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IDEA DIAGRAM Morphogenesis in Biology

Morphogenesis in Architecture

Evolution

Scanning electron micrograph of polyurethane foam, showing the porous structure of differentiated open and partially closed cells. Magnification x 20 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. (Source: AD Journal, Volume 76 no.4, 2006.)

Watercube digital structural model. The mathematics of foam geometries are used to produce the structural array, ensuring a rational optimised and buildable structural geometry. (Source: AD Journal, Volume 76 no.4, 2006.)

Selected Biological Principles

A naturally produced foam of soap bubbles, demonstrating the differentiation of polyhedral cells in an intricate geometry of foam architecture, including the basic Plateau rules for the intersection of three films. (Source: AD Journal, Volume 76 no.4, 2006.)

Authors

Texts

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Procedural, parametric and generative computer-supported techniques in combination with mass customization and automated fabrication enable holistic manipulation in silico and the subsequent production of increasingly complex architectural arrangements. By automating parts of the design process, computers make it easier to develop designs through versioning and gradual adjustment. In recent architectural discourse, these approaches to designing have been described as morphogenesis. - Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture Stanislav Roudavski

Achim Menges Branko kolarevic Roudavski.S Alan Turing Neri Oxman Rivika oxman Michael Pawlyn BilNeil Leach Sou Fujimoto, Michael Ulrich Hensel

I started the quest to create a new living environment, which would be neither architecture nor nature but the integration of both. – Sou Fujimoto


EFFICIENCY

MANUFACTURE PERFORMANCE ENVIRONMENTAL INTENSIFIERS

MATERIAL PERFORMANCE

METABOLISM & MORPHOLOGY

COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN

ALGORITHMIC GROWTH PROCESS

PROLIFERATION OF ELEMENTS GENERATION OF PHYROPTIE COMPONENTS SIMULATION ANALYSIS TOOLS ROBOTIC MANUFACTURING

Diagram summarizing the morphogenetic design process


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THEORIES OF NATURE IN ARCHITECTURE

MORPHOGENESIS

POSITION PAPER

ARCHITECTURAL THEORY - 624 UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO

CHAITANYA KORRA SPRING 2017

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“When nature continues as architecture it means that natural forms, or more correctly; their morphology, the metamorphoses caused by natural forces, etc, are incorporated into our architectural idiom, parallel to Euclidean form language, or even as replacement for it.” -

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Table of Contents

1.0 ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 04 2.0 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………............................. 05 3.0 MORPHOGENESIS 3.1 Antoni Gaudi............................................................................................................................. 06 3.2 Frei Otto ……………………………………………................................................................................ 06 4.0 STEP BY STEP MORPHOGENETIC DESIGN 4.1 Evolution of surface .................................................................................................................. 08 4.2 Morphogenesis and material ecology ....................................................................................... 09 4.3 Morphogenetic patterns as façade ............................................................................................ 10 5. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN 5.1 Computational Morphogenesis ................................................................................................. 14 5.2 Differentiation & Integration ..................................................................................................... 15 5.3 Advanced Simulation ................................................................................................................ 15 6. TOWARDS A MORPHO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR DESIGN ............................ 16 6.1 Performance ............................................................................................................................... 17 6.2 Form generation ......................................................................................................................... 17 7.CASE STUDY OF ICD PAVILION, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART 7.1 Hygroskin – Meteorosensitive pavilion ...................................................................................... 18 7.2 Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 18 7.3 Project concept: meteorosensitive architecture .......................................................................... 19 7.4 Biomimetic principle: materially-ingrained responsiveness ....................................................... 20 8. SUMMARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23

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THEME: MORPHOGENESIS STATEMENT:

Is the use of morphogenetic principles a natural extension of the architectural tradition of designing using proportions derived from nature? 1. ABSTRACT: Morphogenesis is the evolutionary development of form in an organism, or part thereof. The living organism can be interpreted as a series of structural systems. As a result of interactions between the components over time, these evolve their complex forms and behavioral patterns. The biological, dynamic transformations and growth may also be simulated because of these interactions. The concept of the emergence is key to the theme of Morphogenesis. The popularity of this is increasing in other areas like Cybernetics, evolutionary biology etc. This paper attempts to present the development of a design method based on biological principles that are applied and correlated with morphogenetic computational design, outlining the possible benefits of such an approach in architecture from the work and research of theorists like Michael Weinstock, Roudavski.S, Michael Hensel and Achim Menges who is providing a more expansive and useful application of architecture, demanding substantial revisions to the way in which we produce designs. The paper emphasizes on the Morphogenesis in biology and how can it be transformed into Morphogenetic Architecture. Also, it will focus on the process of evolution through computational design by using selected Biological principles. A case study of a structure derived through Morphogenetic principles will be discussed in this paper. KEYWORDS: Computation, Morphogenesis, Biological Principles, Digital Fabrication THEORISTS: Achim Menges, Branko kolarevic, Roudavski.S, Michael Ulrich Hensel, Neil Leach, Michael Weinstock

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2. INTRODUCTION: Since the starting of the 20th century, architects approach to the correlation between form, mass and force has changed remarkably both on the theoretical and methodological levels. This shift is made possible with the combined effects of design and engineering proficiency. 20th century beginning has a greater importance in history of Architectural and structural form. Reinforced concrete, the material that became one of the defining aspect of the century came into the existence during this period. Even though it was discovered as Pozzolanic cements by Romans, modern reinforced concrete was a late 19th century product. Initially the building which are built with reinforced concrete resembled the steel and iron structured buildings of 19th century, but the architects quickly found the greater potential of form finding or formless features of plastic liquid concrete. Double curved and thin buildings of concrete with a little historical precedent came into rise. As architects introduced new material, many expressed a strong wish for structural efficiency and expression to make fortune out of economy. Thus, they derive together form, force and architecture. The form refinement depends on increased perception of structural behavior, implementing both mathematical and theoretical understanding of structural operation. The structural mechanics development in the last two centuries should be considered worthy. Before this time, buildings used to be designed in a fundamentally practical way based on experience and observation.

3. MORPHOGENESIS: Architecture is undergoing a systemic change, modern technologies and new means of production are driving it by the dynamics of climate and economy. The interest towards the dynamics of fluidity is increasing continuously in terms of networks and new surface typologies. Michael Weinstock discusses the dynamics of natural metabolisms and suggests a criteria for the improvement of metabolic morphologies of buildings. He describes emergence as a significant importance to architecture, demanding considerable revisions to the way in which we create designs… measures for selection of the ‘Suitable’ can be developed that correspond to architectural requirements of performance, including structural integrity and ‘buildability’. Architects are researching for the form finding since a long time and the use of computational process to run a morphogenetic design algorithm is considerably recent. D’Arcy Thompson, mathematician and Biologist primarily known for his book ‘On Growth and Form’ and particularly for the chapter ‘theory of transformations’ in the book, which gives a brief idea of how differences

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between forms of related species can be geometrically represented. He laid the foundations of morphogenesis with his ground-breaking work. He identified the variation in the species while recognizing the underlying relationships. Thompson is succeeded by Antonio Gaudi, who first initiated the process Architecturally and it is the first documented experiment in this regard. 1

3.1 ANTONI GAUDI Being a man with great admiration towards nature as God’s creation, this Catalan architect designed Sagrada Familia, a Roman church in Barcelona which was greatly appreciated by people. Rowan Moore says, “Sagrada Familia aims to compress all of earth and heaven into its structure endless saints, inscriptions, reptiles, biblical scenes, birds, symbols, seashells, flowers and fruit.” Antoni understood that nature provided more than just decoration. Gaudi’s structures resembled those found in nature His structures mimicked those found in nature thereby providing him with both functional and aesthetic benefits. Roofs mirroring leaves, columns mirroring human bones or trees, arches mirroring ribs; these allowed him to minimize the materials required to build strong structures because of the great functionality obtained from reproducing designs of the nature. But the works of Frei Otto are regarded as the fundamental to the development of Architectural design in relation to natural systems and iterative mathematics.

3.2 FREI OTTO Inspired from nature and the processes found in nature, Frei Otto tried to find ways to use least amount of energy and material consumption to enclose spaces. He started Sustainable practices even before the word was coined. Inspired by natural phenomena – from spider webs to soap bubbles he always emphasizes the need to understand the ‘physical, technical and biological processes which give rise to structures.’ Today, Otto’s impact can be seen all over the world in several buildings like Millennium Dome in London, Atlanta’s Georgia dome etc.

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Roudavski, S, “Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture,” International Journal of Architectural Computing, 2009

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Roofing at Munich Olympic Park, Munich, Germany (1968-1972) designed by Frei Otto

When the components of design evolve their arrangement, the emergent behavior is best understood as type of self-organization which leads to the overall form transforming in the process. In order to develop nonlinear and dynamic systems the form and behavior should be interdependent and co-exist. If we observe the ant colony or flock of birds, it shows that this emergent behavior is actually structured and is usually the interaction of one another with simple and repetitive rules which sounds perplexing. These factors are of great interest to Architects as the Morphogenesis can create speculative designs which can explore the possible scenarios in relation to different type of parts known as “differentiation”, and different connections between them referred to as the degree of “Integration”. Morphogenesis can make Architects to derive a series of possibilities that further developments can be made from a selection transposing to the field of Architecture. Branko Kolaverie defines this approach in architecture as, the emphasis shifter from ‘creating of form’ to ‘discovery of form’, which various digitally-based productive techniques seem to bring about purposefully. As they can be applied in multi-scalar manner, biological systems are always an inspiring concept to Architects. It extends the descriptive tools of Architectural design as a system can refer any form of Architecture starting from a façade to holistic building or a specific component’s Nano materiality.

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4.0 STEP BY STEP MORPHOGENETIC DESIGN The use of Morphogenesis in designing different components of building is discussed with few case studies. 4.1 EVOLUTION OF SURFACE Romulus Sim, graduated student from Manchester school of architecture has designed thesis project calling for a substantial rethink of production, consumption and inhabitation cultures of our urban environment. With the use of innovative generative design methodologies transposed to the context of the postindustrial port of Birkenhead in England, the project seeks to address the abandoned waterways by a combination of preserving existing dockland activities and reprogramming to facilitate aquaculture waterscapes. The arrangement of the project’s infrastructural elements both in water and on land is a result of a sophisticated process of mapping programmatic data and optimizing interrelationships within the overall system. The progressive development of microeconomies in relation to tourism, culture, education, aquafarming, and business offers a highly creative and multilayered strategic approach that is both fully implementable and innovative in design terms. The design features a highly-articulated roof canopy – developed using morphogenesis – that provides a level of shelter for the hybrid program underneath, while also enabling daylight penetration and minimizing with loading.2

Project: LIVE LAB – Aquaculture Research & Leisure Park

Process: 1. Canopy structure is intended as a shading device that sites over a series of objects. An appropriate datum level is set to the height of the design’s program, in this case 50ft (15m).

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Live Lab – Aquaculture Research & Leisure Park, last modified 14 July 2010, http://www.bdonline.co.uk/romulus-sim-%E2%80%93-manchester-

school-of architecture/5002661.article

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2. A data cloud is generated as a series of points, which are plotted from width to height rations of each individual space, i.e. larger spans correlate to deeper roof structure, arc length, and height. last modified on 2

3. using the data points, a surface is “lofted” through them in order to generate a form that represents the canopy over the buildings below. 4. A diagrid structure is developed via a surface population generation script, which controls the span of each diagrid to a maximum span of 10ft (3m) in any direction.

4.2 MORPHOGENESIS AND MATERIAL ECOLOGY NERI OXMAN-BEAST, 2008-10 Architect Neri Oxman, works at the MIT Media Lab as Assistant Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, directs and Mediate Matter research group which experiments how matter and environment can be mediated through digital design and fabrication technologies to radically transform the design and construction of buildings and systems. Neri’s goal is to employ design principles inspired by nature and implement them in the development of digital design technologies to enhance the relationship between the built and natural environments. In the project Beast, she has developed a prototype for a chaise longue from a continuous surface incorporating digital form-generation protocols responsive to physical parameters. The hybrid surface, providing both structure and skin, is articulated locally to adopt thickness, pattern density, stiffness, curvature, and loading capability as independent constraints. Numerous algorithms were generated to negotiate between the engineering and experiential aspects of the project.

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A AND B A pressure map study allocated the relative softness and hardness of the cells to cushion and support the user. The relative volume of each cell is determined by pressure data, with overall patterning designed to increase the ration of surface area to volume in those areas having contact with the body. Through the analysis of anatomical structures, Beast develops a balance of structural and sense data to achieve both flexibility and structural support.

C

D

E

C, D, AND E The cellular grain of the surface is informed by curvature values, both global and local to the object, so that smaller, denser cells are arranged in areas of steep curvature while larger cells are placed in areas with shallow curvature. The fabrication techniques uses variable polymer composites that afford a range of physical properties. Flexible materials are positioned in surface areas under tension, with more rigid materials places in those under compression. These surface patches are 3d printed using an innovative multijet matrix with different properties in relation to structural and skin pressure map data.3

4.3 MORPHOGENETIC PATTERNS AS FAÇADE Faulders Studio + Studio M-Airspace, Tokyo, 2007. Thom faulders was commissioned to devise a screen façade that would give the building a recognizable identity within its immediate context. In addition, it is designed to provide privacy from the streets for occupants of the open plan private residences, and buffer the weather from exterior walkways and terraces. Formally, the screen façade unifies the separated ‘living unit” blocks on the building’s top floors with the commercial spaces and landscaped areas below. The porous layers of dense vegetation surrounding the original residence influenced the conceptual direction of the screen. 3

Variable property rapid prototyping, Neri Oxman, Virtual And Physical Prototyping Vol. 6 , Iss. 1,2011, 3

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An anomaly amid the concrete-and-asphalt neighborhood, this house and vegetation were subsequently razed to make way for the new development on the site. Referencing the transitory biomorphic and atmospheric qualities of this original 13ft deep green space, a new artificial buffer zone was created-now compressed directly on to the building and only 8 inches deep. To achieve this new protective atmosphere, rich in density and complexity, a layered skin system separated by an air gap was configured to wrap the building as a nonuniform porous mesh. A collaboration was established with design technologist Sean Ahlquist of proces2 in San Francisco to develop a system for generating the patterned geometry of differentiated voids that puncture and articulate the two skins.

Air space Tokyo, Japan studio M, Faรงade design

Process: A. Series of card prototypes exploring different patterns and surface porosity. B. The overlapping surfaces of this geometric pattern of ellipses are developed at a larger scale to examine its characteristics. C. This prototype is further augmented with edges around the apertures, and external lighting conditions are evaluated.

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D. A radical rethink of the surface geometry ensues during the evolutionary design process, leading to experimentation with patterns that feature variable apertures. E. Once consolidated as a geometrical pattern, CAD software is used to wrap the surface around the building and optimize its effects in relation to scale. F. The result is enigmatic, layered faรงade that offers sophisticated interplay between light and shadow.

Air space

The result is a cellular environment that creates a dynamic, changing zone between public and private-where framed views shift as one moves through the spaces, rainwater is channeled away from walkways via capillary action, and light is refracted along its glossy, white, metallic surfaces. The final airspace screen system is a composite of two skins, each comprising two unique patterns that are then digitally merged. Separated from

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the building by an 8-inch air gap, it is constructed using a rigid composite aluminum and plastic panel material, called alpolic, commonly used for exterior billboard backing and infrastructural protective coverings. To make the cellular screen seemingly float upon the building as a tautly layered “wrap”, a matrix of extremely thin stainless steel rods is threaded from top to bottom, to which the panels are affixed via custom-fabricated adjustable connectors.

Air space Tokyo, Japan studio M, Façade design

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5. COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN Architect Achim Menges (2009) explains that computational design lends itself to such an approach as it is enables employing complex behaviour rather than just modelling a particular shape or form. The transition from currently predominant modes of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design allows for a significant change of employing the computer‘s capacity to instrumentalise materials‘ complex behaviour in the design process. CAD is very much based on computerized processes of drawing and modelling stemming from established representational techniques in architectural design (Terzidis 2006). In this regard one of the key differences lies in the fact that CAD internalizes the coexistence of form and information, whereas Computational Design externalizes this relation and thus enables the conceptualization of material behaviour and related formative processes. In Computational Design form is not defined through a sequence of drawing or modelling procedures but generated through parametric, rule based processes. The ensuing externalization of the interrelation between algorithmic processing of information and resultant form generation permits the systematic distinction between process, information and form. Hence any specific shape can be understood as resulting from the interaction of system-intrinsic information and external influences within a morphogenetic process. The computational design process that forms the base for this research allows the exploration and development of surface geometries in 3 dimensional space that have virtual environmental conditions. The exploration is enabled by an evolutionary module that produces populations of surfaces in many generations, and the development is governed by an algorithm that mimics organic growth.4 5.1 COMPUTATIONAL MORPHOGENESIS Computational form-generating processes are based on genetic engines that are derived from the mathematical equivalent of the Darwinian model of evolution, and from the biological science of evolutionary development that combines processes of embryological growth and evolutionary development of the species. Evolutionary computation offers the potential of relating pattern and process, form and behavior, with spacial and cultural parameters. Evolutionary computational strategies for morphogenesis have the potential to be combined with advanced structural and material simulations of behavior under stresses of gravity and load. This approach is part of the contemporary reconfiguration of the understanding of nature, a change from metaphor to model, from nature as a source of shapes to be copied to nature as a series of interrelated dynamic processes that can be simulated and adapted for the design and production of architecture.

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Menges, A. (2008). Integral Formation and Materialisation: Computational Form and Material Gestalt. In Manufacturing Material Effects:

Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture, eds. B. Kolarevic and K. Klinger, 195 – 210. New York: Routledge

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During the brief history of so-called digital architecture, the notion of morphogenesis has almost become a clichÊ owing to excessive referencing to all kinds of design processes that operate most often merely on a metaphorical level. This thesis presents current research on morphogenesis that attempts to investigate the principles underlying natural morphogenesis and step by step transferring them into an integral computational process. Within this context, computational morphogenesis can be described as a process of perpetual differentiation. The increasing morphological and functional difference of elements enabling the system’s performative capacity unfolds from their divergent development directions triggered by a heterogeneous environment and multiple functional criteria.

5.2 DIFFERENTIATION & INTEGRATION When attempting to set forth a paradigm for differentiated and multi-performance architectures, it is interesting to examine available methods for modelling biological growth informed by a hosting environment. Through this investigation it is possible to derive architectural strategies and methods that are informed by environmentally specific conditions and, thus, to achieve advanced levels of functionality and performativity. In biology, differentiation entails the process by which cells or tissues undergo a change towards a more specialised form or function, to become increasingly oriented towards fulfilling specific tasks, to acquire specific performance capacity. Complexity increases when the variety [distinction] and dependency [connection] of parts increases. The process of increasing variety is called differentiation, and the process of increasing the number or the strength of connections is called integration. Evolution produces differentiation and integration in many 'scales' that interact with each other, from the formation and structure of an individual organism to species and ecosystems. 5 5.3 ADVANCED SIMULATION Simulations are essential for designing complex material systems, and for analyzing their behavior over extended periods of time. Much of the physical environment can be simulated in the computer: a simple google search will show a collection of sites on the web that have interactive simulations of physics principles, including light, optics, springs and masses, pendulums and waves, harmonics, mechanics and momentum, and even nuclear physics. 5

Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design expands and develops the themes of the previous, highly successful Emergence:

Morphogenetic Design Strategies issue of 4 (Vol 74, No 3, 2004),

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In such simulations, the parameters of objects can be modified and the resultant change in behavior observed Most architectural design software now includes sunlight modelling for any location in the world, and an increasing range of plug-ins or scripts can simulate the behavior of chains and springs under gravity. More sophisticated simulations, such as the stress response of structures under imposed loads, or the flow of air and heat through spaces and in materials, are standard modules in engineering software. Working with simulations requires the development of a logical mathematical description of the performance of a system or process, which corresponds to certain specific parameters of its physical behavior. 6

6. TOWARDS A MORPHO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR DESIGN Performance based design plays a prominent role in the time of rapid urbanization and climate change. Architects Achim Menges and Michael Hensel have their own approach to ‘Morpho-Ecological’ design, which challenges some of the deep-rooted opinions of architecture as a material practice, such as the perception of 'efficiency' in design and construction. It focuses mainly on the essential relationship between generation of form, environmental modulation, material behavior and capacity, assembly and manufacturing, and a type of spatial control that is set to deliver a highly diverse space. Architecture operates through the expression of spatial, energetic and material interventions within a particular context as a material practice. Enhanced context-sensitivity of an integral design approach lies at the base of the approach introduced here, entitled 'Morpho-Ecologies'. This approach commences from the unfolding of performative capacities inherent in material systems in relation to the specific environment they are embedded within, as well as an intensively empirical mode based on physical and computational formgeneration and analysis methods. Compared with current practice it presents a radically different take on the relation between formal expression and performative capacity of the built environment, as well as a fundamental revision of prevailing approaches to sustainability. An alternative understanding of performance, one that is based on multiparameter effectiveness rather than single-parameter optimization and efficiency, must from the start of the design process include both the logics of how material constructions are made and the way they will interact with environmental conditions and stimuli. Computation, in analytical and generative modes, has a key role in both aspects.

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Menges, A 2006, ‘Instrumental Geometry’ in Hensel, M, Menges, A and Weinstock, M (eds.) 2006, Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic

Design, Academy Press, pp. 42-53

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The underlying logics of computational processes, particularly in combination with computer-controlled manufacturing processes, provide a potential for a much higher level of design synthesis. Yet the current use of CAD-CAM technologies in architecture serves more often than not as the facilitative, and affordable, means to indulge in freeform architecture. Although this may occasionally lead to innovative structures and novel spatial qualities, it is

important to recognise that the technology serves merely as an extension of well-

rehearsed and established design processes. 7

6.1 PERFORMANCE: An alternative understanding of performance, one that is based on multi-parameter effectiveness rather than single-parameter optimization and efficiency, must from the start of the design process include both the logics of how material constructions are made and the way they will interact with environmental stimuli. Computation in analytical and generative modes has a key role in both aspects. The underlying logics of computational processes, particularly when combined with computer-controlled manufacturing processes, provide a much higher level of design synthesis. 7 6.2 FORM-GENERATION: Particularly related is the underlying impoverished notion of form-generation, which refers to various digitally driven processes resulting in shapes that remain detached from material and construction logics. In foregrounding the geometry of the eventual outcome as the key feature, these techniques are quintessentially not dissimilar to more conventional and long-established representational techniques for explicit scalar geometric descriptions. As these notional systems are insufficient in integrating means of materialization, production and construction, they cannot support the evaluation of performative effects, and so these crucial aspects remain invariably pursued as top-down engineered material solutions. This suggests that the talent, but yet unused, potential of computational design and manufacturing technology may unfold from an alternative approach to design, one that derives morphological complexity and performative capacity without differentiating between form-generation and materialization processes. The morpho-ecological approach aims for a more integral design approach to correlate object, environment and subject into a synergetic dynamic relationship. 7

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Michael Hensel and Achim Menges, Versatility and Vicissitude Š 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 55-63

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7. CASE STUDY OF ICD PAVILION, UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART Institute of computation design, researches one biological principle every year and design a pavilion which can be fabricated with robotic technology. As a part of study, a case study of 2011-13 pavilion, Hygroskin – Meteorosensitive pavilion, has been discussed here which was derived from the inspiration of spruce cone and its climate responsiveness. 7.1 HYGROSKIN – METEOROSENSITIVE PAVILION

Permanent Collection, FRAC Centre Orleans, France, 2011-13 Achim Menges in collaboration with Oliver David Krieg and Steffen Reichert

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15

7.2 SUMMARY This pavilion explores the new approach of climate responsive architecture. As many attempts towards climate responsiveness mainly relied on superimposing technical equipment, this project used the material responsive capacity itself. The wood has instability in dimension with relation to moisture content and is employed to construct a metereosensitive architectural skin which can open and close as a response to change in weather without monitoring without any use of operational and mechanical energy and control. The structure of the material itself acts as a machine.Based on the material’s elastic behavior the modular wooden skin of the pavilion is designed and produced using the self-forming capacity of initially planar plywood sheets to form conical surfaces. A weather-responsive aperture is placed Within the deep, concave surface of each robotically fabricated module.

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By programming materially, the humidity-responsive behavior of these apertures opens up the possibility for a truly ecologically embedded and strikingly simple architecture in constant feedback and interaction with its surrounding environment. In direct response to changes in ambient relative humidity the responsive woodcomposite skin adjusts the porosity of the pavilion. These climatic changes – which form part of our everyday live but usually escape our conscious perception – trigger the silent, material-innate movement of the wooden skin. This slight yet regular modulation of the relationship between the interior and exterior of the pavilion provides for a unique merge of spatial and environmental experiences.8 7.3 PROJECT CONCEPT: METEOROSENSITIVE ARCHITECTURE Responsiveness to climate in architecture is typically conceived as a technical function enabled by myriad mechanical and electronic sensing, actuating and regulating devices. In contrast to this superimposition of high-tech equipment on otherwise inert material, nature suggests a fundamentally different, no-tech strategy: In various biological systems, the responsive capacity is quite literally ingrained in the material itself. This project employs similar design strategies of physically programming a responsive material system that requires neither extraneous mechanical or electronic controls, nor the supply of external energy. Here material computes form in unison with the environment.

Transfer of the biological principle of shape change induced by hygroscopic and anistropic dimensional change

The project explores the tension between an archetypical architectural volume, the box, and a deep, undulating skin imbedding clusters of intricate, climate responsive apertures. The pavilion’s envelope, which is at the same time load-bearing structure and metereosensitive skin, is computationally derived from the elastic bending behavior of thin plywood sheets.8 8

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, ICD Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges, ITKE Institute of Building Structures and

Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers, http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=1296

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Close-up photo of a HygroSkin aperture adapting to weather changes: open at low relative humdity (left) and closed at high relative humidity (right)

7.4 BIOMIMETIC PRINCIPLE: MATERIALLY-INGRAINED RESPONSIVENESS Nature has evolved a great variety of dynamic systems interacting with climatic influences. For architecture, one particularly interesting way is the moisture-driven movement that can be observed in spruce cones. Unlike other plant movements that are produced by active cell pressure changes, this movement takes place through a passive response to humidity changes. Therefore, it does not require any sensory system or motor function. The movement is independent from any metabolic function and hence, it does not consume any energy. Here, the responsive capacity is intrinsic to the material’s hygroscopic behaviour and its own anisotropic characteristics. Anisotropy denotes the directional dependence of a material’s characteristics. Hygroscopicity refers to a substance’s ability to take in moisture from the atmosphere when dry and yield moisture to the atmosphere when wet, thereby maintaining a moisture content in equilibrium with the surrounding relative humidity. 9

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ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, ICD Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges, ITKE Institute of Building Structures and

Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers, http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=1296

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Axonometric view of the pavilion's modular construction fitting the required travel and storage volume

In this way, the movement of spruce cones is rooted in the material’s intrinsic capacity to interact with the external environment, and it shows how a structured tissue can passively respond to environmental stimuli: The cone opening (when dried) and closing (when wetted) is enabled by the bilayered structure of the scales’ material. The outer layer, consisting of parallel, long and densely packed thick-walled cells, hygroscopically reacts to an increase or decrease of relative humidity by expanding or contracting, while the inner layer remains relatively stable. The resultant differential dimensional change of the layers translates into a shape change of the scale, causing the cone’s scales to open or close.

Exploded view of a module's buildup: initially planar plywood panel (left), elastically self-formed plywood panels with sandwhich core (right)

This project with intense research investigation in biomimetic principles inspired by spruce cone helps to develop Climate responsive architectural systems with the necessity of mechanical and operational energy systems. 10 10

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, ICD Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges, ITKE Institute of Building Structures and

Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers, http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965

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8. SUMMARY An overview of morphogenesis has been discussed in this paper, representing the possible benefits of this approach in architectural design. Few concepts which are relevant to morphogenesis are discussed as they are needed for the understanding of the presented approach. A morpho-ecological design process is discussed, correlating morphogenesis and ecology, which provides a new scheme for architectural design that is firmly established within a biological paradigm. Few case studies have been discussed about the use of Morphogenesis in designing different components of building.

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9. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Menges, A. (ed.): 2012, Material Computation – Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design, Architectural Design, Vol. 82 No.2, Wiley Academy, London.

What is computational design? Formation and materialization in nature, integrative computational design. 2. Digital Morphogenesis, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_morphogenesis, last modified: march 2017

What is digital Morphogenesis and who are the notable persons? 3. Michael Hensel and Achim Menges, Versatality and Vicissitude, Performance in MorphoEcological Design.

What is the current state of Morpho Ecological design and approach and techniques to create integral deign solutions. 4. Roudavski, S, Towards Morphogenesis in Architecture, International Journal of Architectural Computing, 2009

Procedural, parametric and generative computer-supported techniques in combination with mass customization and automated fabrication. 5. Hensel, M.,Menges, A., Weinstock M.:2004, Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Architectrual Design, Vol. 74 No.3, Wiley Academy, London. 6. Michael pawlyn , Biomimicry in Architecture.

How to achieve radical increases in resource efficiency with Biomimicry in Architecture. 7. Neal Leach, “Digital Morphogenesis,” in Architectural Design, 79, 1 (2009)

Methods in which digital media is employed not as a representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation of form and its transformation. 8. Michael Meredith, Control to Design, Parametric / Algorithmic Architecture

Independent practices that explore current applications of parametric and algorithmic design and techniques in architectural production 9. Nick Dunn, Digital Fabrication in Architecture. Architectural possibilities by processes such CAD/CAM, CNC Milling, rapid prototyping and robotics. 10. Hensel, Michael; Menges, Achim & Weinstock, Michael. (2004) (edit.) Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies. Architectural Design. Vol 74 No 3. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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11. Hensel, Michael & Menges, Achim. (2008). (edit.) Morpho-Ecologies – Towards an Inclusive Discourse on Heterogeneous Architecture. London: Architectural Association (second. edit., fi rst. published 2006).

12. Hensel, Michael; Menges, Achim & Weinstock, Michael. (2006) (edit.) Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design. Architectural Design. Vol 76 No 2. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 13. Frazer, John. (1995). An Evolutionary Architecture. London: Architectural Association.

Concept of evolutionary architecture and the nature of the biological and scientific analogies. 14. Hensel, Michael & Menges, Achim. (2010). Emergent Technologies and Design. New York: Routledge. 15. Sakamoto, Tokomura; Ferré, Albert… (2008). (edit.) From Control to Design: Parametric / Algorithmic Architecture. Barcelona: Actar 16. Weinstock, M 2004, ‘Morphogenesis and the Mathematics of Emergence’, AD: Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, pp. 10-17. 17. Video of Lecture of Sou Fujimoto On the Relationship between Nature & Architecture https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPeZ4l1tdjs How architecture and nature are interconnected and factors of nature that impact architecture? 18. Kolarevic, Branko (2000). 'Digital Morphogenesis and Computational Architectures' 19. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, ICD Institute for Computational Design – Prof. Achim Menges, ITKE Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design – Prof. Jan Knippers, http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=1296 20. Salma Ashraf Saad El Ahmar, biomimicry as a tool for sustainable architectural design, Master of science, Graduate School , Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 2011

How biomimicry principles can be used for sustainable architectural design? 21. Morphogenesis, Architecture and Art by Dimitri Mantikas, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wSNde_YGfQ0 22. Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVXh4fu_hpg 23. Morphogenetic Programming - Processing Reel AAC 2014, https://vimeo.com/10596996 24. Methods For Morphogenesis And Ecology In Architecture, http://jultika.oulu.fi/files/isbn9789514262579.pdf 25. Michael Pawlyn, “Using nature’s genius in architecture” (2011, February), [video file] http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_pawlyn_using_nature_s_genius_in_architecture.html?embed=tru e ARCH 624 I ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

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Morphogenesis - Theories of Nature in Architecture  

Arch 604 Architecture Theory

Morphogenesis - Theories of Nature in Architecture  

Arch 604 Architecture Theory

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