials. Following the applicable provisions of the P.R.C. Section 5097.98 would ensure that this impact remains less than significant by ensuring appropriate examination, treatment, and protection of human remains, as required by state law. CERTIFICATION: I hereby certify that the statements furnished above and in the attached exhibits present the data and information required for this archaeological report, and that the McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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facts, statements, and information presented are true and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Signed:

Date: _May 30, 2009____

Judy McKeehan, Riverside County Archaeologist #181

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Societies of the California Coast, edited by J.M. Erlandson and T.L. Jones, pp 101126. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. Garlinghouse, T.S. 2000

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Continuity and Change: 8,500 Years of Lacustrine Adaptation on the Shores of Lake Elsinore. Statistical Research Technical Series No. 59. Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, Arizona.

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Environmental Imperatives Reconsidered: Demographic Crises in Western North America During the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Current Anthropology 40:137-170

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The Christ College Project: Archaeological Investigations at CA-ORA-378, Turtle Rock, Irvine, California, Volume II. Report on file, South Central Coastal Information Center, California State University, Fullerton.

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Chronology Building for Coastal Orange County: The Case from CA-ORA-119-A. Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly 19(2):1–34.

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Complexity, Demography, and Change in Late Holocene Orange County. In Catalysts to Complexity, Late Holocene Societies of the California Coast, edited by Jon M. Erlandson and Terry L. Jones, pp. 63-81. Perspectives in California Archaeology Vol. 6. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles.

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The Sayles Complex: A Late Milling Stone Assemblage from the Cajon Pass and the Ecological Implications of its Scraper Planes. University of California Publications in Anthropology 6:35-69. Berkeley, California.

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Phase II Archaeological Studies of the Prado Basin and the Lower Santa Ana River. Report on file, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District.

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1991

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Newport Coast Archaeological Project: Results of Data Recovery at the French Flat Complex Sites, CA-ORA-232, CA-ORA-233, CA-ORA-671, CA-ORA-672, and CA-ORA1205. Report on file, South Central Coastal Information Center, California State University, Fullerton.

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Newport Coast Archaeological Project: Results of Data Recovery at the Pelican Hills Sites, CA-ORA-662, CA-ORA-677, CA-ORA-678, CA-ORA-1206, CA-ORA-1210, CAORA-676 and CA-ORA-1203, Volume 1. Report on file, South Central Coastal Information Center, California State University, Fullerton.

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Strudwick, Ivan H. 2004

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR APN 340-010-002

Confidential Appendix A: Records Search Results

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Appendix B: Native American Contacts

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McKeehan Environmental Consultants Judy McKeehan, RPA 252 Calle Cuervo San Clemente, CA 92672 949.573.3308 949.492.3963 FAX jdmckeehan@sbcglobal.net

January 7, 2009 Native American Heritage Commission Capitol Mall, Room 364 Sacramento, CA SUBJECT: Request for Local Tribal Consultation List and Sacred File & Native American Contacts List Project Title: The Diamond Specific Plan; Specific Plan #2009-01; East Lake Specific Plan Amendment No. 9 Local Government/Lead Agency: City of Lake Elsinore Community Development Department; Tom Weiner, Acting Director Contact Person: Judy McKeehan, MA, RPA 949.573.3308 252 Calle Cuervo San Clemente, CA 92672 Specific Area Subject to Proposed Action: City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County Local Action Type: Specific Plan Project Description: Attached USGS Topographic Quadrangle: Lake Elsinore, T 6S, R4W, Sec. 9 McKeehan Environmental Consultants

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The Diamond Project Description INTRODUCTION Recognizing the need to update the overall city vision for continuing development, the City of Lake Elsinore initiated a General Plan update process in 2007. As a part of the General Plan update, the City was divided into 11 “district plans” for the purpose of more detailed development direction based on specific local environmental or development conditions addressing land use, urban design, transportation and parks & recreation. These district plans recognize the unique attributes of each district and identify district goals and policies for development. One of these districts is the Ballpark District, which is intended to be an area characterized by vibrant mixed-use entertainment, commercial, and residential uses that capitalize on the area’s association with the Diamond Stadium. In order to facilitate development within the Ballpark District consistent with this vision, the General Plan has designated much of the area within the Ballpark District as Specific Plan. The Proposed Project is located in the Ballpark District and is designated Specific Plan. Consistent with this designation and the Ballpark District goals, the proposed Project, known as “The Diamond” will establish a Specific Plan (The Diamond Specific Plan or Diamond Specific Plan) for the area including and surrounding the Diamond Stadium.

Project Location and Setting The approximately 87.2-acre Diamond Project Site is located in the City of Lake Elsinore, in the southwest portion of Riverside County. (See Figure 1, Regional Location). The Site is accessed from Interstate 15 by existing roadways including Diamond Drive and Lakeshore Drive. (See Figure 2, Project Site Vicinity). The uses surrounding the Project Site are listed in Table 1, Surrounding Uses and shown in Figure 2, The Diamond Site Aerial. Table 1 Surrounding Uses

Existing Land Use

General Plan Tourist Commercial, General Commercial, Floodway

Zoning Neighborhood Commercial (C1), General Commercial (C2)

North

Lakeshore Drive and retail-commercial

South

Vacant property graded for residential development

Specific Plan Area

Specific Plan (SP)

East

Diamond Drive, vacant property and retailcommercial

Specific Plan Area, Commercial Mixed Use

Neighborhood Commercial (C1), General Commercial (C2),

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Existing Land Use

General Plan

Zoning Specific Plan (SP)

Lake Elsinore and Specific Plan (SP) Specific Plan Area vacant property The Diamond Site is currently approximately 30% developed with the exception of approximately 61 acres of vacant area. (See Figure 3, The Diamond Site Aerial). The developed portion of the Site covers approximately 26.5 acres and includes the Diamond Stadium, a parking lot surrounding the stadium, and approximately 80,000 sq. ft. of retail-commercial and office uses in the existing Lake Elsinore Valley Center (LEVC) along the Lakeshore Drive frontage. In addition, an approximately 11.7 acre remote parking lot south of the stadium is minimally improved with paving, but is considered interim and not included in the 26.5 acres of developed area. West

The Diamond Proposed Project The Proposed Project includes several components. They are: East Lake Specific Plan Amendment The majority of The Diamond Project Site is within the East Lake Specific Plan (ELSP), which was originally adopted in 1993. The ELSP was developed with the intention of creating a 3,000-acre master planned community in an area that was once undevelopable due to erratic flooding conditions associated with Lake Elsinore. However, the ELSP has been amended eight times since 1993 to modify the land use plan and development standards to better fit the project proposed at the time. In addition, the City updated the Lake Elsinore General Plan to create a unique District Plan called the Ballpark District that establishes and guides a specific vision for the Project area. The Ballpark District includes the northeastern portion of the ELSP. Pursuant to the Specific Plan land use designation in the Ballpark District Plan, this vision can best be achieved with a specific plan that is tailored for The Diamond Project. Amending the ELSP to incorporate this new vision for the Project Site is infeasible due to the number of amendments that have been made to the ELSP. Therefore, the Proposed Project includes an amendment to the ELSP to remove 70 acres from the ELSP. As further described below, this acreage and additional acreage outside of the ELSP will be incorporated into a new specific plan called The Diamond Specific Plan. The ELSP Amendment 9 (SPA-9 or Amendment 9) Project Area is located along both sides of Diamond Drive between Lakeshore/Mission Trail and Malaga Road, with a small portion on the south side of Malaga at the southwest corner of Malaga Road and Diamond Drive (Amendment 9 Project Area) (See Figure 4, ELSP Amendment 9 Project Area Boundary). The removal of the Amendment 9 Project Area results in the removal of the Stadium, approximately 42 acres of commercial development area, 6.6 acres of area designated open space, and the Diamond Drive alignment between Lakeshore Drive and the portion of Malaga Road adjacent to the stadium from the East Lake Specific Plan. The Amendment 9 Project Area is further summarized below in Table 2.

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Table 2 ELSP Amendment 9 Project Area

Land Use Category Acreage Commercial 42.4 Open Space 6.6 Stadium 19.0 Roads 8.2 Total 76.2 The amendment to the ELSP will result in changes that are primarily related to mapping and statistical modifications to reflect the reduction in the ELSPs area and land use yield associated with the Amendment Area. The mapping changes are focused on the ELSP boundary and Land Use Plan. Because the road and utility infrastructure systems have been completed around the ELSP Amendment 9 Project Area, no revisions are expected to the other ELSP plans (e.g., Circulation Plan, Infrastructure, etc.). The Diamond Specific Plan – Specific Plan #2009-01 The Diamond Project Site is designated “specific plan area” within the General Plan’s Ballpark District description. As such, the Diamond project will require preparation of an implementing specific plan, to be called The Diamond Specific Plan. The Diamond Specific Plan is intended to provide the necessary master planning to implement the goals and objectives of the Ballpark District. The Diamond Project is a master planned, mixed-use development that is intended to create a unique sense of place and a regional destination spot surrounding the Diamond Stadium. The Project will contain a mix of uses that reflect the objectives of the General Plan’s Ballpark District, namely to provide for commercial, entertainment, and residential uses mixed in an urban setting. Supporting uses will include parking, vehicular and pedestrian circulation, plazas and open space. The Diamond Land Use Plan will accommodate these uses, as well as the Diamond Stadium in five land use categories: Open Space, Commercial, Commons, Mixed-Use and Residential as shown on Figure 5, The Diamond Land Use Plan. Table 3 provides a statistical summary breakdown of the Land Use Plan’s proposed land use categories. A conceptual land use program that could be implemented via the Specific Plan is listed in Table 4. The Specific Plan will also include comprehensive development guidelines and implementation measures to ensure the creation of a vibrant commercial center and entertainment area, a livable community with readily accessible amenities and attractive streetscapes and public places. Consistent with the General Plan direction from the Ballpark District, The Diamond’s uses will be combined in a “mixed-use” designation which will allow a creative blending of the retail, office, hotel, education, and high density residential uses throughout the plan area. The existing Diamond Stadium will form an organizing design feature and activity focal point. Non-residential Floor Area Ratios (FARs) and residential density will also be consistent with the Commercial Mixed-Use and Tourist Commercial use development criteria outlined in the General Plan, designated at up to 0.80 FAR and 18 units/acre respectively.

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Table 3 The Diamond Specific Plan Land Use Statistical Summary

Max Density1/

Specific Plan Land Use Category

Acreage (AC)

Floor Area Ratio (FAR)2

Commercial

7.6

0.40 FAR

Mixed-Use

60.3

30 DU/AC / 0.80 FAR

Residential

11.7

25 DU/AC

Open Space

2.0

Roads

5.6

Total

87.2

Table 4 The Diamond Conceptual Land Use Program

Acreage (AC)/ Specific Plan

Dwelling Units (DU)/

Target Density/

Land Use Category

Anticipated Land Uses

Square Footage (SF)

Floor Area Ratio (FAR)

Commercial

Retail/Restaurants

70,000 SF

0.25

Retail/Restaurants/

310,000 SF

0.40

1

Density is considered Gross Density, calculated based on the number of dwelling units (DU) divided by the total land area of the Specific Plan. The Density of a particular land use category may exceed the General Plan allowed density provided the overall Density for the Project Site does not exceed the General Plan density. 2

FAR is calculated based on the total floor area square footage (SF) of all enclosed structures divided by the total land area of the Specific Plan. The FAR of a particular land use category and/or development area may exceed the General Plan allowed FAR provided the overall FAR for the Project Site does not exceed the General Plan FAR.

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Acreage (AC)/ Dwelling Units (DU)/

Target Density/

Square Footage (SF)

Floor Area Ratio (FAR)

Office

100,000 SF

0.40

Education Center

100,000 SF

0.40

Specific Plan Land Use Category

Anticipated Land Uses

Mixed-Use3

Entertainment

Hotel Residential Stadium

150 Rooms/ 130,000 SF 310 DU 22.0 AC 50,000 SF4

Residential

Residential

290 DU

Open Space

Open Space

2.0 AC

0.80 30 DU/AC 0.10 25 DC/AC

3

Permits a variety of regional-serving commercial uses including retail, office, medical, entertainment, hotel, conference and comparable uses. Residential units may be incorporated in mixeduse structures or as free-standing units, provided that the total vehicle trips attributable to the exclusive development of commercial uses in the area are not exceeded. 4

Existing floor area of the Diamond stadium is in addition to the maximum floor area as shown in Table 3, Land Use Statistical Summary.

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INFRASTRUCTURE

Primary Project access will be from Diamond Drive, Malaga Road and Lakeshore Drive. These roads connect to the Interstate 15 Freeway (I-15) via the Railroad Canyon Road/Diamond Drive interchange. Lakeshore Drive connects to Main Street in downtown Lake Elsinore less than two miles to the west. The roads accessing The Diamond Site all have been constructed; however, ultimate road widths have not been completed pursuant to the General Plan Circulation Element. Sewer and water facilities currently exist along Diamond Drive, which are sized to serve both the Diamond Stadium and the planned John Laing Homes development to the south of Malaga Road. These facilities will be analyzed as part of the Project Environmental Impact Report (EIR) to determine if up-grades are needed to accommodate the proposed project. PHASING

The Project will be developed over approximately 5 phases. Depending on economic conditions, these phases may be implemented over 7-10 years. The Project will be designed in such a way to facilitate easy phasing of development, and no phase will be constructed without the requisite infrastructure in place to serve that phase of development. City Actions and Approvals For The Diamond Project, the City of Lake Elsinore’s discretionary actions include, but may not be limited to: 1. Certification of a Final Project EIR and other California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) related actions and approvals, including determination of compliance with the Western Riverside County Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan (MSHCP) 2. Approval of ELSP SPA-9 to remove 76.2 acres from the ELSP 3. Adoption of The Diamond Specific Plan by Ordinance 4. Development Agreement 5. Amendment to the Development and Disposition Agreement (DDA) Project Implementing Actions Concurrent or subsequent implementing actions will include, but not be limited to the following: 1. Vesting or Non-Vesting Tentative Parcel or Tract Map(s) to facilitate phased development and financing

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2. Design Review Approval 3. Approval of Grading and Building Permits Other Agency Actions and Approvals Other agencies designated “Responsible Agencies” under CEQA, may use the Project EIR in connection with any discretionary decisions for which they are responsible. Responsible Agencies are required to actively participate in the Lead Agency’s CEQA process, review the Lead Agency’s CEQA document, and use that document when making a decision on the Proposed Project.5 State responsible agencies and other agencies include, but are not limited to, the following: 1.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), Fish and Game Code Section 1600

2.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)

3.

Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE), Federal Clean Water Act (CWA), Section 404

4.

Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB), Federal CWA, Section 401 Water Quality Certification

5.

RWQCB, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

6.

Western Riverside County Regional Conservation Authority (RCA)

7.

South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD)

8.

Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD)

5

14 California Code Regulations, §15052, 15096.

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February 5, 2009 Attn: Carole K. Donahoe

AICP Project Planner

Re: Tribal Consultation in accordance with SB 18 (Government Code §§ 65352.3,

65352.4, and 65352.5) for Diamond Specific Plan #2009-01 and East Lake Specific Plan Amendment No. 9; City of Lake Elsinore, Riverside County, California The Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians appreciates your observance of Tribal Cultural Resources and their preservation in your project. The information provided to us on said project has been assessed through our Cultural Resource Department, where it was concluded that although it is outside the existing reservation, the project area does fall within the bounds of our Luiseño Tribal Traditional Use Areas. The project location is part of a known village site and is in close proximity to other known sites. Both of these villages are known to the Luiseno in their traditional names, Pa’Axchey and Wee’va. It is also a shared use area that was used in ongoing trade between the Luiseno bands, not considered as a location occupied by one existing band, but rather the Luiseno Tribe. For these reasons the site is regarded as sensitive to the people of Soboba for the possibility of unanticipated finds.

Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians is requesting the following: 1.

Government to government consultation. Meaning the transfer of information to the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians regarding the progress of this project should be done as soon as new developments occur.

2.

Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians be regarded as the lead consulting tribal entity for this project.

3.

Working in and around traditional use areas intensifies the possibility of encountering cultural resources during the construction/excavation phase. For this reason the Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians requests that Native American Monitor(s) from the Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians Cultural Resource Department to be present during any ground disturbing proceedings. Including surveys and archaeological testing.

4.

Request that proper procedures be taken and requests of the tribe be honored (Please see the attachment)

Sincerely,

Joseph Ontiveros Soboba Cultural Resource Department P.O. Box 487 San Jacinto, CA 92581 Phone (951) 654-5544 ext. 4137 Cell (951) 663-5279


Cultural Items (Artifacts). Ceremonial items and items of cultural patrimony reflect traditional religious beliefs and practices of the Soboba Band. The Developer should agree to return all Native American ceremonial items and items of cultural patrimony that may be found on the project site to the Soboba Band for appropriate treatment. In addition, the Soboba Band requests the return of all other cultural items (artifacts) that are recovered during the course of archaeological investigations. Where appropriate and agreed upon in advance, Developer’s archeologist may conduct analyses of certain artifact classes if required by CEQA, Section 106 of NHPA, the mitigation measures or conditions of approval for the Project. This may include but is not limited or restricted to include shell, bone, ceramic, stone or other artifacts. The Developer should waive any and all claims to ownership of Native American ceremonial and cultural artifacts that may be found on the Project site. Upon completion of authorized and mandatory archeological analysis, the Developer should return said artifacts to the Soboba Band within a reasonable time period agreed to by the Parties and not to exceed (30) days from the initial recovery of the items.

Treatment and Disposition of Remains. Given that Native American human remains have been found during development of the Project and the Soboba Band has been designated the MLD, the following provisions shall apply to the Parties: A. The Soboba Band shall be allowed, under California Public Resources Code § 5097.98 (a), to (1) inspect the site of the discovery and (2) make determinations as to how the human remains and grave goods shall be treated and disposed of with appropriate dignity. B. The Soboba Band, as MLD, shall complete its inspection within twenty-four (24) hours of receiving notification from either the Developer or the NAHC, as required by California Public Resources Code § 5097.98 (a). The Parties agree to discuss in good faith what constitutes "appropriate dignity" as that term is used in the applicable statutes. C. Reburial of human remains shall be accomplished in compliance with the California Public Resources Code § 5097.98 (a) and (b). The Soboba Band, as the MLD in consultation with the Developer, shall make the final discretionary determination regarding the appropriate disposition and treatment of human remains. D. All parties are aware that the Soboba Band may wish to rebury the human remains and associated ceremonial and cultural items (artifacts) on or near, the site of their discovery, in an area that shall not be subject to future subsurface


disturbances. The Developer should accommodate on-site reburial in a location mutually agreed upon by the Parties. E. The term "human remains" encompasses more than human bones because the Soboba Band's traditions periodically necessitated the ceremonial burning of human remains. Grave goods are those artifacts associated with any human remains. These items, and other funerary remnants and their ashes are to be treated in the same manner as human bone fragments or bones that remain intact Coordination with County Coroner’s Office. The Lead Agencies and the Developer should immediately contact both the Coroner and the Soboba Band in the event that any human remains are discovered during implementation of the Project. If the Coroner recognizes the human remains to be those of a Native American, or has reason to believe that they are those of a Native American, the Coroner shall ensure that notification is provided to the NAHC within twenty-four (24) hours of the determination, as required by California Health and Safety Code § 7050.5 (c). Non-Disclosure of Location Reburials. It is understood by all parties that unless otherwise required by law, the site of any reburial of Native American human remains or cultural artifacts shall not be disclosed and shall not be governed by public disclosure requirements of the California Public Records Act. The Coroner, parties, and Lead Agencies, will be asked to withhold public disclosure information related to such reburial, pursuant to the specific exemption set forth in California Government Code § 6254 (r). Ceremonial items and items of cultural patrimony reflect traditional religious beliefs and practices of the Soboba Band. The Developer agrees to return all Native American ceremonial items and items of cultural patrimony that may be found on the project site to the Soboba Band for appropriate treatment. In addition, the Soboba Band requests the return of all other cultural items (artifacts) that are recovered during the course of archaeological investigations. Where appropriate and agreed upon in advance, Developer’s archeologist may conduct analyses of certain artifact classes if required by CEQA, Section 106 of NHPA, the mitigation measures or conditions of approval for the Project. This may include but is not limited or restricted to include shell, bone, ceramic, stone or other artifacts.


From: Sent: To: Subject:

Carole Donohoe [cdonahoe@Lake-Elsinore.org] Monday, March 23, 2009 1:01 PM 'jdmckeehan' FW: Diamond Specific Plan SB 18 Compliance

From: Rob Roy [mailto:lajollagis@yahoo.com] Sent: Thursday, March 19, 2009 3:44 PM To: Carole Donohoe Subject: RE: Diamond Specific Plan SB 18 Compliance Ms. Donahoe,

We have no comments on the proposed project. Rob Roy Environmental Director La Jolla Band of Luise単o Indians 22000 Highway 76 Pauma Valley, CA 92061-9721 Office: (760) 742-3790 x311 Cell: (619) 540-8598 lajollagis@yahoo.com

From: Carole Donohoe Sent: Thursday, March 05, 2009 11:08 AM To: 'lajolla-sherry@aol.com' Subject: Diamond Specific Plan SB 18 Compliance

Dear Mr. Roy,

I am following up on our certified letter sent to you regarding the Diamond Specific Plan proposed within the City of Lake Elsinore. We would appreciate hearing from you. If, after reviewing the exhibits attached to our letter, you do not wish to dialogue about this project, please confirm by email.

Thanking you in advance for your assistance,


ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR APN 340-010-002

Confidential Appendix D.2: Phase II Archaeological Test Excavation and Evaluation for the Diamond Specific Plan Project February 2010

McKeehan Environmental Consultants


Archeological Appendix  

Appendix D1 Appendix D2

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