Enquiry by design
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19-23 January 2017
Contents Section 1 Introduction Purpose of the Briefing Pack Structure Process
Section 2 Context
Site Area Site Aerials Local Planning Policy Wider Destinations for Employment
Section 3 Site Appraisal Site History, Heritage and Archaeology Topography Trees Drainage and Utilities Services Landscape Visual Assessment Ground Conditions Ecology Site Features Urban Form Local Accessibility Schools and Education Community Facilities
Section 4 Sub-regional Transport
The First Strategic Workshop An Emerging Regional Strategy
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Section 1 Introduction
Purpose of the
Briefing Pack This briefing pack has been prepared to support the Chalgrove Airfield Site Enquiry by Design (EbD) event from 19 to 23 January 2017.
It contains information including plans, diagrams, photographs and statements, which have been identified by the team leading as important for the process.
2. CONTEXT Section 2 provides background to the requirement for development on the airfield site and employment across South Oxfordshire.
The pack is being issued to event participants in advance to help ensure they are aware of the background, the timetable for the event and key issues to address. It is to be used as a source of information and reference and used as a â€˜design toolâ€™ that gives everyone an understanding of the site and the issues. Whilst the information in this pack is extensive, it is not exhaustive. It can be supplemented before and during the event as necessary should new or additional information become available.
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The briefing pack contains the following sections: 1. INTRODUCTION The remainder of this section provides details on the purpose of the EbD event, a timetable and introduces the people involved.
3. SITE APPRAISAL Section 3 contains a series of plans, images and statements organised by topic or issue to provide a background and reference for the design work. 4. SUB-REGIONAL TRANSPORT Section 4 outlines the strategic infrastructure work that has been undertaken so far to inform a strategy for transport in the area and support a proposed development.
‘Enquiry by Design’? ‘The Enquiry by Design process is a planning tool that brings together key stakeholders to collaborate on a vision, which is developed through a workshop. The product is a vision shared by everyone linked to the development, including those responsible for granting planning permission.’ Prince’s Foundation website Why does it matter? The Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) wishes to engage the local community to reach a shared vision on the masterplan for the Chalgrove Airfield site. Some consultation approaches ask external consultants to present a series of options, and then ask the community to select a ‘preferred’ option on the basis of a majority vote. There are two main concerns about this approach: 1. It does not involve stakeholders in the actual design process and relies too heavily on external consultants to provide the choice of solutions. This is less likely to lead to the best solution for the community.
2. It tends to encourage an adversarial approach, with arguments in favour or against different solutions, dividing people into different ‘camps’ rather than building reasoned consensus. In contrast the EbD process encourages stakeholders to work together to create a vision and proposals which are ‘shared’ by the whole community. An expert design team is present throughout the EbD event to draw, test and refine the development of the ideas from the community and other stakeholders. Who should be at the event? The EbD process should ensure all stakeholders have a fair opportunity to present their views, so that the final outcome reflects the shared view of all stakeholders.
The first full day will take place in the Lambert Arms with stakeholders on Thursday 19 January. An open drop-in will take place in the evening. Further public drop-in sessions will be held on Saturday 21 January and Sunday 22 January in the village hall. A final presentation to the community will take place on the evening of Monday 23 January in the village hall. What has happened so far? A number of meetings have been held to update people on the process and explain how they can get involved. These have included a dedicated drop-in event on 5 December, a community drop in on 1 November and a public meeting on 21 July. Hundreds of local people have attended these sessions.
Stakeholders include landowners, local residents, schools, businesses and community groups. It will include officers from South Oxfordshire District Council (SODC) and Oxfordshire County Council (OCC) to ensure the vision is shared by those responsible for wider delivery of housing across the district and specialists in urban design, transport, planning, ecology, education, heritage and property in order to address all the design and delivery issues.
Workshops have been held with parish council representatives and a Strategic Corridors Infrastructure Workshop day took place on 31 October 2016 to consider the transport and movement corridors across the region.
Where and when is the event? The public sessions will be held at Chalgrove Village Hall, Baronshurst Drive, Chalgrove, Oxford, OX44 7TE. This is located in Chalgrove village. Stakeholder sessions are to be held in the Lambert Arms Hotel.
Technical workshops and meetings have been held with Oxfordshire County Council and South Oxfordshire District Council to inform the proposals.
The event will last for five days. It has been widely promoted using newsletters, a flyer to local households, public drop-in events and online channels.
The events provided the opportunity for residents to directly inform the information gathering process and the key issues that need addressing.
After the EbD Following the EbD a report will be prepared to summarise and explain issues, options and mitigation measures which informed the concept masterplan output from the event. This work will inform and support further submissions to the South Oxfordshire Local Plan process and any future planning applications.
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The Team The Homes and Communities Agency The Homes and Communities Agency is the national housing, regeneration and social housing regulation agency for England. The HCA supports the creation of successful places by increasing the supply of housing and jobs, using its programmes, land assets and regulatory role to deliver investment that drives housing and economic growth. To achieve this, the HCA works with local partners, private and not-for-profit developers and investors to deliver homes and jobs that meet the needs of local communities. The HCA has been tasked by Government to deliver housing on surplus public land and support local economic growth through development and infrastructure funding. The HCA has appointed a team of consultants to work closely with the local community to help realise these objectives. GVA GVA brings specific commercial property and planning skills and is the overall lead consultant for the process. NEW Masterplanning NEW will lead the design team and the overall preparation of the masterplan, providing direction on urban design and landscape design. NEW has extensive experience of developing collaborative masterplans through EbD processes. Urban Engineering Studio Specialist regional and overarching transport, movement and engineering input will be provided by Urban Engineering Studio.
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AECOM AECOM is providing technical advice to the team in respect of environmental aspects, including traffic modelling, ecology, trees, heritage, drainage, flooding and ground conditions. Paul Murrain Paul will act as the independent facilitator for the EbD event, ensuring that everyone attending has an opportunity to give their views and that these views are recorded and considered by the design team. Paulâ€™s role is considered critical by the HCA in ensuring the process is transparent and a genuine community consensus is secured through the event.
EbD Programme Timetable Day 1
Thursday 19th January
Sunday 22nd January
KEY STAKEHOLDER / INVITEES
KEY STAKEHOLDER / INVITEES
DESIGN TEAM ONLY
Specialist briefings and knowledge exchange
Design Session 1:
Open drop-in event at Chalgrove Village Hall
Design Session 4
Presentation on the village & airfield from key stakeholders
Summary of knowledge exchange for technical understanding of site constraints and implication on urban structuring principles
Lambert Hotel: 9am - 1pm
Lambert Hotel: 1pm - 3pm
Review, feedback and discussion about knowledge developed and emerging concepts
Design Session 2 Design work relating to technical issues established on Day 1
To test, comment and feedback on the evolving plans for the site Village Hall: 2.30am - 5pm
Monday 23rd January
KEY STAKEHOLDER / INVITEES
KEY STAKEHOLDER / INVITEES
Review of design evolution
Final design session
Final public presentation
SODC meeting and preparation for public presentation
Final public presentation of proposed site masterplan
Lambert Hotel: 9am - 1pm
Village Hall: 6.30pm - 8.30pm
Potential site visit for selected parties
Design Session 3
Design work relating to technical issues established on Day 1 Lambert Hotel: 9am - 1pm
Lambert Hotel: 9am - 12pm
Public drop in at Chalgrove Village Hall
Village Hall: 7pm - 9pm
Friday 20th January
KEY STAKEHOLDER / INVITEES
Further development of proposed masterplan following feedback from Day 3
Lambert Hotel: 1pm - 5.30pm
Saturday 21st January
Public drop-in at Chalgrove Village Hall To test, comment and feedback on the evolving plans for the site Village Hall: 10.30am - 4pm
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Section 2 Context
Site Area The Chalgrove Airfield site covers 254 hectares and is located to the north of Chalgrove village in South Oxfordshire.
Site Area: 254 hectares
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Site Aerials Monument Business Park
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Site Aerials Didcot
Oxford Berinsfield Drayton St Leonard
Monument Business Park
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Housing and Local Planning Policy Housing Proposed for Chalgrove: 82 homes
Housing Proposed for Chalgrove: 200 homes
Housing Proposed for Chalgrove: 200 homes Housing Proposed for Chalgrove Airfield: 3,500 homes
Why? The South Oxfordshire Core Strategy was adopted in December 2012. Within the Core Strategy, larger villages are required to deliver 1,154 homes. The final split was agreed by Councillors in September 2013, which allocated 82 dwellings to be delivered in Chalgrove. The Neighbourhood Plan Forum was established in summer 2013 to deliver the 82 homes on sites allocated within the Neighbourhood Plan.
Why? Oxfordshire Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) was published in April 2014 and considers how many homes and what mix is needed in the future in Oxfordshire and the housing needs of specific groups within the population. This identified that additional housing is needed beyond what was set out in the Core Strategy. This also showed that Oxford City Council may not be able to deliver all of its housing within its administrative boundary.
To ensure that the additional growth is positively planned for, South Oxfordshire District Council began preparing a new Local Plan to 2031. Three consultations have taken place: issues and options (June 2014); refined options (February 2015); and preferred options (June 2016). The preferred options document sets out a strategy to increase the number of dwellings to be delivered in Chalgrove to 200 homes.
Why? Following the publication of the SHMA for Oxfordshire, Oxford City Council looked at the level of housing that could be delivered within its boundary. This assessment showed that around 15,000 homes need to be planned for outside of Oxford City to meet the need for housing. This housing is to be split between the surrounding local planning authorities, including South Oxfordshire District Council. To ensure that this growth could be planned in South Oxfordshire, as part of the overall strategy for the District, the Council also included a strategic allocation for 3,500 homes at Chalgrove Airfield into the preferred options plan. June 2016
Current Local Plan Timeline Regulation 18
Issues + Options
Second Preferred Options
Draft Submission Plan
End 2017/ Early 2018
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Employment There are a range of employment opportunities throughout South Oxfordshire. Current employment growth is planned for in Science Vale with a proposed 1,000 new jobs at Culham Science Centre. Key areas of employment growth that are proposed within Oxford Cityâ€™s Core Strategy before 2026 are in southeast Oxford and include 1,450 new jobs at Oxford Business Park and 1,150 new jobs at Oxford Science Park.
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Employment based on 2011 Census data
Image sourced from Business Park brochure
Image sourced from Science Park brochure
Oxford Business Park
Oxford Science Park
Oxford Business Park comprises 35.6 ha (90.1 acres) of offices, landscaping and development land. Around 13 acres of land is still available for office development and there is office space available within the existing buildings.
Oxford Science Park comprises around 30 ha (70.1 acres) of offices and laboratory space for businesses. Around 12 acres of land is still available across seven development plots to accommodate planned new employment growth.
There are currently around 5,500 people employed at the Business Park with 69 companies located there. Major companies operate from the Business Park with a number of amenities, such as a retail park, hotel and nursery, which also serve the development.
There are currently around 2,400 people employed with 65 companies located there, ranging from start-ups to SMEs and multi-national organisations.
For more information go to: www.oxfordsp.com
For more information go to: www.oxfordbusinesspark.com
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Image sourced from Culham Science Centre website
Image sourced from Monument Business Park website
Culham Science Centre
Monument Business Park
Culham Science Centre is the base for a range of science and technology based businesses with around 2,000 people currently employed at the site. The Centre includes commercial property available for start-up and serviced offices and laboratories or offices for mid to large organisations at the Culham Innovation Centre.
Monument Business Park is located to the north of Chalgrove village and includes a variety of business and starter units both large and small. There are around 80 businesses on site with 600 employees. The current buildings are fully let and the Park is undergoing an expansion with the new build element 70%-76% pre-let.
South Oxfordshireâ€™s Local Plan Preferred Options (June 2016) confirms that the redevelopment and intensification of Culham Science Centre for research and science based industries would be supported. This will provide an additional 1,000 jobs in this location. A wider site measuring approximately 260ha around Culham Science Centre is being actively promoted through the Regulation 18 consultation process for the development of a new â€œScience Villageâ€? of between 2,000 and 3,500 homes.
For more information go to: www.monument-park.co.uk
For more information go to: www.culham.org.uk
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Section 3 Site Appraisal
Site history, heritage and archaeology Thirty five heritage assets are recorded within a 1km radius of the site centre. Seventeen of these are ‘designated’. These are recognised at a national level and protected by legislation. The remaining assets are ‘non-designated’. These are recognised at a local level and are thought to make a positive contribution to local character. The ‘designated’ assets comprise 15 listed buildings (Grade II and Grade I listed), the Chalgrove Conservation Area (designated 1992) and the Registered Battlefield of Chalgrove (1643). A Registered Battlefield is defined as one included on Historic England’s Register of Historic Battlefields. The register identifies 46 important English battlefields, with its purpose being to offer the sites protection through the planning system, and to promote a better understanding of their significance and public enjoyment. There are 18 “non-designated” assets. These date from the Roman period to the 20th century and include the finding of Roman and medieval coins and the hangar on Chalgrove Airfield.
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Timeline 43AD—409AD Roman settlement recorded to the south of the village. Roman coins in use and later found to the west of the airfield site.
1066AD—1539AD Medieval silver groats, brooch and buckle in use and later found in the vicinity of the village.
C. 1400 Construction of the Manor House in the village.
1643 Battle of Chalgrove during the First English Civil War.
C. 1800 Mill constructed in the village.
1943 Construction of the airfield to the north of the village during the Second World War.
The Battle of Chalgrove (1643) The battle formed part of the First English Civil War (1642—1646), a series of armed conflicts between Parliamentarian and Royalist supporters. The Battle of Chalgrove took place in 1643 as the Royalist forces, led by Prince Rupert, the nephew of Charles I, set out to meet a Parliamentarian pay convoy. After being harried by the Parliamentarian troops, the Royalists beat them back before returning to Oxford. A Grade II listed monument is located at the south-eastern extent of the battlefield. It features a relief of Colonel John Hampden, an influential Parliamentarian politician who died following wounds he received during the battle.
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Site history, heritage and archaeology Chalgrove Airfield (1943â€”present) The majority of the 20th century assets in the locality relate to Chalgrove Airfield which opened in 1943. It was used by units from the United States Air Force during World War II (WW2) and had three runways and two aircraft hangars. One of the hangars, a type T2 aircraft hangar, is still standing and is recorded as a non-designated heritage asset. The airfield was taken over by Martin Baker Aircraft Company Ltd in 1946, and the company now known as Killinchy Aerospace Holdings Ltd still use the site to research and test aircraft ejector seats. The aerial photograph above is a military vertical image dating to 1944. The photograph shows the airfield in its WW2 configuration, having been constructed in 1943. A large complex of hangars and associated buildings are visible to the west of the site area, and the three runways and perimeter track are also visible. A number of tarmac aprons, used for aircraft parking, are visible on all sides of the airfield and further metalled tracks and storage areas are visible to the north-west of the Site, north of the thin wooded area still present today. The tarmacked aprons and storage areas surrounding the airfield are now no longer visible, although there are indications of their former location through parch marks on the fields at the Siteâ€™s extents. Additionally, there are other features present which may be of historic interest including a Royal Observer Corps monitoring post and, potentially, a buried Me109 fighter plane. These are classified as non-designated heritage assets.
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Historic Map Regression The 1793 map of Oxfordshire produced by Richard Davis • The 1793 map shows the majority of the site to be in agricultural use with buildings visible towards the eastern and western extents. The buildings visible to the west are likely associated with the Hall and the Manor at Rofford. • By 1840 (tithe map, not presented) the area remains in agricultural use but has been divided into a large number of individual strip fields, occupied by different landowners.
The 1897 6-inch Ordnance Survey (OS) map of Oxfordshire • By 1897 the site remains as agricultural land, although field sizes have increased and two footpaths are shown crossing the east of the site area. • A single, small building is marked in the centre of the site but not named, and a further building is visible towards the north-western extent of the site, east of Rofford Hall.
The 1938 1:25000 OS map of Oxfordshire • The OS map published in 1959 but surveyed in 1938 shows the majority of the area intentionally left blank, likely as a result of WWII/ post-War use of the airfield. The map shows Rofford Hall, the village and the battlefield at the extents of the site, but the previous road layout is no longer visible.
2017 Site Plan • In 1967 a bypass was constructed to form the new route of the B480 around the northern edge of the village of Chalgrove to the south of the airfield.
• The Chiselhampton Road crosses the site roughly from east to west, and the continuation of the present day Rofford Lane joins this road in the west of the site area. A further road, running roughly north-south passes from Chalgrove Common, to the north of the site, to meet the Chiselhampton Road, and a small road links the Chiselhampton Road with Chalgrove Village in the centre of the site.
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Key Assets Plan showing all heritage assets within 1km of the proposed development site
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Topography • The airfield sits in relatively lower lying flat land, situated between the Chiltern Hills to the east, and higher ground of the Oxford Green Belt. • With the airfield situated on lower land, long distance views over and beyond the site can be achieved. • Its use as an airfield with active runways means the site is relatively flat and clear of any overhead services and vegetation. Along the southern and northern edges of the site the topography falls away from the flat, higher lying centre of the site.
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• No Tree Preservation Orders or Conservation Areas within or immediately adjacent to Site (as of 30.11.16), closest protected trees shown on the Plan. • Areas of deciduous woodland are located within and adjacent to the Site (as shown on the plan). Good quality woodland is generally considered to be of high value and should be retained and protected. • Potentially Significant Trees are those which may be of particular importance due to their size or position. • It is generally not appropriate to build houses within an RPA but no dig hard surfacing, alternative foundations or other special measures may permit hard surfacing, services, small structures etc in this area if unavoidable. • BS5837:2012 recommends new hard surfacing within an RPA doesn’t exceed 20%. • Trees shade land to the north west, north and east of their position – avoid large percentages of open space or key living spaces in shaded areas.
Tree Canopies derived from Bluesky National Tree Map (NTM) data Indicative Root Protection Area Priority Habitat Inventory Deciduous Woodland (England) Tree Protection Orders Conservation Areas Potentially Significant Trees
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Surface Water and Sustainable Drainage Strategy Surface Water & Suds Options
Foul Water Options
Introduction The surface water drainage & SuDS (Sustainable Drainage Systems) will be based around the principles of the SuDS Manual (CIRIA C753). This is the ultimate guidance on all water-based environmental ‘green’ features that are designed to reduce rainwater runoff at source, hence decrease the likelihood of flooding whilst improving water quality and the appearance, amenity and biodiversity of an area. This will be achieved by incorporating ponds, swales and similar features into the design and landscape of the development, thus creating a more natural drainage environment than by using traditional piped drainage systems.
Introduction The incumbent water authority for the area is Thames Water who currently own, operate and maintain the existing Chalgrove Sewage Treatment Works (STW) which lies to the north east of the site and serves Chalgrove itself. Thames Water have been consulted on the Chalgrove Airfield development proposals with a view to utilising the existing STW to treat the effluent generated by the potential development.
Potential Surface Water Options The site is split into three natural catchments which discharge to adjacent watercourses at the south and west of the site. Surface water run-off generated by impermeable areas throughout future development will be collected via a combination of SuDS features and traditional drainage system and conveyed towards the existing watercourses at the edge of the site. Discharge rates to the existing watercourses will be restricted so as to mimic the existing undeveloped drainage regime i.e. greenfield run-off rate or lower where possible. Attenuation of excess run-off will be provided using the principles of Sustainable Urban Drainage and retained on site prior to discharging to the adjacent watercourses. Mitigation of Flood Risk The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) requires that future development provides no increase in flooding to adjacent and downstream property. It is recognised that Chalgrove is within the floodplain of the Chalgrove Brook and suffers from flooding. Little Milton is known to flood from the Haseley Brook regularly during winter. There are three surface water catchments for the Chalgrove Airfield site: one discharging to the Chalgrove Brook; and two discharging to local watercourses prior to flowing into the Haseley Brook. All discharge points are downstream of Chalgrove. Development on undeveloped land will increase runoff through the construction of impermeable surfaces. In order to mitigate against an increase to flood risk both on-site and in surrounding areas, the surface water discharge from the site will potentially be restricted to existing Greenfield Run-off rates or lower where possible. This will ensure that even in extreme storms, runoff from the development is not increasing flood risk to downstream areas. Discussions with Oxfordshire County Council and the Environment Agency are ongoing to ensure the drainage design principles meet their requirements and that flood risk is properly addressed.
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Potential Options Discussions are ongoing and there are a number of issues to address before a decision can be made on the most appropriate option for the site. However, there are two main options being considered: 1. Utilisation of the existing Chalgrove STW - Collection of sewage by gravity sewers to a pumping station within the site prior to pumping via rising main to the existing Thames Water owned Chalgrove STW. Effluent will then be treated prior to being discharged to the adjacent water course which ultimately discharges to the Haseley Brook. This will require upgrades to the Chalgrove STW and agreement with the Environment Agency for any change to the discharge to the watercourse; 2. New on-site sewage treatment facility - Collection of sewage by gravity sewers to an onsite pumping station where the effluent will be pumped to a new on-site STW. The effluent will then be treated to the appropriate standards before being discharged to the nearest receiving watercourse. Treated effluent would need to be discharged to either the western “Rofford” stream, or to the Chalgrove Brook located south west of the site, depending on further investigation of the suitability of the receiving watercourse, discussion with the Environment Agency and Thames Water, and the final location of the on-site treatment works.
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Utilities Strategy Introduction This utilities strategy has been prepared to ensure that the residents who will live in the development will have access to the fundamental provisions of electricity, gas, water and telecommunications for phone and the use of the internet. We have been in contact with utility companies who have networks in this area, and we have been coordinating with them to understand the utilities requirements of the Chalgrove Airfield site. A critical aspect of this is understanding whether capacity is available within existing networks to serve the development and whether additional off-site works are required.
Electricity Existing Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) are responsible for the electrical infrastructure within the Chalgrove area. To the south of the site there are significant low and high voltage networks serving Chalgrove, fed by a series of substations. There is a small electrical network, north west of the site located within Rofford. There is currently little in the way of existing electricity cables within the Airfield site itself. Potential Option The current proposal is to source electricity from the Scottish & Southern Energy (SSE) Drayton St Leonard High Street substation, 3.5km south-west of the site. A new cable could be laid across fields, crossing the River Thame near Newington, towards the site. An additional connection will be required from the existing high voltage network east of Stadhampton. Routing would be along the B480.
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Existing Southern Gas Networks (SGN) are responsible for the gas infrastructure within the Chalgrove area. An SGN Medium Pressure (MP) gas supply is present within the B480 road that runs along the southern site boundary. SGN also has a Low Pressure (LP) network in the town of Chalgrove.
Existing Telecommunications in the area are primarily provided by BT Openreach. Within the Airfield site, there is a BT Openreach underground network serving the existing Martin Baker land extent.
Potential Option Upgrade of the existing gas network will be required to accommodate the development. A new gas main would be required to be installed which could be laid along the B480 with new connections to serve the Airfield site. Gas governors would be required to convert the Medium Pressure Gas to Low Pressure for distribution throughout the potential development.
Water Existing A water supply network is present throughout the main built-up area of Chalgrove to the south of the Airfield site boundary. This is fed from the north-west and south via the B480 road that runs along the southern site boundary. Potential Option Discussion with Thames Water is ongoing to decide how the potential development could be supplied with potable water. This includes Thames Water carrying out a hydraulic study of their existing network to assess the impact and requirement for any upgrade of existing pipework in order to ensure adequate supply and pressure.
Throughout the main built-up area of Chalgrove to the south of the site, there is a mix of overhead and underground BT Openreach cables. There is also a small network to the north-west of the site in Rofford. BT Openreach underground infrastructure also exists with the B480 that runs along the southern site boundary. Potential Option BT Openreach have confirmed they will be able to serve the potential development with their latest Fibre to the Premises (FTTP) technology, enabling superfast internet speeds of up to 300Mb. Discussion with BT Openreach is ongoing with regard to establishing potential cable routes, however it is likely be that any connection to the potential site would be off the existing BT Openreach cables that run along the B480.
Additional Considerations The current options have been developed with the utility companies based on estimates of the type and size of potential development. As any potential proposals evolve, this may impact on the utility options which will need to be reviewed. This will enable the companies to determine exactly which parts of their networks would need to be upgraded, where and when to install any new pipes and cables.
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Landscape Introduction This section of the briefing pack considers the landscape character and quality of Chalgrove Airfield and the surrounding area. Reference is made to national designations but also to the following key documents: • Countryside Agency National Character Area (NCA) Profile (2014)
South Oxfordshire Landscape value criteria Value
Very High importance (or quality) and rarity. No or International limited potential for substitution
World Heritage Site SAC
High importance (or quality) and rarity. Limited potential for substitution
National Park / AONB SSSI EH Register Grade I and II listed buildings and their settings National recreational route or area e.g. Thames Path/Open Access
Setting of AONB / National Park Local landscape designation Landscape value identified in the Local Plan SINC/Conservation Areas and their setting Grade II listed buildings and their setting Local Wildlife sites Regional recreational route/area e.g. Chiltern Way
• Oxfordshire Wildlife and Landscape Study
• South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment • Landscape Capacity Assessment for sites on the edge of the Larger Villages in South Oxfordshire (2014)
Medium importance (or quality) and rarity. Limited potential for substitution
Local importance (or quality) and rarity. Limited potential for substitution
Undesignated but value expressed through publications such as Village Design Statements Local buildings of historic interest and their settings Local recreational facilities of landscape value
Low importance (or quality) or rarity
Area of little value and identified for improvement
Source: Landscape Capacity Assessment for Sites on the edge of the larger villages in South Oxfordshire (May 2014)
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The plan shows that Chalgrove Airfield is located between the Oxford Green Belt to the north and west and the Chilterns AONB to the south and south-east. The relatively narrow corridor between the Green Belt and AONB is not the subject of any national or local landscape designations. Although the South Oxfordshire Local Plan previously identified much of this land as â€œArea of Great Landscape Valueâ€? (AGLV), this designation is no longer used. Chalgrove Village and Chalgrove Airfield were excluded from the AGLV designation.
Site Boundary AONB Area Oxford Green Belt
Site Boundary AONB Area Oxford Green Belt
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Landscape Local landscape character The Oxfordshire Wildlife and Landscape Study and the South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment describe the Clay Vale landscape area as a low lying vale landscape associated with small pasture fields, many watercourse and hedgerow trees and welldefined nucleated villages. It notes that its key characteristics include:
These areas include “active or disused airfields, with a highly distinctive character of flat open landscape”, whose key characteristics include:
• A flat, low-lying landform
• Large expanse of ground with very little vegetation to interrupt views and an open, exposed character
• Mixed land uses, dominated by pastureland, with small to medium-sized hedged fields • Many mature oak, ash and willow hedgerow trees • Dense, tree-lined streams and ditches dominated by pollarded willows and poplars The landscape character area is considered to be ‘remarkably unvarying’ but there are a number of distinctions drawn, including “two distinctive, flat airfield sites, at Chalgrove and Benson”. This is recognised in the South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment which highlights “areas of landscape where the underlying character is overwhelmed by specific land uses or management regimes.”
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• Flat low-lying land
• Typical features of high security fences, large-scale sheds or other buildings which are out of character with their rural setting • High intervisibility It is clear therefore that Chalgrove Airfield is not considered representative of the wider Clay Vale landscape.
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Local landscape character /RFDOODQGVFDSHFKDUDFWHU
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Key Key Key Key Key
Open escarpment escarpment 22 Open Open escarpment escarpment 22 Open Open escarpment Enclosed escarpment Enclosed escarpment escarpment Enclosed Enclosed Enclosed escarpment escarpment Open dipslope dipslope Open Open dipslope dipslope Open Open dipslope Semi-enclosed dipslope dipslope Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed dipslope dipslope Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed dipslope Wooded dipslope Wooded dipslope dipslope Wooded Wooded Wooded dipslope dipslope Commons and and heaths Commons Commons and and heaths heaths Commons Commons and heaths heaths
/RFDOODQGVFDSHFKDUDFWHU 7KH2[IRUGVKLUH:LOGOLIHDQG/DQGVFDSH6WXG\DQGWKH6RXWK 2[IRUGVKLUH/DQGVFDSH$VVHVVPHQWGHVFULEHWKH&OD\9DOHODQGVFDSH DUHDDVDORZO\LQJYDOHODQGVFDSHDVVRFLDWHGZLWKVPDOOSDVWXUHĂ€HOGV PDQ\ZDWHUFRXUVHDQGKHGJHURZWUHHVDQGZHOOGHĂ€QHGQXFOHDWHG YLOODJHV,WQRWHVWKDWLWVNH\FKDUDFWHULVWLFVLQFOXGH Â‡ $Ă DWORZO\LQJODQGIRUP Â‡ 0L[HGODQGXVHVGRPLQDWHGE\SDVWXUHODQGZLWKVPDOOWR PHGLXPVL]HGKHGJHGĂ€HOGV Â‡ 0DQ\PDWXUHRDNDVKDQGZLOORZKHGJHURZWUHHV Â‡ 'HQVHWUHHOLQHGVWUHDPVDQGGLWFKHVGRPLQDWHGE\SROODUGHG ZLOORZVDQGSRSODUV
Chiltern landscapes landscapes Chiltern Chiltern landscapes landscapes Chiltern Chiltern landscapes
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Flat open open farmland Flat Flat open open farmland farmland Flat Flat open farmland farmland Flat, semi-enclosed farmla farmla Flat, semi-enclosed semi-enclosed Flat, farmla Flat, Flat, semi-enclosed semi-enclosed farmlan farmla Flat floodplain floodplain pasture pasture Flat Flat floodplain pasture pasture Flat Flat floodplain floodplain pasture Floodplain wetland wetland Floodplain Floodplain wetland wetland Floodplain Floodplain wetland
Downs and and Vale Vale Fringe Downs Downs and and Vale Vale Fringe Fringe Downs Landscapes Downs and Vale Fringe Fringe Landscapes Landscapes Landscapes Landscapes
Parkland landscapes landscapes Parkland Parkland landscapes landscapes Parkland Parkland landscapes
Open rolling rolling downs Open Open rolling rolling downs downs Open Open rolling downs downs Semi-enclosed rolling rolling downs Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed rolling rolling downs downs Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed rolling downs downs
Parkland and and estate farmla farmla Parkland Parkland and and estate estate farmla farmla Parkland Parkland and estate estate farmla
Clay Vale Vale landscapes Clay Clay Vale Vale landscapes landscapes Clay Clay Vale landscapes landscapes
Other landscapes landscapes Other Other landscapes landscapes Other Other landscapes
Undulating open open vale Undulating Undulating open open vale vale Undulating Undulating open vale vale Undulating semi-enclosed vale Undulating semi-enclosed semi-enclosed vale Undulating vale Undulating Undulating semi-enclosed semi-enclosed vale vale Undulating wooded wooded vale Undulating Undulating wooded wooded vale vale Undulating Undulating wooded vale vale
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Floodplain landscapes landscapes Floodplain Floodplain landscapes landscapes Floodplain Floodplain landscapes
Mid-vale Ridge Ridge landscapes Mid-vale Mid-vale Ridge Ridge landscapes landscapes Mid-vale Mid-vale Ridge landscapes landscapes
Amenity landscapes landscapes Amenity Amenity landscapes landscapes Amenity Amenity landscapes Minerals/landfill sites Minerals/landfill sites sites Minerals/landfill Minerals/landfill Minerals/landfill sites sites Airfields/MOD sites sites Airfields/MOD Airfields/MOD sites sites Airfields/MOD Airfields/MOD sites Institutions Institutions Institutions Institutions Institutions
Open farmed farmed hills and and valleys Open Open farmed farmed hills hills and and valleys valleys Open Open farmed hills hills and valleys valleys Semi-enclosed farmed farmed hills hills and and valleys Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed farmed farmed hills and and valleys valleys Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed farmed hills hills and valleys valleys Wooded hills hills and valleys valleys Wooded Wooded hills hills and and valleys valleys Wooded Wooded hills and and valleys
Key Key Chiltern Chiltern landscapes landscapes
Floodplain Floodplain landscapes landscapes
Open Open escarpment escarpment
Flat Flat open open farmland farmland
Enclosed Enclosed escarpment escarpment
Flat, Flat, semi-enclosed semi-enclosed farmland farmland
Open Open dipslope dipslope
Flat Flat floodplain floodplain pasture pasture
Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed dipslope dipslope
Floodplain Floodplain wetland wetland
Wooded Wooded dipslope dipslope Commons Commons and and heaths heaths
Downs Downs and and Vale Vale Fringe Fringe Landscapes Landscapes
Parkland Parkland landscapes landscapes
Open Open rolling rolling downs downs
Parkland Parkland and and estate estate farmland farmland
Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed rolling rolling downs downs
Clay Clay Vale Vale landscapes landscapes
Other Other landscapes landscapes
Undulating Undulating open open vale vale
Amenity Amenity landscapes landscapes
Undulating Undulating semi-enclosed semi-enclosed vale vale
Minerals/landfill Minerals/landfill sites sites
Undulating Undulating wooded wooded vale vale
Airfields/MOD Airfields/MOD sites sites Institutions Institutions
Mid-vale Mid-vale Ridge Ridge landscapes landscapes 6RXUFH6RXWK2[IRUGVKLUH/DQGVFDSH$VVHVVPHQW Open Open farmed farmed hills hills and and valleys valleys Semi-enclosed Semi-enclosed farmed farmed hills hills and and valleys valleys Wooded Wooded hills hills and and valleys valleys
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 38
Landscape Landscape Value
South Oxfordshire notes on landscape sensitivity assessment Factor
Strong hedgerow structure with hedgerow trees
Weak structure and no trees
Species rich grassland
Significant water feature(s)
No water feature(s)
Varied landform and distinctive feature of the area
Uniform landform and lack of topographical features
Lack of geological features
Soils significantly contribute to landscape features
Soils are not an improtant feature
Complex and vulnerable landcover
Simple robust landcover
Presence of other significant vegetation cover
Absence of other significant vegetation
Presence of valued wildlife habitats
Absence of valued wildlife habitats
Significant wetland habitats and meadows
Poor water logged areas
Presence of common land
No common land
Presence of good heathland
Distinctive good quality boundary features
Generic or poor boundary features
Evidence of surviving part of an historic landscape
Complex historic landscape pattern with good time depth
Simple modern landscape
Evidence of historic park
Important to setting or in a Conservation Area
Includes a Scheduled Ancient Monument or Important to setting
Locally distinctive built form and pattern
Generic built form
Important to setting of a Listed building
Distinctive strong settlement pattern
Generic or eroded pattern
Locally significant private gardens
Poorly maintained gardens erode the character
Evidence of visible social cultural associations
Lack of social cultural associations
Absence of intrusive elements
Intrusive elements present
High levels of light pollution
Open exposed landscape
Enclosed visually contained landscape
Unified landscape with strong landscape pattern
Fragmented/’bitty’ or featureless landscape
Well used area or appreciated by the public
Inaccessible by public
Important rights of way
Well used and valued open air recreational facilities
Open access land
The construction of the Airfield means that most of the landscape features typical for this character area have been removed. The field pattern of various sized fields, the hedgerows, tree plantations, drainage ditches and streams are not present on the site. This is recognised in the South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment which identifies Chalgrove Airfield as an alien feature in the Clay Vale landscape. The report also advises that:
“small pockets of landscape fall within the reconstruct category. These occur primarily within the Clay Vale and Vale Fringes and include the two major airfteld sites at Chalgrove and Benson”. “Reconstruct - this strategy applies in those areas where the character and quality of the landscape has been substantially modified by poor land management, non-agricultural land uses, or intrusive features, eg. airfields, built development, mineral extraction, roads, power lines etc. They require more significant intervention to mitigate the influence of detracting land uses or features, to raise landscape quality and to reconstruct landscape character and identity. It is important to stress that these strategies do not equate with any nationally established system or yardstick but are adapted from Countryside Commission guidance to suit the particular Approach and Rationale 4 circumstances of South Oxfordshire District. They should therefore be regarded as indicative of differences in quality and condition which occur within the context of the District and comparisons should not be made with similar strategies applied elsewhere.” In accordance with Table 5 of South Oxfordshire Landscape Capacity Assessment the Airfield is appropriately considered as an “Area of little value and identified for improvement” and therefore of “Low” landscape value.
Source: Landscape Capacity Assessment for Sites on the edge of the larger villages in South Oxfordshire (May 2014)
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 39
Landscape enhancement strategy
Key: Conserve Repair Restore Reconstruct 6RXUFH6RXWK2[IRUGVKLUH/DQGVFDSH$VVHVVPHQW
Source: South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 40
Landscape Geological character The Oxfordshire Wildlife and Landscape Study states that:
“The heavy clay soils have traditionally made settlement difftcult and there are still signiftcant areas which are sparsely settled including, for example, the land to the north of Chalgrove. The settlement pattern is characterised by a well-defined pattern of small to medium-sized nucleated villages and sparsely dispersed farmhouses located mainly within the farming units rather than bordering roadsides. The vernacular character is quite prominent in most of the villages, especially in Weston-on-the Green, Blackthorn, Little Milton and Little Haseley”. The South Oxfordshire Landscape Assessment states that:
“Settlement pattern within the vale is strongly influenced by physical factors. The heavy clay soils and a risk of flooding have traditionally discouraged settlement on areas underlain by the Gault Clay and there are still quite large areas of the vale which are sparsely settled (eg. to the north-east of Chalgrove). However, the area does contain the town of Thame and a number of smaller villages which tend to be associated with the sandstones and mudstones of the Portland Beds, Upper Greensand and Kimmeridge Clays. For example, Thame is built on a sandstone island which emerges from the surrounding clay and is almost entirely encircled by the River Thame and its tributaries.” The geology map shows that Chalgrove village and the airfield are built on similar islands of younger river gravels surrounded by Gault Clay. This suggests that the site’s geology is suitable for settlement.
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 41
Key Solid geology London Clay/Reading Beds
Drift geology Alluvium/Younger River Gravels
Kimmeridge Clay/ Ampthill Sands
Head and Coombe Deposits
Clay with Flints
Solid geology only shown in this area
Older River Gravels
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Visual Assessment Key features around the site Views of existing features should form an integral element of the masterplan design because they will help to define a sense of place for new development and assist in responding appropriately to the landscape context.
The Chilterns escarpment is a key feature in views to the east and is within an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB)
Views across the airfield site from the B480
Views east on the B480 Fox Covert and Little Holcombe Covert form a prominent feature on the gentle ridge south of the airfield site
The undulating wooded landscape is an attractive feature to the north
Views across the western part of the site heading west
View from the footpath along the ridge south of Chalgrove
View from Mill Lane
View west from the Warpsgrove Lane
Distant views of Wittenham Clumps to the west
Typical vista towards the site from the residential edge of Chalgrove (Laurel Close)
The Grade II listed Rofford Manor is located close to the northwestern edge of the airfield site
Looking north along Marley Lane from The Lamb public house with 1 Marley Lane on the left (both Grade II listed)
The Grade II listed Rofford Hall overlooks the western end of the airfield site
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 42
Ground Conditions Development History Historically the site and its surrounding area were dominated by agricultural farmland until 1943 when the site was requisitioned by the Air Ministry for the development of Chalgrove Airfield. The airfield was occupied by the United States Army Air Force from late 1943 to 1994/5, designated Station 465 observation and transportation unit for the 9th Air Force. The development of the airfield comprised 3 tarmac/ concrete runways, perimeter track, 50 loop dispersals, bomb stores and 2 No. T2 Hangars. The airfield was handed back to Royal Airforce by 1945 following WWII where it became a satellite for RAF Benson. A royal observer corps monitoring post underground bunker was built on the site in 1958 for confirming and reporting hostile aircraft and nuclear attacks on the UK, it was closed by 1968. Post WWII in 1945 what was then known as Martin Baker Aircraft Company Ltd were given authority by the MOD to carry out experiments for aircraft ejection seat training. This is still being carried out on the site. Unexploded Ordnance Station 465 was initially used during WWII by Photographic Reconnaissance Groups to obtain aerial photography of enemy positions in Europe prior to the D-Day invasions of Normandy and to inform Allied bomb raids. Later in WWII it was the base of the US Army Pathfinder Paratroops and transport aircraft, with accompanying long-range fighter-bomber aircraft. The site was known for having the following features: • • • • •
Bomb and munition stores Flame float stores Machine gun test butts Possible disposal areas Machine gun range
During WWII the site was situated within the Rural District of Bullingdon which is officially recorded as a very low regional bombing density. No WWII bombing is recorded on the site.
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 43
The Figure to the right from Zetica UXO Reporting indicates 3 main areas of Moderate risk within the site M1, an area to the south west of the site was used during WWII for test butts for harmonising aircraft guns, and M2 represents two areas of disturbed ground, generally typical of shallow disposal by burial, located within the former bomb store area. Geology and Hydrogeology The BGS published records (Sheet 245 Henley on Thames Solid and Drift, 1:50,000) indicated the following geological succession: Period
River Terrace Deposits Summertown-Radley Sand and Gravel Member
Secondary A Aquifer
Gault Formation (Mudstone)
Hydrology The nearest surface water features are as follows: Surface Water Feature
On site (Northern boundary)
Immediate west boundary (Rofford)
~0.21km South West
UXO hazard zone plan of the site
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 44
Ground Conditions A desk based study was carried out assessing the historic and current uses at the site to establish whether any potentially contaminative features are present. No significant Geo-hazards were identified at the site. Given the use as a historical Military Aircraft site there is potential for risk associated with contamination to be present. The preliminary risk assessment indicated that the site was generally low risk however localised potential areas of contamination may be present. Such as • Munitions stores; • Made ground/areas of hardstanding; • Historical buildings such as workshops and hangars; and • Disturbed ground. If localised ground contamination is discovered which could cause a risk to human health or controlled waters a ground remediation strategy will need to be put in place in order to mitigate the hazards and prevent any further risks. Any remediation that may be required on the site will ensure that the land is suitable for development.
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 45
Potentially contaminative features
The plan shows the types of grasslands present on site. Improved grassland is ecological poor and generally of low quality; it has been largely modified through the additional of fertilizer and/or seeding. Usually itâ€™s grown as feed for cattle. Semi-improved grassland is potentially of greater importance - there is some modification but not as much as Improved Grassland. At this stage we know that there are some areas that are of higher quality than others.
Site Boundary Hedge with trees - species-poor Intact hedge - species-poor Running water Broadleaved woodland - semi-natural Ponds Improved grassland Mixed woodland - plantation Neutral grassland - semi-improved Other tall herb and fern - ruderal Poor semi-improved grassland
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 46
Site Features The airfield is predominantly free from constraints. An assessment has identified that the only regional, national or international designation within the site boundary is the Registered Battlefield site. Regard also needs to be had to the setting of nearby listed buildings, Chalgrove Village and to long distance views from and to the AONB, Chiltern Hills towards the east as noted on the plan on the adjacent page. Its current use as an airfield with active runways means the site is relatively flat and clear of any overhead services and vegetation. Along the southern and northern edges of the site the topography falls away from the flat, higher lying centre of the site. This currently means part of the site has surface water running towards Chalgrove Brook in the south. The majority of the surface water discharges to the Brookes to the north west of the site that eventually feed into Haseley Brook.
Existing runway on site
Expansive site with little vegetation except along boundary edges
Rofford Manor to the north-west of the airfield
B480 between airfield and Chalgrove
Monument Business Park to the east of the airfield
Flooding issues along the High Street
The location of the historic Oxford-Watlington Road has been indicated on the plan overleaf, which ran through the centre of the airfield. This route ran to the north of Chalgrove and connected into the existing B480 on the western and eastern edges of Chalgrove. Traffic generation and distribution has been discussed at length with Oxfordshire County Council to agree assumptions. It has been calculated on the basis of 3,500 houses and a reasonable level of additional facilities such as schools and shops to encourage some trips to be made locally. The methodology calculates the number of person trips generated by the development for different trip purposes (e.g. commuting, retail, education) and at different times of the day, using data from the National Travel Survey. Assumptions have been made on the destinations of each trip purpose and the mode of travel for each destination. We have agreed a “likely” scenario for distribution and mode share with OCC, presented in black. Additionally we have created a range of scenarios for the network as a whole, including a more Oxford-centric distribution and a more SouthEast-centric distribution, and higher car driver mode share. The numbers in red show the “worst case” level of traffic flow of all the scenarios tested. The spreadsheet model makes assumptions on the choice of routes that drivers will use to get to their destination. This will be refined through the use of Oxfordshire County Council’s strategic traffic model. This will identify the most advantageous routes and the proportion of drivers which will use each one. The mitigation strategy will encourage drivers to use certain routes and avoid certain others. For example, for the purpose of this diagram it has been assumed that traffic travelling to/from the direction of Little Milton will use the A329/B480 route, rather than Rofford Lane. However within the analysis being undertaken it is recognised that to achieve this would require mitigation measures and that Rofford Lane remains a potential route.
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 47
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 48
Built Structures Existing built structures on the site are limited given the airfield land use. The hard surfacing of the runways and outer ‘peri’ track form the main built character elements, alongside a cluster of larger footprint buildings to the east associated with the operations of Martin Baker. Although the number of buildings on the site are limited, the combined built elements create a total coverage of over 30 hecatres. The figure ground plan overleaf highlights the character of larger footprint buildings associated with the employment uses at Martin Baker on the airfield site and the nearby Monument Business Park to the east. A ‘finer grain’ of development is apparent to south within Chalgrove village where the existing dwellings present smaller footprint buildings. As set out in the site history section, there are a number of features associated with the WW2 uses on site, which could be buried and are assumed to be still present. This includes extant bomb shelters, other structures and the former tarmac aprons. In addition, the fuselage of a German aircraft, purportedly a Messerschmitt Bf 109, is allegedly buried close to the site of the former control tower in the centre of the airfield. Martin Baker reportedly received the aircraft for experimenting upon following the cessation of WW2 hostilities. The aircraft was later disposed of (likely buried) when it was deemed surplus to requirements.
Chalgrove Airfield - Briefing Pack | 49
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Built Character of Chalgrove The village of Chalgrove lies immediately to the south of the airfield and provides the closest built character reference for the airfield site. The village originally developed along the narrow stream that runs along the valley base south of the Oxford-Watlington road. This forms a key characteristic of the village, a linear development, with a strong relationship with water. The high street runs along the length of a smaller Brook, with open water channels along the road/ pavement edge. The historic core of the village is designated as a Conservation Area and the extract text opposite from South Oxfordshire District Councilâ€™s Charcater Study summaries the key built character qualities of the area.
Chalgrove Conservation Area - a character study (extract) South Oxfordshire District Council - 15/06/11 The Established Character The topography of Chalgrove as a whole is fairly flat. A major part of the character of the conservation area is the stream, which runs alongside the road. The development within and close to the conservation area is mainly linear, along the High Street and is also clustered around the village green. Modern housing impinges on the historic character throughout much of Chalgrove with much infill between many of the older buildings. There are, however, many listed buildings in the village. Around The Green, most of the buildings are thatched with either timber frame and render or painted brick walls. No. 1 dates to the 17th century and was formerly the village shop and bakery with apparently some of the original shop fittings remaining inside (Harman 1990, 6). No. 4 has the date 1680 carved into its chimney beam. The Red Lion and The Old Vicarage also make a vital contribution to the character of the conservation area. Buildings of local interest, which are not listed, include The Crown, 101 High Street, Croxfordâ€™s Stores and the John Hampden Hall. Vernacular building materials within the village include timber frame with rendered or brick infill, local limestone, red brick, thatch, and clay tile. In the majority of buildings the windows are small wooden casements, apart from The Old Vicarage (which has 6 pane sashes) and the Victorian buildings which are generally sashed. Stretches of retaining wall run along the stream on the north side of the High Street. Constructed principally of stone, they make a strong contribution to the character and appearance of the village by defining the gardens of many of the houses along the stream which are otherwise open to the street, thereby giving the conservation area an attractive open and green aspect. The railings in front of The Old Vicarage and 101 High Street also add to the character of the conservation area. There are a few good trees in the conservation area, such as the sycamore and willow in The Crown garden, the contorted willow near 101 High Street and an ailanthus and large horse chestnut in the gardens of the houses behind the Green. The most important views within the conservation area are onto and around The Green, although the view down the High Street is also notable. Apart from The Green, other areas of important open space include the garden for The Crown, the gardens to The Red Lion, 111 and 113 High Street and the area in front of the wall to Swinstead Court and 101 High Street. The only area of attractive road surfacing that remains is the gravelled strip around The Green and a few granite sets along the dropped kerb on the corner of the Green, opposite the bus stop. The small extension to the conservation area made in December 2000 includes the attractive stretch of stone and brick wall by the footpath along the western boundary of the school.
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Village Pub Village pub High Street High Street
War Monument Monument Chalgrove Manor Chalgrove Manor Village shops Village shops Conservation Area Conservation Area Chalgrove Methodist Church Chalgrove Methodist Church Chalgrove Community Primary Chalgrove Community Primary School School Village Hall Village Hall St Maryâ€™s Church Maryâ€™s Church
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Built Character of Chalgrove High Street
Beyond the historic core, development in Chalgrove presents a wide range of styles reflective and typical of the different periods of construction. The plan overleaf highlights the different built character areas across the village. Although examples of different styles and periods of development can be found in each of these areas, the plan defines the predominant form of development present. The typical built character details for these areas are highlighted in summary boxes shown opposite.
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Period properties with occasional modern infill development
Mainly 2-3 storeys in height
Mix of brick, stone and render, with some thatched roofs
Feature stream and retaining wall
Grass verges, small greens and front gardens bring greenery
Historic buildings clustered to the south of the village close to the watercourses passing through
Converted barns and mill buildings
Timber framed, brick, stone and render
Grade I listed church and manor house
Later development found predomintley on the northern fringe of Chalgrove.
Small infill plots have been integrated with historic parts of the village
Buildings range from 1 - 2 storeys
Post 1940’s development
Post war housing estates
Mainly 1 - 2 storeys in height
Predominantly brick with a range of brick colours and types
On-plot (drives & garages) and shared courtyards/garage parking
Front gardens with walled and hedge boundaries
Character of Chalgrove
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The Village of Chalgrove The plan highlights elements of the character of the centre of the village. The inclusion of water into the form of the village, creates a unique high street experience, with access into homes off the high street from bridged driveways over the water course. The high street runs the length of the water, of which forms a linear settlement along this feature. In the heart of the village a triangular green forms a central focus, fronted by buildings on all sides.
Plan of Chalgrove
Village stores High street
The Red Lion The Crown Village green Memorial
Driveway access across Brook
Brook (water course)
Chalgrove Community Primary School
Chalgrove Village Hall
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Access to properties over Brook
The Red Lion
Brook (Water course)
Historic character of Chalgrove +LVWRULFFKDUDFWHURI &KDOJURYH
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Community Facilities The team has undertaken a review of existing evidence that has been gathered by South Oxfordshire District Council in relation to settlements, facilities and community services in the District. Community Facilities During the preparation of the Local Plan evidence base, South Oxfordshire District Council has published a Settlement Assessment Background Paper (June 2016). This provides an overview of the settlement hierarchy in South Oxfordshire and gives each settlement a facilities score. These facilities scores are shown on the map on this page. The facilities scores are based on the availability of the following facilities in each settlement: A score of 2 was given for each of the following: • • • • • • • • • • •
primary school secondary school further / other educational institution hospital doctors surgery or clinic dentist surgery crèche / nursery supermarket / convenience store post office pharmacy other retail shops
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South Oxfordshire Settlement Facilities Score Map
A score of 1 was given for each of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • •
shops providing financial or professional services, such as a bank restaurant / café drinking establishment, such as a pub hot food takeaway library village / community hall cinema theatre leisure centre sports club public park / garden sports pitch playground
The settlement assessment indicates a facilities score of 26 for Chalgrove with the following facilities in the village: • convenience stores • post office • pharmacy • pubs • takeaway • primary school • GP surgery • Crèche / nursery • Village hall • Sports club • Parks and gardens • Sports ground Green Infrastructure South Oxfordshire District Council published a Green Infrastructure (GI) Strategy in March 2011. ‘Green infrastructure’ refers to open green spaces such as parks and gardens, woodlands, commons, playing fields, outdoor sports facilities, recreation spaces, rights of way and river corridors. The evidence base for the adopted South Oxfordshire Core Strategy also includes the Open Space, Sport and Recreation Facility Assessment (2008), which gives a picture of these types of spaces across the District. Policy CSQ4 of the South Oxfordshire Core Strategy requires that Design Briefs are created for major development sites. Within a Design Brief there should be a clear structure of open spaces and landscape network to ensure that open space standards are met.
The GI Strategy informs standards for open and green space in new developments. This strategy will need to be updated for the emerging Local Plan allocations; however, it provides a guide for current requirements. Updated open space standards were published in 2013 seeking for: Provision and Location
Standards 3.5 hectares of parks and gardens per 1,000 people
Parks and Gardens Didcot, Henley, Thame and Parks and gardens located Wallingford within 1,000m of all homes in the settlement
Parks and Gardens Larger villages
1 hectare of parks and gardens per 1,000 people Parks and gardens located
Type A ‘Neighbourhood Park’ of at least 20ha and two or more ‘Small Local Parks’ extending to at least 2ha each
Single, multi-function park or recreation ground
At least one accessible natural greenspace with a minimum size of 2.0 ha. within 2km of all households Natural and semi-natural greenspace
At least one accessible natural greenspace with a minimum size of 20.0 ha. within 5km of all households
At least one accessible natural greenspace with a minimum size of 100.0 ha. within 10km of all households
1.0ha per 1,000 people and/or comprising 10% of the total site area of all new housing
Sites within 600m Allotments – towns and larger villages
0.3ha per 1,000 people Sites within 600m
High quality standard required
During our information gathering we heard that there are concerns about the limited provision of graveyard space at St Mary’s Church. The GI Strategy states that allotments, cemeteries and church yards can provide green links, wildlife stepping stones and that their connectivity is important.
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Education and Schools At the centre of a proposal for Chalgrove Airfield will be getting the right community infrastructure in place early in the development. To understand more about local education needs, we have been talking to Icknield College, Chalgrove Primary School and Oxfordshire County Council about the types of education that could be provided on the Airfield site. Secondary School requirements The map shows secondary schools in proximity to the Chalgrove Airfield site. As shown on the map, the nearest secondary school to the site is Icknield College in Watlington. Lord Williams School in Thame and Wallingford School are also near to the site. Icknield College currently has approximately 620 students aged 11-16. Lord William’s School has a lower and an upper school with approximately 2,100 students aged 11-18. Wallingford School takes students aged 11-19 and currently has about 1,080 students. Based on the amount of housing growth proposed across South Oxfordshire, Oxfordshire County Council have expressed a need for a new secondary school within the District. As Chalgrove Airfield is the strategic allocation for new housing within the preferred strategy, the provision of a new secondary school within the site has been included as part of the proposals within South Oxfordshire District Council Preferred Options document.
Area per pupil place for: Recommended minimum site areas for all schools
Base area for any primary Nursery or special school
Reception and Key Stage 1
Key Stage 2-4 and post-16
5 to 11 primary
1. Soft outdoor PE
2. Hard outdoor PE
3. Soft informal and social area
4. Hard informal and social area
Minimum net site area
Minimum total site area
Maximum total site area
Secondary Schools around Chalgrove 3
Primary School requirements Oxfordshire County Council has indicated that there would be a requirement for 2 additional primary schools to account for pupils within a proposed development at Chalgrove. National guidance for site areas for primary schools is as follows (BB103 standards):
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Primary Schools around Chalgrove 6
During our information gathering, we found out that the Icknield site now is about 4.9-5ha. According to Oxfordshire County Council and BB103 standards (national area guidelines for schools) this is approximately large enough for 800 pupils. The space standards for a secondary school are that every additional 100 secondary pupils require a minimum of 0.5ha additional land. Oxfordshire County Council has confirmed that 3,500 homes on Chalgrove Airfield might generate up to around 800 secondary pupils. To expand Icknield by this many pupils would require 4ha (to a total size of approximately 9ha); to build a new 800 place school on a fresh site would require 5-6ha.
8 9 5 15
1. Icknield Community College, Watlington OX49 5RB 2. Wallingford School, Wallingford OX10 8LB 3. Wheatley Park School, Holton, Oxford OX33 1 QH 4. Fitzharrys School, Abington OX14 1NP 5. John Mason School, Abington OX14 1JB
6. Larkmead School, Faringdon Rd, Abingdon OX14 1RF 7. Lord Williams’s School, Thame OX9 2AQ 8. Gillotts School, Henley-on-Thames RG9 1PS
1. Chalgrove Community Primary School, High St, Chalgrove, Oxford OX44 7ST 2. Watlington Primary School, Love Ln, Watlington OX49 5RB 3. Stadhampton Primary School, Stadhampton, Oxford OX44 7XL 4. Ewelme Church of England Primary School, High St, Ewelme, Wallingford OX10 6HU 5. Benson C of E Primary School, Oxford Rd, Benson, Wallingford OX10 6LX 6. Great Milton C of E Primary School, The Green, Great Mlton, Oxford OX44 7NT 7. Little Milton Church of England Primary School 8. St Birinus C of England Primary School, Queen St, Dorchester, Wallingford OX10 7HR
9. St Laurence’s Church of England, Green Ln, Warborough, Wallingford OX10 7DY 10. RAF Benson Community Primary School, Wallingford OX10 6EP 11. Abbeywoods Academy, Wimblestraw Rd, Berinsfield, Wallingford OX10 7LZ 12. Lewknor C of E Primary School, High St, Lewknor, Watlington OX49 5TH 13. Garsington Church of England Primary School, Garsington, Oxford OX44 9DE 14. Tetsworth Primary School, Tetsworth, Thame OX9 7BW 15. Brightwell Primary School, Greenmere, Brightwell-cum-Sotwell, Wallingford OX10 OQH
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Section 4 Sub-Regional Transport
Sub-Regional Transport Process During the consultation process so far, movement corridors that might be affected by development at the Chalgrove Airfield site have been identified and tested with local Parish Councils. The process has included a series of individual parish meetings, together with a Strategic Corridors Infrastructure Workshop.
Identified movement corridors within the sub-region
Timeline August 2016 Meetings with Little Milton Parish Council and Watlington Parish Council and Neighbourhood Plan Forum
September 2016 Meeting with Oxfordshire County Council Meeting with Cuxham Parish Council
October 2016 Workshop with Watlington Neighbourhood Plan and Parish Council including Cuxham and Pyrton Parishes Meeting with Benson Parish Council Meeting with Oxfordshire County Council Meeting with Chalgrove Parish Council Strategic Infrastructure Corridors Workshop
November 2016 Meeting with Stadhampton Parish Council Meeting with Oxfordshire County Council
December 2016 Workshop with Little Milton Parish Council and Neighbourhood Plan Group Workshop with Benson Parish Council and Neighbourhood Plan Group Workshops with Watlington and Pyrton Parish Councils and Neighbourhood Plan Groups, Cuxham, Britwell Salome and Shirburn Parish Meetings
January 2017 Meetings with Cuxham and Stoke Talmage Parishes
February 2017 Strategic Review and access to Oxfordshire County Council Traffic Model
â€˘ Not all main roads are main movement corridors. â€˘ Some lanes are main movement corridors.
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March 2017 Further Strategic Infrastructure Workshop(s)
The First Strategic Workshop Presentation and Discussion The first Strategic Infrastructure Corridors Workshop took place on 31st October 2016. Parishes from across South Oxfordshire were invited to attend a full day workshop on movement and traffic matters across the District.
The program for the day included short presentations from each Parish about the key traffic and transport issues in their area. This was followed by breaking into smaller groups to discuss these issues in more detail. The day ended with feedback from the group discussions and a presentation from the HCA team.
Parishes invited to the Strategic Workshop and previous investment in Oxfordshire • Chalgrove (1) • Watlington and Pyrton (15 and 4) • Little Milton (2) • Stadhampton (10) • Cuxham and Easington (5) • Garsington (21) • Benson (20) • Great Haseley (3) • Brightwell and Baldwin (6)
• The Oxford region is under immense pressure to grow • To date, it has grown in all areas except the South-East • Infrastructure investment has been focused on those areas of growth
• Warborough (17) • Newington (9) • Drayton St Leonard (18) • Lewknor (19) • Baldons (22 - merger of Toot Baldon and Marsh Baldon since 2012) • Shirburn (14) • Ewelme (7) • Berrick Salome (8) • Great Milton (12) • Cuddesdon and Denton (11) • Britwell Salome (16) • Stoke Talmage and Wheatfield (13) • Berinsfield (23) • Adwell (24) • Tetsworth (25)
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The First Strategic Workshop The Strategic Corridors Workshop took place on 31st October. Key concerns about the proposals for each attending parish were established through the day and existing problems with traffic and movement were discussed. This included: • Development pressure – larger villages such as Watlington and Benson are facing development pressure from a number of developers that are preparing and submitted applications for housing development.
Notes and sketches from the Strategic Workshop
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• Traffic speed through villages – villages along movement corridors experience high vehicle speeds and there are concerns with safety e.g. Shirburn.
• Pinch points – a number of villages have narrow or awkward pinch points that restrict traffic flow and cause congestion.
• HGVs – HGVs are using the road network within South Oxfordshire to reach their destination; sometimes this does not comply with weight limit restrictions.
• Footways and verges – footways do not exist in some villages, which make pedestrian movement more dangerous if there are speeding vehicles. Verges are also being eroded by vehicles.
• Parking – parking for commuting bus services needs thought, particularly in places like Lewknor or Benson.
• Increased traffic from development – growth across the District will impact upon the road network.
The First Strategic Workshop - Growth The workshop revealed a number of proposed housing developments, both within the emerging Local Plan allocations and coming forward through planning applications that give a picture of growth across the region. This shows that more development is coming forward now due to South Oxfordshire District Councilâ€™s lack of five year housing land supply.
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An emerging sub-regional movement strategy At the strategic workshop, we reviewed a layering approach to movement in the region. This page describes the layers in this strategy. The next page describes how they could be applied to the region as a whole. HGVs A strategy to deal with HGVs that are going through and not serving businesses in the area
By-passes Construction of new by-passes when traffic impact is greatest
Villages Safety and Civility in village centres to deal with rat-running and to maintain the quality of place over dominance of traffic
Quiet lanes Defining routes that can become quiet lanes
Edge streets Coordinating new development with new edge streets in places where development is happening now
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Developing proposals similar to those put forward by the Campaign to Protect Rural England in the document ‘CPRE’s guide to Quiet Lanes’. Improving bridleways, cycle routes and footpaths
We are currently talking to parishes in the region to produce a movement strategy to address the growth in traffic generated from all developments including Chalgrove. Key factors in the emerging strategy: General: • Dealing with HGVs passing through the region • Promoting public transport and in particular the new BRT • Incorporating a strategy for quiet lanes, walking, cycling, bridleways and footpaths • Traffic calming measures in village centres to reduce rat-running • Local improvements to existing roads On key movement corridors: 1. Oxford Gateway: highway improvements for the BRT 2. Stadhampton: options for a by-pass along with traffic calming in the village centre 3. Little Milton: options for a by-pass along with traffic calming in the village centre 4. Clifton Hampden: new by-pass to Culham 5. Chalgrove: local movement to be reviewed at the EbD 6. Cuxham: traffic management / calming in the village 7. Lewknor: resolution of parking and interchange for buses 8. Shirburn: addressing issues of severance 9. Watlington: options for new edge streets and reduction of traffic in town centre 10. Britwell Salome: addressing severance and the potential for East / West rat-running through the village 11. Benson: options for new edge streets and traffic calming in the village centre, addressing issues of severance from the Thames and interchange with bus routes on the A4074 12. Hollandtide Lane: Highway improvements
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PublicTransport Transport Public
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• Confirm which services and levels of service frequency would be most viable, once the masterplan/development mix is known • Determine phasing strategy and levels of subsidy which may be required prior to commercial operation
An emerging regional strategy - HGVs Key points: • Specialised Goods Vehicle Count (SGVC) undertaken on 06/10/2016 to understand more about HGV movements in the local area • Number of HGVs calculated and routes taken were identified
Methodology: • Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) studies were undertaken on 6th October 2016 at 7 sites across the study network, which enabled the calculation of the number of HGVs in the area and to establish their routes taken • ANPR cameras were used on a cordon basis to capture HGVs entering and exiting the surrounding area to the site • The cameras were in place for a 12-hour period between 7am-7pm. They collected number plates and took rolling CCTV footage • The ANPR was used to determine: o Origin-Destination of HGV movements within the survey site o Journey time between each site • The data allowed local and through movements of goods vehicles to be determined. Information on the types of vehicles was gathered including: o Industry type (e.g. General Haulage, Construction, Fuel) o Vehicle type (e.g. number of axles, articulated/rigid) o Body type (e.g. curtainsider) o Any vehicle that took over 30 minutes to travel from one camera to another was counted as ‘stopping’ and not representing a through movement Village(s)
Percentage of HGVs stopping
Total amount of vehicles
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An emerging regional strategy - HGVs Survey Results: • Highest linked HGV movements observed are shown on the maps for Chalgrove, Stadhampton and Watlington • The percentage through traffic and stopping traffic are indicated as charts for each location
Chalgrove • Key freight generators in the area include Monument Park and other industrial units off Warpsgrove Lane • Only 5% of HGV movements observed were through movements • Majority of movements serving nearby industrial units • 31 HGVs observed entering Monument Road during 12h survey
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Stadhampton • Experienced the highest HGV flows of the villages surveyed, likely due to its position on a number of key routes through the study area • Most vehicles observed were box type, largely associated with general haulage. Majority of freight vehicles observed were smaller four wheelers
Next steps: HGV Strategy aiming to reduce HGV numbers through villages • Hauliers observed will be contacted to encourage them to re-route their vehicles if possible and to understand the potential for such re-routeing to occur. • A Technical Note identifying a series of potential interventions would be produced. This could include: o Improved signage from key approaches of alternative routes; o Physical weight/width restrictions; o Traffic regulations; o Improvements to alternative routes; and o Further industry engagement.
Watlington • Village comprises (in addition to housing) a number of retail units on narrow roads less suitable to larger vehicles • The B4009 is restricted to heavier vehicles ‘except access’ • Most commonly observed movements were those travelling between the M40 and A407
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An emerging regional strategy
Traffic now (AM) The baseline traffic flow has been established using May 2016 traffic survey data collected from key junctions and links in the network. Automatic Traffic Counts (ATC) and Junction Turning Counts (JTC) were undertaken on a neutral date (Wednesday 26th May 2016) and captured both the morning (7am â€“ 10am) and evening (4pm â€“ 7pm) peak periods. The data shows that the traffic peak hours across the whole network are 8am-9am and 5pm6pm. Traffic flows presented are in Vehicles per hour.
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Traffic now (PM)
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Future Traffic (AM) In order to assess the traffic impact of Chalgrove Airfield and to determine appropriate mitigation requirements it is necessary to forecast traffic flow levels at the end of the Local Plan Period (2033), without Chalgrove Airfield. Oxfordshire County Council has indicated that this should be used for the purpose of a planning application to develop a detailed picture of traffic flows in 2033 in the absence of Chalgrove Airfield. However this strategic model is not yet available and so a spreadsheet based model has been developed. This includes background traffic growth of circa 15% between 2016 and 2033 due to external factors such as economic growth. Additionally, traffic which would be generated by other potential development in the area has been calculated and distributed onto the network. This provides a comprehensive method of calculating future baseline traffic flows.
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Future Traffic (PM)
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Chalgrove Airfield Development Traffic (AM) Traffic generation and distribution has been discussed at length with Oxfordshire CC to agree assumptions. It has been calculated on the basis of 3,500 houses and a reasonable level of additional facilities such as schools and shops to encourage some trips to be made locally. The methodology calculates the number of person trips generated by the development for different trip purposes (e.g. commuting, retail, education) and at different times of the day, using data from the National Travel Survey. Assumptions have been made on the destinations of each trip purpose and the mode of travel for each destination. We have agreed a “likely” scenario for distribution and mode share with Oxfordshire County Council, presented in black. Additionally, we have created a range of scenarios for the network as a whole, including a more Oxford-centric distribution and a more Southeast-centric distribution, and higher car driver mode share. The numbers in red show the “worst case” level of traffic flow of all the scenarios tested. The spreadsheet model makes assumptions on the choice of routes that drivers will use to get to their destination. This will be refined through the use of Oxfordshire County Council’s strategic traffic model. This will identify the most advantageous routes and the proportion of drivers which will use each one. The mitigation strategy will encourage drivers to use certain routes and avoid certain others. For example, for the purpose of this diagram it has been assumed that traffic travelling to/from the direction of Little Milton will use the A329/B480 route, rather than Rofford Lane. However within the analysis being undertaken it is recognised.
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Chalgrove Airfield Development Traffic (PM)
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Future Traffic and Chalgrove Airfield (AM) This scenario adds the Chalgrove Development traffic flows directly to the 2033 Baseline to identify the potential future traffic flow volumes with the Chalgrove development in place. As with the other scenarios, this will be refined through the use of the Oxfordshire Strategic Model. It is probable that uneven patterns of traffic flow growth across the network would result in drivers changing their routes as some routes become more/less attractive. This potential wider re-distribution cannot be identified within a spreadsheet model, but would be included within the strategic model assessment.
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Future Traffic and Chalgrove Airfield (PM)
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For further information, please use the contact details below: Email: email@example.com Project website: www.chalgroveairfield.gva.co.uk Facebook: www.facebook.com/chalgroveairfield
HCA briefing pack for Enquiry by Design event in January 2017