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Mushroom Times Mushroom Times Newsletter is published every two months by China Edible Mushroom Business Net (CEMBN) in China. Devoting to serve the development of global mushroom industry. Complimentary CEMBN inner newsletter. Managing Editor: Hao Lee Executive Editor: Nina Zhang Editors: Amy Zhang Macey Li Grant Leng Graphic Designer: Kun Zhang Advertising Manager: Yan Chen Editorial Board: Gerard Speel Louis Avaldi Chris Bailey Jim Bob Fuller Dr. Aravinda S. Rabba Micheal John Steven Muro

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Mushroom Times reserves the right to determine the content of the publication.

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CONTENTS

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04 PG4 COVER STORY

◆ CHINA TOP MUSHROOM FACTORY STUDY TOURS PG10 SPECIAL REPORT

◆ QINGCHUAN BAMBOO FUNGUS PG12 LOCAL NEWS PG15 GLOBAL NEWS

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PG25 COMPREHENSIVE TECHNOLOGY

◆ AVOID 4 MISTAKES IN SELECTING AND USING PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER ◆ HIGH YIELD AND INSECT PREVENTION FORMULA FOR COPRINUS COMATUS PG27 PRODUCTION CULTIVATION PG30 PEST CONTROL & PREVENTION PG32 STORAGE & PROCESSING PG34 ENTERPRISE FEATURE PG37 RESEARCH ARTICLE

◆ CLITOCYBE NUDA ACTIVATES DENDRITIC CELLS AND ACTS AS A DNA VACCINE ADJUVANT PG39 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY PG45 MUSHROOMS QUOTATION PG47 GLOBAL MARKET


COVER STORY

In recent years,, due to the natural climate conditions and resource advantage, Jiangsu province actively has adjust the layout optimization area, and promote the mushroom industry. Many special counties, towns and villages are steadily taking shape. In Jiangsu, main cultivated mushroom varieties tend to diversification, which includes 16 kinds of mushrooms such as Oyster mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Enoki mushroom, King oyster mushroom, Shiitake, Straw mushroom, Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma lucidum, Agrocybe Cylindracea, Coprinus comatus, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa and so on. Meanwhile, the production scale of many mushroom factories is expanding fast.

CHINA TOP MUSHROOM FACTORY STUDY TOURS (First Season)

It is well known mushroom nutrition is rich, and the market development tendency has broad prospects. With the vigorous development of mushroom industry, Jiangsu’s exports increased year by year. It is worth mentioning that their production quality ranks first in China, and pollution-free, green, organic products are advocated frequently.

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Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016


COVER STORY

NOW SOME FAMOUS MUSHROOM COMPANIES WILL BE SHOWN:

GUOXIN MUSHROOM COMPLETE EQUIPMENT CO., LTD. Providing industrial and intelligent mushroom special equipment & A turnkey project professionally for building a modern industrial mushroom factory. According to the requirements of Chinese mushroom industry, Guoxin Company has put much of its efforts on researching and developing new products. Guoxin Company has obtained 67 authorized patents, including 27 invention patents. Besides, 20 patents are pending now. Mushroom Sterilizer Automatic Loading&Unloading and Front and Back Logistics System, Intelligent Anti-pollution Liquid Spawn System, Bag Cultivation Liquid(Solid) Spawn Inoculation Machine, Liquid Spawn Inoculation Machine and Laminator Specially Used for Shitake and Black Fungus, Automatic Logistics System, Industrial Intelligent Control System, Agaricus Bisporus Spawn System etc., which meets the requirements of different mushroom cultivation models for the Chinese mushroom industry. Guoxin Company aims at invigorating and promoting Chinese mushroom industry, helping Chinese mushroom industry realize farming and intelligence and making Chinese mushroom industry walk into world advanced ranks by advanced technology, superior quality, scientific attitude and excellent services.

XIANGRU EDIBLE FUNGUS CO., LTD Xiangru, daily output of King oyster mushroom is about 110 tons, which becomes the largest King oyster mushroom production factory in China. Xiangyi Brand King oyster mushroom products has not only passed organic product certification, but also get Pollution-free agricultural products certification and Green Food Certificate.

Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

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COVER STORY

YUGUAN MODERN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD Set production, supply and sales channel and logistics facilities into a automation, factory, professional and efficient Agaricus bisporus company, which provides no pesticide residues, organic health food. Until now, they rank first in Agaricus bisporus production in China, and the daily output is 60 tons. Their canned products are exported to the United States, Japan, Canada, European Union, southeast Asia, Russia and other countries and regions. Research and Cultivation of mushroom mother spawn. Agaricus bisporus modernization composting, fermentation, cultivation. Fresh, Cold storage, Frozen, Canned, Empty cans and other supporting products.

EMERALD ASIA EDIBLE FUNGUS CO., LTD Emerald Asia, mushroom spawn research, factory cultivation, production and processing, sales and technical services is combined for a new type of modern agricultural enterprise, which is one of the largest providers about industrialized mushroom cultivation in China. Mean while, they rank second in King oyster mushroom production field in China. Main mushroom variety: King oyster mushroom, the daily output is 65 tons.

MINZHONG ORGANIC FOOD CO., LTD Minzhong, international and intelligentized Agaricus bisporus production factory, which can produce fresh Agaricus bisporus 20 tons per day through developing agricultural recycling economy. Meanwhile, daily output of Agaricus bisporus processed products is about 1000 tons. Their main mushroom products are sold in Europe, South America, Chile, Russia and other countries and regions. Minzhong actively cooperates with the local government and farmers in order to driving local mushroom industry development. Minzhong plans to help 1000 mushroom farmers get rich in 2016 through some ways such as production, technology, marketing and processing.

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Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016


COVER STORY

JIANGSU SUYA BIOTECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD The company has a lot of senior experts and management teams to produce Cordyceps militaris, King oyster mushroom, and Seafood mushroom. Now it can produce 1000 KG of Cordyceps militaris per year. Meanwhile, the daily output of Enoki mushroom and King oyster mushroom respectively are 5.5 tons and 10 tons. b)Mushroom spawn breeding, standardized cultivation, product sales are combined into one company, which has assembly line production equipment.

JIANGNAN BIOTECHNOLOGY CO., LTD Jiangnan biotechnology is the largest Straw mushroom production factory in China, which is in accordance with intensive management and scale development. According to the data statistics, the annual output of Straw mushroom is more than 15000 tons, and the daily output of Enoki mushroom is 45 tons. Until now, the company has 650 standardized greenhouses and more than 150 Enoki mushroom production workshops in the form of freezer with smart mode. Now 52 patents have been applied, including 2 patents for invention, 10 patents for utility models and 18 design patents. The company also has passed ISO9001, QMSC, and GAP. Meanwhile, it got AAA credit rating level as early as 2004. Mushroom spawn, substrates and production technology service are provided by Jiangnan biotechnology which successively helped more than 5000 farmers develop mushroom business in order to get rich.

Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

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COVER STORY JUNESUN FUNGI TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD Constantly improve the management system, scientific management concept, advanced scientific research achievements, the high quality products are combined into one company, which is the leading one of Enoki mushroom production. According to the data statistics, the annual output of Enoki mushroom is 80000 tons. b)Mushroom research, development, production and sales one-stop service company, which possesses 1800 staffs and 6 subsidiaries in the world.

Meanwhile, they have passed GB/T19001-2008 / ISO 9001 quality management system certification. The brand “Xihuang” and “Nüwa” are the famous trademarks of Enoki mushroom in China.

YANCHENG AIFEIER MUSHROOM EQUIPMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD The company engaged in mushroom factory plant research, development, design, construction and steel structure engineering design, manufacture, installation. It owns two professional qualifications including national housing construction general contracting and steel secondary qualification contracted . b)Until now, it owns more than 50 patent technologies, and mainly serves mushroom factory planning and design in field of Tremella, Shiitake mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus nebrodensis, White beech mushroom and Boletus and so on.

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COVER STORY

2016 China Top Mushroom Factory Study Tours Schedule Date

Time

Before Day 1

15:00

Day 3

Day 4

CEMBN serve

Check in

Wanshan Hotel or Beijing Jingyan Hotel

Four-stars

Tasting the local delicacies, and discuss and exchange with GUOXIN

Check in

Four-stars hotel

Morning

Arrivel to Shuyang county, and visit Emerald Asia Edible Fungus Co., LTD

Lunch

Tasting the local delicacies

Afternoon

Arrival to Guannan county

Check in

Four-stars hotel

Morning

Visit Yuguan Modern agricultural science and technology co., LTD

Lunch

Tasting the local delicacies

Afternoon

Visit Xiangru Edible Fungus Co., LTD Tasting the local delicacies, and discuss and exchange with local mushroom companies Four-stars hotel

Morning

Arrival to Funing county, and visit Minzhong Organic food co., LTD

Lunch

Tasting the local delicacies

Afternoon

Morning

Arrival to Yancheng city, and visit Yancheng Aifeier mushroom equipment science and technology co., ltd

Four-stars hotel Arrival to Danyang city, and visit Jiangsu Suya biotechnology Technology co., LTD

Afternoon

Visit Jiangnan biotechnology co., LTD

Morning

By the minibus

mushroom companies

Tasting the local delicacies

Check in

By the minibus

Tasting the local delicacies, and discuss and exchange with local

Lunch

Dinner party

By the minibus By the minibus

Check in

Check in

Day 7

Arrival to Lianyungang city in Jiangsu province by plane, and Visit Guoxin Lunch on the plane edible fungus of complete sets of equipment co., LTD

Dinner party

Dinner party

Day 6

assemble in CEMBN in Beijing Mushroom banquet

Dinner party

Day 5

Notes

17:00-20:00

11:30 Day2

Activities

By the minibus

Tasting the local delicacies, and discuss and exchange with local mushroom companies Four-stars hotel Arrival to Shanghai, and visit Xijiao International Agricultural Product Trade Center

By the minibus

After the visit, we will deliver all visitors to appointed hotel or airport in Shanghai The tour finish

Notes: If you would like to know more tour information, please contact us, we will send the detailed schedule and cost to you. Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

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SPECIAL REPORT

QINGCHUAN BAMBOO FUNGUS

Bamboo fungus (Phallus indusiatus), is a fungus in the family Phallaceae, or stinkhorns. It has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical areas, and is found in southern Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia, where it grows in woodlands and gardens in rich soil and well-rotted woody material.

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

Bamboo fungus is a rare cryptogamic edible mushroom that is parasitic in the root of withered bamboo, which is shaped like mesh. After it is dried, just like white snake skin. The fruit body of the fungus is characterised by a conical to dark brown bell-shaped cap on a white stalk and a delicate lacy “skirt”, or indusium, that hangs from beneath the cap and reaches nearly to the ground. People often call it “Snow Skirt Fairy”, “The Flower of Delicacies”, “The Queen of Mushrooms”. Bamboo fungus is divided into long skirt and short skirt, mostly grows in warm and humid environment. In China, Bamboo fungus mainly distributes in three province including Sichuan, Yunnan and Fujian. Especially in Qingchuan county of Sichuan province, Bamboo fungus grows in the withered bamboo of dense and its, which altitude is 500 to 1000 meters. Meanwhile, it is the important member of “Qingchuan delicacies” (Bamboo fungus, Black fungus, Shiitake, Fiddlehead and so on). Qingchuan Bamboo fungus has fleshy cap, sturdy stipe, round and heavy skirt, rich nutrition and dainty. At the same time, it has some health-care functions such as nourishing vitality and fostering negative, moistening lung for arresting cough, clearing heat and promoting diuresis as well as repressing rot and preventing sour. It also relieves high blood pressure, neurasthenia, intestines and stomach disease. Modern medical research also proves that Bamboo fungus contains the ingredient of tumor inhibition, which enjoyed good reputation as early as 1980s. Now Qingchuan Bamboo fungus is enjoying high reputation in the world with natural growing environment, careful artificial making and rich nutrient ingredient. Speaking of cuisine, Bamboo fungus is mainly used in cooking soup. Chicken, duck, fish, meat, vegetable and fruit all can be regarded the auxiliary materials.


LOCAL NEWS WHAT A BUMPER HARVEST! STRAW MUSHROOM MARKET HAS GOOD PROSPECT Lately, farmers were busying picking Straw mushrooms in modern agriculture industrial park in Xiayi county. Up to now, the park has cultivated 55900 square meters of Straw mushroom, the first cut of Straw mushroom is nearing the finish line. Every mushroom house has an income of 15000 CNY and can be picked for 2 or 3 flushes. According to information, Straw mushrooms have good market conditions. It is anticipated that one-season of Straw mushroom can realize the output value of 3 million CNY. According to information, this year, Xiayi county innovated the production management technology of Straw mushroom. At the same time, many mushroom farmers also shift to reasonable density from intensive cultivation. Compared with previous two years, Straw mushrooms have bigger size and higher quality. They are well received by customers, and in short supply usually.

CULTIVATING GANODERMA TO END THE POVERTY A few days ago, poor households from Houshan Village, Anhui Province did ditch cleaning and filling in field of Ganoderma. According to information, in order to lead local poor farmers to increase income, local party branch and village committee leaded them to conduct the cultivation of Ganoderma. This year, the village has cultivated 700,000 sticks of Ganoderma, which will strongly promote the goal of shaking off poverty and becoming rich for poor farmers.

USHERED THE HARVEST SEASON, CHARACTERISTIC AGRICULTURE MADE FARMERS GET RICH

A few days ago, the cultivation base of Guangxi Hemei Agricultural Corporation ushered its harvest season, and farmers were very busy picking Shiitake. According to information, the base can produces 1 million Shiitake mushroom bags per year, and the annual value of production reaches more than 8 million CNY. Meanwhile, this base also contributed to employment growth, local farmers can get a work in the base, and the income is commendable.

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Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016


BLACK FUNGUS INDUSTRY IS SMALL BUT STRONG Liji Village, Yutai County, Shandong Province is a famous cultivation Village of Black fungus. In recent years, in order to encourage farmers to positively develop the cultivation of Black fungus, help mushroom farmers to enlarge production scale and improve the quality of industrial development, Yutai County has give strong supports in all aspects such as fund, technology and equipment. According to introduction, more than 70 villagers has been trained and 60 greenhouses of Black fungus were build by local people club bureau. Meanwhile, local people club bureau also provided discount loans of 6.3 million CNY. A villager expressed that they thank the government’s supports very much, and now have more confident on running the mushroom business.

SUCCESSFULLY CULTIVATED ARTIFICIAL MORELS

Recently, Nilka County, Sinkiang successfully realized the cultivation of artificial Yellow morel. In cultivation base of Nilka County, 20 mu of Yellow morels were enjoying the most desirable growth trend and breaking through the soil. According to information, each mu (666.67 square meters) can produce about 200 kg of fresh Yellow morel and convert into 20kg of dried products. What’s more, each mu can harvest 20 kg of dried mushroom, the price of per KG is about 1400 CNY. This way, the net income can reach more than 10,000 CNY because that the cost is only 15000 CNY per mu. According to information, Yellow morel likes “Low temperature, low light and moist condition”, so they must be carefully nurtured. The production base will also sum up cultivation experiences, technologies, enlarge cultivation area in the future, form one package service including strains, nutrition space, marketing channels and help more farmers to increase income.

FAMERS GET RICH THROUGH DEVELOPING AGARICUS BISPORUS PRODUCTION In recent years, Yongfeng County, Jiangxi Province has been adjusted measures to local conditions, positively guided farmers to develop mushroom cultivation. They adopt the model of “Base + specialized cooperative + family farm”, build the demonstration base and marketing base for Agaricus bisporus, and form a coordinated process of cultivation, production and marketing. Up to now, the total cultivation area of Agaricus bisporus in Yongfeng County has reached 1.5 million square meters, and the annual output of fresh mushroom reached 12 million KG. In this way, each person can increase the income of 2000 CNY per year. Meanwhile, Yongfeng County also becomes a influential cultivation base in the field of Agaricus bisporus.

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

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LOCAL NEWS STROPHARIA RUGOSOANNULATA IS CULTIVATED BY USING CROP STALKS As reported, Jiangyou City explored a new road on comprehensive utilization of crop stalks. Edible Fungus branch of Sichuan Agricultural Science Institute guides local farmers to utilized crop stalks to cultivate Stropharia rugosoannulata, which not only solved the problem of piles of crop stalk, but also reduced the pressure of incineration, improved the environment and achieved the increasing both in production and income. According to introduction, cultivating 1 mu (666.67 square meters) of Stropharia rugosoannulata needs 10,000 KG of crop stalks, which equals to the consumption of 10 mu farmland of crop stalks. According to information, Wudu Town produces 40,000 tons of crop stalks annually at least, which pollutes the environment. In order to realize the comprehensive utilization of crop stalks, Wudu Town consumes 75% of crop stalks annually, uses family farm as carrier, utilizes crop stalks to cultivate Stropharia rugosoannulata and

BUSINESS CHALLENGE! ORGANIC BLACK FUNGUS PRODUCTION

Lately, workers from Tibet Mushroom Demonstration Cultivation Base were busying picking and airing Black fungus. According to information, since 2013, through using plateau characteristic, local county effectively promoted the development of organic agriculture, and helped farmers increase income by developing mushroom demonstration cultivation base, especially supporting organic Black fungus production and marketing, which has a good return.

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

transforms 100 tons of crop stalks annually. The next step of the town is to increase the transformation and utilization of crop stalks and strengthen the resource recycling.

“MUSHROOM BOX” BECAME POPULAR ON THE NETWORK

Recently, “Mushroom box” was developed by Shanghai Chaoda Edible Mushroom Limited Company, which became popular on the Network, and gained attraction from consumers. According to information, “Mushroom box” has cartoon patterns, delicate appearances and can be taken back home to cultivate, so people can experience the enjoyment of cultivating and eating.


GLOBAL NEWS Poland: beautiful Chanterelles are found in national forest

Recently, beautiful Chanterelles are found in national forest of northeast, Poland. According to information, Chanterelle is one of the world’s four famous mushrooms, which presents pale yellow or yellow ochre. Matured Chanterelle looks like Trumpet flower and very charming. It normally grows in coniferous forest, warm and humid climate are fit for the growth of Chanterelle. Chanterelles are edible and has the flavor of apricot, possess mellow smell, abundant nutrition and is a kind of cate at the dinning table. (Source: tvnmeteo.)

USA: Matrix Mushroom Company newly developed mushroom powder products

According to information, recently, Matrix Mushroom Company newly developed various 100% pure natural series powder products such as Cordyceps Powder, Monkey Head Mushroom Powder, Ganoderma Powder and Trametes Powder, which all can be enjoyed with water or put into breakfast to increase nutrition. At the same time, they also possess aesthetic effect, nursing effect and health care effect, their selling prices are from 25 to 89 dollars. According to information, Matrix Mushroom Company devotes to developing creative mushroom products and promoting to the world, the successful development will certainly bring considerable benefits for the company. (source: wholefoodsmagazine. )

Thailand: Pleurotus geesteranus sells well in the market

According to information, agriculture is the traditional economic industry in Thailand. In recent years, Saraburi Province has become the main export city of Pleurotus geesteranus. According to statistics, Saraburi Province’s annual output can reach to more than 6 million Thai Baht and lead 500 local people to realize employments. According to relevant expert, Pleurotus geesteranus not only has watchable appearance, crisp and delicious flavor, but also possesses high protein and low calorie. In recent years, Thailand utilized agroforestry residues to cultivate Pleurotus geesteranus, the cultivation process is simple and can realize circular production mode at the same time. (source: dailynews.) Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

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GLOBAL NEWS Korea: cultivated pink King oyster mushrooms, which possess double antioxidant power

As reported, South Korea’s Agriculture Ministry newly cultivated a kind of pink King oyster mushroom. According to introduction, this kind of mushrooms was cultivated by unceasing experiments of agricultural technicians, possesses high viewing value and edible value, the whole growing period is 18 days. Compared with other common Oyster mushrooms and King oyster mushrooms, they possess more than 60% of antioxidant power. Apart from supplying nourishment, they also have the efficacy of whitening skin and delaying senescence. At present, the variety is applying for relevant patent. (source: yonhapnews.)

Vietnam: deep processing industry of mushroom has excellent situation

It is reported that Vietnamese mushroom industry has developed quickly in recent years, economic benefit has been steadily improved, which leaded the development of Vietnamese deep processing industry of mushroom. At present, main products on Vietnamese deep processing industry of mushroom are mushroom cans, beverages, instant foods, drugs, health foods and beauty products. According to information, Qingxishan Mushroom Cooperative was established in 1987, the cooperative adheres to the idea of “Guarantee the safety of products, retain nutrition value”, mainly engages in cultivating small batches of mushroom, processing mushroom rings, mushroom beverages, mushroom cans and mushroom instant foods. According to the president of cooperative, in initial stage of establishment, there were only 6 people and now has increased to 200 people, 800,000 tons of fresh mushrooms and 500,000 tons of mushroom cans can be produced annually, prices are between 100,000 and 150,000 Vietnamese dong. The chairman indicated that at present, the cooperative is enjoying an excellent situation, in the future, they will increase members, enlarge scale and register patent trademarks. (source: thanhnien.)

Russia: mushrooms in Vladimir Oblast are competing with each other to grow

As reported, this summer, abundant rainwater is moistening the growth of mushrooms, which produced numerous big mushrooms. According to information, in a small garden of Vladimir Oblast, Russia. Many big mushrooms were found by a local resident, which are amazing in volumes. According to measurement, one of Boletus is 23cm in length, 17cm in diameter and weights about 700g. When it comes to huge mushrooms, experts explain that warm and rainy weather are their ideal growing conditions. (source: progorod33.)

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016


GLOBAL NEWS Turkey: a giant mushroom was found, which weights about 8kg

A few days ago, a local Turkish resident found a giant mushroom after the heavy rain. He expressed that this giant mushroom is unprecedented in the whole region and was founded when he was picking wild mushrooms. At first, he mistook it for a big rock, but by close observation, he surprisely found that it is mushroom. According to weighting, the giant mushroom weights about 8kg. A few years ago, a mushroom of 4 kg was found in this region, but this 8 kg mushroom is double of it. He also revealed that he will cook it and enjoy with other residents. (source: 9news.)

Italy: newly developed “Mushroom box”, which can be cultivated at home

Lately, a project called “Ketrawa” was developed by four Italian entrepreneurs, which can help citizens to cultivate mushroom at home and the cultivation method is really simple and convenient. According to information, each box possesses specialized cultivation bag, each box can cultivate 500g of mushroom. After purchasing, citizens can firstly open the box, then spray water for 2 times per day, after 7 to 10 days, mushrooms can be harvested and picked. Now, “Mushroom box” are in trial selling online. Experts indicated that the nutritive value of mushrooms equal to or even higher than steak, what’s more, they are acknowledged health food. It is learned that the annual export volume of mushroom in Italy can reach more than 20 tons. (source: thehindu.)

Netherlands: The 34th Mushroom Days was successfully concluded

It is reported that, from June 1st to 3rd, The 34th Mushroom Days was successfully held in Netherlands, Hertogenbosch. In opening ceremony, organizing committees issued “Mushroom Indursty Ambassador Award”. According to information, about 80 exhibitors attended the exhibition, they displayed their products and equipment. Representatives showed high praises to qualities of products and equipment. Compared with last year, this year’s exhibition attracted more representatives. In addition, this exhibition is more internationalized, representatives are respectively from China, Ukraine, America, Iran and they come from 70 different nationalities. Many of them expressed that they got big harvests from this exposition and will continue to attent next year’s exposition. (source: freshplaza.) Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

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GLOBAL NEWS Indonesia: cultivate Oyster mushroom and lead people to increase income According to information, Varty is a famous mushroom expert in Bali, Indonesia. According to him, originally choosing to cultivate Oyster mushroom was because that by omnibus surveys, he found that Oyster mushrooms are easy to be cultivated artifically and possess many virtues in edible value, cultivation method and output. He also indivated that the 9 year’s experiences of the farm is not easy. At present, it can realize the employment of 200 people. In the past, because of short of hands, funds and technologies, the monthly output was only 10kg, but at present, the daily output can reach to 70 kg in the best case, mushrooms are provided to local restaurants and large-scale farm product fairs. (source: tribunnews. )

Canada: restaurant boss switched to mushroom industry and is gradually getting rich

Acording to information, “What The Fungus” is Canada’s famous mushroom farm, it was established by a restaurant boss, Carlow. According to information, Carlow engaged in catering industry for more than 10 years, a few years ago, he found that mushroom industry is a very promising industry, then he started to learn the cultivation technology of mushroom in Okanagan and finally built “What The Fungus”. Carlow expressed that all mushrooms in the farm are cultivated by sawdust, in the past four years, he collected and introduced superior strains around the world and contacted mushroom farmers from nations to conduct business transactions. At present, the farm can cultivate more than 350kg of mushrooms per month, which can concurrently provide more than 20 local restaurants and Carlow is gradually getting rich. (source:globalnews.)

Japan: oaks are utilized to cultivate mushroom throughout the year

As reported, Dafen County, which is located in northeastern Japan, its forestry area accounts for more than 70% of county’s total area. The county devotes to cultivating mushroom throughout the year and is rich in fresh Shiitake and dried Shiitake products. As local mushroom farmers explain, oak is a kind of tree which is fit for cultivating mushroom such as Black fungus, Shiitake and Honey fungus. In the past 15 years, Dafen county has been regarded as the primary county for the cultivation of mushroom in Japan and annual turnover can exceed 10 billion Japanese yen. What’s more, in order to study on the cultivation method of Shiitake, local government also set supporting institution “Mushroom Guidance Center” for studying and guiding cultivation technologies and adopt measures to support farmers on mushroom cutlvation. (source: vtv.)

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016


INNOVATION IN TECHNOLOGY

V-TYPE SOLID SPAWN MACHINE Enterprise: Jiangsu Lianyungang Guoxin Edible Mushroom Complete Equipment Co., Ltd Product: V-type solid spawn machine Characteristics:

1 . T h e p ro d u c t i s d e s i g n e d a n d developed autonomously by the company and used in 2 level spawn making of edible mushroom industry. It can realize integrated function of dipping, stirring, sterilization, cooling, inoculation and filling for 2 level spawn substrate of edible mushroom. 2. The product is applicable to Agaricus bisporus spawn and all wooddestroying fungi that can be artificially grown. 3. The mushroom spawn can be solid or liquid. 4. The product adopts asymmetric V-type design, which is assorted with automatic water supply system, vacuum system, cold water system, automatic filling system and fullintelligent PLC control system. The barrel adopts two layers stainless steel, inner wall has undergone polishing treatment, pipeline reaches hygiene level standard of stainless steel. 5. The product shortens the running time including dipping, sterilization and cooling. When the machine is operated, rotation and running will be handled at the same time in order to ensure equable mix of sterilized mass,

sterilizing with no dead space and no damage of kernel. It also realizes automatic inoculation and automatic filling under sterile environment. 6. The product also may be opted by matching of intelligent antipollution liquid spawn system, vacuum absorption automatic loading system, quick cooling system and automatic press cake packer, which can greatly improve the availability factor and reduce the possibility of secondtime pollution due to the frequent operation by staff in the whole process. 7. The volume size of the product can be customized according to customer requirement. Take 3 cubic meters V-type solid spawn machine for example, the whole work cycle is around 6 hours, we can produce 9001000 kg Agaricus bisporus at a time.

Take Agaricus bisporus for example, the main work procedure is as follows: 1. Artificial or adopt vacuum automatic loading system, inject a certain amount of raw material such as filtered wheat at material entrance. 2. According to formulation parameter, input a certain amount of warm water by using automatic water supply system, and begin to soak. 3. Extracting air from inner chamber by using vacuum system. 4. Begin to rise temperature to 121℃ or higher, and then conduct high temperature setrilization. 5. Using cold water system, and then cooling the inner chamber through interlayer.  6. When inner chamber is cooled, input liquid spawn or solid spawn.  7. Through using automatic filling system, quantitative bagging under sterile environment.

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

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INDUSTRIALIZATION INVESTIGATION

TALKING ABOUT INDUSTRIALIZED PRODUCTION OF MUSHROOM INDUSTRY In the process of social development, every enterprise encounters some problems on effectively utilizing social resources such as (land resource, capital accumulation, government funding, etc.), human resources, innovation and market expanding under the condition of market economy. Mushroom industry has no exception. In order to seek survival, seek development and create new performance, many original scattered, individual producers have organized spontaneously and voluntarily, gone the development way of cooperatives and enterprise, formed production

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Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun Mar/Apr 2016

cooperatives of mushroom on a nation wide scale. Especially in recent years, many mushroom producers and production companies also applied the concept of industrial development and accelerated the improving pace of mushroom industry, tried to get rid of current backward production situation, strove to figure a new way out and made mushroom production gradually go from industrialized production. However, due to the limited funding, inadequate investment, lack of talents and other reasons, facilities, equipment and a complete set of techniques that are needed


INDUSTRIALIZATION INVESTIGATION in industrialized production of mushroom are inadequate, the production management and environment protection are not scientific, which all restrict the degree of industrialized production, some production enterprises, especially the majority of small micro enterprises, the production efficiency is not high, the output and quality of product are not stable, the market competition ability is low. So, the majority of enterprises that specialize in mushroom industrialized production are still in primary stage and it is necessary to fundamentally change the means of production and production mode. So far, the development of mushroom industry roughly experienced the following three stages: 1st stage is independent of individual production 2nd stage is intensive production of cooperatives 3rd stage is today’s primary stage of industrialized production The following are related problems in mushroom production, combined with many years’ experiences on promoting and applying ozone disinfection technology. Let’s talk about our view, debate and discuss on mushroom industry. 1. Basic conditions on industrialized production of mushroom: In terms of content of industrialized production of mushroom, it should include industrial base zone, garden planning layout, industrialized production mode, standardization of technology, product sales branding, institutionalization of various management and so on. Now, let’s choose industrialized production mode to discuss about what conditions should we have and what degree should we reach to? a) Means of production: equipment and facilities should be modernized: means of production is in the whole process of mushroom food production, means and instruments that we choose in each links of production. It is the basic element and main condition in production. In terms as current production situation of mushroom food, especially the majority of small micro-enterprises, intensive manual operation is given priority to their production links. Lack of reasonable production organization, necessary advanced facilities and equipment. scientific testing methods cannot fundamentally achieve the true sense of reducing production cost, improving labor productivity, increasing production, guaranteeing and optimizing original product and developing new product independently. For this, as the industrialized production of mushroom food, we must firstly modernize production ways, which means that in the whole process of production, we must realize the mechanization in whole operation, realize automation in working process, adjust

and control intellectualization and replace the low efficiency for manual operation, reduce the physical labor intensity, improve work efficiency and production capacity. b) The scientization and standardization of production technology: production technology and technique are most essential characteristics in production activities, which involve in the production method, production process, production control, production safety and so on, it will eventually embody in implement of product quality and quantity. So, we should be sure to pay attention to the scientificity in production process, comply with regulations of mushroom growth and characteristics of production, adopt mature standardized technique, advanced technology and scientific testing methods, guide and implement the whole process of production and establish traceable system in each process. We should also distinguish experiences which are individual, with sublimation, with limitation and old backward production methods, show advantages and superiorities of industrialized production. c) Personnel should be in high quality: personnels are fundamental elements in enterprise existence, development and operation, their qualities directly affect the present situation and the future of the enterprise. So, personnels should: i. Be familiar with the profession knowledge, be proficient in their jobs, with innovative spirit and development ability, has the ability to solve practical problems in production, be collaborative and are high-quality scientific and technical personnels who can make sure that enterprise is immortal. ii. Personnel of production operation must receive professional training, has high sense of responsibility, professional dedication, innovation consciousness and can strictly abide by production rules, regulations and labor discipline, deeply know about the status in production chain regarding work. Be skilled, has the ability to complete the assigned work and ensure the stability of product quality. iii. Personnel of production and management should be proactive, pioneering and has overall ideas, can skillfully master knowledge on modern enterprise management, be good at combining production characteristic of mushroom food with enterprise management, has the ability to realize the organic unification of people, machine and mushroom, has high awareness of social responsibility on product quality and food safety, both clearly understand the status quo of the unit and industry development tend of domestic and overseas, can move company to the forefront or leading position of the industry, has the capacity to draw relevant personnels together to skillfully organize, direct production and Mushroom Times · May/Jun Mar/Apr 2016

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INDUSTRIALIZATION INVESTIGATION deal with complex situations. d) All enterprise activities should be standardized: enterprise activity is a part of social activities, it is acknowledged that social activities should possess laws and rules, apart from having organization and headquarters which are smart, hard working, collaborative and high efficient, enterprise activities should also possess rules and regulations, evaluation system, reward and punishment system, equipment maintenance system, cleaning system both in production area and in non-production area, health system for production personnel, product delivery inspection system and product recall regulation to be as the basis for guiding and standardizing the whole production process and promote enterprise to operate efficiently. e) The rationalization of enterprise hand and house: enterprise land and house are the place for business activities, they should conform to the scale of production area, the layout of production law and should be in a good gardenenvironment that with trees, green land, clear fresh air, no dust and less soil and have the suitability to work, live and rest. f ) The environment of industrialized mushroom production: sundry fungus infection is a major threat in production. It has become one of main factors in restricting production and influencing quality. But people always simply rely on sterilization to eliminate sundry fungus, which is partial surface. Correct disposal is to control the harm of sundry fungus from the original source, set up the thought of “Give priority to prevention” and solve ecological environment in production area. 2. Where is the pollution source of production? a) Material pile up: people always have a impression that as long as you walk into production zone, things that in front of your eyes are some piles of cotton seed and bits of wood, which has no preservation measures. Actually, it is the biggest pollution source in the air, because raw materials themselves have various sundry fungus. They will become mildew, rotten and sterilized under the condition of sun and rain. b) Wastes in production: in mushroom production, it is inevitable to produce lots of abandoned fungus bags, which are with many polluted fungus and if not timely processed or buried, it will become a big pollution source. c) Sludge, dirt: garbage and sewage are accumulated in production area, which is a big pollution source. The three factors influence each other. Enterprises should seek ways on their inhibitions. 3. How to inhibit pollution source? a) Build raw material house: when building or transforming houses of production, it is necessary for people to choose moderate scale, with transparent top and sunlight houses. The site of raw material house should be away from cooling room, inoculation room and breeding room. Dispose wastes in time: mushroom bags should be away from production zone, should be buried or burned for second use and prevent the second pollution source.

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b) Clean sewage in time: there are lots of perishable wastes in garbage, which should be discarded in a special container and put in dark type dustbin, gutter should be in bright type and can be cleaned timely to prevent the growth of sundry fungus. c) Create a garden environment: as is known to all, the original place of mushroom foods is in dense forest. They become edible products through people’s collection, separation and cultivation, So, in the process of producing mushroom, producers should make efforts to build original ecological environment, which is also a good way to inhibit and reduce polluted fungus. Ideal production area should be forest-like, green all the year, with clean and fresh air and with no garbage. A good ecological environment can not only provide adequate oxygen, conditions that are suitable for the growth of mushrooms, the increasing of quality and output, but also can provide fresh, comfortable air for producers to improve work efficiency. d) Reasonable layout in industrialized mushroom production: when beginning to plan and set up production, in order to effectively inhibit destroying that is caused by polluted fungus, improve production efficiency, make full use of social resources and acquire the best economical benefits, people should put reasonable and scientific layout in accordance with different characteristics in production links and different sterilization demands in the growth of mushrooms. Enterprises should build production lines that is closely related with each other and relatively independent in accordance with production characteristics of each links. 4. Three kinds of production lines: a) Substrate mixed production line: the first substrate mixed production line that is constituted of crushing, mixing, sterilization and bagging, the production line exists many harmful polluted fungi and they are the main pollution sources during the whole production. So it is suitable to build raw material house to make intervals with production lines. It is best to build rows of wild break forest belt to prevent the spreading of polluted fungus by wind. b) The breeding and cultivation of production line: to make organic connection of high pressure sterilization, cooling (precooling, forced cooling, breeding of different inoculation assembly line and spawn-running), form the second cultivation production line that is closed, tight and clean, it is a aseptic production line with high demand of cleanness. In order to eliminate the pollution of fungus, the whole production line should be reliable and with efficient sterilization measures. After finishing a batch of inoculation tasks, production place should be thoroughly cleaned and washed. c) Cultivation and fruiting production line: the third production line is constituted of fruiting, picking, sorting and packaging, it is the biggest production line and should possess strict regulatory measures, custom inspection system, good intelligent equipment of ventilation, exhaust, heat prevention, moisture and other sterilization measures to guarantee good growth environment, growing conditions and provide mushroom foods with high quality and good taste.


COMPREHENSIVE TECHNOLOGY

AVOID 4 MISTAKES IN SELECTING AND USING PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER

P

hosphate fertilizer is one of three elements of nutrition necessary

for crop growing, it can improve crop yield and quality, and is widely loved by farmers. Although phosphate fertilizer has many advantages, we still need to properly select in order to reach maximum effect. The followings are the common mis-takes in selecting and using phosphate fertilizer: Mistake 1: Some farmers think the price of phosphate fertilizer is higher, which means the quality is better. However, it isn’t. Some illegal retailers intentionally raise the price of lower priced phosphate fertilizer, and then transfer the wrong idea “high price means good quality” in order to attract farmers to buy. Farmers should treat it rationally. When selecting and buying, firstly you need to smell it whether has sour smell and hoary, then touch it whether has cool feeling. Finally we need to confirm whether package information is intact. Once it comply with the conditions above, the phosphate fertilizer is highquality.

Mistake 2: Bubble, the more, the better. However, the expert expresses that calcium phosphate free acid content exceeds bid so that producing more bubble, which do not means better efficacy. After fertilization, bubbly phosphatic fer tilizer will restrain ac tivit y of microorganism in soil, burn out crop root so that lead to the seed doesn’t sprout. So, calcium phosphate free acid content is not more than 5.5%, which is a good standard. Mistake 3: More is better. However, overfertilization will damage crop nutrition balance and vigorous plant respiration, which will result in maldevelopment and decline of production. Therefore according to the crop area, farmers

should apply fertilizer rationally. Only in this way, the effect is good. Mistake 4: Apply organic fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer at the same time. Organic fertilizer contains rich phosphorus itself. If applying phosphate fertilizer at the same time, it will reduce the effect of phosphate fertilizer. We suggest to apply the two fertilizers separately, applying organic fertilizer firstly. After 3-5 days, we can apply phosphate fertilizer. In this way, fertilization effect will be obvious, and the crop also will grow more rapidly. (Source: Gansu Farmers Daily)

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COMPREHENSIVE TECHNOLOGY

HIGH YIELD AND INSECT PREVENTION FORMULA FOR COPRINUS COMATUS Formula is as follows:

2. Enoki mushroom scrap 1000 kg, bran 150 kg, lime 50 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, diammonium phosphate 3 kg, 4 bottles of Kangzhuangling (increasing yield chemical), 4 bottles of Guzhuangsu (nutrients), rapid leavening agent 3 kg, 10 bags of Pangdazhuang (fertilizer), half bottle of Fangchongling (insect prevention).

1. Cotton seed shell 1000 kg, bran 100 kg, lime 40 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, diammonium phosphate 3 kg, 4 bottles of Kangzhuangling (increasing yield chemical), 2 bottles of Guzhuangsu (nutrients), rapid leavening agent 3 kg, 10 bags of Pangdazhuang (fertilizer), half bottle of Fangchongling (insect prevention).

3. Corncob 1000 kg, bran 100 to 150 kg, lime 40 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, diammonium phosphate 3 kg, 4 bottles of Kangzhuangling (increasing yield chemical), 4 bottles of Guzhuangsu (nutrients), rapid leavening agent 3 kg, 10 bags of Pangdazhuang (fertilizer), half bottle of Fangchongling (insect prevention).

4. Adding Kangzhuangling (increasing yield chemical) in Shaggy ink cap substrates can make spawn running quickly, fruiting orderly, mushroom body sprayed fat and solid, the effect is excellent.

Note: The substrates must be fermented for 10 days 26

Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016


PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION INDOOR CULTIVATION METHOD OF YELLOW MOREL 1. Preparation of compost: use cane sugar with weight percentage of 1% to 10%, mix well with wheat of weight percentage of 90 to 99%, put the mixture into hot kettle, then add water and make sure the weight ratio between the mixture and water is 1 to 1.5, heat it till water is completely absorbed. 2. Filling: take isometric compost and soil into bags and pots. Soil layer is on top of substrate layer. The middle is separated by aluminum foil or screen window. 3. Sterilization: use pasteurization to sterilize bags or pots in 121 degrees for 40 to 50 minutes. 4. Inoculation: put agar that with Yellow morel strain in soil layer and inoculate sclerotium. 5. The growth of sclerotium: keep out of the sun and keep the temperature in 18 and 20 degrees, keep relative air humidity in 75% to 85% and keep the air movement and even temperature. 6. The preparation of substrate: take matured and cracked sclerotium optimal selection is 3 centimeters square and round blocks, mingle into the middle of soil and the thickness of soil is 1cm to 3cm. 7. Watering: water substrate and make sure that substrate is completely permeated by water. The moisture is saturated and not present “soaking condition”. 8. Even ventilation: keep uniform ventilation for 3 to 4 weeks. 9. Maturity: keep the soil moisture content in 50% to 70%, keep indoor temperature in 16 to 20 degrees and relative air humidity in 75% to 85%.

HOW TO SELECT HIGH-PRODUCTION CULTIVATION PLACE OF BAMBOO FUNGUS 1. Sufficient water, convenient drain and irrigation. 2. Fertile soil, loose soil and rich in humus. 3. Paddy field or dry land which are not used for cultivating Bamboo fungus in recent three years. When cultivating Bamboo fungus in paddy field, farmers should firstly drain off water, open drainage ditches all around. When cultivating Bamboo fungus in dry land, farmers should firstly spray pesticide to kill termites and other pests.

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PRODUCTION & CULTIVATION FIVE MEASURES TO INCREASE THE PRODUCTION OF STRAW MUSHROOM 1. Add heating agent: when doing windrow, add 1% of heating agent to speed up the running speed of spawn. 2. Turn single face into double face: put plastic mesh in bedsteads, then spread material and inoculate to make simultaneous fruiting both on bottom of bed and the surface of material, this method can reduce lead times and increase 20% of production. 3. The cover material on the surface of bed: there are two choices, the first is earthing: after growing abundant hyphae, cover 1 to 3cm depth of fire soil or vegetable soil to grow hypertrophic mushrooms. The second is covering plant ash: after growing abundant hyphae, scatter 1cm depth of plant ash to inhibit the speed of going sour of compost. 4. Use production promoter: in order to cultivate more mushrooms, before sowing, spray triacontanol that with the concentration of 0.6 to 0.8mg per kg to the compost. After uncovering film, spray 30% of Shuganling 400 Times Liquid to make the color of mushrooms lighter. When doing the windrow, add 0.2% of phytonutrient to gain weights of mushroom. 5. Two inoculations: after picking the first flush of mushroom, hold up the surface of material and pour lime water over, sow strains and cover a thin layer of fermented material. This method can increase the production of 20% to 30%.

HIGH-YIELD CULTIVATION TECHNIQUE OF KING OYSTER MUSHROOM 1. Cultivation season: King oyster mushroom belongs to low temperature mushroom and normally gets fruited in spring and autumn. 2. The manufacturing of mushroom bag: the formula and preparation of substrate: Formula: broad-leaved tree sawdust 73%, bran 25%, lime 1%, gypsum 1%, water content 60% to 65%. Bagging, sterilization, inoculation and cultivation: seal mushroom bag and put into sterilizing pot. Calculate the time when the temperature reaches to 100 degrees. Cover for 4 to 5 hours, then take bag out and cool into room temperature, put into sterilized inoculation room, then put into cultivation room and keep about 20 to 25 degrees centigrade. After 30 days, move to fruiting room. 3. Fruiting management: Temperature controlling: sporocarp of King oyster mushroom is sensitive to temperature, the suitable fruiting temperature is between 15 and 17 degrees centigrade. Humidity controlling: during the growing period of sporocarp, farmers should keep the humidity at about 85%. Farmers could spray water on the ground and it is improper to spray on sporocarp and bag mouth. Light management: keep bright light and avoid direct sun. Ventilation: open the window for 2 or 3 times in a day and each time remains about half an hour. 4. Picking: picking can be done when diameter of caps reach 4 centimeters. After picking, farmers should cover the paper in bag mouth and stop spraying water. After 5 days, water should be sprayed again to increase moisture and induce the second growth.

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THE FAMILY BOTTLE-CULTIVATING THE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY OF TECHNOLOGY OF ENOKI OYSTER MUSHROOM IN SUMMER MUSHROOM 1. Material preparation: cottonseed hull, straw powder, agricultural residues powder and sawdust can be regarded as compost. Recommended formula: the water content of compost is 60%. 2. Material filling: it is better to choose wide-mouth bottle in cultivation. After filling, people should tightly seal the mouth of bottle by using brown paper or plastic film and conduct the sterilization in atmospheric pressure. 3. Management: after inoculation, people should cultivate the bottle in 22 to 25 degrees. After 25 to 32 days, spawn will become fully-grown, then temperature should be reduced to 10 to 14 degrees, people should continue to cultivate for 10 days and mushroom buds will appear, on that occasion, people should remove the cap of bottle, take inside of the house and block out the window by black cloth. Bottle should be in straight status, water should be sprayed for 1 or 2 times in a day and keep relative air humidity between 86 and 91 degrees. 4. Processing: Low temperature preservation method: freshness can be retained for 7 to 9 days in temperature of 3 to 5 degrees and the relative air humidity of 86% to 91%. Drying method: expose fresh Enoki mushrooms to sunlight. In order to speed up the drying speed, people could put fresh Enoki mushroom in boiling water and boil for 3 to 5 minutes ahead of time. Oven drying method: dry Enoki mushroom in oven or oast, this method can preserve for about 30 days.

1. Timely cultivation: in general, farmers always prepare mother strain, original strain and cultispecies of organic Oyster mushroom from mid-March to early April, conduct the cultivation from mid-May to mid-June and get fruited from early June to early July. 2. Choose suitable varieties: farmers should choose high temperature type or eurythermic type, good variety possesses the characteristic of high temperature resistance and high humidity resistance. Different variety possesses different characteristics and adjusts to different environments. Variety that was introduced from other places or separated in local should firstly pass the experiment of temperature resistance, humidity resistance, anti-random or adaptive capacity, then can be used in large scale cultivation. 3. Do well in spawn running: burning and pollution would most likely to occur during spawn-running in high temperature season, people can adopt following ways to increase success rate in spawn running: mature material cultivation, fermented material cultivation, raw material cultivation. Three methods possess the characteristic of high speed spawn running, low pollution rate, but mature material cultivation has higher cost and not common. When choosing fermented material cultivation, farmers should ferment completely, bagging can be done when finishing complete cooling. During the fermentation, farmers should cover up the surface. It should be noted that when choosing raw material cultivation, farmers should add high-efficient and low toxicity bactericide. 4. Cultivation management: when cultivating Oyster mushroom in summer, farmers should choose places where has good ventilation, clean and cool. Cave dwelling, cave, air-raid shelter and basement are shady and cool, but have poor ventilation, so, farmers should pay more attention to the ventilation. Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

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PEST CONTROL & PREVENTION INTEGRATED CONTROL OF DISEASE, PEST AND SUNDRY FUNGUS ON ENOKI MUSHROOM 1. Choose superior strain with disease and insect resistance. 2. The selection of location on mushroom house: mushroom house should be in rectangular from north to south, which is fit for ventilation. At the same time, farmers should also pay attention to the environment around mushroom house and keep away from animal houses and koji plant. 3. The sterilization of mushroom house: before one day of using, farmer should conduct suffumigation, special methods are: A. Fumigation of Formaldehyde and Potassium permanganate: in general, each 10 cubic metres needs 8ml of 40% of formaldehyde, 5g of Potassium permanganate. Or each 10 square metres needs 210ml of Formalin, 210g of quicklime and 21ml of concentrated sulfuric acid, then gasification should be conducted immediately. When making fumigation, farmer should paste air leakage place up of window and door. B. Fumigation disinfection with Sulfur dioxide: burn sulfur in cultivation room and sterilize by Sulfur dioxide. Farmer can put a ceramic vessel indoors, add paper or wood shaving on top of it and add Sulfur, then burn paper or wood shaving to fumigate. What’s more, it is better to put vessel above cultivation room, the important thing is that sporadic gas will corrode metal and cloth, farmers should pay attention to that. C. Sterilization by bleaching powder: high-efficient bleaching power is chloride of lime, the application method is to mix 1.8 liters of water with 1g of bleaching powder, reposing for 1 to 2 hours and take clear liquid to spray, each square meters spray 1 liter, cultivation shelves need to be sprayed by 5% of copper-bath. 4. Cultivation management: A. The adjustment of temperature and humidity, high humidity is the best environment for sundry fungus to grow and breed. When outside temperature is high, relative air humidity of mushroom house should be reduced and controlled in 85% to 90% in general. If humidity is too high, the growth of mould will be very quick, which will influence the output and quality of Enoki mushroom. Farmers should also pay attention to the ventilation and keep fresh indoor air. B. Get rid of polluted bottles and bags by burying or burning to prevent infection of other bottle and bag. C. Farmers should sterilize and fumigate house after each harvesting. D. Cultivation managements: farmers can add bleaching powder and oxytetracycline into the water to prevent the occurrence of disease and sundry fungus. 5. Kill pests in time: some pests such as flies, sciarid flies and mites are easy to happen when the temperature rises, DDVP is an ideal drug to kill them. Malathion, Diazinon and Diflubenzuron can be used as well. But they cannot be used when appearing buds.

SIX EXPERIENCES ON WATER SPRAYING OF MUSHROOM 1. Climate: people should spray more water to increase the humidity when encountering dry climate. 2. Temperature of mushroom greenhouse: when the temperature is above 25 degrees, people should spray water after temperature drops in the morning or in the late night. 3. Moisture retention: people should spray more water to mushroom house which has poor moisture retention. 4. Degree of dry and wet on mushroom bag: people should spray more water on dry mushroom bag. 5. Strong and weak consistency of spawn: people should spray more water on strong consistency of spawn. 6. The quantity of mushroom: large quantities of mushroom have fast water consumption and need more water.

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HOW TO REDUCE POLLUTION WHEN CULTIVATING WHITE FUNGUS IN SPRING The majority of hazards on spring cultivation of White fungus are green mold, rhizopus and mucor. Neurospora crassa is few. Green mold always happens in sporocarp. Neurospora crassa always happens in tying. Main pollution reasons are inexhaustive sterilization, blow hole in bag and impure or polluted strains. To avoid sundry fungus, people should do the following several aspects: 1. Purify the environment of mushroom: clean environment from time to time, spray lime powder to sterilize, before cultivating in mushroom house, people should strictly sterilize to kill germs and put an end to pollution. 2. Well-chosen raw material: choose cotton seed h u l l o r bran w h i c h h a s n o lumps or putrefaction. They should be placed under sunlight to sterilize and test the quality of cultivation bags ahead of time. 3. Standard producing of mushroom bags: control the water content in no more than 60%, the time limit of bagging and stoving are no more than 6 hours. Remain the temperature of 100 degrees and keep about 24 hours. It is improper to cool in midway. 4. Sterile operation: inoculation room should be sterilized thoroughly. People can choose eligible disinfectant, super strength detergent and add 10 to 20 kg of water in each bag, then spray the space, bed layer and field. The sterilization time is about 1 hour. 5. Strictly guard a pass to strain: people should handpick strains. The requirement on strains of spring White fungus is more strong incense ashes strains. 6. The dispose of polluted bag: polluted bags should be disposed respectively: for slightly-polluted bags, people should adopt bagging and tying to control extending, then make sterilization and inoculation. Severe-polluted bags should be taken out, add 1% to 2% of lime and mix well, then cover for 24 hours and ted. If sporocarp is polluted by green mold, people should pick out ahead of time.

FORMULA OF DISEASERESISTANT, MOULD PROOF, INSECT PREVENTION AND HIGH PRODUCTION ON OYSTER MUSHROOM

1. Cottonseed hull 1000 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, phosham or urea 2 kg, lime powder 30 to 40 kg, 4 bottles of chemical for yield increasing, half bottle of insectresist agents, a bottle of Junbao or 20 bags of kemeiling. 2. Corncob 1000 kg, compound fertilizer 10 kg, phosham 5 kg or urea 2 kg, lime powder 30 to 40 kg, a bottle of Junbao, half bottle of insectresist agents. 3. Sawdust formula of Oyster mushroom must be in mature material cultivation, sawdust 1000 kg, bran 200 to 250 kg (bran 150 kg, corncob powder 80 kg), compound fertilizer 10 kg, phosham 5 kg or urea 2 kg, lime powder 30 to 40 kg, half bottle of insect-resist agents, use 2.5 depth decimillimetre of cultivation bag and sterilize in normal pressure for 18 hours and cover for one night. Fermented material that adopts leavening agent needn’t to add carbendazim or kemeiling. If people add 150 kg of bran or 80 kg of corncob powder on mature material cultivation, Oyster mushrooms will be more robust and have strong ability to resist mildew, especially in fruiting period, it will not cause disease and continue to harvest for above 6 batches. Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

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STORAGE & PROCESSING SWEET AND SOUR MUSHROOM 1. Pickle: 10 kg salt for every 100 kg cleaned fresh mushroom, tile layer-by-layer in the bucket with one layer salt after one layer mushroom, sprinkle 1-2 kg salt on the top to prevent rot, covered with bamboo fence and then pressed with stone, after 24 hours fish out and drain off souse, pickle again with the proportion of adding 8 kg salt every 100 kg mushroom, after 24 hours it becomes semi-finished product; 2. Vinegar-dipping: dip semi-finished product in clean water for 12 hours, fish out and drain off water for about 8 hours, put it in the jar, pour in vinegar with half weight of semi-finished product, dip for 12 hours, fish out and drain off vinegar for about 3 hours; 3. Sugar-dipping: after vinegar-dipping put the mushroom into a clean jar, throw white sugar with the same weight of the mushroom into the jar , mix evenly and seal, after 3 days fish out and drain off sugar liquid; 4. Boil with sugar: put the sugar liquid drained off into a big cauldron and boil, pour in pickled mushroom, cover the cauldron and simmer with slow fire, stir from time to time, after boiling fish out and spread out to dry, at the same time pour out the sugar liquid and cool it entirely, pour in the mushroom, enclose it into a porcelain container and seal, after one month it is ready. It can be used as refreshment, preserved fruit, cold dish and seasoning.

MATTERS NEED ATTENTION ON SHIITAKE DRYING 1. Warming and cooling shouldn’t be too quickly, only gradually increase or decrease, or mushroom cap will crinkle and affect quality; 2. Highest temperature should not exceed 65℃, or it is easy to burn. 3. If the surface of mushroom appears white or gray, put them with head up and flat on the sieve, spray gently clean water on mushroom surface with clean sprayer (not on lamella), and then put them in drying room, close the door and windows, stand for 30 minutes, then undertake normal drying. If one time isn’t going well, we can do it 2-3 times. In this way, we can make mushroom surface color consistent. 4. If merging sieve, it must be conducted quickly after 5 hours. 5. Dried Shiitake should be packed in time, stored in low temperature, and kept in dark place. 6. After drying for 16-18 hours, open the door of drying room to inspect if Shiitake dryness is qualified. When inspecting, we use fingers to press the junction of cap

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and stem, if only rendering traces that means the drying is qualified. If hand feeling is soft, it need further drying. The characteristic of qualified dry product must have special aroma of Shiitake. Lamella is yellow, upright, intact and not collapse. Water content of mushroom body doesn’t exceed 13%. On the other hands, the dried Shiitake should keep the original shape, which cap (round and smooth) can keep natural colour and lustre.


HOW TO MAKE SHIITAKE CAN 1. Raw and supplementary material. a. Shiitake:choose dried Shiitake because of thick fragrance and cap, or high quality fresh Shiitake. b. Pork: choose carved meat in small packet, which has certificate of qualification (should undertake cooling and acid discharge). c. Thick broad-bean sauce: the sauce we choose is fermented and brewed by broad bean or soybean. Ropiness is appropriate. Meanwhile, no impurities and no peculiar smell. The salt content is 12%-15%, and the water content doesn’t exceed 16%. d. Chilli sauce: the sauce’s color and lustre is reddish brown, which is fragrant and peppery. Meanwhile, the salt content is 12%-14%. e. Refined oil: choose refined edible vegetable oil. f. Starch: choose corn starch that is pure white, delicate and inclusion-free. g. Rice wine: color and lustre is clear, pure taste. The spirituosity is over 12 degrees. Furthermore, supplementary material also includes aginomoto, salt, sugar, garlic and onion. 2. Pretreatment of raw and supplementary material. Dip dried Shiitake in warm water for 2-4 hours, and leave 1 cm of the mushroom stem. Meanwhile, cut big Shiitake into four parts. If Shiitake with middle size, we just cut it into two parts, and then cut them into strips with 0.4 cm thickness. After carved meat thawing, cut it into diced meat of about 1 sq cm, use as we cut. Add a little of water in thick broad-bean sauce and chilli sauce, then break up them separately (sieve diameter of sauce machine is 0.8 millimeter). Clean onion and garlic and chop them into rice-shaped. 3. Making and canning. Every pan uses Shiitake strips 8 kg, pork cubes 20 kg, thick broad-bin sauce 25 kg, chilli sauce 8 kg, refined oil 12 kg, onion granules 8kg, garlic granules 1 kg, aginomoto 0.5 kg, salt 1.5 kg, white sugar 8 kg, starch 2 kg, Shaoxing wine 5 kg. Firstly we put vegetable oil into jacketed pan and heat it. Then put in onion granules and garlic granules, stir-fry them until fragrant, put in pork cubes and fry until done, and put in Shiitake and other ingredients, after boiling put in starch, stir along with putting in, continue to heat. When the temperature reaches 85℃-90℃, it can be out of the pan. We need load them into cans when they are still hot. We can load about 200 g for each can (leave 1 cm gap on the top). 4. Sealing and sterilization. After canning, we can seal it when center temperature reaches 85℃. Then sterile under 115℃ for 10-50 minutes. The can becomes the finished product after cooling.

DRYING IS KEY FOR STORING EDIBLE MUSHROOM 1. Independent storage. Most edible mushroom have strong adsorbability and should be stored independently to prevent taint of odor. 2. Sealed storage. Edible mushroom is easy to oxidative deterioration, it can be stored in sealed container such as iron can and pottery jar. The container should have lining of food bag. At the same time, we should less open container mouth. When sealing, we should pay attention to discharge the air in the lining bag. 3. Prevent sun basked in long time. We should put it in some places that are ventilative, breathable, dry and cool. Dry-cured edible mushroom is generally easy to moisture absorbtion and mildewing. So we should keep the product dry. We can put appropriate amount of lump lime or charcoal in the container as absorbent to prevent damping. 4. Dry-cured edible mushroom should not be soaked in warm water before eating, which can damage the product’s mouthfeel. Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

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ENTERPRISE FEATURE

XUERONG BIOLOGY, THE LEADING ENTERPRISE OF MUSHROOM FACTORY Shanghai Xuerong Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (“ Xuerong Biotechnology “) was founded in 1997. After 15 years of development, it has developed from a traditional fresh vegetables planting and processing exporter into a modern biological agriculture enterprise. A group company of edible fungi that concentrates “Research, Production & Marketing ”, Shanghai Xuerong Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Xuerong Biotechnology) is a modern bioagricultural enterprise that is based on modern biotechnology and produces agricultural products in the way of industrialization. The

34

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

company is integrated with “Research, Production & Marketing ” and has great leading superiority in aspects like strain, technology and cultivation and so on. Edible fungi such as “Enoki, Brown Shimeji, White shimeji, Seafood mushroom, King Oyster and agaricus bisporus” etc. that have retained the daily capacity of 270 tons, which is already the first place in the industry. with the acceleration of China’s urbanization, Xuerong Biotechnology will progressively enter other areas of agricultural product industrialization.

With Fairness and Justice that can Stand · With Variable Changes that can Go through Every successful enterprise has its own business philosophy, so is Xuerong! Xuerong Biotechnology creates its own unique corporate culture with its unique perspective and cognitive.   Core Values “Only fairness is the possibility that can achieve the fairness in the world; Only justice is the capacity that can achieve the justice in the world, With fairness and justice that can stand and with variable changes that can go through”.  “Zhong” means fairness and “Zheng” means justice. Xuerong Biotechnology adheres to the humanistic spirit of impartial and upright, sets the idea of


ENTERPRISE FEATURE

“Fairness and Justice” as the foundation of enterprise and with which to lead the enterprise’s value orientation and create a fair and just human environment, Xuerong Biotechnology firmly believes that the survival and development of the enterprise shall comply with the principle of heaven and earth changes. Only the commitment to reform and continuous innovations can enable the enterprise to maintain vigor and vitality in the modifications of the enterprise. “Fairness and Justice” as the main headings, assisted with “modifications”, take the meaning of “Hardness with softness”, that’s the principle of Xuerong’s operation and management, Xuerong advocates that “Every man of Banyan” shall be open-minded with iron hand in the velvet glove and the enterprise shall apply flexible policies, requiring carrots as well as sticks to both internal and external; The enterprise adheres to the mission of “Beneficial for staff”, motivates staff with rich material display and provides the staff with

the source and power of advance and promotion; Meanwhile, the enterprise implements various kinds of spiritual and cultural motivations and enables stall to obtain “Double harvests” of both material and spirit.

Highly Efficient • Modern Team Xuerong agrees with the value of the people and firmly believes that the construction of a dedicated team of profession and willingness are the core competitiveness of the future.

Advocating the “Banyan tree spirit and unity culture”, Xuerong is well versed. Ever since its establishment, the company has started “Talent strategy” and the development mechanism of “the combination of introduction and cultivation” has been implemented thus to gradually perfect the talent team construction, form healthy competition mechanism and has created a talent team of “Specialization, Profession, Yong and International” from executive team to common team and build a solid cornerstone for the company’s “Hundred Years’ Ecological Plan”. Te c h n o l o g y i s t h e p ro d u c t i v i t y. “Ecology mushroom” is the new fruit of Xuerong high technology. Te c h n o l o g y R & D C e nte r, a s t h e engine and heart of Xuerong, is the key institution of the company. It comprises of authorative specialists and nearly 200 senior engineers, who have, through concentration on studies and innovations, acquired hundreds of patent technology achievements. The successful application of quantities of patent technology such as cultivation method of ecological cyclic utilization of culture medium has make breakthrough in production increase and convert rate.

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

35


ENTERPRISE FEATURE

MOVED WITH THE TIMES, TALKING ABOUT THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN MUSHROOM COMPANY The Great Australian Mushroom Company (GRAMCo), started back in 1994, when co-founders Wes Arnott and Ashley Cox subleased a B-Store in the West Melbourne Markets with only $500 each to start their new business. As an ex retailer Wes knew that there were gaps in the mushroom market and a demand was there for more variety. Mushrooms were scarce o n th e market floor prior to the late eighties and as they started to take off, wholesalers struggled to keep up with demand. “Retailers were known to come into the market early and line up just to buy mushrooms”says Wes. The range at the time was limited and spasmodic as Australian’s transitioned from mushrooms sold in cans to fresh cup and button varieties. By the nineties, mushrooms had ‘bedded in’ to mainstream fresh p ro d u c e l i n e s s o i t wa s a g o o d time to enter the mushroom wholesale industry. “We wanted to emphasise that we were selling good quality mushrooms and open (Field) mushrooms were a niche product at the time” continued Wes. “Field mushrooms were only available as a by-product sourced from Sydney.   They were not sold consistently in the Melbourne Market, so I sourced a supplier and started selling Field’s every day and the business grew from there.”  Wes was no stranger to the mushroom industry having owned his own fruit and vegetable retail businesses as well as providing and working in a wholesale outlet for mushrooms.  His got love and knowledge of mushrooms developed and he soon recognised the potential of

36

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

tapping into the fungi industry. It took a lot of hard-work to get the business up and run but Wes and Ashley rolled up their sleeves and got the job done. It took them more than a year to purchase the company’s first forklift, until then, they were moving stock by using a pallet jack, land-trucks or by hand. “We were the business’s horse and cart,” Wes says proudly.   Wes took over the business as a sole Director four years after opening and has been living the mushroom dream ever since. Since 1994, GRAMCo has grown to include both state-wide and interstate customers as well as plans to export. “Agaricus mushrooms still account for 90% of the mushrooms sold in the market and is the majority of our business but we are always looking for new opportunities”. As well as the popular Agaricus mushrooms, GRAMCo have always sold wild mushrooms and an exotic range.  “Historically, exotics have not been grown in Australia due to the cheap cost of importing, so they are primarily sourced from overseas” says Wes.  “But the exotic market is expanding quickly as Asian culinary influences, health and wellbeing and high profile cooking shows introduce them to a much wider market”. To c a p i t a l i s e o n t h e g r o w i n g m u s h r o o m m a r ke t , G R A M C o i s expanding into vertical integration with the purchase of their own exotic mushroom farm, located in Melbourne’s outer northern suburbs close to the new Epping Market. “ This farm will grow and produce over a dozen varieties of mushrooms, some of which have never before been seen in the Melbourne Market,”

says Jim Fuller, the General Manager of GRAMCo and soon to be business partner of the new farm.   Texan bred Jim will bring his expertise of mushrooms to the business and says that an exciting new range of Australian grown mushrooms will be the focus of the farm.  “I used to grow over forty types of mushrooms in the United States including medicinal nutraceutical fungi, so Wes and I will use both of our mushroom knowledge to grow great quality mushy ’s”.      Australian grown, freshly picked, clean and green mushrooms, will be the focus of the farm which will grow not only exotic mushrooms for the general public to support the wholesale arm of the business, but they are also throwing themselves into medicinal fungi.   The Cordyceps fungi is big business in Asia for its medicinal properties and is extremely rare and expensive.  Scientific studies have shown that the compounds produced by the Cordyceps mushroom can i n c r e a s e b l o o d f l o w, e n h a n c e healing, produce more stamina and energy, and create better focus.    This type of fungi will feature in the GRAMCo medicinal range. Exporting to the Asian market is the perfect way to grow the business with Asia’s appetite for high quality produce, but it won’t stop there continues Jim. “We also plan to sell the Cordyceps mushroom to the nightshift workers here at the markets, to boost their energy so when they get home after work they can actually have a life”.


RESEARCH ARTICLE

CLITOCYBE NUDA ACTIVATES DENDRITIC CELLS AND ACTS AS A DNA VACCINE ADJUVANT (partial) By Mei-Hsing Chen, Wei-Sung Li, YunSheng Lue, Ching-Liang Chu, I-Hong Pan, Ching-Huai Ko, Der-Yuan Chen, Ching-Hsiung Lin, Sheng-Hao Lin, Chih-Peng Chang, and Chi-Chen Lin

INTRODUCTION: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play a key role as immune sentinels by initiating T-cell responses and linking innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are present at different stages of maturation in the circulation and in nonlymphoid and lymphoid organs. DCs reside in an immature form in peripheral nonlymphoid tissues, where they capture and process exogenous antigens. Once activated, DCs migrate to the T-cell-dependent areas of secondary lymphoid organs, where they present antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes and stimulate naĂŻve T-cell responses through cytokine signals, major histocompatibility complex( M H C - ) p re s e nt i n g A g p e p t i d e s and costimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 and CD80). As key regulatory mediators of immune responses, DCs are being pursued for the development of potent new vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases. In addition, the identification of materials that can modulate DC activation and function is an emerging field that can develop alongside DC immunobiology. Natural or synthetic activators that promote DC activation may potentially be candidate adjuvants for application in immunotherapy and vaccination. Growing evidence-based research

has suggested benefits of consuming mushrooms as a functional food or through the use of extracted bioactive compounds as dietary supplements, immunomodulators (biological response modifiers), and adjuvant tumor therapy. Numerous compounds have been isolated from mushrooms and have great potential fo r d e v e l o p m e n t a s m u s h ro o m nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. Among these compounds, water-soluble polysaccharides and proteoglycans, proteins, and various constituents of small molecular mass are considered to have immunomodulatory potential by regulating several types of immune cells that function in antitumor or antimicrobial activities, including dendritic cells, macrophages, cytolytic

T cells, and NK cells. Clitocybe nuda (also known as Lepista nuda, commonly known as blewits) is an edible woodland mushroom found in Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Due to its special fragrance and delicate texture, C. nuda has been cultivated in France, Holland, Britain, and Taiwan. Several bioactive extracts from C. nuda have been found to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, but few reports have described medicinal activities or health benefit in human disorders. To our knowledge, only three papers have shown that C. nuda extract affects cancer cells in vitro. However, no studies have specifically reported immunologic effects of C. nuda. Therefore, to study the effects of C. nuda on immune response and

Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

37


RESEARCH ARTICLE its potential cellular targets, we investigated whether C. nuda affects the maturation and functional properties of murine bone marrowderived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Our findings demonstrate for the first time that water extract Clitocybe nuda (WE-CN) induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs via ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, in part, by the TLR-4 and TLR-2 pathways. Significantly, WE-CN cotreatment enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of a HER-2/neu DNA vaccine against HER-2/neu-overexpressing tumors, suggesting that WE-CN could be a novel adjuvant and has potential application in cancer therapy and vaccination.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1. Mice and Cell Cultures 2. Preparation of Water Extract C. nuda 3. In Vitro DC Activation 4. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Surface Markers 5. Cellular Morphology Analysis 6. Cytokine Detection 7. Allogenic Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction 8. OVA-Specific T-Cell Activation 9. Western Blot Analysis 10. Preparation of Nuclear Extracts and NF-κB Activity Assay 11. Therapeutic Efficacy in a Mouse Model of Established MBT-2 Tumors 12. Quantitative RT-PCR 13. Detection of Antigen-Specific CD8+/IFN-Gamma+ T Lymphocytes in Spleen Cells 14. Statistical Analysis

RESULT: 1. WE-CN Can Induce BMDCs Phenotypic Maturation 2. WE-CN Increases the Ability of BMDCs to Stimulate OVA-Specific T-Cell Proliferation 3. WE-CN Increases MAPK and NFκB Pathways Activation in BMDCs 4. BMDCs from TLR-4/2-Deficient Mice Do Not Respond to WE-CN Stimulation 5. WE-CN Enhanced the Antitumor Effect of a HER-2/neu DNA Vaccine 6. WE-CN Promoted the Th1 Immune Responses Induced by HER-2/neu DNA Vaccination

38

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

In summary, for the first time, we present evidence demonstrating that water extract of C. nuda can augment DC maturation in an in vitro culture system and contains adjuvant activity for DNA vaccines and therapeutic antitumor potential in a tumor-bearing mouse model. We suggest that these data may highlight the nutritional and medical value of C. nuda and can be used as the basis for further research. However, additional issues still warrant future investigation. For example, in this study, because we used a crude water extract of whole C. nuda concentrate, the identity of the specific components of the C.

nuda extract that contribute to the observed effect on DCs is unclear. Therefore, further studies are required to identify the specific active component(s) that is responsible for the observed effect of WE-CN. In addition, we employed an in vitro culture model in this study to determine the effect of WE-CM on BMDC maturation, but we are aware that an in vivo (oral administration and feeding) design may be more applicable for defining the effects of dietary mushrooms as a nutritional intervention. Thus, further examination of whether the in vitro effects can be recapitulated in vivo (through oral administration and feeding) will be very important.

Acknowledgments:

This work was supported by Grants from the National Chung Hsing University and Council of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Institute (NCHU-TARI 10106) Taichung, Taiwan, and in part by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, under the ATU plan. A part of work was supported by STSP Grant EG310815101 (for ChingLiang Chu).


BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY

ORGANIC GANODERMA FARM IN THE PHILIPPINES For the past 20 years, Philippine mushroom growers have remained fragmented and have focused on cultivating Oyster mushroom, Wood Ear mushroom, Button Mushroom & Straw mushroom. These species are better suited to be farmed in the cooler but remote highlands, consequently entailing high logistics cost and high wastage for small scale growers. Putting-up an industrialized temperature controlled mushroom farm is premature given the limited local consumer demand for fresh mushroom, high taxes and exorbitant electricity cost in the Philippines. This dilemma resulted in a supply problem where in 90% of mushrooms currently sold in the Philippines are imported and relatively expensive for its middle class population. The Philippine countryside has a tropical rainforest climate throughout the year, this natural high humidity forest environment provides a competitive advantage for globally oriented companies to engage in contract farming of organic tropical

mushrooms (instead of temperate climate mushrooms). Ganoderma Lucidum is the most economically viable tropical mushroom to cultivate in the Philippines’midlands because it does not require temperature controlled room for fruiting, has high global market demand, has a longer shelf-life and it has not yet been locally cultivated on a commercial scale. Filipino growers cultivate Ganoderma mostly as a recreational or novelty mushroom, not intended for mass distribution. Therefore, building a commercial Ganoderma Laboratory & Processing Facility here can stabilize the supply of locally grown Ganoderma. This Ganoderma facility can focus on c u l t u r i n g h i g h y i e l d , affo rd a b l e mushroom spawn while outsourcing mushroom cultiva-tion to contract growers (to maximize scalability) then freeze drying har-vested mushrooms to supply phar-maceutical companies and to process into health beverage. In fact, there is a growing local market for powdered Ganoderma blended

with native Phi-lippine liberica coffee or other in-digenous herbs. Now is the opportune time for a global player to take part in the consolidation and modernization of the Philippine mushroom industry. Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

39


RECIPES DELICIOUS SOUP WITH OYSTER MUSHROOM AND CARROT

1. Ingredients: carrot 150g, Oyster mushroom 50g, soybean 30g, broccoli, oil, salt, aginomoto, sugar 2. Cooking method: ①Peel carrot and cut into dices, wash Oyster mushroom and tear into pieces. ②Soak soybean, boil for a while and then ladle out, wash broccoli and break into small pieces. ③Heat the pot and add moderate oil, then add carrot, Oyster mushroom and fry. ④Add moderate water and boil in medium heat. ⑤When carrot dices are well boiled, add soybean, broccoli pieces and boil. ⑥Finally add moderate salt, aginomoto and sugar according to your taste.

DELICIOUS CARP SOUP WITH DRUMSTICK MUSHROOM 1.Ingredients: carp, Drumstick mushroom, ginger, onion, milk, salt, medlar 2.Cooking method: ① Gut the fish, wash and cut into segments. ② Wash Drumstick mushroom and cut in slices, soak medlar and cut onion into segments. ③ Heat the pot, add two spoons of oil, put fish segments into the pot, add ginger, moderate water and boil in high heat. ④ Turn into soft heat and boil for 20 minutes. ⑤ Add Drumstick mushroom, medlar, milk, onion segments and boil for 10 minutes. ⑥ Finally add moderate salt.

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

DELICIOUS FISH HEAD SOUP WITH GASTRODIA ELATA

1. Ingredients: fish head, Gastrodia elata, Chinese dates, ginger slices, tofu, medlar, salt 2. Cooking method: ①Wash fish head and drain excess water. ②Add two bowls of water and add Chinese dates, Gastrodia elata, then boil for about 40 minutes. ③Add moderate oil, ginger slices, fish head into the pot and fry, then ladle out. ④put fish head, water into the pot and boil for 10 minutes until the soup becomes white. ⑤Finally add tofu and bring into a boil again. ⑥After boiling, turn into soft heat, boil for 20 minutes, finally add medlar and moderate salt.


DELICIOUS FRIED AGARICUS BISPORUS WITH OYSTER SAUCE 1. Ingredients: broccoli, Button mushroom, salt, chicken powder, bruised onion, bruised ginger, soy sauce, oyster sauce, sesame oil 2. Cooking method: ①Wash broccoli and break into small pieces, wash Button mushroom. ②Heat the pot and add moderate oil, add broccoli and fry, then add moderate salt, chicken powder, turn off the heat and ladle out from the pot. ③Turn on the heat again and add moderate oil, add bruised onion, bruised ginger, Button mushroom and fry. ④Add salt, chicken powder, soy sauce, oyster sauce and moderate water, stew in soft heat till becomes soft and tender, finally pour moderate sesame oil.

STEWED CHICKEN WINGS WITH WHITE FUNGUS

DELICIOUS FRIED SAUSAGE WITH BLACK FUNGUS Cooking method: ①Soak Black fungus and tear into pieces. ②Cut onion into slices. ③Cut sausage into big slices. ④Heat the pot and add moderate oil, then add sausage slices and fry. ⑤Add Black fungus pieces, moderate light soy sauce, moderate salt and fry with sausage slices. ⑥Finally add onion slices and fry.

1. Ingredients: White fungus 15g, chicken wings 1000g, rice wine 50g, salt, ginger slices 2. Cooking method: ①Wash chicken wings, soak and wash White fungus. ②Put chicken wings, White fungus, ginger slices and water into the pot, bring into a boil and then add rice wine and turn into soft fire and stew until well-done. ③Finally add moderate salt.

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

41


NEWS IN PICTURES

INSIDE FUNGI ALLY, HADLEY'S MUSHROOM CULTIVATION CENTER

H

ADLEY — Willie Crosbys’ business, Fungi Ally — with the help of a $10,000 grant earlier this year from the state Department of Agricultural Resources’ Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture Program — is ready to go from growing and selling 150 pounds of mushrooms a week to 400. Since he launched his business, he said, more people are interested in eating and selling his crop. Crosby grows shiitake mushrooms, which are grown in blocks, and oyster and lion’s mane mushrooms, which are grown in bags of sawdust and cottonseed hull. Lion’s mane, he said, are a furry type of mushroom that people often want to pet. He has two part-time workers who help now. Currently he sells mushrooms to grocers such as River Valley Market in Northampton, Green Fields Market in Greenfield, and Atkins Farm in Amherst, among others. He also attends the weekly Amherst Farmer’s Market. He sells the shiitake blocks for people to cultivate mushrooms at home, and offers classes on growing mushrooms. (Source: masslive)

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016


NEWS IN PICTURES

ENTERPRISE RESEARCH, CEMBN VISITED AGROCYBE CYLINDRACEA INDUSTRIALIZED COMPANY

R

ecently, marketing director and other reporters of China Edible Mushroom Business Net visited Tianjin Hongshengyuan Biotechnology Co., Ltd. for field study. According to report, The daily output of Agrocybe cylindracea is 4 tons in this company . This company specializes in producing industrialized rare mushrooms, especially Agrocybe cylindracea. The company sets production, refreshing, processing and marketing into one. The company covers an area of 1200 acres, after putting into production, the daily output will be reach to 8 tons. Their products has been sold to Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and other places.

Mushroom Times ¡ May/Jun 2016

43


NEWS IN PICTURES

AGARICUS BISPORUS INDUSTRIALIZATION ENTERPRISE HELD AN NEEQ BELL CEREMONY

I

t is reported that a few days ago, Jiangsu Zishan Biology Limited Liability Company held a stock exchange listing ceremony in Beijing. According to information, the company specializes in industrialization production of fresh and canned Agaricus bisporus.

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016


MUSHROOMS QUOTATION

CHINA MAIN VARIETIES OF MUSHROOMS QUOTATION (MAY to JUN,2016)

Mushroom Name

Type Standard

Price/CNY (May.)

Price/CNY (Jun.)

King oyster mushroom

Fresh

1KG

4.00 CNY-6.500 CNY

5.00CNY-7.00 CNY

Enoki mushroom

Fresh

1KG

3.00CNY-4.00 CNY

3.30 CNY-4.00 CNY

White mushroom

Fresh

1KG

7.00 CNY-14.00 CNY

10.00 CNY-15.00 CNY

Shiitake mushroom

Fresh

1KG

5.50 CNY-13.00 CNY

5.00 CNY-14.00 CNY

White Beech mushroom

Fresh

1KG

10.00 CNY-16.70 CNY 13.00 CNY-14.00 CNY

Brown Shimeji

Fresh

1KG

6.00 CNY-16.70 CNY

12.50 CNY-14.00 CNY

Agrocybe Cylindracea

Fresh

1KG

8.00 CNY-11.00 CNY

7.90 CNY-11.50 CNY

Pleurotus Nebrodensis

Fresh

1KG

13.50 CNY-35.00 CNY 16.00 CNY-30.00 CNY

Pholiota nameko

Fresh

1KG

9.60 CNY-10.80 CNY

Photo

9.50 CNY-11.00 CNY

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

45


MUSHROOMS QUOTATION

CHINA MAIN VARIETIES OF MUSHROOMS QUOTATION (MAY to JUN,2016)

Mushroom Name

Type Standard

Price/CNY (May.)

Price/CNY (Jun.)

Seafood mushroom

Fresh

1KG

6.00 CNY-9.00 CNY

7.00 CNY-9.00 CNY

Oyster mushroom

Fresh

1KG

4.00 CNY-8.00 CNY

3.00 CNY-10.00 CNY

Cordyceps militaris

Fresh

1KG

14.00 CNY-20.00 CNY 12.00 CNY-20.00 CNY

Panus Giganteus

Fresh

1KG

14.00 CNY-23.30 CNY 12.00 CNY-23.30 CNY

Pleurotus Cornucopiae

Fresh

1KG

6.00 CNY-10.40 CNY

Hericium Erinaceus

Fresh

1KG

12.00 CNY-18.00 CNY 16.00 CNY-18.00 CNY

Shaggy Mane

Fresh

1KG

10.00 CNY-15.00 CNY 10.00 CNY-16.00 CNY

Straw mushroom

Fresh

1KG

12.00 CNY-24.00 CNY 14.00 CNY-22.00 CNY

Cloud Ear fungus

Fresh

1KG

Pleurotus Geesteranus

Fresh

1KG

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

2.00 CNY-4.00 CNY

6.00 CNY

2.00 CNY-4.00 CNY

10.00 CNY-12.50 CNY 10.40 CNY-12.50 CNY

Photo


GLOBAL MARKET

Tesco’s Supermarket,DEU (Jun, 2016) Mushroom Name

Type

Price(€)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(€)

Tesco Chestnut Mushrooms

Fresh

2.39 €

250g

1.56 €

Tesco Organic Mushrooms

Fresh

1.29 €

200g

6.45 €

Closed Cup Mushrooms

Fresh

0.95 €

300g

3.17 €

Tesco Breakfast Flat Mushrooms

Fresh

0.89 €

250g

3.56 €

Irish Sliced Mushrooms

Fresh

1.00 €

150g

6.67 €

Tesco Ingredients Porcini Mushroom Paste

Canned

2.29 €

95g

24.20 €

Tesco Ingredient Mixed Dried Mushrooms

Canned

4.95 €

40g

124.00 €

Philadelphia Simply Stir Mushroom

Bag

2.70 €

200g

13.50 €

XM Dried bamboo fungus

Dried

2.89 €

100g

28.90 €

ZY Dried Chinese Mushroom

Dried

8.99 €

200g

44.95 €

Photo

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

47


GLOBAL MARKET

Gmarket’s Supermarket, KOR (Jun, 2016) Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Mini king oyster mushroom

Fresh

$5.20

2000g

$2.60

Organic Shiitake Mushroom

Dried

$8.45

200g

$42.25

Buttom Mushroom

Fresh

$9.95

200g

$49.75

Enoki Mushroom

Fresh

$6.53

150g

$43.53

Oyster Mushroom

Fresh

$22.95

2000

$11.48

Chaga Mushroom

Dried

$88.00

500g

$176.00

Raw Wasabi/Hericium Erinaceus

Fresh

$23.68

1000g

$23.68

Functiona Ganderma Lucidum

Dried

$70.80

1000g

$70.80

For Stew Oyster Mushroom

Fresh

$20.78

2000g

$10.39

Himush-Dry Pine mushroom

Dried

$17.53

120g

$146.08

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

Photo


GLOBAL MARKET

Oregon Mushrooms’s Supermarket, US (Jun, 2016) Mushroom Name

Type

Price($)

Standard(g)

Price/KG($)

Dried Black Trumpet Mushrooms

Dried

$10.00

28g

$357.00

Dried Chaga

Dried

$5.50

28g

$196.40

Dried Chanterelle Mushrooms

Dried

$7.00

28g

$250.00

Fresh Black Summer Truffles

Dried

$50.00

28g

$1,785.70

Dried Lion’s Mane

Dried

$10.00

28g

$357.00

Dried Whole Shitake Mushrooms

Dried

$5.00

28g

$178.60

Dried Maitake Mushrooms

Dried

$6.00

28g

$214.00

Dried Morel Mushrooms

Dried

$16.00

28g

$571.00

Dried Paddy Straw

Dried

$5.00

28g

$178.60

Dried Woodear Mushrooms

Dried

$5.00

28g

$178.60

Photo

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

49


GLOBAL MARKET

Japan Centre’s Supermarket, JPN (Jun, 2016) Mushroom Name

Type

Price(¥)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(¥)

Dried Woodear Mushrooms

Dried

¥260.00

20g

¥13,000.00

Organic Eco-friendly Shiitake Mushroom

Dried

¥1,050.00

40g

¥26,250.00

Organic Eco-friendly Shiitake Mushroom powder

Bag

¥700.00

30g

¥23,333.33

Shiitake Mushroom Soup

Bag

¥400.00

300g

¥1,333.33

Pickled Shiitake Mushroom

Bag

¥260.00

70g

¥3,714.30

Pickled Golden Mushroom

Cannd

¥850.00

180g

¥4,722.22

Dried Woodear Mushrooms

Dried

¥414.00

20g

¥20,700.00

Spicy Nameko Mushrooms

Cannd

¥725.00

85g

¥8,530.00

Shiitake Mushroom

Fresh

¥97.00

100g

¥970.00

Brown Beech Mushroom

Fresh

¥148.00

200g

¥740.00

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Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

Photo


GLOBAL MARKET

Giant’s Supermarket,SGP S$ (Jun, 2016) Mushroom Name

Type

Price(S$)

Standard(g)

Price/KG(S$)

Brown Beech Mushroom

Fresh

S$1.20

150g

S$8.00

White Beech Mushroom

Fresh

S$1.20

150g

S$8.00

Spicy Golden Mushrooms

Cannd

S$1.60

170g

S$9.41

Spicy Nameko Mushrooms

Cannd

S$1.60

170g

S$9.41

Teatree Mushrooms

Cannd

S$1.60

170g

S$9.41

Bailing Mushroom

Cannd

S$1.60

170g

S$9.41

Shiitake Mushroom

Cannd

S$1.10

284g

S$3.87

Straw Mushroom Whole

Cannd

S$1.50

425g

S$3.59

Golden Mushroom

Cannd

S$1.80

425g

S$4.24

Bailing Mushrooms

Cannd

S$2.90

850g

S$3.41

Photo

Mushroom Times · May/Jun 2016

51


2016 no 3 mushroom times  

Mushroom Times devotes to the information dissemination of global mushroom industry development. Collecting the sounds of mushroom industry...

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