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Mushroom Times Mushroom Times Newsletter is published every two months by China Edible Mushroom Business Net (CEMBN) in China. Devoting to serve the development of global mushroom industry. Complimentary CEMBN inner newsletter. Managing Editor: Hao Lee Executive Editor: Nina Zhang Editors: Amy Zhang Macey Li Graphic Designer: Kun Zhang Advertising Manager: Yan Chen Editorial Board: Gerard Speel Louis Avaldi Chris Bailey Jim Bob Fuller Dr. Aravinda S. Rabba Micheal John Steven Muro China Edible Mushroom Business Net (CEMBN) Room 201, Haoyue office block, No.128, Lugu Road, ShiJingshan District, Beijing, China Tel: 86-10-5618 1701 Email: cembn_market@hotmail.com Website: www.cembn.com Follow us on our social media platforms to receive the latest mushroom news from around the world. https://www.facebook.com/chinamushroomindustry @CEMBN_China China Edible Mushroom Business Net

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CONTENTS

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PG04 COVER STORY PG10 SPECIAL REPORT PG12 LOCAL NEWS PG14 GLOBAL NEWS PG18 INDUSTRIALIZATION NEWS PG20 INDUSTRIALIZED RESEARCH PG24 PREVENTION & CONTROL OF DISEASES AND PESTS PG26 RECIPES PG28 NEWS IN PICTURES PG30 MUSHROOMS QUOTATION PG41 PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION


COVER STORY China Morel Industry Meeting & International Rare Mushroom Development Forum was smoothly and splendidly held China Morel Industry Meeting & International Rare Mushroom Development Forum was grandly held during 10th-12th, March in Songzi City, Hubei Province, China. According to statistics, more than 500 leaders, guests and representatives attended the grand meeting. According to the committees of the meeting, during 2 days time, a series of activities such as Food Tasting, Morel Forum and Morel Base Visiting were particularly scheduled and implemented. The successful holding of the meeting will surely play a positive role to a healthy and ordered development way of Chinese Yellow Morel Industry.

YELLOW MORELS ARE FRUITING IN LARGE AREA It is reported that currently, the Yellow morels in Sichuan Delilong Agricultural Technology are enjoying the large-area and desirable fruiting trend, besides, what ignites farmers are daily orders which are coming in flocks. By report, before Chinese New Year, the base of Delilong Company began to market the first batch of Yellow morels and brought the tasty morels to the reunion dinners.


YELLOW MOREL CULTIVATION GOT SUCCEEDED IN SHANXI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES It is reported that recently, the Yellow morel cultivation that took the mode of field inorganic material and was realized in greenhouse, cold greenhouse got succeeded. According to know, the batch of Yellow morel fruited from the middle to the last ten days of January. At present, they are leading the desirable growth trend. Besides, the successful trial cultivation fundamentally provided technical guarantee for the industrial cultivation of Yellow morel in Shanxi Province and exploited a new prosperous road for mushroom farmers.


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Special Report AIFERIER, the expert of mushroom factory construction with international leading level Editor’s Note: Since the 1990s, mushrooms get more and more favor of consumers and investors because of high nutrition health care value and economic returns. Global mushroom factories have come forth and are growing quickly. These factories’ products can not only meet people’s need in life, but also bring considerable economic returns and social benefit. However, the mushroom factories consume large amounts of electric energy for room temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration. How to reduce the energy consumption? How to resolve two big hidden problems: mushroom factory’s air tightness and thermal insulation In order to get on healthy development way, mushroom industry needs forward-looking concept as a guide to design and build safe, reliable, efficient environmental protection and energy saving of mushroom factory. AIFERIER, as the expert of mushroom factory construction with international advanced level, gives a valuable proposal for us.

Reporter: AIFERIER, mainly engaged in steel structure work, why join into the mushroom industry? What are your thoughts on the mushroom industry? Mr. Liu (Chairman of AIFERIER): In the world, the problems of food quality and safety has aroused great importance by the society. We need to break “Green barrier” to produce pollution-free mushrooms, so mushroom factory can have a good pattern, which can form stable annual production and large gains. Market, capital, technology and management are the decisive factors in successful mushroom factory. Some investors are lack of theoretical guidance or any plan, so that the investment can hardly achieve desired effect.

Reporter: What issues should be paid attention to in mushroom factory plant construction? Mr. Liu (Chairman of AIFERIER): The facility cultivation in Mushroom factory is a new pattern industry. High cost, high output and high profit are its characteristics. We must have a sufficient understanding that is a systems engineering with detailed and multidisciplinary blend of knowledge. During design and building of mushroom factory, site selection is a very important thing. Moreover, other important notes that we should think about the long term such as replacing the mushroom spawn design in the same mushroom factory and improving mushroom planting pattern in the production process.should also be paid attention to.

ADVANCED MUSHROOM FACTORY DESIGN CONCEPT MODERN MUSHROOM EQUIPMENT SUPPLIER 10

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017


Reporter: The overall working environment of mushroom factory has higher technical requirements, which is different from other kinds of working environment. Different kinds of mushrooms have different growth environmental needs, so for this detail, How did AIFERIER do in the aspect of steel structure? What do you think about the stakes for the investment and yielding depend on the overall design and construction plan of the mushroom factory ? Mr. Liu (Chairman of AIFERIER): AIFERIER has always follow the principle: We always equip with professional and technical personnel after understanding the different needs of each customer, and then according to international standards and design concept, we provide customers with perfect project service, construction plans and aseptic inoculation workshop designing plan. The culture period, growth stage and technological requirements are all different under different mushroom spawn. Moreover, under the condition of same daily production and different mushroom species, the demand for mushroom factory’s plane and space is not the same. If too much, fixed asset investment and energy consumption will be increased as same as the product of the fixed cost and variable cost. At the same time, increasing product cost, declining market competitive and reduced corporate profitability will also be possible. If too little, maybe we can not gain the perfect productivity so that input and output mismatch. The result is only one, that we can not meet the market’s demand. Moreover, increasing fixed costs will lead to reduce profits even at a loss. Therefore, a scientific and rational thought design plan help avoid avoid the above problems.

Reporter: About the mushroom factory’s air tightness, insulation, consistence, what is your view? Mr. Liu (Chairman of AIFERIER): The choice and purchase of equipment and facilities is more important than meeting the needs of the mushroom production. Pay attention to energy saving and management is the tough truth. At the same time, keeping warm also is the key. Besides advanced technology and management, energy saving design for mushroom factory is the most fundamental way to solve the problem of high energy consumption during production. The mushroom factory’s energy saving design is broadly separated into architecture design and control system design. One is reducing as far as possible the installed power of energy equipment, and another one is relying on the efficient of environmental control equipment and intelligent control system to achieve energy saving. For the industrialized production of mushroom factory, the fine management is based on the biological characteristics and the specific growth condition. Therefore, operation management is particularly important in the energy saving management. Mushroom hothouse design, control design and operation management can not be separated, which can truly achieve the energy saving production together .

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LOCAL NEWS The saw dust is in short supply, mushroom production costs rise

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urrently, it is the cultivation season of Black fungus in Suifenhe City, Heilongjiang Province. It is introduced that during the last harvest season, the price of Black fungus got risen, mushroom farmers who saw the prospect future increased the cultivation efforts of Black fungus in succession. Saw dust, the raw material in Black fungus cultivation became in short supply. To take brich coarse particle sawdust as an example, its price per ton jumped 30% from a year earlier, which has risen the production costs of Black fungus.

The sales of Black fungus have gone through the roof during the haze days

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t is understood that Zhengyang County, Henan Province enjoys the good reputation of “The first county of peanut production”, whichowns the annual cultivation area of 1.5 million acres and the total peanut production of 400,000 tons. In recent years, the county has been positively adjusting the cultivation structure and pulling the new increasing point. It is revealed that in Zheng Yang Mushroom Cooperative that utilizes peanut hulls to cultivate mushroom, each 100kg of peanut could produce about 100kg of fresh mushrooms. Till now, 966 poor households have been successfully leaded to shake off poverty through mushroom industry.

Mushroom Industry becomes the crucial booster for targeted poverty alleviation

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ushroom cultivation does not contend with people for fertilizer or contend with farmer for time. In recent years, Guangxi Province of China has been working on targeted poverty alleviation and has achieved remarkable effects. Till now, 53 poor counties have been involved in mushroom cultivation, which account for 98.15% of the 54 poor counties, the cultivation area totals 32.7618 million square meters. It is anticipated that the output of fresh mushrooms could be 174,400 tons and the output value comes to 2.159 billion CNY. It is evident that at present, Mushroom Industry is gradually become the crucial booster for the poverty alleviation work of Guangxi Province.

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A batch of fresh Shiitakes were smoothly exported to South Africa

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ot long ago, a batch of fresh Shiitakes produced by Shandong Qihe Biotechnology Co., LTD and value 22,000 CNY were smoothly exported to South Africa. It is understood that Shandong Qihe Biotechnology Co., LTD is a Chinese enterprise which engages in the exportation of Shiitake sticks. The company adheres to the new-type industrial operation mode of “Realize spawn running in domestic, fruiting overseas and locally list fresh mushrooms on market”, quickly occupies markets in Korea, Japan, America and other nations. South Africa is the emerging market which was newly developed by the company. Under the assistance of local Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, it only took 3 days from acquiring orders to obtaining port clearance, shipping and exporting, which has striven for the precious time for the freshness of mushroom products.

The city aims to expand the cultivation scale of Yellow morel to 500 mu in 2017

Mushroom has become the new industry which facilitates generating incomes

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ecently, in the mushroom base of Haixi Modern Agriculture Co., LTD situating in Shitizi Village, Hutubi County, Sinkiang, clusters of Agrocybe cylindracea are enjoying the desirable growth trend. “We routinely arrange the picking time in every morning and night, each 12kg values 150CNY or so,” said one of local mushroom farmers, adding that this year, she has covered the cultivation area of 500 square meters, the recent two days are the peak picking season, plus with the considerable markets, the Agrocybe cylindracea enjoys good sales.

s known to all, Yellow morel is a rare mushroom variety. Through two years of trial cultivation, in 2016, Lingbao City of Henan Province has achieved breakthrough on artificial cultivation technology of Yellow morel, the local villagers are becoming ever more enthusiastic about Yellow morel cultivation. According to know, till now, and the cultivation a mu, the average fresh output in each mu comes to 150kg. In recent years, the city has also attracted both natives and outlanders to visit and investigate. In 2017, the city also aims to expand the cultivation scale of Yellow morel to 500mu. Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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GLOBAL NEWS USA: People Are Drinking Mushroom Coffee

Coffee is amazing. It perks you up, keeps you focused, and tastes incredible. But throwing back more than one or two cups can bring on adverse side effects. But there may now be a way to indulge in your four—cup habit with no jitters, no bitter taste, and no midday energy crash. And it’s actually not coffee at all—it’s mushrooms. Thanks to a new company called Four Sigmatic, a new mushroom coffee product claims to boost your brain power, increase productivity, and melt away stress—while also packing a punch with extra nutrients and minerals not found in regular coffee. Each cup contains 40 milligrams of caffeine, about half as much as a cup of standard coffee. As for the taste, you actually won’t notice the mushrooms. Would you try it? (Source: delish.)

Turkey: Oyster mushroom market

has a goodprospect

Recently, there is a fine field of Oyster mushroom in Canakkale in Turkey. Mr. Darnell told us that he has a Oyster mushroom farm (floor space 450 square meter), which has passed the organic certification. According to information, his farm uses straw, wood chips and mixture of wheat bran as the compost for Oyster mushroom cultivation all the year round. Through 30 days, they can pick these mushrooms and sale to local supermarkets and markets. Now they are trying to achieve their goal (output of 500 KG per week). (Source: milliyet.)

Canada: Restaurant wastes bring about 200kg of weekly mushroom output

A few years ago, Ms.Lysiane marched into mushroom production by restaurant wastes. “The restaurant is prosperous, the wastes from grain fermentation and coffee production are increasingly remained, then we decided to conduct the trial mushroom cultivation and keep it to now,” said Ms.Lysiane passionately, adding that she currently holds 6 mushroom greenhouses, where they could harvest 200kg of fresh mushroom each week. (Source: freshplaza.)

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Korea: A Farmer makes a profit by

cultivating Shiitake

Mr. Yun, a farmer from lichuan city in Gyeonggi province, has developed Shiitake cultivation industry for 14 years. Recently, he got an award named Strong Agricultural Youth Representatives from the local department of agriculture. Mr. Yun tells us mushroom industry is good and profitable, and all cultivation steps such as inoculation of culture medium,disinfect are operated in strict supervised with the requirements. Until now, the annual sales of his mushroom farm has reached 1.3 billion KRW (1 KRW=0.0008823 USD). Moreover, he has obtained a patent of Shiitake products in 2014. (Source: news.)

Vietnam: White-collar quits office for developing mushroom industry

Mr. Ruan was a White-collar once in an electronics company with a nice income. However, he thought living so far from home was not suitable for him. At same time, he found the mushroom industry is a good industry so that he quit office this year. Mr. Ruan told us his choice is proved right after back home for developing mushroom industry. Now his mushroom farm has been equipped with automatic irrigation system, and his mushroom products such as Abalone mushroom, Shiitake and Black fungus are all high quality. Moreover, his market has gradually expand the central provinces in Vietnam. (Source: thanhnien.)

Indonesia: Oyster mushrooms are preferred by people in Makassar City

Mrs. Mariati Atkah is a Oyster mushroom farmer in Makassar City in Indonesia, and she has a nice income for every month. Moreover, her mushroom farm also cultivates Pleurotus geesteranus in small scale and processes Oyster mushroom meatballs. According to information, Indonesian climate suits mushroom cultivation, Oyster mushrooms are preferred by people in Makassar City now. (Source makassarterkini.)

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GLOBAL NEWS Pakistan: The speedy development of the

mushroom industry

The mushroom industry is rapidly developing in Pakistan in 2016. According To Information Statistics, the annual export volume of mushrooms reaches 201 thousand KG, and the value of exports reaches 1.293 million USD. In recent years, Pakistan has been able to production mushrooms for large scale through constantly introducing new mushroom species and meeting the annual cultivation. Moreover, statistics from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization show that China as the major mushroom production country accounts for about 60 percent of global production, and next is The United States, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Holland, Spain, Poland, Ireland, Indonesia and India. Fruit and vegetable exporters’ association chairman in Pakistan expresses that mushroom export can help improve the overall exports of vegetables. At the same time, the mushrooms also play an important role in national economy. (Source: dailytimes.)

Thailand: Part-time job for developing mushroom industry

Mrs. Jura has a mushroom farm in Phayao in Thailand. At the same time, she also cultivates other kinds of mushrooms such as Pleurotus geesteranus and Oyster mushroom, and the profit is considerable. Mrs. Jura tells us she has cultivate mushroom for 10 years. She very likes her job, which is not only effectively lead to local mushroom industry development, but also help people get a job. Moreover, the partial incomes from her mushroom farm also are donated to the orphanage and nursing homes on schedule. (Source: mthai.)

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INDUSTRIALIZATION NEWS Button mushrooms of Henan Province are exported to overseas markets

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n Hongyuan mushroom base of Zhoukou City, Henan Province, the workers are checking on the growth situation of Button mushrooms. It is said that more than 2 million CNY was invested in Hongyuan Mushroom Cultivation Base, 26 greenhouse were built, the raw materials of mushroom are straws and corncob chips. The products are sold well at home and aboard like Brazil, America, Japan and so on, which realizes Sale-To-Order. Moreover, the annual net income of each greenhouse amounted to 50 thousand CNY and over 60 nearby farmers have been leaded to work at home.

Realize industrialized production of fungus sack that boosts the development of the mushroom industry

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ushroom industry in Shangnan County, Shanxi Province is one of the staple industries for getting rid of poverty, where the modernized mushroom production is being strongly developed.

finished by mechanical equipment of industrialized production enterprises or specialized cooperatives. Mushroom industry has been an important part of rural economy in Shangnan County.

The county completed 8 production line of industrialized mushroom sacks, which forcefully pushed the development of mushroom industry, improved the productivity of mushroom bags, saved human resources and costs.

It is said that by the end of 2016, 85.88 million bags of Shiitake in plastic bag were cultivated in Shangnan County, over 80 thousand tons of fresh mushroom were produced each year, the output value exceeded 600 million CNY. In addition, 18,000 families and 71,000 farmers have been leaded to engage in mushroom production and other related industries.

Now, the mushroom growers just need to manage the mushroom fruiting, the other processes could be

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Shiitake Cultivation leads farmers to increase in earnings

“In our Shiitake farms, there are about 1500kg of dried mushroom production each year,” said a mushroom base leader from Jingshan County, Hubei Province. It is said that Shiitake contains proteins, 12 kinds of amino acids, others micro-elements and vitamins, carbohydrates, with cutting cholesterol. Till now, Shiitake cultivation in Sanyang Town has been developing for 30 years, it is a traditional economic project for the local farmers.

Mushroom project lifts more than 6000 farmers out of poverty

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t is reported that Linxi County of Xingtai City, Hebei Province,leads the poor to transfer the form of employment by training the poor technical ability and attracting business, and the whole county throw off poverty finally. One example is Guangming Jiudaogu mushroom project which is located in Linxi County. The characteristics of Guangming Jiudaogu mushroom project are huge investment and high labor intensity, the project has already driven more than 6000 farmers to realize over 180 million CNY, according to the head of the county Employment Agency. It helps over 1000 surplus labors get jobs, leads the development of tens of local correlative industries, such as plastics processing industry and food processing industry, and it also offers a platform for the mass business. Moreover, thanks for the project, the agricultural resources of the whole county are taken fully advantage.

The head of the company introuced, as measured by annual capacity of the first-stage project, we should buy 12,600 tons of corncob and 5000 tons of cottonseed hull from local parts, this alone action could promote to increase the incomes of 11 million CNY. Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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Industrialized research

The anniversary industrialized cultivation technology of Hypsizygus marmoreus 1. Introduction: Hypsizygus marmoreus naturally distributes in Europe, North America, Siberia, Japan and other places, it holds delicious flavor, tender texture, high nutritional value and is a kind of low-caloric and low-fat health food. In addition, Hypsizygus marmoreus owns 17 kinds of amino acid accounting for 13.27% of dry weight, among them, 8 kinds of essential amino acids occupy 36.82% of total contents of amino acid, the contained Lysine and Arginine play the crucial role to the intelligence and height development for teenagers. Hypsizygus marmoreus also carries high medicinal value, the unique efficacy on preventing constipation,

preventing and resisting to cancer, enhancing the immunity, preventing aging and prolonging life-span, hence it has been enjoying the fashionable trend in the United States, Japan, Korea and other nations, and China’s Taiwan region in recent year. At present, the scale cultivation of Hypsizygus marmoreus is conducted in Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shandong and other provinces in China, especially in Shunchang of Fujian Province, the number of factories engaging in Hypsizygus marmoreus cultivation come to 50-60. Since the marketing of Hypsizygus marmoreus in China, it has been well favored by customers because of its unique taste.

2. Biological characteristics: a

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The sporocarps of Hypsizygus marmoreus overgrow, in the early period, fungus caps own slippy surface, present round while they gradually open and flat after getting matured, the diameter of cap generally ranges from 1 to 1.5cm, the surface of cap also presents evident marble and stone-like speckles. What’s more, the fungus stipes show longer state, carry with white or gray meat quality, most of them show columned, sometimes the bottom portion inflates and the length varies from strain to strain. Normally, the diameter of stipe measures 1.0-1.5cm. The lamella shows sheet, campylotropous or orthotropous, it also presents white color, unequal length and closely-arranged, 2-4 sporidiums grow on the top.

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

B In PDA slant tube, the spawns of Hypsizygus marmoreus are pure-white, dense, sturdy, regular and hairy, they hold less aerial mycelium, neither secrete pigment nor produce mycoderma while they produce Arthrospore and Chlamydospore. After becoming matured, the spawns turn light gray, spawns also imply orderly growth in saw-dust substrate, the front-end presents penniform and spawns form Rhizomorphs at outer layer of substrate. C Ecological habit Hypsizygus marmoreus is a kind of lignicolous white-rot fungus which grows in Fagaceae species such as Fagus, other dead woods, wind-falls and stumps of broad-leaved tree.


Industrialized research

D Living conditions a. Nutritional requirement: Hypsizygus marmoreus holds greater capacity of decomposing lignin. In nature, the main nutritional substrates include Fagus, Horse chestnut and other broad-leaved trees. For its artificial cultivation, it is common to take sawdusts, cottonseed hulls, corncobs, straws and other wastes from agriculture and forestry products as Carbon sources, take bran, rice brans, soybean flour, corncob flour and cottonseeds as Nitrogen source, then combine with a small amount of trace elements. The proportion between Carbon and Nitrogen of substrate should be controlled in 30~34 to 1, which more fits for the growth of Hypsizygus marmoreus, the optimal proportion presents 32 to 1. b. Temperature: Hypsizygus marmoreus falls under with medium and low-temperature type and mostly occurs in late autumn or early spring under natural condition, the growth temperature of spawns is 5-30 degrees and the optimal range is 20-25 degrees, spawns stop growing under 4 degrees or above 35 degrees and they tend to die when the temperature reaches above 45 degrees. What’s more, the low-temperature stimulation of 10-16 degrees is needed during the formation period of primordium and the ideal temperature during the growth period of sporocarps is 13-18 degrees.

c. Humidity: The preferred water content in compost is 63%, you could moderately moisturize on the surface of fungus sacks before mushrooms fruit so as to raise the water content to a range of 70%75%, which makes for the growth of Hypsizygus marmoreus. Moreover, during the differentiation period of mushroom buds, you could adjust the relative air humidity of mushroom house to a range of 90%-95%, during the growth period of sporocarps, adjust to a range of 85%-90%. When the relative air humidity is higher than 95% for a long time, sporocarps are easy to produce yellow spots and soft texture. d. Illumination: Illumination is not required during the growth period of spawns, direct illumination not only inhibits the growth of spawns, but also brings about deeper color and lustre on spawns. However, certain weak illumination is inversely needed to promote the normal growth of primordium during the reproduction stage, illumination holds certain relativity with the occurrence of primordium, darkness inhibits the differentiation of mushroom caps and then causes misshapen mushrooms, under dark condition, Hypsizygus marmoreus are easy to whiten, which results in poor products quality. Distinct phototropism also exists during the growth period of sporocarps, thus you could control the illumination intensity in a range of 2001000 lux during the fruiting period.

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Industrialized research e. Air: Hypsizygus marmoreus falls under with Moderate Aerobic Fungus, the spawns are not sensitive to air. However, along with the prolonged breathing time and the raising of Carbon dioxide concentration, the growth speed of spawn turns slow. However, the sporocarps of Hypsizygus marmoreus are sensitive to Carbon dioxide during the growth period, hence you could control the concentration of Carbon dioxide to a range of 0.05%-0.1% during the differentiation period of mushroom buds, then when sporocarps grow up, you could control it to a range of 0.2%0.4%. In actual operation, mushroom farmers tend to raise the concentration of Carbon dioxide to a moderate degree through eliminating the ventilation so that they delay the opening time of fungus caps, promote the long stipes, raise the quality and the output. It should not be overlooked that sporocarps tend to become misshapen when the concentration of Carbon dioxide is higher than 0.8% for a long time. f. PH Value: In the range of 9.0-8.0, the spawns of Hypsizygus marmoreus carries lax requirement to PH Value, they grow under the PH Value of 4.0-8.5. Different strain holds different demands on PH Value. During the growth period of spawns, the preferred stage is 6.5-7.5. Therefore, in actual operation, you could make sure that the PH Value of substrate is in 7.5 or so.

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Industrialized research

3. The design of cultivation field and facility construction: A

The design requirements and layouts of cultivation place The cultivation place of Hypsizygus marmoreus should be settled in where holds high position, desirable ventilation, unrestricted drainage, convenient electricity and traffic condition, what’s more, the place should also be away from pollution sources, free from livestock houses, garbage or faeces field, sewage or other pollution sources such as cement plant, tile field, lime factory and wood processing plant. In accordance with production craft, living area, the storage area of raw materials, material-mixing area, bagging area, sterilization area, cooling area, inoculation area, cultivation area and fruiting area should be successively settled and reasonably distributed. Moreover, you could try to guarantee that the production is in good order while saving time and labor.

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B TTemperature-control mushroom house structure and the layout of refrigeration equipment: The preferred ground is hardened cement ground, the roof and surrounding area should all be made of sandwich color plate. The superior area of each temperature-control greenhouse should be about 80 square meters. In oversize area, it is hard to control the growth condition while the utilization rate is low and the unit cost is too high in too small area. In each greenhouse, you could set a 10 PH refrigeration machine and 4 exhaust fans. Moreover, you could also install 2 daylight lamps in every aisles.

The design of cultivation shelves in temperature-control mushroom house Adopt bed-frame cultivation, shelves should be set in 4-5 layers. You could make sure that the first layer is 20cm from the ground and the space between each shelve is 60cm. Moreover, the top shelf should be 100cm from the foam insulation board on the roof, the top layer should be isolated from ceiling with anti-drop film so as to avoid direct wind produced by refrigeration machine on fungus sack. The proper width of bed shelf should be 1 meter. LED lamp strip should be installed in the back of bed shelf of each layer and 1 stripe is generally needed between 0.5 meters of width.

D The layout of humidifier You could put up an atomizer owning high atomizing degree and even space atomization in each greenhouse. What’s more, a artificial sprayer should also be set in each greenhouse so that you implement artificial humidification in case of too low humidity in greenhouse. E

The layout of ventilation equipment

In each greenhouse, set 2 intake fans, on the other side, put up 2 exhaust fans which directly face aisles. Intake fans should be settled on top of greenhouse and 50cm from the roof. Exhaust fans should be settled on bottom of greenhouse and 20cm from the ground. The referenced specification of fan is 250mm*250mm. Distinguished readers, the next portion of “The anniversary industrialized cultivation technology of Hypsizygus marmoreus” will be published in April, please stay tuned.

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Prevention & Control of diseases and pests

The disease control of Enoki mushroom- Rhizopus Rhizopus is a kind of common sundry fungus, among which Rhizopus nigrican is the most common one. After getting infected by it, the compost forms reticular mycelium and black punctiform conidium which compete with Enoki mushroom for nutrients and eventually result in output failure. 1. Occurrence condition: Under natural condition, Rhizopus grows in soil, animal wastes and various organic matters. 2. Control methods: A. The compost should be fresh and dry. Before you utilize it, firstly conduct thorough sterilization so as to kill the Rhizopus spores which are hidden in compost. B. The inoculation environment should be thoroughly disinfected, you should also avert inoculation tools from touching with raw water, meaning unboiled.

C. During the cultivation period of Enoki mushroom, be sure to enhance the ventilation and keep dry of cultivation room. D. When you find Rhizopus infection, timely dig the part out, then combine with fresh compost and sterilize before utilizing.

King oyster mushroom cultivation - control mosquitoes 1. Reinforce the ventilation and penetrate the light. Mosquitoes massively happen under high temperature and high humidity. Reinforcing the ventilation and penetrating the light in cultivation field facilitates effectively reducing the occurrence rate. 2. Chemical control: It is viable to spray 80%, 8001000 times of DDVP solution or spray 3000-4000 times of Sumicidin emulsion. It should be stressed that mushroom bodies could be strictly avoided to be sprayed on so as to prevent the phenomenon of soft-rot, the correct way is to spray in the space. 3. Put mushroom disinfection across: Before cultivating mushrooms, clean up the shelves and tools in the cultivation room, then fill the gap of doors, windows, walls, and roof, finally fumigate with pesticides.

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Mushroom Times ¡ Jan/Feb 2017


Prevention & Control of diseases and pests

The control techniques on diseases and pests of Ganoderma During the cultivation period of Ganoderma, it is advisable to carry out the policy of “Prevention first, supplement control.� Variety selection criteria: Choose Ganoderma variety that owns strong stress resistance, good quality and high-yield capacity, make sure that strains are free from virus, sundry fungi, annoying acarids and pests. Sterilization control: Sterilize on compost thoroughly, be sure to continuously keep warm for at least 18 hours when you find that the compost temperature has reached to 100 degrees. Environmental control: Keep clean of cultivation and the surrounding field, timely get rid of sticks that have been infected by sundry fungi and then conduct field sterilization and insect disinfestation. Insect prevention and disinfection: utilize flu nets, sunshade nets and other functional nets to seclude cultivation room and Ganoderma greenhouse, prevent pests from invading. Uv and ozone devices could be adopted to sterilize on inoculation tools and cultivation field. Finally, insecticidal lamp could also be utilized to trap and kill pests.

Why mushrooms turn yellow?

1. Reasons: A. Improper management and excessive water-spraying in low-temperature season. B. Too low temperature in greenhouse, sporocarps live in poor environmental condition for a long term. C. For some mushroom varieties, the fruiting period situates in the three or four flushes, fungus sacks are illnourished, sporocarps fail to get sufficient nutrients after mushroom buds appear, which results in yellow and dead mushrooms. 2. Control methods: A. Frequently spray pesticides in greenhouse and do it once a week. B. When the temperature of greenhouse is relatively low, be sure to avoid excessive water-spraying. C. Try to raise the temperature of greenhouse and conduct proper management, it is preferred to keep the daytime temperature of greenhouse in above 15 degrees. D. Spray all kinds of disease-resistant agents and production booster on mushroom bodies.

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RECIPES “your own” Roast Shiitakes Ingredients: 3 Shiitakes, 4 spoons of olive oil, 3 spoons of chopped onion, mashed garlic, 4 spoons of spiced vinegar Cooking method: 1. Wash Shiitakes and then put into the plate. 2. In a bowl, combine with oil, chopped onion, mashed garlic and vinegar, then sprinkle the sauce on top of Shiitakes evenly and allow to sit for about 1 hour. 3. Preheat the oven on medium high heat, roast Shiitakes for about 10 minutes and turn over frequently.

braised Enoki mushroom with bean curd

Perfect combination with broccoli

Ingredients: 150g Enoki mushroom, One third of carrot, thinly sliced Half a kilo of bran curd, cut into chunks, Salt, oyster sauce, starch, cooking wine, sugar, pepper powder, light soy sauce, to season Cooking method: 1. Trim Enoki mushrooms, tear them into clumps, then give a quick-boil. 2. Heat the pot and add moderate oil, then bean curd chunks and fry till both sides become golden, next, drop in carrot slices and fry well with bran curd chunks, season with cooking wine, sugar, pepper powder, light soy sauce and mix well. 4. Combine with boiled Enoki mushroom clumps, pour in a bottle of water and then bring into a boil. 4. Thicken the dish with the mixture of water and starch, sprinkle with moderate oyster sauce and fry evenly with all ingredients. Enjoy.

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

Ingredients: broccoli, Black fungi, carrot, salt, chicken powder, onion, ginger, sesame oil, oyster sauce, vegetable oil Cooking method: 1. Soak Black fungi, remove the bottom portion and then tear them into small pieces. Wash broccoli and break them into chunks. 2. Prepare a pot of boiled water, drizzle with several drops of peanut oil and a dash of salt, then drop in broccoli chunks and give a quick boil, finally spoon out, let sit in cold water and drain off excessive water. 3. Season the broccoli chunks with sesame oil and oyster sauce. 4. Heat the pot, pour into moderate oil, then onion and ginger, next, Black fungus pieces and carrot slices. 5. Combine with seasoned broccoli chunks, sprinkle with a dash of chicken powder, if you like. Enjoy.


fried Hypsizygus marmoreus with shrimp and asparagus Ingredients: shrimps, asparagus, Hypsizygus marmoreus, ginger slices, starch, cooking wine, salt, oil, black pepper Cooking method: 1. Unshell and wash the shrimps, then pickle with starch, salt, cooking wine and black pepper. 2. Blanch the asparagus, then spoon out and let sit in cold water, after that, cut into segments. 3. Wash and blanch Hypsizygus marmoreus. 4. Heat the pot, dump with moderate oil, then drop in ginger slices and fry till fragrant, then combine with shrimps and fry till they turn colors, finally let asparagus segments and Hypsizygus marmoreus join in. 5. Season with a pinch of salt, pepper powder and fry evenly. Enjoy.

Monkey head mushroom and seafood soup Ingredients: Monkey head mushrooms, shrimps, crabs, drumstick, salt, yellow rice wine, chicken powder, ginger slices, chopped onion, spiced vinegar Cooking method: 1. Wash Monkey head mushrooms and then cut into thin slices, chop crabs into chunks. 2. Heat the pot and add moderate oil, then drop in chopped onion, ginger slices and fry well, then dump in half pot of water and finally bring into a boil. 3. Gather all ingredients in the pot, cover the pot and bring into a boil again. 4. Pour in moderate yellow rice wine, spiced vinegar, sprinkle with moderate salt and chicken powder. 5. Finally garnish with chopped onion. Serve and enjoy.

thick soup with White Fungus and snow pear

Ingredients: Dried White Fungi, A snow pear, Medlar 10g, Rock candy 30g Cooking method: 1. Soak White Fungi for at least 24 hours in advance. 2. Trim White Fungi and then coarsely tear into pieces. 3. Remove the core of snow pear and then dice. 4. Soak medlars in warm water. 5. In a pressure cooker, combine snow pear dices with White fungus pieces and rock candy, then pour in moderate amount of water. 6. Stew all ingredients for 20 minutes or so till White fungus pieces become colloidal.

Mushroom Times ¡ Jan/Feb 2017

27


NEWS IN PICTURES

THE MUSHROOMS FROM FAMILY FARM SELL WELL

R

ecent years, the development of mushroom industry in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam has been gradually leading more and more farmers to generate revenues. “There are many mushroom varieties in my city, some of them are not approved for marketing due to their unidentified sources, conversely, the mushrooms from local family farms enjoy good sales,” according to Mrs. Cheng, one of mushroom beneficiaries, adding that her farm currently absorbs nearly 20 labor forces to jointly develop mushroom industry. (Source: danviet.)

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017


NEWS IN PICTURES

NOW YOU ARE ABLE TO GROW MUSHROOMS IN YOUR BALCONY

I

n recent years, Lianghe County, Yunnan Province has been actively developing agricultural characteristic industry, constantly reinforcing mushroom industry which highlights Black fungus, till now, more than 10,000 people have been leaded to launch into mushroom industry and enjoy the fruitful results.

NOW YOU ARE ABLE TO GROW MUSHROOMS IN YOUR BALCONY

R

ecently, the fungus sacks promoted by Shanxi Yanglingzhenhe Biotechnology Co., LTD were warmly favored by customers.

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

29


MUSHROOMS QUOTATION

CHINA MAIN VARIETIES OF MUSHROOMS QUOTATION (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

30

Type Standard

Price/CNY (JAN.)

Price/CNY (FEB.)

King oyster mushroom

Fresh

1KG

8.00 - 10.00 CNY

6.00 - 7.00 CNY

Enoki mushroom

Fresh

1KG

8.00 - 13.00 CNY

6.00 - 8.00 CNY

White mushroom

Fresh

1KG

5.50 - 12.00 CNY

9.00 - 20.00 CNY

Shiitake mushroom

Fresh

1KG

6.00 - 14.00 CNY

5.00 - 14.00 CNY

White Beech mushroom

Fresh

1KG

16.70 - 22.00 CNY

13.40 - 20.00 CNY

Brown Shimeji

Fresh

1KG

15.00 - 22.00 CNY

10.00 - 18.30 CNY

Agrocybe Cylindracea

Fresh

1KG

7.00 - 15.00 CNY

9.00 - 15.00 CNY

Pleurotus Nebrodensis

Fresh

1KG

12.90 - 16.70 CNY

13.30 - 17.70 CNY

Pholiota nameko

Fresh

1KG

8.50 CNY

8.50 CNY

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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MUSHROOMS QUOTATION

CHINA MAIN VARIETIES OF MUSHROOMS QUOTATION (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type Standard

Price/CNY (JAN.)

Price/CNY (FEB.)

Seafood mushroom

Fresh

1KG

5.00 - 16.00 CNY

7.00 - 12.00 CNY

Oyster mushroom

Fresh

1KG

2.50 - 9.00 CNY

4.00 - 10.00 CNY

Cordyceps militaris

Fresh

1KG

22.00 - 24.00 CNY

22.00 - 24.00 CNY

Panus Giganteus

Fresh

1KG

15.00 - 30.00 CNY

15.00 - 30.00 CNY

Pleurotus Cornucopiae

Fresh

1KG

25.50 CNY

12.50 CNY

Hericium Erinaceus

Fresh

1KG

11.00 - 18.00 CNY

15.00 - 20.00 CNY

Shaggy Mane

Fresh

1KG

8.50 - 20.00 CNY

8.00 - 17.00 CNY

Straw mushroom

Fresh

1KG

16.00 CNY

20.00 CNY

Cloud Ear fungus

Fresh

1KG

3.60 - 5.00 CNY

3.60 - 5.00 CNY

Pleurotus Geesteranus

Fresh

1KG

7.00 - 17.00 CNY

10.00 - 16.00 CNY

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

31


GLOBAL MARKET

Tesco Supermarket, Malaysia (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type

Price(¥)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(¥)

Pro Mushroom Po Enoki

Fresh

¥0.98

100g

¥ 9.80

Champ Fungi Dutch Mushrooms White Buttons

Fresh

¥8.99

200g

¥44.95

Vita Agrotech Grey Oyster Mushroom

Fresh

¥3.19

200g

¥15.59

Dutch Mushrooms Baby Brown Button

Fresh

¥10.99

200g

¥54.95

Champ Fungi Tuscan Fields Portabello BBQ Mushroom

Fresh

¥11.99

250g

¥47.96

King Oyster Eryngi Mushrooms

Fresh

¥2.99

200g

¥14.95

Shitakei Mushroom (Cendawan Shitakei)

Dried

¥4.99

200g

¥24.95

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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GLOBAL MARKET

Mushroom Name

Type

Price(¥)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(¥)

Tesco Choice Thick Fungus

Dried

¥5.49

40g

¥137.25

Tesco Choice Thin Fungus

Dried

¥8.59

50g

¥171.8

Sun City Small Black Fungus

Dried

¥12.89

100g

¥128.9

Tesco Choice Snow Fungus

Dried

¥5.69

30g

¥198.67

Tesco Choice Dried Mushrooms

Dried

¥9.49

40g

¥237.25

Peace Brand Fancy Grade Straw Mushrooms

Canned

¥3.88

425g

¥9.13

Peace Brand Fancy Grade Whole Mushrooms

Canned

¥3.78

425g

¥8.89

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

33


GLOBAL MARKET

Fresh Direct Supermarket, USA (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Baby Bella Mushrooms

Fresh

$2.99

227g

$13.17

White Button Mushrooms

Fresh

$2.29

227g

$10.09

Organic Baby Bella Mushrooms

Fresh

$3.99

227g

$17.58

Shiitake Mushrooms

Fresh

$3.69

99g

$37.27

Maitake Mushrooms

Fresh

$4.99

99g

$50.40

Enoki Mushrooms

Fresh

$1.99

99g

$20.10

Oyster Mushrooms

Fresh

$3.99

99g

$40.30

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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GLOBAL MARKET

Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Royal Trumpet Mushrooms

Fresh

$3.99

113g

$35.31

Beech Mushrooms

Fresh

$3.99

70g

$57.00

Organic MaitakeMushroom

Fresh

$7.99

283g

$28.23

Hedgehog Mushrooms

Fresh

$5.09

99g

$51.41

Black Winter Truffles

Fresh

$49.99

28g

$1785.36

Yellowfoot Chanterelle Mushrooms

Dried

$3.99

99g

$40.30

Black Trumpet Mushrooms

Dried

$4.99

99g

$50.40

Dried Morel Mushrooms

Dried

$49.99

57g

$877.02

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

35


GLOBAL MARKET

Categoria Supermarket, Spain (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type

Price(€)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(€)

Boletus mushroom

Dried

€12.50

125g

€100.00

Button mushroom loose

Fresh

€3.20

1000g

€3.20

High grade Button mushroom

Fresh

€4.50

1000g

€4.50

Button mushroom slices

Fresh

€1.64

250g

€6.40

Mushroom Portobello

Fresh

€4.95

1000g

€4.95

Oyster mushroom

Fresh

€2.95

400g

€7.38

Oyster mushroom loose

Fresh

€3.30

1000g

€3.30

36

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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GLOBAL MARKET

Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Pleurotus geesteranus

Fresh

€14.95

1000g

€14.95

Mushroom Eryngi

Fresh

€12.80

1000g

€12.80

Enoki mushroom

Fresh

$1.75

150g

€11.67

Shiitake mushroom

Fresh

€9.90

1000g

€9.90

White Shimeji mushroom

Fresh

€1.95

150g

€13.00

Brown Shimeji mushroom

Fresh

€1.95

150g

€13.00

Wild mushrom

Canned

€4.50

230g

€19.57

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Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

37


GLOBAL MARKET

Leshop Supermarket, Switzerland (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type

Price(Fr.)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(Fr.)

Button mushroom

Fresh

Fr.2.99

227g

Fr.13.17

Brown mushroom

Fresh

Fr.2.29

227g

Fr.10.09

Oyster mushroom

Fresh

Fr.3.99

227g

Fr.17.58

Royal Trumpet Mushrooms

Fresh

Fr.3.69

99g

Fr.37.27

Shii-take Mushroom

Dried

Fr.4.99

99g

Fr.50.40

Bio-Morel Mushrooms

Dried

Fr.1.99

99g

Fr.20.10

Morel Mushrooms

Dried

Fr.3.99

99g

Fr.40.30

Mushrooms Porcini Dried

Dried

Fr.3.99

113g

Fr.35.31

38

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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GLOBAL MARKET Mushroom Name

Type

Price(¥)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(¥)

Craterellus cornucopioides

Dried

Fr.3.99

70g

Fr.57.00

Shiitake mushroom slices

Dried

Fr.7.99

283g

Fr.28.23

Shiitake mushroom whole

Dried

Fr.5.09

99g

Fr.51.41

Black Fungus

Dried

Fr.49.99

28g

Fr.1785.36

Photo

Harrisfarm Supermarket, Australia (JAN.to FEB, 2017)

Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Mushroom - King Oyster

Fresh

$4.49

200g

$44.49

Mushrooms BBQ Flat

Fresh

$5.99

375g

$15.97

Mushrooms Black/Wood

Fresh

$4.49

100g

$44.49

Photo

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

39


GLOBAL MARKET Mushroom Name

Type

Price(¥)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(¥)

Mushrooms Button

Fresh

$2.99

200g

$14.95

Mushrooms Enoki

Fresh

$5.29

100g

$52.90

Mushrooms Organic

Fresh

$6.69

150g

$44.60

Mushrooms Gourmet Prepack

Fresh

$5.69

150g

$37.93

Mushrooms Swiss Brown

Fresh

$7.20

400g

$17.99

Mushrooms Shimeji

Fresh

$4.49

150g

$29.93

Mushrooms Shiitake

Fresh

$5.69

100g

$56.90

Mushrooms Porcini Dried & Sliced Viking

Dried

$6.99

40g

$175.00

Mushrooms Porcini Dried Organic Baska Jon

Dried

$10.49

40g

$262.00

40

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

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PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION

What to accomplish if you want to increase the yield of Flower mushroom?

Flower mushroom carries the biological characteristic of “Fruit under variable temperature”. You could artificially conduct hot and cold stimulation so as to promote the growth of mushroom buds. The specific method is to cover the greenhouse with plastic film in the daytime, cut down the compactness of all the coverings so as to let sunlight penetrate in, gain more heat the raise the temperature on ground and fungus bed. After 10:00 o’clock at night, uncover the thin film and let cold air enter so that the temperature difference could be created for at least 10 degrees. You could repeat the action for 3-4 days and then buds occur in large quantities and grow quickly.

How to prepare the fruiting formulas of Pleurotus nebrodensis Here are three formulas for reference: A. 90% cottonseed hull, 5% corn flour, 2% gypsum, 1% sugar, 2% quick lime B. 40% cottonseed hull, 38% sawdust, 18% corn flour, 1% sugar, 1% gypsum, 2% quick lime C. 52% cottonseed hull, 35% corncob, 10% corn flour, 1% gypsum, 2% quick lime During the cultivation period of Pleurotus nebrodensis, you could pay attention to the following two points: 1. The after-maturing of spawns: After Pleurotus nebrodensis terminates the spawn running, it also needs 2040 days or so before you begin the fruiting management. Under that circumstance, you could look out the water content of substrate and do not open bag mouth, moreover, certain scattered light is needed during this period. 2. Slow fruiting: After the termination of the after-maturing period of spawns, be sure to stimulate fungus sacks to fruit in a speedy trend, the specific method is to adjust the humidity of greenhouse to 85% or so, enhance the temperature difference stimulation to above 10 degrees and remain for about 10-15 days. Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb 2017

41


PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION

The cultivation skills on Pleurotus nebrodensis

1. The preparation of compost: 100kg cottonseed hull, 5kg corn flour, 5kg bran, 3kg lime, 2kg gypsum. 2. Bagging and sterilization: You should measure the moisture of sterilized compost, adjust the water content in a range of 55%60%, adjust the PH value in 8-8.5. It is worth mentioning that sterilization should be thoroughly completed.

Sunlight greenhouse is the preferred place for Pleurotus nebrodensis cultivation. You could uncover the plastic film and dry greenhouse under the sun for 2 weeks before the cultivation. Besides, medicament could be used to fumigate for 1 time. The general housing should be planted and neatened and then could be utilized as the fruiting place of Pleurotus nebrodensis.

42

Mushroom Times · Jan/Feb May/Jun2017 2016

3. Fruiting management: After spawns become fully-grown, allow for one week of growth, then transfer fungus sacks into the place where owns low temperature or make reverse operation to greenhouses, you could cover mats in the daytime and uncover mats in the evening. What’s more, ventilation should be enhanced while low temperature stimulation should be done. Poor ventilation easily brings about misshapen mushroom bodies, meanwhile, be sure to avoid direct wind on mushroom bodies so as to prevent cracked mushroom bodies resulted from excessive water loss.

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

42


PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION

The scientific preparation of Black fungus compost The formula of compost plays a decisive role in the growth and yield of Black fungus. Through years of experience, the recommend compost formula of Black fungus in Beijing is listed as follow: Thick birch sawdust 30%, thin birch sawdust 56%, bran 10%, soybean cake powder 2%, gypsum 1%, lime 1%. For rice chaff, the formula is birch sawdust 80%(The proportion between thin and thick is 2:1), rice chaff 16.5%, soybean cake powder 2%, gypsum 1%, lime 1%. (Source: Beijing Agricultural Technology Extending Stations)

The kernels on Enoki mushroom cultivation

1. Temperature: Enoki mushroom falls under with fruiting performance under low temperature. Spawns grow under 3-34 degrees, the optimum growth temperature refers to a range of 20-30 degree. 2. Humidity: Spawns grow in the quickest speed when the water content of substrate is 63%-65%, moreover, relative air humidity of mushroom house should be kept in 80%-90%. 3. Air: Enoki mushroom is a kind of aerobic fungus, sufficient oxygen is needed during the fruiting period. 4. PH Value: Enoki mushroom needs mild acid substrates, spawns grow when the PH Value is in 3-8.4. The superior range is 4-7. 5. Light: Enoki mushroom is a kind of photophobic fungus, light plays a key role in maturing sporocarp, hence its cultivation condition should be remained dark.

Cultivate Oyster mushrooms by cornstalk 1. Main ingredients: Cornstalks, cotton seed hulls, Oyster mushroom strain. 2. Method: Smash cornstalks into 1 or 2 cm length and then mix with cotton seed hulls in accordance with the proportion of 1 to 1, then add 2% lime and 1% Monopotassium phosphate, combine with moderate Carbendazim or Kemeiling, then pour in 1.5 times of water, stir evenly, cover for 24 hours, finally conduct the bagging and inoculation. As cornstalks hold good permeability, along with the decomposition of cellulose and the abundant nutrient, the growth rate of spawn is faster and the pollution rate comes to lower.

Mushroom Times ¡ Jan/Feb 2017

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2017 no 1 mushroom times  

Mushroom Times devotes to the information dissemination of global mushroom industry development. Collecting the sounds of mushroom industry...

2017 no 1 mushroom times  

Mushroom Times devotes to the information dissemination of global mushroom industry development. Collecting the sounds of mushroom industry...

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