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CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE 2012 INDICATOR REPORT HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION: EARLY CHILDHOOD, K-12, WORKFORCE PREPAREDNESS

contents

Regional Nine Letter / page 3 Acknowledgements / page 4 Executive Summary / page 6 Transforming Education: The GI Bill / page 8 Early Childhood Education / page 11 K–12 / page 25 Workforce Preparedness / page 37 Education and Health / page 49 Scenarios 2040 / page 59 Appendices / page 60 Donors / page 68

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2 012 COMMUNITY The Region’s Think Tank

INDICATORS

January 2012

“I am a firm believer that a bright light on the genuine truth is a strong driver of progress… all by itself. The problem is to get and to organize the genuine truth, and then to put it in a bright light.”

Dear Friends: The Center for Houston’s Future has added an important resource to ongoing efforts to advance the region’s sustainability and

The 2012 Community Indicator Report – Human Capital Development and Education: Early Childhood, K–12, Workforce Preparedness is a peer reviewed report card for the competitiveness.

region that establishes metrics for public education. The publication is a tool to facilitate good public policy decisions by making available reliable, longitudinal data. The Center for Houston’s Future has produced this report through extensive collaboration involving more than 50 organizations. Indicators of Early Education, K–12, and Post Secondary Success give a snapshot of where the Houston eight-county region stands in these critical areas. Clearly, the health of the region’s schools will help to determine the vitality of our future workforce and economy. The 2012 Community Indicator Report is the fourth annual report in a series intended to help measure progress over time in key areas issues. Since 2007, the Center’s benchmark studies have covered topics including air quality, billboards, green buildings, litter and graffiti, parks and trails, tax delinquent lots, trees, water quality, water supply and resource use. By highlighting our region’s many successes and the critical areas of needed increased effort, the Center’s Community Indicator Report serves as the basis for ongoing collaboration to advance the Houston region as one of the top ten global communities in which to live and work. Sincerely,

D R . L ARRY FAULKNER President, Houston Endowment

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2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Annise Parker Mayor of Houston

Ed Emmett Harris County Judge

Robert Hebert Fort Bend County Judge

Alan B. Sadler Montgomery County Judge

Jimmy Silvia Chambers County Judge

Craig McNair Liberty County Judge

E.J. King Brazoria County Judge

Glenn Beckendorff Waller County Judge

Mark Henry Galveston County Judge

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Acknowledgements The Center for Houston’s Future, The Region’s Think Tank, is proud to present the 2012 Indicator Report to the community titled Human Capital Development and Education: Early Childhood, K-12, Workforce Preparedness. The Center for Houston’s Future owes a debt of gratitude to the more than 50 professionals and their organizations that collaborated with us. They generously gave their time and talent to the production of this report, including identifying data sources, writing and editing the text and conducting peer reviews for the accuracy and integrity of the report.

Authors

K-12 Data Group

EARLY CHILDHOOD: Carol Shattuck, President and CEO, Collaborative for Children K-12: Bob Sanborn, Ed.D., President and CEO, Children at Risk and Caroline Holcombe, Director of Social Measurement and Evaluation, Children at Risk WORKFORCE PREPAREDNESS: Catherine Horn, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Houston College of Education HEALTH: Patricia Gail Bray, Ph.D., Executive Director, St. Luke’s Episcopal Health Charities

Early Childhood Education Data Group

Elizabeth Protas, P.T., Ph.D., FACSM, FAPTA, Vice President and Dean, School of Health Professions and George T. Bryan Distinguished Professor, UTMB Health Lori Vetters, President and CEO, Inland Resources Robert Wimpelberg, Ph.D., Professor of Educational Leadership, University of Houston, College of Education; Executive Director, All Kid's Alliance

Health Data Group Rogene Calvert, Public and Community Affairs Consultant, Outreach Strategists, LCC Mustafa Tameez, Founder and Managing Director, Outreach Strategists, LCC

Editors

Reagan Flowers, Founder and CEO, CSTEM. Keith Haffey, Ed.D., Executive Director, Accountability and Research, Spring Branch ISD

Linda McSpadden-McNeil, Ph.D., Director for the Center of Education, Rice University

Bob Houston, Ph.D., Executive Director, Institute for Urban Education Todd Litton, Executive Director, Citizen Schools of Texas

Jim Granato, Ph.D., Director, Hobby Center for Public Policy, University of Houston

Steve Murdock, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, Rice University

Jennifer Fiechtner, The Red Pen

Ann Stiles, Executive Director, Project Grad Houston

Moritza Day, Accounting Recruiting and Project Staffing, HR Consulting, Day West and Associates, Inc.

Nicole Andrews, M.Ed., Ed.D., Assistant Professor of Education Curriculum & Instruction, University of Houston

Ruth Turley, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Rice University Scott Van Beck, Ph.D., Executive Director, Houston A+ Challenge

H. Jerome Freiberg, Ph.D

Workforce Preparedness Data Group

Donna Kirkwood, Ph.D., Program Coordinator of Early Childhood Education, University of Houston-Clear Lake

Michael Bettersworth, Associate Vice Chancellor for Technology Advancement, The Texas State Technical College System Rodney Bradshaw, Director of Human Services, H-GAC

Venetia Peacock, Head Start Director, HCDE-Head Start

Richard Carpenter, Ph.D., Chancellor, Lone Star College System

Sul Ross, Vice President, Programs and Collaboration Development, Collaborative for Children

Charles Cook, Ed.D., Vice Provost for Instruction, Houston Community College

Bobbi Samuels, Ph.D., Retired Associate Professor Emeritus, University of Houston-Clear Lake

Siobhan Fleming, Ph.D., Associate Vice Chancellor of Research and Institutional Effectiveness, Lone Star College System

Sharon Spillman, Assistant V.P. of Provider Engagement, Collaborative for Children

Annie Criner, Development Director, Houston READ Commission

Katherine von Haefen, Senior Program Manager, Community Impact, United Way of Greater Houston

Jim Granato, Ph.D., Director of the Hobby Center for Public Policy, University of Houston Robert Harriss, Ph.D., President, Houston Advanced Research Center

Jeff Taebel, Director of Community and Environmental Planning, Houston-Galveston Area Council

Robert Wimpelberg, Ph.D., Professor of Educational Leadership, University of Houston, College of Education; Executive Director, All Kid's Alliance

Kathryn Jenkins, M.Ed., Ed.D., Associate Professor, University of Houston-Downtown

Jim Blackburn, Professor of the Practice in Environmental Law and Director of Rice University Minor in Energy and Water Sustainability

Clara Rojas, President and CEO, Alloy Multimedia

Amelia Hewitt, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Early Childhood Education, University of Houston-Downtown

Ann Ziker, Ph.D., Managing Director, Education Pioneers Houston

Julie Baker, Ph.D., Chief of Major Projects, HISD

Harriet Arvey, Communities in Schools Houston

Carla Stevens, Assistant Superintendent Department of Research and Accountability, HISD

Mary Jane Gomez, Early Childhood Manager, Houston Independent School District

Lilibeth Andre, Associate Director, Shell Center for Sustainability, Rice University

Suzanne Mayne, Director of Environment and Sustainable Development, KBR

Kay Albrecht, Ph.D., Owner, Innovations in Early Childhood Education, Inc.

Judy Carnahan-Webb, Owner, Creative Trainers & Consultants

Chair: Steve Klineberg, PhD., Professor of Sociology and Co-Director of the Kinder Institute for Urban Research, Rice University

Joan Engebretson, Ph.D., PH, RN, AHN-BC, Judy Fred Professorship in Nursing, The University of Texas School of Nursing at Houston

Terry Bruner, Executive Director, Teach for America Houston Rhetta Detrich, Chief Program Officer, The Talent Initiative

2012 Community Indicator Policy Committee

Will Uecker, Ph.D., Professor, Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University

Rebecca and John Moores, Professor, University of Houston

SPECIAL THANKS TO Kelly Frels, Board Chair 2010–2011, and his leadership on this project.

Center for Houston’s Future, Community Indicator Program Catherine Clark Mosbacher, President and CEO

Donna Rybiski, Director of Strategic Initiatives Sandra Wegmann, Senior Manager of Strategic Initiatives

Lee Holcombe, Ph.D., Director, Higher Education Policy Institute, The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Linda Hubbard, Manager II, HR Business Consultant, Siemens Corporation PHOTOGRAPHY COURTESY OF HOUSTON A+ CHALLENGE AND COLLOBRATIVE FOR CHILDREN.

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Executive Summary The Center for Houston’s Future presents its 2012 Community Indicator Report, Human Capital Development and Education: Early Childhood, K-12, Workforce Preparedness. The Center for Houston’s Future began publishing an Indicator Report in 2007, on topics that are critical to the competitiveness and sustainability of the eight county region to answer the simple question, “Are things getting better or worse?”

Recent research shows that the biggest predictor of success for cities is the education level of the population. The Houston region currently sits in the middle of the pack nationally with just 28.4% of the population holding a four-year college degree. The region’s ability to be competitive in a global economy by attracting businesses and providing talent for 21st Century jobs rests primarily on the success of public education.

in funding that followed the 82nd Texas Legislative Session. Public policy considerations are noted in each chapter, along with examples of best practices. A summary of the findings of the 2012 Community Indicator Report follows.

Rice University Sociologist Dr. Stephen Klineberg, chair of the Center for Houston’s Future Community Indicator Project and Director of the 30-year running Kinder Houston Area Survey, has noted that “the good blue-collar jobs have now largely disappeared, and they will not be coming back.” High-school dropouts today are 3 times more likely than college graduates to be unemployed and during the 40 years of a working life, will earn at least $1.5 million less than the average college graduate.

Is an educated population healthier? The positive link between educational attainment and health is well documented. The more you learn, the more you earn, the more you engage in healthy behavior and, consequently, the better your health and your children’s health. Educated people are more likely to live longer and healthier lives. Increased life expectancy and better health outcomes are evident across countries and communities and within different ethnic and racial groups. A 2009 Robert Wood Johnson Study “Education Matters for Health,” reported that if all adult Americans were college graduates, with the health outcomes of current college graduates, improvements in health and life expectancy would result in $1 trillion annual gains.

Economic competitiveness is only one tangible benefit of a well educated population. Metropolitan regions with higher levels of education tend to have residents that vote more, stay out of prison, contribute to cultural and philanthropic life, and in turn invest in the education of their children. While the need for an educated workforce and citizenry has never been greater, the region confronts a changing demographic tide and high levels of poverty that have put great strain on public schools. In 2010, Houston Independent School District was host to 202,773 students, of whom 62% were Latino and 27% were African-American. These two groups have the highest poverty rates, reflected in the huge number of HISD students that qualify for reduced-price or free lunch programs: 79%. The 2012 Community Indicator Report views the issue of human capital development as one that must be tackled holistically and with the support of all sectors. Three chapters within the report provide a snapshot of public education along a continuum: Early Childhood, K-12, and Post-Secondary Success/Workforce Preparedness. A fourth chapter addresses the undeniable link between good health and education. Additionally, the report is book ended with a history of education in the region and a plausible scenario of what learning may look like in the year 2040. 2011 proved to be an extremely challenging year for public education, given the continued growth of the student population and the reductions

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What is the link between Education & Health?

What is the state of Early Childhood Education? Relative to other states, standards for Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Texas are minimal, contributing to a large gap in quality experiences for children 0-5 years old. Meanwhile, decades of outcomes research shows that high quality early education can close the achievement gap before kindergarten. Indicators are presented to gauge the quality of the Early Childhood System, which encompasses child care, Head Start and Pre-Kindergarten (Pre-K). Teacher Education and Training and Teacher:Child Ratios were selected as indicators because of their significant impact on the early education experiences and learning in children ages 0-5. The study found that 100% of Pre-K and 98% of Head Start teacher education ratings are considered excellent in the 13-county Gulf Coast region. Meanwhile, only 35% of child care centers which serve twothirds of children in the ECE system, have achieved excellent teacher education ratings. For the second indicator, just 12% of child care centers and 20% of Pre-K programs rated excellent in Teacher:Child Ratios in 2011. Head Start programs stand out in this area with 77% of programs reporting excellent.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

A significant finding of this study is that many families served by the early education system lack access to quality programs with credentialed teachers and adequate class sizes. This lack of access disproportionately impacts low-income families and families whose earnings exceed the income eligibility limit.

What is the state of K-12 Public School? Our region’s ability to educate today’s youth dictates our future competitiveness with other regions and nations. American students are lagging on a number of key indicators: American eighth graders fall significantly behind their peers in six other nations on achievement at an advanced international benchmark in mathematics. Moreover, ten OECD nations outperform the U.S. on high school degree attainment. In this region, low-income and minority students lag significantly behind their peers across educational outcomes, from third grade reading to high school graduation to post-secondary readiness. In the Class of 2010 alone, greater Houston’s public schools failed to graduate over 23,800 students on time, with each high school dropout conservatively estimated to cost the state $4,935 each year in lost wages, sales tax revenue, and welfare payments.

What is the state of Workforce Preparedness? Quality postsecondary education is critical to economic and civic viability. Such benefits remain elusive, however, to many of the region’s residents. The fastest growing professions in the region, including education, nursing, engineering, and accounting, will face as much as a 621,000 person shortage in the next four years. The metrics presented in this chapter suggest, however, that the gap will not be easily filled by graduates from our community colleges and four-year institutions. Metrics indicate that having a successful postsecondary educational experience is important – for both individual and collective economic and social well-being. Almost half of entering freshmen need one or more developmental education classes. Just over a third of the region’s adults 25 years and older have an Associate’s or Bachelor’s degree. Meanwhile, the cost of postsecondary education has increased as state funding has declined. Yet, between 2003 and 2010, the average price of tuition and fees doubled.

Major indicators were defined as third grade reading proficiency, Algebra 1 by ninth grade and high school graduation rates among others. Key findings show that only 48% of our region’s students – and only 38% of economically disadvantaged students – are reading at Commended levels in third grade. Just 53% of the region’s ninth graders successfully completed Algebra I. Moreover, the Houston region graduates just 71% of its ninth grade students on time, with Texas ranking last in the U.S. in adults earning high school diplomas.

“One of my favorite adages is: ‘If you can measure it, you can improve it.’ That’s the simple yet powerful driver behind what we’re doing for the Houston region, on all competitiveness and sustainability issues. But, right here, right now, there is no issue more crucial to measure and improve than education.” DAN BELLOW Managing Director, Jones Lang LaSalle 2012 Chairman, Community Indicators Policy Committee Center for Houston’s Future BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

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Transforming Education: The GI Bill

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2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

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How the GI Bill of 1944 changed education in America Unintended consequences from an act can be more powerful and lasting than an act itself. Prior to WWII, college was out of reach for most Americans and was seen as a bastion of the elite. Most institutions of higher learning were concentrated in large cities, many in the northeast. Only two-fifths of the enlisted soldiers had finished high school, and fewer than 5% of Americans had college degrees in 1945. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, better known as the GI Bill, was enacted to avoid massive unemployment and civil unrest resulting from almost 15.7million service personnel returning from WWII. It actually resulted in something much more profound. Some say it is the single most important piece of legislation to affect higher education in the 20th Century. The GI Bill fundamentally altered the education and the economy in the United States. The GI Bill provided veterans with one year of full-time education plus a period equal to their time in service, up to a maximum of 48 months without charge. They could attend the college or training program of their choice and receive up to $500/year for tuition, books, fees and other training costs. The returning GIs also received housing assistance payments. The GI Bill passed, not without significant opposition. Congress had already failed to act on about 640 bills concerning veterans. Some Congressmen felt it was too expensive and would encourage ‘freeloading’ among veterans. Colleges and universities feared veterans would lower standards. Service personnel entered higher education in unprecedented numbers swamping classrooms, libraries and laboratories, and creating a huge demand for student housing. The college student population was no longer limited to 18-24 year olds. These veterans were motivated. More mature, battle tested men and women demanded a more practical course of college work with emphasis on degree programs like business, teaching and engineering.

Not only did the GI Bill and the resulting veteran college students change education in the classroom, they also changed the delivery system. Prior to 1944, private, four-year colleges and universities dominated the higher education system. Now, new vocational courses were added. Junior colleges began to spring up in large and small, urban, suburban and rural communities where they had not previously been. Between 1861 and 1943, new colleges were founded at a rate of 18 colleges/year. After the GI Bill, that rate rose to 32 new colleges/year. Since 1944, the majority of higher educational institutions have been public, junior colleges. Finally, the idea that higher education was the privilege of the well-born elite was shattered. In the peak year of 1947, veterans accounted for 49% of all college enrollments. The total cost of the GI Bill was $14.5 billion. In 2011 dollars, that equals to $147.3 billion. When the program ended in July, 1956, 7.8 million veterans, more than 50% of returning service men and women, were trained, including: —2.23 million, one-third of all returning veterans in college —3.5 million in other institutions —1.4 million in job training —0.69 million in farm training By 1950 America was forever changed. The number of Americans with college degrees increased to 25%, many funded through the GI Bill. These veterans armed with degrees created new businesses and revamped old ones; pushed the boundaries of science, medicine and pharmaceutical discoveries to new levels; built and moved into subdivisions which changed the look of American’s cities; and, bought houses, cars and appliances. The GI Bill was a primary creator of middle class America.

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Early Childhood Education Author: Carol Shattuck, President and CEO, Collaborative for Children

“. . it is the gifted teacher who can infect a generation with the excitement of learning.” MARILYN FERGUSON The Aquarian Conspiracy

“The fiscally responsible thing to do is to invest more resources in early childhood education. . . Early childhood education creates a taxpayer who reduces his or her own tax burden through greater productivity, healthier living and stronger contributions to society.” Dr. James Heckman Nobel Laureate, Economics, University of Chicago

Executive Summary

❥ Most of the 551,405 children ages 0-5 in the greater Houston region are in the care of someone outside the home. ❥ Only 35% of child care centers have achieved excellent teacher education ratings. ❥ Just 12% of child care programs were rated excellent in teacher:child ratios in 2011. ❥ Of the 40 states with Pre-K programs, Texas ranks 25 in spending/child.

These alarming facts do not bode well for the long-term competitiveness, sustainability and resilience of our region. Texas child care licensing requirements and standards are minimal, contributing to a lack of quality experiences and school readiness for children up to five years old. As a result, many young children arrive in Kindergarten or first grade unprepared and struggle to catch up. Some never do. Child care workers are required to have only a high school education, or a GED, and 24 hours of pre-service training plus 24 hours of annual continuing education – less than a hair dresser. Meanwhile, decades of research show that high quality early education can close the achievement gap before kindergarten. Resources for high quality Early Childhood Education (ECE) generate a 7-10% annual return on investment (ROI)i, including increased high school graduation ratesii. High quality ECE affords the individual an opportunity to build skills and learning over a lifetime.iii iv Participation in high quality ECE is definitive: children are better prepared for school; are less likely to be retained; have a greater likelihood of graduating from high school; and, are more apt to enroll and complete college or career-training. Quality ECE raises the odds of having a skilled workforce and citizenry that contribute to the economy and quality of life in the Houston region. Early childhood education is not governed by a single system in our region — it is offered through a variety of systems, each created to meet different needs. As a result, these systems have varying standards of performance: Head Start, launched in 1965, was designed to reduce the impact of poverty on young children and their families. Its focus is on school-readiness as well as family financial security, physical/mental health and dental care for children.v The child care system was developed over many years to support working families and focuses primarily on safety and health, with varying less attention paid to the educational environment. Pre-Kindergarten, established in Texas public schools in 1984, focuses on academic and social-emotional development designed to close the achievement gap of low-income children and those at risk of low school achievement. Pre-K classrooms have a strong curriculum, including literacy, math, and science as well as how to interact with other children.v

This chapter describes ECE and provides data on the indicators necessary to gauge its quality. Teacher Education and Trainingvi and Teacher:Child Ratiosvii, were selected as important indicators because they have a significant impact on the early education experience of children ages 0-5. While Teacher–Child Interactionviii, a measure of the quality of the interaction between ECE teachers and young children, is also a powerful indicator of the quality of early education, limited data prevents its inclusion at this time. It is strongly recommended for future inclusion.

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CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

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1600’s Dame Schools, the precursors of nursery school, were private tuition-based schools run by women from their homes.

1635 Boston Latin Grammar School was the first attempt at some form of secondary education. An exclusive school for only boys to prepare them for college, especially in law or the ministry

Most Children in the Care of Others

Figure 3: Enrollment Growing

Figure 1: Young Children in Care of Other Adults

Estimates Based on the American Community Survey, 2005 – 2009 • Child Care • Home-Based

in Care of

Child Care

Others

at Home

• Relative, friend,

(Working

43%

neighbor care

Parents)

• Head Start

57%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2005-2009 average

Figure 3: Enrollment

Figure 4: State Spending

% of Four Year Olds Enrolled in Texas Public School Pre-K

Texas Spending ($) on Public School Pre-K

Centers

Children Children

enrollment, fewer resources

• Pre-K

4,500

49 47

4,000

45 43

3,500

41 39

Figure 2: Estimate of Young Children in Early Education Environments by Type

3,000

37 35

2,500 2000

Cared for by

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2000

2002

2004 2006

2008 2010 2012

Relatives, Friends, Neighbors 21.6% Early Childhood

Child Care (center/ home-based) 23.6%

% of Four Year Olds Enrolled in Texas Public School Pre-K Initiative

Education System

Source: Texas Kids Count Database, 2009; Administration for Children and Families, Source: Texas Kids Count Database, 2009; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families,

Cared for by

35.0%

Parents* 43.4%

Pre-kindergarten 9.8% Head Start 1.6%

U.S. Departmentof Health and Human Services

According to the 2009 U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, there are 551,405 children from birth to 5 years old in the Texas Gulf Coast Region.ixFigure 2 shows the breakdown of the ECE system by types of care and education. Of the 57% of children cared for by adults other than parents, 22% are cared for in the unregulated “informal care system” of friends families and neighbors. This type of care is less expensive than regulated care and more flexible for families that may have nontraditional hours or changing schedules from week to week. The remaining 35% of young 12

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

State Spending on Public School Pre-K Initiative

Source: NIEER State of Preschool Yearbook, 2010

children participate in the regulated ECE system, operated in child care centers or in homes (23.6%), school-based prekindergarten programs (9.8%) or Head Start (1.6%). These three components of the ECE system are funded differently with child care paid for by parents (with minimal federal subsidies for very low income parents), Pre-K paid for by a combination of state funding and local school districts, and Head Start supported through federal dollars. Both Pre-K and Head Start serve preschool age children (ages 3-4). Child care serves infants, toddlers and preschool-age children. Given the greater

care requirements for infants and toddlers, the teacher:child ratios are lower which makes this group more expensive to serve. According to a 2011 report, “Parents and the High Cost of Child Care,” from the National Association of Child Care Resources and Referral Agencies, high quality child care programs that have teachers and teacher:child ratios that surpass the minimal requirements set by the state cost between $10,000 –$12,000 per year. This amount rivals what many families are paying for housing.

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Texas has the largest Pre-K program in the country, serving more four-year olds than any other state. Data published in the 2010 National Institute for Early Education and Research (NIEER) State of Preschool Yearbook show that the percentage of four year olds enrolled in the Texas Public School Pre-K Initiative increased from 39% in 2002 to 47% in 2010 x (Figure 3). Yet, state spending on the program for at risk four year olds actually decreased from $3,944 in 2002 to $3,686 in 2010 (Figure 4).

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1600 – 1820 Most schoolmasters were men with little training.

1642 Education in reading and religion required

In small and rural communities, teachers were likely to have been farmers, surveyor or innkeepers who kept school for a few months in their off-season.

for all children by the Massachusetts School Law

Figure 6: Mean Stanford scores for HISD K students enrolled in HISD Pre-K the previous year Impact of Pre-K on and comparison groups, 2010–2011.

Huge need, few served Figure 5: Head Start State Comparisons Figure 5: Head Start State Comparisons

Figure 6: Mean Stanford scores for HISD K students enrolled in HISD Pre-K the previous year and comparison groups, 2010–2011.

Head Start Children Served Compared to Children Eligible, 2009 660,912 700,000

601,319

600,000

100

90

90

80

80

60

500,000

Eligible

303,161

293,539

300,000 200,000

97,894

67,591

48,013

100,000

35,390

54

California

Texas Eligible

New York

60

65

50

45

43

61

60

51 50

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

10

53

62

53

0

Reading

Florida

72

70

61

0

0

Figure 7: Mean Aprenda scores for HISD kindergarten students enrolled in HISD Pre-K the previous year and comparison groups, 2010–2011.

100

70

400,000

Figure 7: Mean Aprenda scores for HISD kindergarten students enrolled in HISD Pre-K Kindergarten Readiness the previous year and comparison groups, 2010–2011.

Math

Reading

Math

Served

■ HISD Pre-K ■ Economically Disadvantaged HISD non-Pre-K Source: Head Start Program FactSheet, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 Data; Annie E.Source: CaseyHead KidsStart Count, 2009FactSheet, Data U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 Program

■ Non-Economically Disadvantaged HISD non-Pre-K Source: Houston Independent School District

Annie E. Casey Kids Count, 2009

Demand Exceeds Supply Figure 5 makes it abundantly clear that the need for early childhood education far exceeds supply. Head Start is one part of the ECE System that can be used to illustrate how few of the state’s children are actually receiving the early childhood learning that is needed to prepare them for successful and productive lives. In Texas, only 11.2% of the 600,000 Head Start eligible children are in the program. Pre-K programs are required to serve all eligible children. However, the children of families who pay public school property taxes 14

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

may be ineligible for Pre-K if their incomes are too high or they do not meet one of the other eligibility criteria. Thus, for their child to attend Pre-K, they either pay tuition to their local ISD or enroll in a private preschool program. The most easily accessed system, although the one with the lowest required quailty standards, is the child care system. Most child care is funded by parent tuition with minimal federal subsidies for low-income parents. Subsidies are provided for just 1 in 6 eligible families, with no financial assistance for middle income families. Pre-K programs are required to serve all eligible children.

Kindergarten Readiness The Stanford Achievement Test is a comprehensive means to assess school readiness for entering kindergarteners. While unavailable for the region, there is enough Kindergarten Readiness data from the Houston Independent School District (HISD) to provide insight. The academic performance of students who attended HISD Pre-K was compared to students who came from similar economic backgrounds and who had not been enrolled in HISD Pre-K. Tests were given in English and Spanish (Aprenda).

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Results showed a significant difference in performance on the tests between kindergarten students who attended HISD Pre-K in 2009–2010 compared to their economically-disadvantaged peers who did not attend HISD Pre-K (Figure 6).xi Students who attended HISD Pre-K outperformed their economically-disadvantaged peers who did not attend HISD Pre-K by nine normal curve equivalents (NCEs) on the reading subtest and by eight NCEs on the math subtest. However, students who did not attend HISD Pre-K, and who were not economically disadvantaged, outperformed students who attended HISD

Pre-K by seven NCEs in reading and by nine NCEs in math. Differences in performance on the Spanish language tests were also found between students who attended HISD Pre-K in 2009– 2010 compared to those who did not attend HISD Pre-K (Figure 7). Students who attended HISD Pre-K outperformed their economicallydisadvantaged peers who did not attend HISD Pre-K by 12 NCEs on the reading subtest and by 11 NCEs on the math subtest. Students who attended HISD Pre-K also outperformed their non-economically disadvantaged peers who did not attend

HISD Pre-K by 12 NCEs on the reading subtest and by 10 NCEs on the math subtest. The effects of HISD Pre-K on performance were significant but small. In other tests, HISD Pre-K had a greater percentage of students scoring at the “developed” level compared to economicallydisadvantaged students who did not attend HISD Pre-K. In sum, students who attended Pre-K consistently outperformed their economically-disadvantaged counterparts who did not attend HISD Pre-K on all tests.

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15


1751 A new type of secondary school , the “academy” was formed by Benjamin Franklin. Considered more practical than the Latin Grammar School, it focused more on subjects that could be directly related to the students' adult lives. Allowed girls to attend.

1839 While Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, Horace Mann, the Father of American Education, established the first free, non-sectarian public Normal School in the U.S. in Lexington, MA.

Early childhood learning & development . . .

. . . as good as the teacher

Figure 8: QualiFind Ratings on Teacher Education

Figure 9: Trend Line — Teacher Education Figure 7: Trend Line — Teacher Education

Number of Programs with Teachers Rated Excellent

(9/2011) All Gulf Coast Counties Childhood Programs All Gulf Coast CountiesEarly Early Childhood Education Programs (9/2011)

Teachers Rated “Excellent” Slowly Growing N=1,441

N= 95

N= 294

100%

35%

900

90%

800

35%

80%

23%

700

%of Programs

70% 60%

98%

25%

50% 40%

600

100%

500 400 300

30%

200

40%

100

1% 1%

Good

Excellent

Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early Childhood Education Database, 2011

11 20

11 20

1/ 9/

11

1/ 7/

11

20

1/ 5/

11

1/ 3/

1/ 1/

20

0

Child Care (including Head Start)

20

01 /2

10

/1

20

11

10 20

1/ 9/

10 20

1/ 7/

10

1/ 5/

10

3/

1/

20

9 00

1/ 1/

/2

20

09 /1

7/

Minimal

20

PreK

1/

Head Start

11

Child Care

0

09

0%

1/

10%

20

20%

9/

%of Programs

1,000

PreK

Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early Childhood Education Database, 2011

Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early Childhood Education Database, 2011

Teacher Education and Training

rating, all teachers must have a Child who receive care in child care centers, Development Associate’s (CDA) credential excluding Head Start or a Pre-K program.xiii while a good teacher rating requires that half More highly trained teachers necessarily High quality teacher education and training is the lead teachers have a CDA degree. Only result in higher costs for a state, federal essential for the best child carexii, outstanding 25% of child care centers funder or parents. In a private child care Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early childhood Education Database, 2011 are rated good on Head Start and first-rate Pre-K programs. teacher education while 40% of child care setting, parents pay full tuition. Head Start is Standards for working in a Texas child care centers had minimal teacher education ratings. free to qualified parents/children and is paid center are woefully low. The state requires (Table 1) for with federal funding. Public school Pre-K is minimal education and training: a high school Figure 8 shows the number of programs a part of the school district budget and is diploma or a GED, plus 24 hours of pre-service that meet the excellent standard. Ninety eight provided at no cost to eligible parents. training and 24 hours of annual continuing percent of Head Start programs and 100% of In the 13-county region, only 35% education. This very low standard affects most Pre-K programs are ranked excellent. When of child care centers have excellent teacher acutely the 23.6% (Figure 2) of pre-schoolers the Texas Pre-K program was approved in ratings (Figure 8). To achieve an excellent

16

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

1984, the teacher education standard was etablished as a Bachelor’s degree. However, according to the National Institute for Early Education Researchxiv (NIEER), this is not true for all public Pre-K programs. Now, 58% accept Pre-K teachers whose highest level of education is the CDA or an Associate’s degree. xv National organizations, such as PreK Nowxvi, have strongly advocated that Pre-K teachers have a Bachelor’s degree, arguing that they are more likely to get a higher ROI if programs are taught by highly qualified teachers.

Table 1. QualiFind Rating for Teacher Education Excellent • Based on National Association for Education of Young Children (NAEYC) Standards • All lead teachers must have a CDA • OR, 25% of teachers have an AA or BA degree in early education • OR, a child development or a teaching certificate

Good • 50% of the lead teachers must have a CDA or higher • OR, 12 hours of college credit in early education or child development • OR, all lead teachers Montessori certified

35% of programs

Minimal • Meet Texas Department of Family and Protective Services Standards for operating a child care center • A high school diploma or GED, 24 hours of pre-service training and 24 hours of annual training.

• All teachers have/working on AA, BA in early education or child development or a teaching certificate.

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17


1857 National Education Association founded as a policy-making organization to influence the national debate about schools and schooling

1862 Port Royal Experiment , South Carolina Sea Islands, an early attempt to prepare newly freed slaves for full democratic participation with the goal of literacy, economic independence and civil rights. Figure 9: Trend Line – Teacher–to–Child Ratio

% of Programs with “Excellant”

Room for improvement

Quality education takes training, time and money QualiFind Ratings on Teacher: Child Ratios

Figure 11: Trend Line – Teacher:Child Ratio

Figure 10: QualiFind Ratings on Teacher:Child Ratios All Gulf Coast Counties Early Childhood Education N=1,652 N= 105 N= 434 100%

12%

90%

500

20%

16%

15%

400

80% Excellent

77%

53%

60%

39%

50%

Good Minimal

40%

200 100

Child Care

Head Start

PreK

NAEYC Standards • 0 – 11 months: 1:4 • 12 – 17 months: 1:4 • 18 – 23 months: 1:4 • 2 yeas: 1:6 • 3 years: 1:9 • 4 years: 1:10 • 5 years: 1:10

Minimal

QualiFind • 0 – 11 months: 1:4 • 12 – 17 months: 1:4 • 18 – 23 months: 1:6 • 2 years: 1:8 • 3 years: 1:12 • 4 years: 1:14 • 5 years: 1:16

TX Dept of Family Services Std • 0 – 11 months: 1:4 • 12 – 17 months: 1:5 • 18 – 23 months: 1: 9 • 2 years:: 1:11 • 3 years: 1:15 • 4 years: 1:18 • 5 years: 1:20

AGE

Results for teacher:child ratios are a cause for concern: just 12% of all child care centers in the region were rated excellent for teacher: child ratios in 2011. Head Start programs stand out with 77% of programs reporting excellent ratios. Even thought Head Start programs have 77% excellent ratios, 100% of Head Start programs should meet the excellent standard. Partnerships with school districts to coordinate services and improve efficiency has meant

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

that Head Start has increased the number of children per teacher. Pre-K teacher:child ratios were not established when the Texas Pre-K program was created; thus, each school district makes its own decisions on how many Pre-K children may enroll in each class. Only 20% of the greater Houston Pre-K programs ranked excellent for a teacher: child ratio of 1:10 (Figure 10). NIEER reports that 45 of the 52 states/territories, or 86.5% of state Pre-K programs are rated excellent. On this indicator, Texas lags far behind the rest of the country.

11 20

11

1/ 9/

20

1/

20

11

7/

1/ 5/

3/

1/

20

11

11 20

01 0

1/ 1/

/1

/2

10 20

NAEYC

ACADEMY HEAD START** TX CHILD TX PUBLIC OF PEDIATRICS CARE STDS PRE-K0-1 YR 0 – 11 months 1:4 N/A 1: 4 N/A 12 – 24 months 1:4 1:4 N/A 1:9 N/A 25 36 months 1:6 1:5 N/A 1:11 N/A 3 yearsSource: Collaborative 1:9 for Children’s 1:7QualiFind Early2:17 1:15 Database, No Standards Childhood Education 2011 4 years 1:10 1:8 2:20 1:18 No Standards 5 years 1:10 1:8 2:20 1:20 No Standards * Age groups are not consistent in different systems, so comparisons are approximate ** Classrooms have two teachers to teacher/child

13% of Programs

15% of Programs

Teacher: Child Ratios

11

10

9/

1/

20 1/

20

10 7/

10

1/ 5/

20

20

1/ 3/

00 9

1/ 1/

/2 /1

Table 3. National Teacher:Child Ratio Standards for ECE Systems, 0-5 years*

Table 2. QualiFind Rating for Teacher:Child Ratios Good

09

Child Care (including Head Start) PreK Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early Childhood Education Database, 2011

Source: Collaborative for Children’s QualiFind Early Childhood Education Database, 2011

Excellent

11

4%

0%

20

09 7/

10%

1/

1/

41%

9/

29%

20

35%

10

0

30% 20%

18

13%

300

70%

%of Programs

Programs with “Excellent” Teacher:Child Ratios Slighty increasing, then worsening

Fifty-three percent of child care centers, 29% of Head Start centers, and 39% of Pre-K programs reported teacher:child ratios in the good category. Forty-one percent of Pre-K programs, 35% of child care centers, and 4% of Head Start centers have minimal ratings.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Figure 11 illustrates the limited number of ECE programs which meets the excellent standard. The percentage of Pre-K programs rated excellent actually fell from 16% to 13% in a one-year period. At this percentage few of the region’s young children receive the individualized attention needed for social, emotional and cognitive growth and development. Table 3 is an overview of the recommended ratios by national organizations compared to

16% of Programs

standards in Head Start, Texas child care and Texas Pre-K. Child care teacher:child ratios mirror national accreditation standards for infant care; however, as children get older, Texas state licensing standards allow more children than are recommended by NAEYCxvii and the American Academy of Pediatrics.xviii

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19


Best Practices

Comparisons NIEER conducts an annual survey of state Pre-K programs showing that Texas meets only 4 of its 10 quality indicators.xix This low standing is due primarily to inadequate funding, low requirements for teacher:child ratios and high maximum class sizes. Texas’ spending per child ranks 25th of the 40 states that have Pre-K programs. School districts can invest local tax dollars and Federal Title I funds for Pre-K. Head Startxx programs are difficult to compare among states. In general, their teacher quality is high and teacher:child ratios meet national standards. National studies assessing the quality of Head Start rank well on Environment Rating Scales. In general Head Start programs are as strong, or stronger than other early education centerbased programs. The National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) conducts state comparisons of child care standards and reports that, as a whole, child care standards in our state are low. Texas child care licensing system scored relatively high on safety, health regulations and on-line access to licensing compliance. However, scores are poor on the important indicators of teacher education, teacher:child ratios and maximum group sizes. In a 2011 update, NACCRRA ranked states on their regulatory systems. Texas ranked 16 out of 52 states/territories, but received a failing grade of 95 of a possible 150 points. The highest ranked, Oklahoma, scored only a “C”. Oklahoma makes Pre-K universally available, serving 71% of the state’s 4-year olds, and is rated highest among all states for providing “access” to Pre-K. A high-quality program is delivered by degreed teachers, with low 1:10 teacher:child ratio. School districts select curriculum and deliver the program in either a half-day or full school day format. Research shows significant improvements in children’s scores from the beginning to the end of the year in a number of areas, including

20

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

College Bound from Birth

Table 4: Texas State Pre-K Programs vs. 10 NIEER Standards STANDARDS

TX

Early Learning Standards

l

Teacher Degree (CDA)

l

Teacher Training

l

LARGE STATES NY FL

CA

BEST NC

l l

l

l

l l

Max Class Size (≤20) Teacher:Child Ratio (1:10)

l

Screening/Referral

l

l l l l

Meals Monitoring TOTAL

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

Asst. Teacher Degree (CDA) Teacher In-Service

NEIGHBORING STATES OK AR NM LA

4

l

l

l l

l

l

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale:

Overall Score

l

l

% of Classrooms in Categories 90%

90% 80%

l

l

l

l

l

80% 70%

70%

l

l

l

l

l

60%

60%

50%

50%

l

l

40%

l

l

20%

l

l

l

l

l

l

l l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

6

3

4

10

9

9

8

8

Table 5. Ranking of States in Child Care Study, NACCRRA, 2011

Overall Score on Recommended Regulations, Oversight Rank among all States

LOWEST STATE

Idaho: 11% of possible points “F” #52

cognitive development and language, with dramatic improvements among low-income Hispanic and African American students.1 Spring Branch ISD launched its Texas Pre-K program in 1985, setting high standards with a strong curriculum, well trained teachers, low 1:11 teacher:child ratio and group sizes. In 1999, the district expanded the program from a half-day to a full school day with the help of a grant. In 2000, five universally available, tuition-free, full day Pre-K schools of early learning opened giving all 4-year olds access. Reductions in the state Pre-K grant, from 2007 – 2011, caused the district to charge tuition to those who

TEXAS

63% of points “F”

0% Inadequate

Minimal

0%

Good+

#16

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

30%

71%

50% 40%

57%

20%

10% 14%

14%

Inadequate

0%

0%

Minimal

Good+

71%

30%

43%

20%

Baseline

10%

29%

0%

0% Inadequate

After 2 Years

Minimal

Baseline

Good+

Inadequate

Minimal

Good+

After 2 Years

About the Environment Rating Scales

2

3

Score of 1–2.99 ❑

No materials or poor materials

Insufficient Space

Child is at risk for health/safety issues

Inappropiate or no interaction between teacher/student

#1

were above the income-eligibility guidelines and raise teacher:child ratios rather than limit enrollment. Recent cutbacks have proved even more challenging.1 Driven by governors and ECE advocates in the last decade, a growing number of states have expanded resources for Pre-K improving quality and expanding access, with a few states and regions making Pre-K universally available to all preschool-age children . Oklahoma and Spring Branch ISD are examples of what can be done with strong leadership and commitment.1

60%

40%

10%

14%

70%

50%

20%

10%

80%

60%

30%

HIGHEST STATE

Oklahoma: 76% of points “C”

% of Classrooms in Categories

40%

30%

0%

l

86%

1

CATEGORY

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale:

Interaction

To address high school dropouts early in the education “pipeline”, Collaborative for Children, the City of Houston, HISD, Texas Children’s Pediatric Associates and other partners developed a program to leverage existing investments and resources to support a college and career-bound environment for children, beginning at birth. Initiated in 2008, College Bound from Birth (CBfB) is a comprehensive, neighborhood-based program to increase school readiness by kindergarten and reading and math literacy by grade three. Until the third grade, children are learning to read; beginning then and thereafter they must read to learn. Children who are not reading proficiently by 3rd grade are four times more likely to leave school without a diploma than proficient readers.xxi

4

5

6

Score of 5–7

Score of 3–4.99 ❑

Basic materials

Sufficient Space

7

Good to excellent materials

Basic provisions in place for health/safety issues

Ample indoor/outdoor space

Personalized care

Some positive interactions between teacher/children

Consistently positive interaction

Significant strategies included: • Leadership development in child care facilities and programs • Intensive, on-site director and teacher training and mentoring/modeling • Teacher resources, i.e. age-appropriate curriculum and equipment to improve learning • Scholarships for teachers and directors to continue formal education • Bonuses for directors/teachers completing educational milestones • On-site parenting classes with supper and childcare provided • On-site registration and follow-up to families needing access to health care

In June 2008, working with four large child care programs and nine home-based programs in Sunnyside, a baseline child care quality assessment was conducted. In 2009, classes were held for families to build their knowledge and skills of child development and parenting. At the same time, a Health Care Working Group formed to improve children’s access to health care. The graphs above indicate the significant progress made in a relatively short time. The inadequate ranking for teacher-child interaction dropped from 86% to 14% in only two years. For the overall score, the good ranking for these early childhood programs went from 0% to 71% in two years. To date 90 child care teachers, 1,480 children and 515 families have been active in CBfB.

• Neighborhood Advisory Committee to guide, promote and support initiative BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

21


Bright Beginnings Funded by ExxonMobil and led by United Way of Greater Houston, Bright Beginnings (BB) began in 2002 and in the intervening years has dramatically improved the quality of participating childcare programs. Child care centers that participated have experienced a significant increase in quality, using the same assessments explained in the section above on Collaborative for Children’s College Bound from Birth initiative, the Environment Rating Scales. As shown in the chart to the right, centers evaluated in their “baseline” year, scored an average of 2.7 on a 7 point scale -- in the “inadequate”range representing low teacher/child interaction, very limited resources in the classrooms/outdoor areas and potential risk to the health and safety of the children. When re-rated in 2005, scores increased to an average of 5.3, and to an average of 6.2 by 2011, moving into the “good to excellent” range reflecting much improved care and education. Scores on sub-scales measuring teacher/child interaction, listening and talking, activities, and space and furnishings averaged 6.2 to 6.7, representing significant improvements from the baseline scores. BB focused on research-based strategies that have been shown to have the greatest impact on improving the learning environment and on strengthening a child’s social, emotional, physical and cognitive development, including: • Long-term intensive staff training • Leadership development • Classroom consultation and teacher mentoring • Comprehensive curriculum • Age-appropriate indoor and outdoor equipment • Parental involvement • Wage supplementation • Scholarships to continue formal education

Evalution Results for Bright Beginnings: Improved Learning Environment for Children Evalution conducted by University of Houston, Department of Education

Results of Classroom Assessments Using Environmental Rating Scales 2002

2005

6.2

5.7

5.3

5.3

4.8 3.2

2.7

Overall

Interaction

Listening and Talking

Activities

Several policy recommendations are listed below that, if implemented, would improve school readiness and long-term educational success as well as provide a stronger future workforce for our community. • Develop a statewide Early Childhood Education information and rating system that includes all systems of early education (child care, Head Start and Pre-K) and incorporates observations of teacher/child interaction and a measure of language and literacy development. Families need good information on selecting early childhood programs for their children. Communities need a way to gauge the quality and impact of early childhood education programs. • Make quality Early Childhood Education affordable and accessible for all. Without sufficient funding from a source in addition to parents, large gaps will continue to manifest in children’s performance, particularly for those at low to middle income levels.

3.8

1.9

• Ensure high state standards for licensed child care facilities. Raising minimum standards for teacher training and educational guidelines will bring Texas closer to acceptable standards for other components of the ECE System (Head Start and Pre-K).

Space and Furnishings

• Improve teacher:child ratios in child care and Pre-K. The link between the number of children in a teacher’s care has been shown to impact a child’s ability to learn appropriate socialization skills, build vocabulary and maintain safety and health in the classroom.

Score of 1 – 2.9 represents an inadequated/learning environment, Score of 5 – 7 represents a good/excellent learning environment.

• Replace $200 million cut from Pre-K programs in the 82nd Legislative Session (2011) for full-school day Pre-K for at risk children. Ensuring that all school districts in the state provide voluntary, full-day, accountable Pre-K for children at risk is a wise investment in the future.

From “Day Care” to Child Development EDUCATION

Higher Education = Improved Child Outcomes

• 263 Directors/teachers completed Child Development Associates credentials • 28 Directors/teachers completed Associates Degree in Early Childhood Education •13 Directors/teachers completed Bachelors Degree in Early Childhood Education •10 Directors/teachers completed Masters Degree in Early Childhood Education STAFF RETENTION

Higher Retention = Continuity of Care

• Teacher retention rates increased by 33% • Director retention rates increased by 919% NATIONAL ACCREDITATION Accreditation = Highest Standards of Performance • 3 Centers accredited by NAEYC • 4 Centers in the process of seeking accreditation by NAEYC

In the 2011 evaluation by the University of Houston, researchers of the BB program reported that children attending these child care programs were performing better on state and national assessments than children from similar socioeconomic levels. To date 20 child care centers, 461 teachers and 4,200 children have been involved in this groundbreaking initiative. 2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

6.7

6.3

6.2

• On-going evaluation

22

2011

Public Policy Considerations

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

• Fund federal early education programs for low-income, at-risk children at a higher level so that all eligible children are served. Currently, funding for Head Start and the Child Care Development Block Grant are limited by the current funding mechanism (grant funding vs. funding based on eligibility). Grant amounts are set too low to cover all eligible children.

Communities need a way to gauge the quality and impact of early childhood education programs.

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23


K –12 Authors: from Children at Risk Robert Sanborn, Ed.D., President & CEO Caroline Holcombe, Director of Social Measurment & Evaluation

“It is what teachers think, what teachers do, and what teachers are at the level of the classroom that ultimately shapes the kind of learning that young people get.”

Disparities persist across income and ethnicity. Meanwhile, only a fraction of all students are on track to enter and to succeed in college and career.

Executive Summary

In the past, a high school education afforded people a middle class living. This is no longer the case. A college degree, or a technical certificate, has become a necessity for the 21st Century global economy. The academic, social and emotional growth that takes place in grades K-12 sets the stage for success in college, careers, and life. Whether students reach and excel at critical benchmarks between kindergarten and high school will determine their contribution to the workforce and the economy. When examining the performance of schools and students, demographics and poverty must also be considered. In 2011, 55% of public school students were considered economically disadvantaged. Whether the region adequately addresses the educational disparities facing poor children will play a critical role in our future competitiveness and economic vitality.

Critical indicators for K-12 include: ❥ Third Grade Reading proficiency is a critical indicator along the path to successful completion of high school. It is an early indicator of students’ academic progress. Only 48% of our region’s students—and only 38% of economically disadvantaged students—are reading at a Commended level in third grade. While reading performance on the TAKS has risen slightly since 2003, gaps between incomes groups have widened.

❥ Algebra I is acknowledged as an enormous stumbling block for student success in high school and college. Although students are expected to complete Algebra I in ninth grade, only 53% of the region’s ninth graders successfully completed Algebra I in 2010.

❥ College Entrance Examinations (SAT or ACT) must be completed for entrance to a college or university. However, participation in and performance on these examinations has remained stagnant during the past decade. In 2009, 62% of the region’s graduates had taken either the SAT or ACT, and the mean scores on these examinations were 997 and 21.3, respectively of a possible score1600 and 36.

A N D Y H A R G R E AV E S , P H . D . Boston College

MICHAEL FULLAN, PH.D. University of Toronto

❥ Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate Examinations, successfully completed, can place students on the right track for college success, sometimes earning students college credit or advanced standing. In this region, only 14% of upperclassmen took and passed at least one AP or IB examination in 2010, and the gap between African American and Asian students was a staggering 34%.

❥ Over-age Students, who have been held back in school, are more likely to drop out. In greater Houston, 20% of all students—and 33.3% of ninth graders—are over-age for their grade level and at increased risk for dropping out.

❥ High School Graduation: Earning a high school degree has become a basic necessity. However, the Houston region only graduates 71% of its ninth grade students on time, with Texas ranking last in the U.S. in adults earning high school diplomas.

The quality of public education dictates our future competitiveness with other regions and other nations. Compared to other industrialized nations, American students are lagging. Eighth graders fall significantly behind their peers in six other nations on advanced international tests in mathematics; and, ten OECD nations outperform the U.S. on high school degree attainment. Low-income and minority students trail their peers across educational outcomes, from third grade reading to high school graduation to post-secondary readiness. In the Class of 2010 alone, greater Houston’s public schools failed to graduate over 23,800 students on time,1 with each high school dropout conservatively estimated to cost the state $4,935 per person each year in lost wages, sales tax revenue, and welfare payments.2 The state and region must make investment in public education the top priority to preserve our competitiveness nationally and globally and to ensure that our workforce is second to none. This chapter presents the status and trends for the region’s students in proven metrics along the K-12 continuum to assess the preparedness of our region’s students to succeed in college, the workforce, and life. 24

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

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25


 Texas A&M when it was

1862

Land Grant Act gave states land from the federal government for colleges

made a land grant institution.

The challenges and facts of demographics and poverty Figure 1: Percentage of economically disadvantaged

Figure 2: Percentage of student population by race/ethnicity

Economic Disadvantage of Greater Houston Economic Disadvantage of Greater Houston Students, 2010-11 Students, 2010-11

Race/Ethnicity of Greater Houston Race/Ethnicity of Greater Houston Students, 2010-11 Students, 2010-11 1.5%1.5% 0.6%0.6% 5.7%5.7%

1867 The Office of Education, a small unit in the Federal Government, was created on March 2, 1867. Henry Barnard of Connecticut was appointed as the first Commissioner.

Early sign of educational success – third grade reading Figure 3: Percentage of 3rd graders reading at Commended Level on TAKS by Economic Disadvantage Status, 2003–2010 100% 100% 90% 90% Students All All Students

80% 80% 70% 70% 60% 60%

Economically Economically Disadvantage Disadvantage

50% 50% 44.8% 44.8%

40% 40%

18.7% 18.7%

43.4% 43.4%

30% 30% 46.1% 46.1%

NotNot Economically Economically Disadvantage Disadvantage

20% 20% 10% 10% 0%0%

27.4% 27.4%

2003 2003

2004 2004

2005 2005

2006 2006

2007 2007

2008 2008

2009 2009

2010 2010

Source: Texas Education Agency, CHILDREN AT RISK Analysis

Figure 4: Percentage of 4th graders reaching national benchmark levels on NAEP Reading (2009)

5.4%5.4% 6.4%6.4%

Hispanic Hispanic

Eligible For For FreeFree Meals Eligible Meals

White White

Eligible For For ReducedEligible ReducedPricePrice Meals Meals Other Economically Other Economically Disadvantaged Disadvantaged NotNot Economically Economically Disadvantage Disadvantage

120 120 100 100

Black or African Black or African American American

8080

Advanced Advanced

Asian Asian

6060

Proficient Proficient

TwoTwo or More Races or More Races

4040

Other Other

Basic Basic Below Basic Below Basic

2020 00

Nation Nation

Source: Texas Education Agency, PEIMS Standard Reports (2011)

There is a demographic revolution in this country as the U.S. population becomes increasingly diverse. It is especially important to consider this trend and the impact it will have on educational and social systems in the fast-growing and highly diverse state of Texas. Demographers project that Latino children will account for nearly two in three children by 2040.3 These demographic changes are magnified in this region. In 2011, nearly 1.2 million students were enrolled in greater Houston’s public schools. They have predominately minority backgrounds: 46% Latino, 27% White, 19% 26

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

Source: Texas Education Agency, PEIMS Standard Reports (2011)

African American, 6% Asian, and 2% Multiracial. The majority come from low-income families, with 55% of students qualifying for free or reduced-price meals or other public assistance. Further, one in five students has limited proficiency in the English language, with native languages ranging from Spanish to Mandarin to Urdu.4 Understanding the changing demographic composition of this region and its schools is essential to understanding the condition of education and to addressing current educational inequalities and their impact on the future workforce.

*Note to graphs: Other economically disadvantaged includes students from a family with an annual income at or below the official poverty line, students eligible for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) or other public assistance, students that received a Pell Grant or comparable state program of need-based financial assistance, students eligible for programs assisted under Title II of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), and students eligible for benefits under the Food Stamp Act of 1977.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Texas Texas

Houston ISDISD Houston

Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2009.

Third Grade Reading Learning to read is the most fundamental skill to master to be successful in college, work, and life. Whether students are proficient in third grade reading is an early indicator of their being on the “path for success” through high school completion.5 Third grade marks the turning point from learning how to read – a skill that is the basis for all other learning – to reading to learn. Children make the greatest gains in reading in early years; consequently, students who fall behind in early grades can have a much harder time catching up.6 Students who

are not reading proficiently in third grade are on a path to struggle throughout their schooling, adversely impacting their ability to learn other subjects including literature, history, science, and mathematics. Researchers have found that students reading on grade level in third grade are more likely to graduate high school and enroll in college.7 A recent longitudinal study found that students who were not reading proficiently in third grade were four times more likely to exit school before earning a diploma than proficient readers.8 In this region, 92% of third graders are reading at the most basic level which is

determined by achieving a passing score on the TAKS examination. Only 48% are achieving at the Commended level that is more closely aligned to college-ready standards up from 25% in 2003. Statewide, the passing rate is 91% and the Commended rate is 45%. Statistics from the English and Spanish language test are combined. Third grade reading ability, as measured on the TAKS test, varies greatly by race and by economic disadvantage, with a Commended gap of 24% between economically disadvantaged and not economically disadvantaged students.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

27


Students with teacher at the Hampton Institute

1868 Hampton Institute was founded as an agricultural college and Normal School for freed slaves by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, the son of a prominent missionary family.

Steady gains – but barely 50% pass Algebra I Figure 5: Greater Houston Ninth Graders Passing Algebra I, 2000–2010

College bound – flat for 10 years with declining scores

Figure 6: Percentage of Eighth Grade Students Who Reached the TIMSS Advanced International Benchmark in Mathematics by Country, 2007

Figure 7: Mean SAT and ACT Scores for Greater Houston Student Test–Takers, 2000–2009 SAT 1600

ACT SAT 1600

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1400

Chinese Taipei Singapore Korea HongKong SAR Japan Hungary England Russian Federation United States Lithuania Czech Republic Australia Armenia Turkey Serbia Malta Slovenia Scotland Romania Israel Bulgaria International Median

1400 1200 1200 1000 1000 800 800 600 600 400 4002000

10

20

30

40

50

Percentage is higher than U.S. percentage (p<.05) Percentage is not measurably different from U.S. percentage (p<.05) Percentage is lower than U.S. percentage (p<.05)

According to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) American eighth graders perform above the international average in mathematics. However, only 6% of American eighth graders scored at an advanced international benchmark in mathematics. Six nations significantly outperformed U.S. students on this indicator—including 45% in China, 40% in South Korea, and 40% in Singapore. America produced the same proportion of

28

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

advanced students as Lithuania, Armenia, the Czech Republic, Australia and Turkey.9 Algebra I has been termed a “gateway” course for subsequent and advanced math and science coursework.10 Two in three high school graduates who completed a rigorous high school curriculum had taken Algebra I before high school.11 Encouraging and supporting students to succeed in algebra, and later in an advanced science and math curriculum, is especially important to support the growth of students ready for careers in math, science, technology, engineering, and innovation.

ACT

SAT ACT

Figure 8: Percent of Greater Houston Graduates Taking at Least one SAT or ACT Examination, 2000–2009

Source: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007

Algebra I

SAT

Source: Texas Education Agency, Information Request

0

Source: Texas Education Agency (Information Request)

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

ACT 36.0 36.0 31.0 31.0 26.0 26.0 21.0 21.0 16.0 16.0 11.0 11.0 6.0 6.0 1.0 1.0

Nationally, enrollment in eighth-grade Algebra has increased in recent decades, though enrollment varies greatly by race, poverty status, mother’s educational attainment, region, and school type.12 In the Houston region, 53% of ninth graders successfully completed Algebra I in 2010, up from 34% in 2000.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

100.0 100.0 90.0 90.0 80.0 80.0 70.0 70.0 60.0 60.0 50.0 50.0 40.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 20.0 20.0 10.0 10.0

All Students All Students African American African American Hispanic Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander Asian/Pacific Islander White White

Source: Texas Education Agency, Information Request

SAT Scores The SAT and ACT examinations assess students’ potential for academic achievement in higher education. They help colleges and universities make admissions decisions, to varying degrees, and serve as a useful tool to evaluate the college readiness of students while still in high school. Participation in college entrance examinations has remained stagnant over the past decade—with 64% of the Class of 2000 having taken the SAT or ACT—as has

performance on these exams. In 2009, the mean scores on the SAT and ACT examination among public school students in the Houston region was 997 and 21.3, respectively, compared to 1005 and 20.8 a decade earlier in 2000. The College Board has identified a college-ready benchmark of 1000 for the verbal and math on the SAT, but encourages the use of multiple criteria (especially high school GPA) when evaluating the college readiness of students.13 College-ready benchmarks on the ACT have been identified as follows: 18 on

English-; 22 on Math; 21 on Reading; and 24 on Science.14 In greater Houston public schools, 62% of graduates in the Class of 2009 took either the SAT or the ACT, with Asian graduates participating at nearly twice the rate of Latino graduates, at 85% and 43%, respectively. Latino graduates in greater Houston also participate in college entrance examinations at lower levels than their graduating peers across the state, 51% of whom took the SAT or ACT.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

29


1877

1895 Plessy v. Ferguson, Supreme Court ruling establishing the ‘separate but equal’ principle The state of Louisiana enacted a law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. In 1892, Homer Adolph Plessy--who was seven-eighths Caucasian--took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested.

Houston's first free public schools established.

AP/IB: Few score high enough to qualify and succeed – disparities persist

Students in danger of dropping out

Figure 9: Percent of 11th and 12 Grade Students Meeting the Criterion Score on One or More AP or IB Exams, Greater Houston, 2000–2010

Figure 10: Greater Houston Students Over–age for their Grade, as an Indicator of Dropout Risk, by Grade and Years, 2009–2010

40% 35%

35%

30%

30% All Students

25%

African American

20%

Hispanic

15%

Percent 1+ Yr Over -age

15%

Asian/Pacific Islander

10%

Percent 2+ Yr Over -age

10%

White

20%

5%

5%

Source: Texas Education Agency, Information Request

AP/IB Exams Earning a three or higher on an Advanced Placement (AP) exam or a four or higher on an International Baccalaureate (IB) exam helps place students on the right track upon entering college, and can earn students advanced standing or college credit. Completing a challenging and rigorous high school curriculum and earning advanced standing or college credit while still

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

in high school can help place students on track for postsecondary success. In 2010, nearly one in four eleventh and twelfth graders in the region took at least one AP or IB exam, with 14% of examinees earning a score that could qualify them for advanced standing or course credit in college. (Figure 9) The largest achievement gap on this indicator exists between African American and

Eig ht Ni ne th Te nth Ele ve nth Tw elv eth

Six th Se ve nth

Th ird Fo urt h Fiv eth

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Fir st Se co nd

0%

0%

30

25%

Source: Texas Education Agency, Information Request, Information Request (CHILDREN AT RISK Analysis}

Asian students: only 4% of African American students took and passed at least one AP or IB exam, compared to 38% of Asian students. In a study of Texas high school graduates produced for the College Board, researchers found that students who had taken AP coursework and exams in high school outperformed their peers while in college in terms of GPA, accrual of course hours, and four-year graduation rates.15

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Drop Outs Identifying students who are over-age for their grade level is important because these are the students likely to drop out of school. Students are identified as “over-age” when they are a year older than the standard age for their grade during the 2010-11 school year, as captured on September 1, 2010. Standard ages are six for first grade, seven for second grade, and so on.

School districts might flag over-age students as part of an early warning system for dropping out, or examine trends in over-age students to monitor successful transitions, such as from middle to high school.16 Students who have been held back in school are substantially more likely than their peers to drop out, and students who are over-age for their grade have been found to become disengaged in school as a precursor

to dropping out.17 In greater Houston, one in five students is over-age for their grade level. Figure 10 points out that the percentage of students who are over-age peeks at the transitional freshman year, and then declines as these at-risk students drop out of high school.

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70% 60% 50%

1897

1906

Chicago Teachers Federation, the first of many teacher organizations, 40% salaries and pensions. formed for women elementary school teachers to improve their

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was chartered by an Act of Congress as an independent policy and research center.

ANDREW CARNEGIE

30% 20% 10% 0%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 All Students High school graduation rates improving at a crawl Not Economically Disadvantaged

Figure 11: High school graduation rates

Economically Disadvantaged

Percent of Greater Houston First-Time Freshman Graduating from any Texas Public High School within Four Years, Class of 2000-2010

Texas’ drop outs = $9.6 billion loss/year Figure 13: What if …half of Texas’s 135,100 dropouts from the Class of 2010 had stayed in school and earned a high school diploma?

Figure: 12: Percentage of US adults aged 25-24 with high school degrees Percent of Adults Aged 25-34 with at Least Upper Secondary Education, by County (2008)

100%

Korea

90%

Denmark

80%

Czech Republic

70%

Slovak Republic

60%

Poland

50%

Canada Sweden

40%

Finland

30%

Switzerland

20%

Austria

10%

United States

The results would be . . .

Germany

0%

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Hungary Chile

All Students

Ireland

Not Economically Disadvantaged

75

80

85

90

95

100

Economically Disadvantaged

Source: 2011 Alliance for Excellence in Education Source: Information Request, Texas Education Agency, 2011.CHILDREN AT RISK Analysis

Source: OECD. Education at a Glance 2010

Korea

GraduationDenmark Rates Czech Republic

Eighty-eight percent of American young adults, ages 25-34, Slovak haveRepublic earned at least a Poland high school diploma or equivalent. Ten OECD nations outperformCanada the United States Sweden on this measure. At the upper end, 98% of Finland South Korea’s young adults are attaining at Switzerland least an upper secondary education. In Austria greater Houston, only 71% of new ninth States in 2006-07 graders entering highUnited school Germany completed high school within four years. This graduation rate does notHungary account for those students who may have left public Chile schools to Ireland

32

75

80

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

go out of the state, to be home schooled or to attend private school. Failure to finish high school is related to a number of negative outcomes for students, the workforce, and economy. Dropouts are less likely to be employed and generally earn lower wages when they are employed. Only 39% of high school dropouts were employed in 2010, compared to 55% of high school graduates and 73% of college graduates.18 The median income for Harris County’s high school dropouts aged 25 and older was $19,99319 compared to $27,318 among high school graduates and GED recipients in 85

90

95

100

2008.20 Further, close to half of Texas’ prison inmates are high school dropouts.21

Expenditures and Economic Impact

*Methodology: Children at Risk graduation rate utilizes the first-time freshmen cohorts used by the TEA Division of Accountability Research. Graduation rates are calculated by: 1) subtracting students who passed away before graduating from high school from their first-time freshmen cohort to create an adjusted first-time freshmen cohort; and 2) dividing the number of graduates from a school’s adjusted first-time freshmen cohort (whether they graduated from the same school or any other public school in the state) by that school’s total adjusted first-time freshmen cohort

Texas ranks 43rd in the nation in per pupil expenditure on public education, with only Arizona, Idaho, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Utah spending less per pupil than Texas.2 2 According to the US Census Bureau and the TEA, in 2009 Texas spent $8,540 per pupil compared to the national average of $10,499. The state of New York spent $18,126 per pupil in the same year.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

At the same time, a drop out is estimated to cost Texas $4,935 per student each year in terms of lost wages, sales tax revenue, and welfare payments. High school dropouts cost the state in numerous ways–through higher rates of crime and incarceration, increased use of welfare and social services, greater dependence on public health care systems, and the loss of earnings and economic activity. In total, this amounts to a single class of dropouts costing Texas up to $9.6 billion.23

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33


Best Practices Exceptional models of public education in the greater Houston area offer examples of how to provide high quality education to students from different backgrounds and with different learning styles. Three such models are explored below.

Public Policy Considerations

J. P. Henderson Elementary, a comprehensive elementary school in Texas’ largest

YES Prep Public Schools is an open-

Low-income and

independent school district (HISD), offers a top quality education to predominately low-income Hispanic students. Ninety-five percent of J.P. Henderson’s students are classified as economically disadvantaged,24 but 43% of their third-graders score at the Commended level on the TAKS reading examination.25 In 2010 for the region as a whole just 38% of economically disadvantaged students scored at the Commended level. Entering J. P. Henderson, some of the school’s attributes that immediately stand out include its incredibly dedicated and passionate principal who can regularly be observed providing feedback and support to her teachers, as well as the presence of student achievement data throughout the school’s classrooms, which is actively shared and discussed among the leadership, teachers and students. CHILDREN AT RISK recognized J. P. Henderson Elementary as a Gold Ribbon School, or the top urban, comprehensive elementary school in greater Houston, in 2011.

enrollment charter school network that began in Houston in 1995, and now serves more than four thousand 6th-12th grade students primarily from minority and low-income families. Across the YES Prep network, 78% of all students are considered economically disadvantaged. The district operates throughout the region with a mission to increase college graduation rates and workforce preparedness among low-income Houstonians. It works to achieve this mission by setting high expectations for students (including a goal of 100% college acceptance), requiring a parent contract for “whatever it takes,” implementing an extended school day and year, and requiring that teachers are available to their students at all times. This approach has resulted in considerable success, with graduation rates at the YES Prep Southeast Campus reaching 85.7%.

minority students trail

High School for Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, a theme-based high school that has been operating in the HISD for more than three decades, provides a highly engaging learning environment for students who are interested in careers in the law and criminal justice system. The majority of its students (73%) are considered economically disadvantaged. Through its unique, challenging, and experiential curriculum dedicated to preparing its students for the workforce, the High School for Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice boasts a graduation rate of 88.9%, while college enrollment rates have also climbed.

their peers from the very first indicator, third grade reading.

Not only do these populations already represent the majority of the region’s students, with 65% of students African American or Latino and 55% of students coming from lowincome families, they are also the populations that are growing as diversification continues. This demographic revolution means that, all else being equal, if we do nothing to address the achievement gaps, regional educational outcomes will not stay the same; they will become worse.26 With 29% of students dropping out of the region’s public schools, it is clear that costs will continue to grow particularly if educational outcomes are not improved for all students. Texas loses $9.6 billion annually, including tax revenues, payroll tax, etc., for a single cohort of dropouts. Coupled with cuts in state education funding, this is a financial reality that we literally cannot afford. There are clear, research-based school reforms that, when implemented correctly, can

have a dramatic improvement on school and student performance. Each of these policy solutions are illustrated in Best Practices described below; these policies exist in their current form as successfully implemented practices: • Effective Teachers: The recruitment, training, and support of teachers is vital to advancing students’ academic achievement. The need for effective teachers is most acute in high-poverty schools; an analysis of teachers in Florida and North Carolina using a value-added model found that the highest-performing teachers in high-poverty schools were generally worse than their lowestperforming counterparts in low-poverty schools. 27 • More Time in Class: Extending the school day or year can help foster higher student achievement by increasing time on task, broadening and deepening coverage of curriculum, providing more opportunities for experiential learning, strengthening teachers’ opportunities to work with diverse ability levels simultaneously, and deepening adult-child relationships. In Massachusetts, schools participating in an extended learning time initiative that added 300 hours of instructional time over the course of the year saw their numbers of students achieving proficiency on state tests rise across all subjects during the 2008-09. 28 • Small, Rigorous, and Theme-based Learning Communities: As seen with the High School for Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, creating small learning communities can help personalize students’ educational experience, allow teachers and staff to interact with students in meaningful ways, and increase student engagement. Rigor is also a key part of

the puzzle. In a study of nine highperforming urban middle schools, researchers found that the high expectations parents, teachers, and students held, both of themselves and each other, was essential to these schools’ success.29 • School Leadership: Strong leaders are vital for transforming low-performing schools, inspiring students and teachers, and executing comprehensive reform. Successful leaders, who are provided with adequate support, will provide instructional leadership, management, communication, collaboration, and vision development. Strong leaders also make effective use of the community’s resources through robust partnerships with nonprofits, businesses, parents, and other community groups and stakeholders. School leaders have a tremendous impact on the students in their schools; one study found that 25 percent of a school’s impact on student learning can be attributed to the influence of the principal.30 • Data-Informed Decision Making: Successful schools and districts make a regular habit of collecting and analyzing data to identify students who are off-track and programs that are or are not working so that educators can respond and adapt in a timely manner with additional support and targeted interventions. Making accurate, timely, and useful data readily available to educators—and providing them with adequate support and training to use this data effectively—is essential to a comprehensive education reform strategy.

Photographs of students from HISD-High Schools for Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice 34

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

35


Workforce Preparedness Author: Catherine Horn, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Houston, College of Education

“The foundation of every state is the education of its youth.” DIOGENES LAERTIUS Greek Philosopher, 3rd Century CE

Executive Summary

Quality postsecondary education is critical to economic and civic viability. Such benefits remain elusive, however, to many of the region’s residents. The fastest growing professions in the region, including education, nursing, engineering, and accounting, will face as much as a 621,0001 person shortage in the next four years. The metrics presented in this report suggest, however, that the gap will not be easily filled by graduates from our community colleges and four-year institutions. Specifically, the metrics indicate that: Having a successful college experience is important – for the individual and for the collective economic and social well-being. The region faces profound challenges with regard to workforce readiness. Almost half of entering college freshmen matriculate needing one or more developmental education courses. Moreover, just over one-third (34.4%) of the region’s adults 25 years and older have an Associate’s or Bachelor’s degree. The cost of college education increases as state funding declines. From 2003 to 2010, the average cost of all postsecondary tuition and fees increased, most notably the cost of a four-year college education doubled. As the region continues to deliberate about and focus resources on the sustainability and development of human and intellectual capital, it will be increasingly important for postsecondary education leaders to work proactively and collaboratively with policy makers, the business and civic community and other advocates. Such efforts will increase the likelihood of sound policy development leading to enhanced opportunities for all of the region’s residents. Without such efforts, the region faces substantial challenges.

36

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

37


1911 Moonlight Schools of Kentucky started by Cora Wilson Stewart, the first night school literacy courses in the U.S.

1916 American Federation of Teachers was formed by the joining of teacher organizations and unions, under the leadership of Margaret Haley, a former teacher and the Federation’s paid business representative.

Higher education pays . . .

. . .particularly for high demand jobs.

Figure 1: 2010 US Full-time Wage & Salary Worker Annual Averages (Ages 25+)2

Figure 2: Occupations Adding the Most New Jobs or Growing the Fastest 2006-2016, Gulf Coast and Number of 2010 Bachelor’s, Associate’s, and Certificates in Related Fields (in thousands)6

Unemployment rate in 2010 (%)

Median weekly earnings in 2010 ($) 1.9

Doctoral degree

140 1,550

120 2.4

Professional degree

48.6

1,610

100 4.0

Master’s degree

1,272

80 5.4

7.0

9.2

Bachelor’s degree

1,038

767

Associate degree Some college, no degree

712

High school diploma

10.3

Less than a high school diploma

4.9

626

2016 Additional Jobs Created 2006 Existing Jobs

60

2010 Graduates in Related Fields 82

40

8.3

20

15.7 444

2

0 Teaching

Average: 8.2%

Average: $782

Source: Bureau of Labor Statics, Current Population Suurvey

Having a successful postsecondary educational experience is important – for both individual and collective economic and social well-being.

38

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

Much work has identified the importance of higher education to both financial health and to civic and social outcomes.3 As Figure 1 demonstrates, nationally, the economic benefits associated with increased levels of postsecondary education are quite pronounced. In Texas, the difference in median annual earnings between a high school diploma and an associate’s degree is almost $7,335 and between a high school diploma and a Bachelor’s degree almost $21,425.4

2.8 STEM

5.2 6.6 3.3 Nursing and Other Health Related

Source: FSG Social Impact Consultants, 2011

For the region, a 1% increase in the four-year college attainment rate would result in an additional $4.2 billion for the economy.5

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Meeting Market Demand Postsecondary educational degree attainment will be increasingly important as the fastest-growing markets are in knowledge-based professions. Professions including teaching, STEM and nursing will have as many as 621,000 new jobs created in the next four years. But, as Figure 2 suggests, market demands are not being met. The total number of graduates in these high growth industries in the region suggests that the jobs

in the greatest demand are not being filled by local graduates. At the state and local level, there are already substantial numbers of college-educated employees being “imported” from elsewhere in the country and from across the globe to meet the demand for educated workers.

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39


30% 30

19%

20

1926

9%

1944

Carl10Brigham, the Princeton academic who invented the SAT. 0

Standard Achievement Test

Not a HS Graduate

HS Graduate

Some College or Associates Degree

Bachelor’s Degree or Higher

G.I. Bill of Rights , officially the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, signed into law college tuition, living expenses, books, supplies and equipment to all who served, transforming higher education in America.

■ Volunteering Rates

Higher education . . . a benefit to the the entire community Figure 3: National Volunteering Rates among Individuals Ages 25+, by Education Level, 20097

Profound challenges with regard to workforce readiness Figure 5: Percent of People Age 25+ With College Degree9

Figure 4: National Voting Rate among US Citizens, by Age & Education Level, 20088

100 100

90

90

80

80

70

70

60

60

50

50

43%

40

30%

30

30

19%

20

20

9%

10

40

10

0

0

Not a HS Graduate

HS Graduate

Some College or Associates Degree

■ Volunteering Rates

Bachelor’s Degree or Higher

18 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64 65 to 74 75 and over

■ Not a HS Graduate ■ HS Graduate

■ Some College or Associate Degree ■ Bachelor’s Degree or Higher

Only 28.4% of the region’s residents have a four year college degree. Source: 2010 American Community Survey

Source: The College Board, 2010

Benefits of Higher Education

100 90

Beyond 80 the financial impact, an Associate’s or a Bachelor’s degree is also related to 70 increased social well being. Increased 60attainment is also associated with education increased50volunteerism (Figure 3) and voter participation (Figure 4). 40 Another area where education benefits 30

the individual and society is the cost of incarceration. Lower education attainment increases the likelihood that individuals, particularly males, will be arrested and incarcerated. In a 2004 report by the Alliance of Excellent Education, economists Lance Lochner of the University of Western Ontario and Enrico Moretti of the University of California, Berkeley, conservatively estimated that if the male graduation rate

were increased by just 5%, annual crime related savings to the nation would be approximately $5 billion. Beyond this savings, almost $2.8 billion would be generated in additional annual earnings to the economy.

20 10 0

40

18 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64 65 to 74 75 and over CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

Source: Houston–Galveston Area Counsel

Source: The College Board, 2010

Workforce Readiness According to the 2010 American Community Survey, 28.4% of the region has a four-year college degree, slightly above the national percentage of 28.1%. However, many competitor regions are faring much better. Only 6% of the population holds an Associate’s Degree. At 34rd among the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas, our region ranks far behind the top five metropolitan regions in terms of percentage of college degree earners, including Washington D.C., San Jose, San Francisco, Boston and Raleigh

in descending order. For these cities, college attainment ranges from 46.8% to 41%. Chicago, an area of comparable size to Houston ranks14th, Dallas ranks 23rd and Philadelphia ranks 16th. Moreover, Houston ranks 60th out of the 75 least literate cities in the United States (75 being the least literate).10 As the region moves solidly into the 21st Century knowledge-based economy, more and more employers will require highly skilled and educated workers. Thus, it is incumbent that a much higher percentage of the population has a two- or four-year college degree.

According to a 2011 report from The Brookings Institute, what employers want today and what local students are trained to do today simply do not match. The BaytownHouston-Sugarland MSA ranks 94th among the largest 100 MSAs in matching jobs needed to degrees granted. Civic, education, community, and business leaders recognize the critical need to close the gaps between the economic demands and a labor force ready to meet them.11

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41


1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, KS: The Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were inherently unequal.

1955

The Supreme Court announced that schools must desegregate.

Regional standing and capacity VS. growing demand

Community College enrollment skyrockets; 4-year colleges relatively stagnant

Figure 6: Gulf Coast Region, Higher Education Campuses12

Figure 7: First-Time College Applications, Acceptances, and Enrollments for Regional Four-Year Universities, 2000-201015 30,000

28,125 25,000

23,246 21,339

20,000

16,628

15,000

14,409

10,000

8,306

6,987 5,000

10

20

09

08

20

07

20

06

20

05

20

04

20

03

20

02

20

01

20

20

20

00

0

Applicants Acceptances Enrollees Source: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts

Population Growth vs. Capacity While the region has one of the youngest, fastest growing and most diverse populations in the country13, it also faces profound challenges. To meet its education and workforce needs, the region is supported by a number of public and private universities as well as two of the country’s 10 largest community college systems14 (Figure 6).

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

How does the greater Houston region compare?

Enrollment: Community Colleges

Enrollment: Four-Year Institutions

Table 1: Education among Top US Cities

Postsecondary enrollment growth in the region has been most pronounced at the community colleges while enrollment at the region’s four year colleges has remained relatively stagnant. Community college enrollment has skyrocketed and, for the region, represents the postsecondary setting most students are attending. In Texas, more than 700,000 students attended community colleges in 2010, a 30% increase from 2005. The region, which accounts for about one-quarter of the state’s enrollment, saw a 36% increase from 2005 to 2010 (Table 2).

Among public four year institutions in the region, applications and admissions of first time in college freshmen have also steadily risen over the last decade. Almost 12,000 more students applied and 7,000 more were admitted to attend four-year institutions in 2010 than in 2000. However, enrollments to the region’s public four year colleges have remained relatively stagnant with fewer than 2,000 additional students enrolling in 2010 than in 2000 (Figure 7).

MSA

New York City Los Angeles Chicago Houston Philadelphia

Population (MM)

Colleges, Universities Professional Schools

18.9 12.8 9.5 5.9 5.9

273 224 160 38 93

Source: US Census Bureau 2009

42

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Table 2: Regional Community College Enrollment, 2005-201016 YEAR

ENROLLMENT

2005

129,613

2006

132,699

2007

134,915

2008

140,678

2009

156,346

2010

175,854

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

43


Tutuition

6,000

1958 National Defense Education Act passed, motivated3,000 by Soviet launch of Sputnik and the fear that U.S. schools were lagging in science and math. The Act provided an unprecedented infusion of federal funding to increase college attendance and the study of math, science and foreign language.. 0

2002-2003

2009-2010

1965

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed as a part of President Johnson’s anti-poverty programs, is the single largest source of federal support of K-12 education, funding poor schools and children. The act created Head Start created for preschool children from low-income families and the first Adult Basic Education program.

2014-2015

Years

Requiring 0 Developmental Education

Not Requiring Developmental Education Not Requiring Developmental Education

Requiring Developmental Education

3,000

$5,000

Region

$0 2002-2003

2009-2010

2014-2015

Region

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

State

Years

Costs include estimates of: tuition and fees; books and supplies; room and board; transportation; and personal expenses.

Source: Texas Tuition Promise Fund

Source: College for all Texans 2011

Source: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

$30,000

Cost of Higher Education $25,000

$22,956 From 2003 to 2010, the average price of tuition and fees increased substantially across $20,000 all postsecondary sectors, but most notably the price of a four-year college education $15,000 $13,483 doubled from 2003 to 2010 (Figure 8). In the region, the total costii of attending $10,000 a community college as a full-time student in Fall 2011 was about $14,000 (Figure 9). For freshmen$5,000 entering a four year institution, that total cost was approximately $23,000. $0 Relative to other states, Texas higher education Region lowest remains affordable, ranking fourth

44

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT Community College

among states in the share of income the $25,315 poorest families need to pay for tuition at the lowest priced colleges. Tuition is expected to rise which shifts public institution funding from state ledgers and onto individual campuses. From 2000 to $14,178 2008, Texas dropped from 15 to 26 in state and local public higher education support per full-time equivalent student. During a 10-year period (2000 to 2008), Texas remained stagnant in terms of total educational revenues per full-time equivalent student.19 Finally, institutions in the region and State the state will continue to grapple with costs

alongside student success as funding allocations shift, at least in part, from participation to outcomes based.20 Texas investments, over time, in both community colleges and four-year institutions, have diminished, shifting the increasing shares of the cost to students and local tax payers. According to the College Board, full-time undergraduate students nationally borrowed an average of $4,963 in 2010, up 63% from a decade earlier after adjusting for inflation.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Graduation Rates: Community Colleges Substantial numbers of students enter community college underprepared, a challenge which rests decidedly with community colleges.24 In the region, almost half of entering freshmen need one or more developmental education courses.25 Further, as Figure 11 represents, these students graduate at consistently lower rates than their college ready peers. Only 60 % of their collegeready peers have graduated or are persisting after 3 years, and fewer than half of the region’s community college students entering in need of remediation met the same benchmark.

40 30 20 10 0

50 47 40 30 20 10 0

53

16 18 16 17

47 28 53 26

31 54

57

41

25

23

26

34

36

17

21 19

20

21

21

19

59

60

42

Not Enrolled/ NoDegree Still Enrolled BA

Not Enrolled/ NoDegree Not Enrolled/ 59 60 NoDegree Still Enrolled 34 36 1999 2004 1999 2004 1999 2004 1999 2004 Still Enrolled BA

18

34 17 36

28

26

African American African American

Four-Year Institution

White White African American White

Community College

37

16 16 Figure 12: Enrollment Status Distribution after 18 6 Years for Regional First-Time Entering 53 47 28 100 Four-Year Undergraduate Cohorts, by Race/ 90 20 21 100 31 80 37 42 41 Ethnicity, 2005 and 20 54 70 201090 21 31 57 80 37 42 19 41 60 16 23 54 57 70 21 (Entering Cohorts 199950and162004) 23 60 25

White

Data from the Southern Regional Education Board was used for the 2002--2003 cost. Texas Tuition Promise Fund (TTPF) unit rates were used for the 2009-2010 cost. TTPF rates are set each year based on annual surveys of cost of tuition and required fees at Texas public colleges and universities. The 2014-2015 cost was based on the 2009-2010 figures increased 6% per year for estimated tuition inflation based on historical trends.

BA

2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004

Hispanic African American Hispanic White Hispanic Asian American White Hispanic Asian American African American Asian American

0

AA/Certificate

BA

2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004

Region

25 59 23 60

Systemic gaps exist between traditionally underserved populations, including the African 1999 2004 1999 2004 1999 2004 1999 2004 American and1999 the Latino community, and2004 their 1999 2004 1999 2004 1999 White and Asian American counterparts. Those gaps must close as it will affect the viability of our economy, our competitiveness and our quality of place. Differential completion rates of students by race and ethnicity, aligned with disproportionate economic disadvantage, also contribute to the critical shortage of students successfully leaving postsecondary education ready to enter the workforce. For example, 19 and 27 % of the region’s 2004 African American and Hispanic public community college graduates,

18

BA

respectively, completed a certificate, Associate’s, or Bachelor’s degree within six years compared with 33 % of their White counterparts 2004 (Figure 11).

Graduation Rates: Four-Year Institutions Students matriculating into four-year institutions have higher six-year graduation rates. However, the same racial/ethnic disproportions remain, intractable over time (Figure 12). In total, these data suggest there are serious challenges, further indicated by the fact that Texas ranks 34th among states in college completion rates.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

45

Asian American

10

Asian American

0

2006

Hispanic

20

Hispanic

30

10

African American

20

12 12 7

African American

40

14 1211 1312 18 14 16 1612 11 8 7 1410 19 17 8

11 14 8

Asian American

30

2003 Not Requiring Developmental 2003 2004 Education 2004 2005 Region 2005 2006

White

40

50

10

42% 43% 43% 0 45% 42% 43% 43%Requiring Developmental Education

54

White

60 45%

61% 62% 60% 60% 61% 62% 60% 60%

Asian American

$10,000

50

20

70 59 54 67

16

Hispanic Asian American Asian American

6,000

$14,178

$13,483

70

67

Hispanic Asian American

$15,000

60

30

Asian American

9,000

80

African American Hispanic

$20,000

70

40

46

14 20 18 17 21 24 10 19 17 10 10 0 45 46 60 45 46 70 59 60 18 18 Not Enrolled/ 14 14 14 18 18NoDegree Not Enrolled/ 14 14 17 14 14 NoDegree 21 24 12 Still Enrolled 10 18 17 12 21 24 Still Enrolled 10 10 7 AA/Certificate 2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004 2000 2004

Hispanic

$22,956

4-Year College (Most Expensive)

90

1002003 902004 100 80 90 70200554 54 80 60 2006 70 50 60 12 13 40 50 30 16 4016 20 30 10 19 2017 0 10 0

16

African American Hispanic

4-Year College (Average Cost)

80

42%

Hispanic

$25,315

$25,000

100

White African American

2-Year College (Average Cost)

12,000

Tutuition and Fees

$30,000

90

60%

100 after 6 Years for Regional Figure 11: Enrollment Status 90 80 First-Time Entering Community College67Undergraduate45 54 54 70 70 59 60 60 Cohorts, by Race/Ethnicity, 2006 and 2010 50 18 22 12 and 13 2004) (Entering Cohorts40 2000 14 14 14 30

African American

$15,000

100

90 Figure 10: Proportion of Entering Community College 80 Undergraduate Cohorts Who Graduated or Were Persisting 70 62% 60% After Three Years, by Developmental Education61% Status, FY 60 21 2006-200950(Entering 2003-2006) 45% Cohorts 43% 43%

Asian American

The Growing Cost of One Year of College in Texas

Figure 9: Average Annual College Costs, by Campus Type, 2011-201218

White

Figure 8: Average Annual Costs of Tuition and Fees, by Texas Institution Type, by Year17

College readiness affects graduation rates.

100

White African American

As state funding declines, cost of postsecondary education increases

White

Data from the Southern Regional Education Board was used for the 2002--2003 cost. Texas Tuition Promise Fund (TTPF) unit rates were used for the 2009-2010 cost. TTPF rates are set each year based on annual surveys of cost of tuition and required fees at Texas public colleges and universities. The 2014-2015 cost was based on the 2009-2010 figures increased 6% per year for estimated tuition inflation based on historical trends.

No No

Sti

AA

BA


Best Practices Although there are many challenges in workforce development, educators and businesses are implementing a number of programs geared toward increasing students’ access to and success in postsecondary education. Achieving the Dream Campuses throughout the eight counties have been multi-year partners in national and regional initiatives such as Achieving the Dream (AtD). College of the Mainland’s participation in AtD professional development activities aimed at increasing the effectiveness of faculty and staff in serving and connecting with students resulted in a 7 percentage point increase in fall to spring student retention, from 65% in the baseline years to 72% by 2010.26 Additionally, cross-community efforts represented by P-16 alliances have been formed to “gather and analyze data across the pipeline to bring greater alignment of education systems in support of student success.”27 Such efforts are critical to the continued pursuit of increased access to and successful completion of postsecondary educational experiences toward workforce readiness. Production Technician Internship Program

In June, 2011 Bayer Material Science (BMS) launched an innovative Production Technician Internship Program (PTIP) designed to flexibly

and efficiently staff its largest US chemical manufacturing site with future operators. Located in the heart of the Houston Ship Channel, the Bayer facility was faced with the daunting challenge of finding technical talent to replace its aging, retiring workforce. In a competitive labor market characterized by high demand, limited supply, and an educational system not yet producing sufficient numbers of students with the needed math and science fundamentals, the company needed a solution. Working closely with industry through East Harris County Manufacturers Association and local community college partners, Lee and San Jacinto Colleges, BMS and its partners designed and implemented a technician internship program that has already generated 24 interns in only 6 months. The PTIP program has several key objectives: 1 – To recruit the top talent of students enrolled in the Process Technology certification programs from local community colleges to fill vacant positions. 2 – To stimulate a robust pipeline of future production technicians by motivating and recruiting talented high school seniors to enroll in the Process Technology certification program. 3 – To provide students hands on experience as potential production technicians to complement their theory based technical education and to experience chemical manufacturing work and careers first hand.

Public Policy Considerations Students enrolled in or recently graduated from an accredited Process Technology certificate or degree program are eligible to test and interview for intern positions. Selected candidates: 1 – Complete 8-10 weeks of site observation and job shadowing of experienced technicians and trainers. 2 – Work and experience the challenges and adjustments of a rotating shift schedule. 3 – Train and work with: a – Operating Procedures b – Operating Checklists c – Process Flow Diagrams d – Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams e – Training manuals f – Material Safety Data Sheets g – Safety Procedures. 4 – Give a final presentation and a formal evaluation process for future hire consideration. 5 – Achieve school course credit for successful completion of internship.

Bayer will measure the long term return on investment of the PTIP program based on expected reductions in recruiting time, length of training, cost, and involuntary turnover. This sourcing model has already achieved a 30% reduction in labor/training costs for newly hired production technicians.

4 – To complete a comprehensive, first hand assessment of skills, competencies, and work ethic of Bayer applicants prior to making a fulltime employment offer. 5 – To support the community through training, education, and the positive economic impact of safe, secure high paying jobs.

46

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

The data in this report identify several considerations for policy makers that, in combination, challenge them and advocates of quality education to consider the economic, social and educational return of a postsecondary education to the student, the city and the state. As the indicators clearly identify, each of these considerations highlights the interrelated nature of the Pre-K-12 and postsecondary sectors as well as the deep need to actively incorporate the cultural assets of the region into the solutions. Support for Programs Proven Effective Increasingly, K-16 partnerships are serving important roles in facilitating the development of a well-prepared workforce. Policymakers in the region must consider carefully local and state exemplars in order to identify best practices and benchmark efforts moving forward. The El Paso Texas Collaborative for Excellence, for example, has seen marked increases in student achievement as well as a pronounced narrowing of the gap among groups of students through their K–16 collaborative. Enhanced support of such programs may help move forward the efforts to close gaps in postsecondary participation

and completion. In 2011, the state formed a Council for Continuous Improvement and Innovation in Texas Higher Education. It is a permanent council whose charge is to increase efficiency and productivity. The challenges identified in these metrics mark an important place for the Houston area branch of this council to begin work. Funding Structure The Texas funding structure of higher education creates challenges and opportunities for both community colleges and four-year institutions. Careful and rigorous analysis of issues such as taxing, district boundaries, outcomesbased funding and state-available financial aid such as the TEXAS Grant need to be included in the policy dialogue. Specifically, additional research is needed to inform understanding of how shifts in these critical scaled contributions to college financing will affect the likelihood of students – particularly those most economically disadvantaged — enrolling and ultimately graduating, ready to successfully enter the workforce.

Economically Disadvantaged Populations and a Cultural Asset Framework As identified clearly in the state’s Closing the Gap initiative, the postsecondary education policies of the region need to attend carefully to the disproportionate disadvantages of Latino and African American students and those in poverty face in the pursuit of a college education. Texas and the region hold the distinct advantage of being one of the most diverse states in the nation. Such cultural assets must be nurtured rather than squandered. Support for Continued Research on Long-Term Outcomes Finally, among the most important recommendations is the continued thoughtful consideration of access, success, and affordability metrics themselves. Ongoing and expanded collection of relevant state and regional data on postsecondary educational experiences and long-term post-graduate outcomes is warranted in order to have an increasingly robust understanding of the contributions of college to individual and community well-being.

The fastest growing professions in the region, including education, nursing, engineering, and accounting, will face as much as a 621,000 person shortage in the next four years.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

47


The Link between

Education and Health

48

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Gen era lS oc

m

Education

Agriculture and Food Production

m Unemployment

Community N d et n a e s f i t L y l l l eF ua a d i

Soc ia Ind iv

Work Environment

Conditions

Age, Sex and Constitutional Factors

s ion dit on lC

PETER SENGE, PH.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cultural and Env , c i iro nm nom o c en e – Living and Working ta io

Figure 1. Determinants of Health.

ks or w tors c

“All human beings are born with unique gifts. The healthy functioning of community depends on realizing the capacity to develop each gift.”

Authors from St. Luke’s Episcopal Health Charities: Patricia Gail Bray, PhD, Executive Director; Jeanne Hanks, Dr.PH & MSW, Community Liaison; Linda Highfield, PhD, Director of Quantitative Research; Philomene Balihe, MPH, Biostatistician; and Jenita Parekh, MPH, Senior Research Associate

Water and Sanitation

Health Care Services Housing

Source: Dahlgren and Whitehead, 20062

Executive Summary

The more you learn, the more you earn, the more you engage in healthy behaviors.1 Is an educated population healthier? Absolutely; the positive link between educational attainment and health is well documented in the scientific literature. People with more education are more likely to live longer and healthier lives. Increased life expectancy and better health outcomes are evident across countries, communities and different ethnic and racial groups. These bold claims are backed by extensive data. For example, the 2007 National Vital Statistics Report, states that the mortality rate for American males with less than a high school education, between 25 and 64 years of age, was more than double the rate for males with some college or higher education3. The differences are not reflected just in reduced life expectancy: the same trend is true in acute and chronic disease. How do we define and measure what affects health? According to the World Health Organization, certain factors are fixed, such as the individual’s age, gender and genetics. Other factors can be modified, such as lifestyle behaviors, social and community networks, living and working conditions, and general socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions. In Figure 1, these factors, or determinants, provide an illustration for understanding health, which is not merely an absence of disease, but rather “the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age”4. Education plays a role in all of these conditions.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

49


1969

1972 Title IX enacted which prevented exclusion from educational activities on the basis of gender. Increased athletic opportunities and participation for women.

Yale and Princeton accepted their first women undergraduate students.

Education . . . a generational impact Figure 2: Impact of parents’ education on child health*

Healthier behaviors by parents

Good role models

Better jobs & increased income

Better housing, safer neighborhoods, more physical activity & better nutrition

More resources for childcare, transportation & health insurance e

Less stress, better access to health care

Higher levels of parents’ education

Education affects health . . . the more education, the less poverty, the better health Figure 3: Percentage of Children in Poverty in Baytown-Houston-Sugar Land MSA

*Adapted from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 20085

Figure 2 indicates how the factors or determinants of health are affected by the parents’ educational level. Early childhood is the most effective point to intervene and break the cycle since the educational attainment trajectory is usually set early in life.

In the US and developed countries, research shows that income, occupational status, and education are significant social determinants of health. The evidence is incontrovertible that education and health share a reciprocal relationship. Education influences health through increasing income, healthier behaviors, and improving social networks and mental health. Considering the pathways by which education influences health, notably the influence of income on health, the return on investment (ROI) of education will have a positive impact on individual health and the 50

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

health of society. A 2005 cost benefit analysis of high quality prekindergarten in Texas found that for every $1 invested, the return was at least $3.506. This ROI includes increased income of the child, increased income of the mother, and potential savings to the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. Another study states that if all adult Americans were college graduates, with the health outcomes of current college graduates, improvements in health and life expectancy would result in $1 trillion in gains annually7. Included in this economic argument is the case that society gains from the

decreased health care costs of higher educated people because they consume less health care, engage in preventive activities, and access health care at an earlier stage of illness than those with less education8. In short, policies that invest in education simultaneously invest in the individual and societal levels of health – now and for future generations.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Source: U. S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Proverty Estimates(SAIPE), Dec. 2009 © St Luke’s Episcopal Healtth Charities, Center for Community Based Research

Individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, and socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions affect health. Education is a consideration in all aspects, including living and working conditions, access to adequate housing and health care services. More education can result in a higher paying job, which, in turn, is associated with better health because it enables individuals to live in safer areas, increases access to health insurance, and improves access to healthier food choices and other resources for better health. More education affects not only

physical health, but also social and psychological factors. Education increases an individual’s sense of control and self-efficacy, which influences social status and community networks. This, in turn, improves health by alleviating stress and providing emotional stability and support. Education increases critical thinking, decision-making, health knowledge, and healthy lifestyle choices. Healthy lifestyle factors include practicing prevention; avoiding drug and alcohol abuse and tobacco usage; and nutritious eating, exercising, and managing health conditions. These healthy behaviors lead to improved health.

An overarching factor influencing education and health is poverty. The cycle of poverty, across generations, is strongly associated with both poor educational attainment and poor health outcomes. In both Harris and Waller Counties, the percentage of children living below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) exceeds the state average of 22.5%. Liberty County is just under the state average FPL. The lowest overall rate of child poverty is in Fort Bend County at just under half the rate of Harris, Waller and Liberty Counties. (Figure 3)

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

51


1979 11.3 million students age 14 and older are enrolled in US colleges and universities – more than 50% are women.

1983 A Nation at Risk, a report by the National Commission of Excellence in Education, revealed that American schools and students were no longer sufficiently competitive with other industrialized nations.

. . . improve mortality rates

Higher levels of education . . . Figure 4: Texas Infant Mortality Rates by Mother’s Educational Attainment.

Figure 5a: Male Cancer Death Rates by Educational Level, age 25 – 64, Nationwide, 2007. 160 160

<= 12 years of education <= 12 years of education 13-15 years of education 13-15 years of education >=16 years of education >=16 years of education

10 9

Male Male

Infant Mortality Rates/1,000

8 7 5.6

6

Texas, 5.5

6.0 5.1

Adjusted Rate/100,000 AgeAge Adjusted Rate/100,000

140 140

5 4 3

100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40

0 0

72.7 72.7 55.9 55.9

51.6 51.6 20.5 20.5 10.4 10.4

20 20

Source: National Center for Health Statisticts18

3.9

120 120

147.9 147.9

13.6 13.6 7.4 6.2 7.4 6.2 Colorectal Colorectal

Lung Lung

6.6 6.6 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 Prostate Prostate

All Cancers All Cancers

2 1

Figure 5b. Female Cancer Death Rates by Educational Level, age 25 – 64, Nationwide, 2007.

0 0-11 years

12 years

13-15 years

140 140

16 or more years

Female Female

Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2000–2002 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Dataset

17

Adjusted Rate/100,000 AgeAge Adjusted Rate/100,000

Mother’s Education Attainment

Source: National Center for Health Statisticts19

Life Expectancy Worldwide, life expectancy is a prime indicator of health. More education is tied to longer life expectancy, which has been increasing during the past few decades. However, in a recent study, life expectancy was increasing only for those individuals with at least some college education9. One of the authors of this study states, “not only is the gain not happening as quickly for those with less education, but on average it is flat”10. Nationally, there is a steep gradient for mortality rates for people ages 25 to 64, by education level. This trend is most pronounced for 52

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

men without a high school diploma, who are 2.5 times more likely to die before reaching age 65 than men with at least some college education11.

Infant Mortality Infant mortality rates, i.e. the number of infants who die before one year of age per 1,000 live births, are a leading indicator of health. The evidence regarding the impact of education on infant mortality rates is overwhelming. There is an observable gradient with infant mortality rates and education. Babies born to mothers with only 12 years of education are 50% more likely to die than babies born to mothers

with 16 or more years of education (Figure 4). Research shows that infant mortality rates decrease as the mother’s educational level increases. In Figure 4, the infant mortality risk for Texas mothers with a high school education is 1.5 times higher than for mothers with 16 or more years of education. While there is a slightly lower rate for women with 0-11 years of education, versus 12 years, the data presented does not take into account other factors, such as: mother’s race/ethnicity, smoking rate, diet during pregnancy or mother’s age at delivery, all of which may impact infant mortality rates.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Cancer Mortality Cancer, one of the leading causes of death, took the lives of more than half a million people in 2007 in the US12. Figures 5a and 5b show the cancer mortality rates in men and women between the ages of 25 and 64. All cancer rates, for men and women, were lower for those with 16 years of education or more. Men with less than a high school education were 62% more likely to die from

<= 12 years of education <= 12 years of education 13-15 years of education 13-15 years of education >=16 years of education >=16 years of education

120 120 100 100

119.4 119.4

80 80

69.1 69.159.1

60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0

59.1 33.9 33.9 15.3 15.3 8.8 8.8

Lung Lung

9.8 5.7 4.7 9.8 5.7 4.7

Colorectal Colorectal

22.1 16.5 22.1 6.3 6.3 16.5

Breast Breast

All Cancers All Cancers

cancer versus those with a college education. Women with less than a high school education were 50% more likely to die from cancer versus those with a college education. Lung cancer showed the greatest gradient by educational levels for men and women.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

53


1994

Reauthorization of ESEA, focusing on changing the delivery of education,encouraging comprehensive systemic school reform, upgrading teacher development and promoting coordination of resources.

1994 Goals 2000: Educate America Act, codified six education goals concerning school readiness, school completion rates (≥ 90%), student achievement, leadership in math and science (1st in world), adult literacy and safe and drug-free schools, while adding teacher development and parental participation.

The higher the education, the less likely to have chronic illnesses

Educated people practice prevention

Figure 6: Percent of Population Diagnosed with Diabetes, MSA, 2010.

Figure 7: Adults Not Receiving a Flu Shot in the Last 12 Months, Baytown-Houston-Sugar Land MSA, 2010. 100 100 NoH.S. H.S.Diploma Diploma No

90 90 80 80

% at Risk 5

10

71.1 71.1 67.2 67.2 66.1 66.1

77.3 77.3

70.9 70.9

70.7 70.7

56.7 56.7

53.6 53.6

50 50 40 40 30 30

14.4

20 20

Source: Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS)29

10 10 00

10.8

H.S. Graduate

60 60

BeyondH.S. H.S. Beyond 80.1 80.1

66.2 66.2 61.6 61.6

70 70

20

12.9

No H.S. Diploma

Educational Level

15

% at Risk % at Risk

0

H.S.Graduate Graduate H.S.

78.0 78.0

2007 2007

2008 2008

2009 2009

2010 2010

11.1 Figure 8. Women Not Receiving a Mammogram and Men Not Receiving a Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy, MSA, 2010.

8.2

Houston MSA

80 80

Texas

70 70

65.0 65.0

60 60 % at Risk % at Risk

Beyond H.S.

7.4

Texas,38.5 38.5 Texas,

50 50 40.3 40.3

40 40 30 30

Texas,29.9 29.9 Texas, 34.2 34.2

33.3 33.3

35.8 35.8

25.8 25.8

20 20 10 10

Source: Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS)

29

00

Source: Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS29

ete ma ma .S..S. uauta ipilpolo dH H rardad oynodn .SD. D G G y S . . . e . e BB o oH H H.HS.S NN Mammogram w/in NoNo Mammogram w/in 22 yrsyrs

Chronic Illness For all major diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and asthma, there is a strong link with education. A sampling of recent data for physical and mental outcomes indicates that four or more years of higher education reduces the risk of heart disease by 2.2% and diabetes by 1.3%13. The same relationship holds true for mental health outcomes; individuals with education beyond high school were less likely to be at risk for depression than those with 12 or fewer years of education24. 54

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

Those without a high school diploma were more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes than those with a high school diploma or beyond. Overall, the MSA has lower percentages of people diagnosed with diabetes than the state of Texas. In summary, according to the BRFSS data, more educated adults are less likely to die from acute or chronic conditions, report that they are in poor health, or report anxiety or depression. Several studies show that when other factors such as income, occupation, and family background are taken into account, the positive association between education

and health is significant24 ,25, 28. A recent study used NIH Interview Survey data from 20002006 to examine the relationship between education and health outcomes by race18. The findings stated that those with the higher education were the healthiest among every race and in every health outcome. Researchers have shown that individuals with more education have better health, at all levels of income; however, education has the greatest impact at the lower levels of income25.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

Prevention The more the education the more likely people will engage in preventive care, such as obtaining flu shots and vaccines. Overall, those who have more than a high school education are more likely to get annual flu shots. Those without a high school diploma are the least likely to get flu shots as shown in Figure 7. The rate across all educational categories for not getting a flu shot was 59% in Texas and 57% nationwide in 2010. Note the steep gradient for all four years.

ete ma ma .S..S. uauta ipilpolo dH H rardad oynodn .SD. D G G y S . . . e . e BB o oH H H.HS.S NN Never Had Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy Never Had aa Sigmoidoscopy/Colonoscopy

Higher rates of cancer screening, an important prevention behavior, are observed with higher levels of education. Overall, those who have more than a high school education were more likely to get a mammogram or sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy. Those without a high school diploma are the least likely to get cancer screening as shown in Figure 8. The rate across all educational categories for not getting a mammogram was 30% in Texas and 25% nationwide. The rate across all educational categories for not getting a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy was 39% in

Texas and 34% nationwide. Recall the cancer data from Figures 5a and 5b; there is a correlation between screening and cancer deaths. Clearly, those with 16 years (or more) of education have a higher screening rate and lower incidence of cancer deaths.

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

55


2000 The first OECD Program for International Student Assessment was conducted in reading, mathematics and science. The alarm was sounded when US fifteen year-old students scored average and below when compared to other developed nations.

2008 For the first time, women earned more doctoral degrees than men (50.4%). In 2000, the percentage of women earning doctoral degrees was 44%. For master’s degrees, approximately 60.4% of women earn the degrees.

20

Beyond H.S.

H.S. Graduate

No H.S. Diploma

18

Obesity

5.0

4.5

2.5

Te xa s

W al le r

on t

go m

Li b 1.9

M

1.8

2.8

er y

er ty

s ar ri H

al ve sto n

5.7

G

ha

Fo rt

m

Be nd

be rs

zo ri a Br a

5.2

3.3 3.8

4.7

7.9

6.4

5.6

4.5

3.9

s Te xa

r W al

le

y

Source: 2008 Births to Texas Residents, Texas Department of State Health Seveices37

M on

G

tg

Lib

om

er

er

ty

ris ar H

ve al

ha

rt

m

Be

sto

n

nd

rs

ia

Beyond H.S.

Figure 12. Prenatal Care Began Third Trimester, Selected Texas Counties, 2008.

Figure 10. Smoking Behavior, MSA, 2010.

Beyond H.S.

40

48.3

50

4.2

2.8

8.2

3.2

or

H.S. Graduate

3.9

0

Obesity No H.S. Diploma

4.1

7.9

6.4

5.6

1.9

2

Overweight

8.2

4.5

3.6

1.9

be

Beyond H.S. 25.3

40.7 H.S. Graduate

Education

60

H.S. Graduate

No H.S. Diploma

35

60

30

40

3.9

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

13.3

13.8

13.1

12.4

on tg

as Te x

r W al le

y er om

er

5.4

8.9

9.5

9.7

7.5

ty

s

G al

ve

5.7

Lib

sto

n

nd

rs

Be

6.4

5.0

Source: 2008 Births to Texas Residents, Texas Department of State Health Seveices38

5.6

10.0

8.9

3.3

3.9

Beyond H.S.

10 12.4

as

additional year of education reduces the incidence of low birth weight by 10%41. Higher education is associated with more stimulation and interaction with infants, which is directly related to brain development in early childhood42. Brain development is strongly linked to reduction in cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, stroke, drug use, and depression in the child's adult life41. Children in households without a high school graduate are more than four times more likely to be in poor health than children living with a college graduate44. In addition, children of less educated parents are less likely to succeed in school43. Te x

W al

y

om er

M on tg

ty

er

Lib

ar ris

13.1

r

13.3

13.8

le

13.1

11.5

H

A mother's education is strongly associated with her behaviors in pregnancy, which influence her child’s birth outcomes and health. The figures above indicate late or no prenatal care by mother’s education23. In all cases, mothers with no, or only a high school diploma entered care later, or not at all, at higher rates than mothers who have some college or a college degree. Babies born to mothers who enter prenatal care after the first trimester, or who have no care, have a mortality rate of 8.35 per 1,000 births,

13.4

which is 37% higher than babies whose mothers enter care in the first trimester of pregnancy39. Figure 11 illustrates that the rate for no prenatal care for mothers without a high school diploma was highest in Harris County (8.2), which exceeded the Texas rate (7.9). For mothers without a high school diploma, the highest rate for third trimester entry to care was in Liberty County; the lowest was in Chambers County. Across all counties, the rate of late entry into prenatal care was highest for those with less than a high school diploma (Figure 12). Mothers with lower educational attainment are more likely to have low birth weight babies40. A recent study estimated that an n

10.5

sto

12.8

ve

Smoking leads to poorer health outcomes, including higher incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease. People who have education beyond high school have lower rates of smoking. The life expectancy of smokers is about six years less than nonsmokers6. Figure 10 shows smoking rates for the MSA. The lowest level of smoking is seen in people with an education beyond high school in the MSA. The highest rates for both current smokers and former smokers are seen in high school graduates.

Maternal and5 0 Early Child Health

G al

Smoking

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

8.3

6.4

15

nd

Inactivity and poor diet are leading contributors to being overweight and/or obese. Like many behaviors, poorer nutrition and inactivity are more prevalent among lower educated people20, 21. According to the data, more educated people are more likely to have leisure time and to exercise regularly. Overall, those who have more than a high school education are less likely to be obese, but are more likely to be overweight. High school graduates are the most likely to be overweight or obese as shown in Figure 9. The rate across all

Educational Level educational categories for being obese or overweight was 29% and 38%, respectively in Texas and 31% and 34% nationwide. Within Texas and the MSA, lower levels of leisure time and lower levels of physical activity are reported by those with less education. Those without a high school diploma are twice as likely to report no leisure time and less physical activity as those with education beyond High School (41%, 20% respectively). The greater Houston area reports lower levels of physical activity than the State of Texas.

10.9

5.6

Be

Obesity

H.S. Graduate

20

5.5

rt

No H.S. Diploma

8.9

No H.S. Diploma 13.1

11.5

M

Ever Smoked

0

25

rt

Current

Educational Level

10.0

3.3

H.S. Graduate

Fo

Beyond H.S.

Fo

H.S. Graduate

ria

No H.S. Diploma

5.0 5.6

300

Ever Smoked

12.4

5.4

8.9

9.5

9.7

13.4

10.5

rs

15.5

% of Risk

20

12.8

355

Current

0

Beyond H.S.

10 40

12.4

ha m be

25.2

10

10

32.33

31

15.5

30

8.3

6.4

C

20

10.9

15

ar ri

40

20

7.5

5.7

6.4

H

25.2

5.6

ha m be

30

5.5

25

C

31

32.33

ia

48.3

% of Risk

50

% at Risk

6.0

C

20No H.S. Diploma 40.3

0

% at Risk

8

4

Education

56

2.5

6

30

10

Source: Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS)30

10

3.8

No H.S. Diploma

2.7

Fo

Overweight

12

4.7

3.2

C

25.3

4.1

3.3

H.S. Graduate

1.9

az

Source: Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System(BRFSS)29

0

40

40.7

37.3

5.2

5.0

3.6

1.9

Beyond H.S.

Br

10

31.7

50 40.3

6.0

or

20

31

8

162 140

37.3

5.7

1.9 1.8 2.5 2008. Figure 11: No Prenatal Care, Selected Texas4.5Counties,

Br az

30

31.7

2.8

2.8

4.2

2.5

10

206 184

70 60

12

az o

40

31

80

2.7

Br

50

90

% of Risk

60

% at Risk

% at Risk

70

Figure 9: Overweight and Obese, MSA, 2010.

100

Mother’s education, a huge plus for children

14

% of Risk

90 80

16

Educated people likely to avoid chronic disease

100

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

57


Public Policy Considerations Policies should be considered that respect the inter-relationship between health and education. This chapter has focused on the impact of education on health, but it should not go unnoticed that “better health enables one to invest more in education”47. The health of the child impacts educational attainment by influencing school attendance, concentration and success in school. Society gains from the decreased health care costs of more highly educated people because they consume less health care, engage in preventive activities and access health care at an earlier stage of illness than those with less education.49 Less criminal behavior, less tax fraud and lower unemployment rates are also observed with more highly educated people, leading to a healthier society overall48. Based on the overwhelming evidence linking education to health, the implications are numerous for educational and health care policy. Due to the reinforcing nature of education and health, policies should be considered that respect this inter-relationship. To achieve policy change that improves education and health outcomes, advocacy and public awareness must occur at multiple levels, including individual community

58

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

members, local organizations and regional and state decision-making bodies. Debate and discussion across these levels should be encouraged in order to foster an environment conducive for change. In preparation for the 83rd Texas Legislative Session, beginning in January 2013, there are interim House and Senate committees that have relevant charges for the next steps to be taken regarding education and health policy in the greater Houston region. One example includes the following: “Examine how the state could enact policies to improve the overall health of Texans, focusing on programs that complement individually-based prevention with community-based prevention to reduce obesity rates by increasing physical activity, improving nutrition, and improving self-management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Examine obesity-related health disparities between different ethnic groups and ways to narrow these gaps. Consider the fiscal and health impacts of second-hand smoke on businesses and service sector employees. Study state-level initiatives to incorporate these individual and community-based prevention strategies, including initiatives pursued in other states50.”

Scenarios 2040 a different way to learn These issues were part of proposed bills during the 82nd session in 2011 that failed to win legislative support. More advocacy and better evidence needs to be communicated to the legislature, especially given the strength of the relationship between education and health. Leaders from the greater Houston region have an opportunity to take the lead regarding both education and health advocacy. Specifically, a strong argument can be made to avoid the compartmentalization of public policies. If we take a more holistic approach, then we can advocate for both education and health simultaneously. Attention to and awareness about the importance of educational attainment on health outcomes, and vice versa, is crucial. It is clear that an investment in education is also an investment in longer life expectancy; more effective health prevention, including earlier disease screening and immunizations, less acute and chronic disease, including mental illness; lower rates of smoking and alcohol abuse; and better maternal health, which has a direct and indirect impact on early child health. In short, policies that invest in education, simultaneously invest in the individual and societal levels of health – now and for future generations.

LE

VE AR N I N G T O LI

G IN AY PL

TO

IN W

© 2011 Center for Houston’s Future

Renzo wakes up at 6:00 am to finish his pre-calculus homework.

It is 2040 and he is one year from finishing his high school certificate and will graduate without ever having stepped into a school building. He participates in online courses from 8:00 am to 12:00 pm everyday and then goes to a local engineering firm to participate in a paid internship from 1:00 pm to 5:00 pm. Renzo thrives in this environment. It took decades of struggle in the region before opportunities such as these became available. After Renzo’s public elementary school closed because of poor performance and protests from the community, his family had to make some difficult choices. His family could not afford some of the more rigorous education options available and did not qualify for scholarships targeted to low-income students. His parents and community members came together to create a local K-12 Education Center with funding from the state. Several years later and through word of mouth Renzo learns of the online high school certificate program designed and accredited specifically for students pursuing part time internships in the Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) fields. Every Friday morning he meets a study group at the local library to review difficult math questions. He is assigned a mentor at his internship to help him navigate career choices. He receives credit for the internship because he submits the results of his research project every semester to his instructors. Through his internship he is helping to design parts for a desalinization plant in his neighborhood.

Julia ignores the pleading of her parents to continue her education. Instead she elopes with her boyfriend and moves. Four years later in 2040, she finds herself out of state, alone, no relatives or friends, and even with three minimum wage jobs, unable to pay the electric bill. She had made the use of candles a game for her children so as not to frighten them. Julia calls it camping inside. Right then, sitting in the dark, Julia decides the only way to get a decent job is to get an education. Employers require a degree just to talk to you and many a master’s degree to hire you. Even welders have to present an associate’s degree and a certificate of training. Two years ago, when she last spoke with her parents, they told her of bold new initiatives undertaken in the Houston region to help everyone further his or her education. Julia makes her way to Houston, going to the nearest agency where she speaks with education counselors – most from public/ private partnerships – where she finds information on enrolling in community college, obtaining financial assistance and securing child care. This one stop program was just what Julia and many drop outs needed. Julia wants to be a nurse. The agency teams her up with a local hospital and college. The hospital gives her a paid internship and the college, credit for what she learned on the job. The hospital matches her financial assistance grant so her tuition is covered. The delivery of medicine has changed drastically so hospitals are desperate for employees trained in the latest procedures. When Julia’s children don’t want to study, Julia tells them the story of camping inside. CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

59


Appendix

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION i

Letter from Dr. James Heckman, University of Chicago, to Joint Committee on Deficit Reduction, September 2011. http://www.heckmanequation.org/sites/default/files/FinalSuperCommitte_web_21Sept11.pdf

xvi

Teacher-to-Child Ratios within Group Size, National Association for the Education of Young Children. http://www.naeyc.org/files/academy/file/Teacher-Child_Ratio_Chart_9_16_08.pdf

iii

Research on Early Childhood Education Outcomes. Public Policy Forum. http://www.publicpolicyforum.org/Matrix.htm

xvii

“Indicators of High Quality, Staff-to-Child Ratio”, American Academy of Pediatrics, http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;115/1/187/T1

iii

The Heckman Equation, research by Dr. James Heckman, Nobel Laureate in Economics, University of Chicago, http://www.heckmanequation.org/

xviii

Prekindergarten Education Programs, 2010-2011. Research Educational Program Report, Houston Independent School District, 2011

xix

The State of Preschool 2010, Texas Data, National Institute for Early Education Research, 2010. http://nieer.org/yearbook/pdf/yearbook_TX.pdf

xx

“Is Head Start Providing High-Quality Educational Services? “Unpacking” Classroom Processes”, Resnick, G, Zill, Nicholas, Westat, Inc., http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/faces/pres_papers/high_quality/quality.html

xxi

“Double Jeopardy: How Third Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation,” Hernandez, D.J., City University of New York, Annie E. Casey Foundation, April 2011. http://www.aecf.org/~/media/Pubs/Topics/Education/Other/DoubleJeopardyHowThirdGrade ReadingSkillsandPovery/DoubleJeopardyReport040511FINAL.pdf

xxii

“Changes in Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: The Effects of United Way Bright Beginnings on Child Care Centers. University of Houston, Institute for Urban Education, 2011, pp. 23-28.

iv

v

About Head Start, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/About%20Head%20Start

vi

“The Impact of Teacher Education on Outcomes in Center-Based Early Childhood Education Programs: A Meta-analysis.” Kelley, P., National Institute for Early Education Research. Camilli, G., Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. http://nieer.org/resources/research/TeacherEd.pdf

vii

“13 Indicators of Quality Child Care: Research Update.” Fiene, R., Pennsylvania State University, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care, University of Colorado, 2002. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/ccquality-ind02/

viii

“Opportunity in Early Education: Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Child Outcomes.” Mashburn, A., Pianta, R., Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning, University of Virginia http://www.earlychildhoodrc.org/events/presentations/mashburn.pdf

ix

Annie Casey Kids Count Data, American Community Survey, Texas by County, U.S. Census Bureau (2005-2009). http://www.aecf.org/MajorInitiatives/KIDSCOUNT.aspx

Comparison of Three Main “Systems” of Early Childhood Education CHARACTERISTICS

CHILD CARE

HEAD START

PRE-K

Teacher Education

AA for lead teacher

Bachelor’s in education

The State of Preschool 2010, Texas Data, National Institute for Early Education Research, 2010. http://nieer.org/yearbook/pdf/yearbook_TX.pdf

High School/GED + 24 hrs pre-service training

Teacher Salaries

Min. wage-$20K/yr for experience; no benefits

Avg. salary = $30K/yr plus benefits

Starting salary=$45K/yr plus benefits

xi

“Minimum Standards for Child Care Centers”, Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, December 2010. http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/documents/Child_Care/pdf/746_weighted-formatted-pg_adopted_12-10_rules.pdf

Teacher:Child Ratio vs. national standards

Ratios meet national standards for infants. Standards meet national Inadequate for toddlers and preschool accreditation standards

TX has no standard for teacher: child ratios in state Pre-K.

Funding xii

“Making the Case: Improving Head Start Teacher Qualifications Requires Increased Investment”, Center for Law and Social Policy. Hart, K., Schumacher, R., 2005. http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/0232.pdf

Families pay; low income families may be eligible for federal subsidy. Not all eligible families are served.

Funded by the federal grant to local contractors; not all eligible families served. Free to eligible families.

State & local ISDs fund program. Eligible children attend free. Few districts allow non-eligible children to pay to attend.

xiii

The State of Preschool 2010, Appendices – Personnel, National Institute for Early Education Research, 2010. http://nieer.org/yearbook/pdf/yearbook_appendices.pdf#page=2

Calendar

12 months

9 months

9 months

Operating Hours

10 –12 hours a day, M-F

Varies, typically 5-6 hours/day, M-F

3-4 hours/day. Some ISDs have full day.

xiv

The State of Preschool 2010, Executive Summary”, page 4. National Institute for Early Education Research, 2010. http://nieer.org/yearbook/pdf/yearbook_executive_summary.pdf#page=2

Curriculum

Suggested in regulations; no requirements

Curriculum required; meet Head Start guidelines

Curriculum required; select one approved by State

Governing Body xv

Pre-K Now, is a national organization for the expansion of voluntary, universally available, high quality pre-kindergarten. www.preknow.org

Licensed by Dept. of Family & Protective Services. Combination of for-profit, non-profit organizations and faith-based.

U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, Office of Head Start.

Pre-K run by local ISDs that report to the TEA.

x

60

Special Studies on Early Childhood Development, Federal Reserve Bank – Minneapolis, http://www.minneapolisfed.org/publications_papers/studies/earlychild/

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

61


Table: School District* Data for Select K-12 Indicators DISTRICT NAME

Appendix

K–12 1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11 12

13 14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Information Request, Texas Education Agency. CHILDREN AT RISK analysis. Taylor, Lori et al. (2009). The ABCDs of Texas Education: Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Reducing the Dropout Rate. The Bush School of Government and Public Service. Available at http://bush.tamu.edu/research/capstones/mpsa/projects/2009/TheABCDs.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2010. Murdock, Steve; Zey, Mary; Cline, Michael E.; and Klineberg, Stephen. (2010). “Poverty, Educational Attainment and Health Among America’s Children: Current and Future Effects of Population Diversification and Associated Socioeconomic Change,” Journal of Applied Research on Children: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 2. Available at: http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/childrenatrisk/vol1/iss1/2. Texas Education Agency. (2011). PEIMS Standard Reports. Available at http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/adhocrpt/Standard_Reports.html. Accessed June 17, 2011. Foley, Ellen; Mishook, Jacob; Thompson, Joanne; Kubiak, Michael; Supovitz, Jonathan; and Rhude-Faust, Mary Kaye. (2010). “Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Available at: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/products/LeadingIndicators.php. Accessed March 2, 2011. Musen, Lindsey. (2010). Early Reading Proficiency. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. http://www.annenberginstitute.org/products/LeadingIndicators.php. Accessed March 2, 2011. Lesnick, Joy; Goerge, Robert; Smithgall, Cherly; and Gwynne, Julia. (2010). Reading on Grade Level in Third Grade: How is It Related to High School Performance and College Enrollment? Chicago: Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago. Hernandez, Donald. (2011). Double Jeopardy: How Third-Grade Reading Skills and Poverty Influence High School Graduation. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available at: http://www.aecf.org/KnowledgeCenter/Publications.aspx?pubguid= {D4DBAD77-DE2E-4FAE-B443-A9AEEBBC6E35}. Accessed April 29, 2011. Note: The term significant here is used to mean statistically significant (p<.05), while the comparison countries performing ‘at the same level’ demonstrated no statistically significant difference on this indicator. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007. Walston, Jull and McCarroll, Jill Carlivati. (2010). Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. America’s High School Graduates 2009. Walston, Jull and McCarroll, Jill Carlivati. (2010). Eighth-Grade Algebra: Findings from the Eighth-Grade Round of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Wiley, Andrew; Wyatt, Jeffrey; and Camara, Wayne J. (2010). The Development of a Multidimensional College Readiness Index. College Board. Gullikson, Glen. (2011). The Forgotten Middle: Ensuring that All Students are on Target for College and Career Readiness before High School. ACT Southwest Region. PowerPoint Presentation. Hargrove, Linda; Godin, Donn; and Dodd, Barbara. (2008). College Outcomes Comparisons by AP® and Non-AP High School Experiences. New York, New York: The College Board. Foley, Ellen; Mishook, Jacob; Thompson, Joanne; Kubiak, Michael; Supovitz, Jonathan; and Rhude-Faust, Mary Kaye. (2010). Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University. Available at: http://www.annenberginstitute.org/products/LeadingIndicators.php. Accessed March 2, 2011. Roderick, Melissa. (1994). “Grade Retention and School Dropout: Investigating the Association.” American Educational Research Journal. 31(4):729-759. Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Available at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat7.pdf. Accessed July 15, 2011. U.S. Census Bureau, “2006-2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates: Harris County, Texas,” Educational Attainment, 2008. <http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=05000US48201&-qr_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_S1501&-ds_name= ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false> (Accessed June 2010). Ibid.

21

22

23

24

25

26

27 28

29

30

Texas Department of Criminal Justice. (2011). Statistical Report Fiscal Year 2010. Available at http://www.tdcj.state.tx.us/ publications/publications-home.htm. Accessed July 15, 2011. Note: states are ranked from 1 to 51 (including the Washington, D.C.), with 1 spending the most per pupil. Children’s Defense Fund. (2011). The State of America’s Children 2011. Available at http://www.childrensdefense.org/child-research-datapublications/data/state-of-americas-children-2011-report.html. Accessed July 18, 2011. Note: This figure excludes debt service and capital outlay. Texas Education Agency. (2011). Academic Excellence Indicator System 2009-10. Taylor, Lori et al. (2009). The ABCDs of Texas Education: Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Reducing the Dropout Rate. The Bush School of Government and Public Service. Available at http://bush.tamu.edu/research/capstones/mpsa/projects/ 2009/TheABCDs.pdf. Accessed August 26, 2010. Texas Education Agency. Academic Excellence Indicator System 2010-11. This statistic is reported for the English examination only. Texas Education Agency. Student Assessment: TAKS Region, District, and Campus Level Data Files (2011). CHILDREN AT RISK Analysis. Murdock et al. (2010). Sass, Tim R., Jane Hannaway, Zeyu Xu, David N. Figlio, and Li Feng (2010), Value-Added of Teachers in High-Poverty Schools and Lower-Poverty Schools. Washington, D.C.: The National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, The Urban Institute. Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time Initiative (2010), More Time for Learning: Promising Practices and Lessons Learned. Boston: Massachusetts 2020. Hope for Urban Education: A Study of Nine High-Performing, High-Poverty, Urban Elementary Schools (1999). Austin: Charles A. Dana Center, University of Texas, U.S. Department of Education.

Aldine Isd Alief Isd Alvin Isd Anahuac Isd Angleton Isd Barbers Hill Isd Brazosport Isd Channelview Isd Clear Creek Isd Cleveland Isd Columbia-Brazoria Isd Conroe Isd Crosby Isd Cypress-Fairbanks Isd Damon Isd Danbury Isd Dayton Isd Deer Park Isd Devers Isd Dickinson Isd East Chambers Isd Fort Bend Isd Friendswood Isd Galena Park Isd Galveston Isd Goose Creek Cisd Hardin Isd Hempstead Isd High Island Isd Hitchcock Isd Houston Isd Huffman Isd Hull-Daisetta Isd Humble Isd Katy Isd Kendleton Isd Klein Isd La Marque Isd La Porte Isd Lamar Cisd Liberty Isd Magnolia Isd Montgomery Isd Needville Isd New Caney Isd North Forest Isd Pasadena Isd Pearland Isd Royal Isd Santa Fe Isd Sheldon Isd Splendora Isd Spring Branch Isd Spring Isd Stafford Msd Sweeny Isd Tarkington Isd Texas City Isd Tomball Isd Waller Isd Willis Isd

COUNTY

Harris Harris Brazoria Chambers Brazoria Chambers Brazoria Harris Galveston Liberty Brazoria Montgomery Harris Harris Brazoria Brazoria Liberty Harris Liberty Galveston Chambers Fort Bend Galveston Harris Galveston Harris Liberty Waller Galveston Galveston Harris Harris Liberty Harris Harris Fort Bend Harris Galveston Harris Fort Bend Liberty Montgomery Montgomery Fort Bend Montgomery Harris Harris Brazoria Waller Galveston Harris Montgomery Harris Harris Fort Bend Brazoria Liberty Galveston Harris Waller Montgomery

PERCENT PERCENT OF OF THIRD GRADERS ECONOMICALLY READING AT DISADVANTAGED COMMENDED LEVEL (2010) (2010)

85 79 52 50 56 22 57 77 23 73 50 36 47 43 73 30 57 42 51 60 53 35 6 77 69 63 57 73 72 78 80 34 73 33 29 95 36 74 45 48 63 40 26 34 61 100 79 25 81 33 78 62 57 68 59 47 44 62 24 60 58

41 38 47 45 48 61 50 40 57 25 43 55 34 52 44 51 37 50 64 39 44 54 66 42 38 42 24 37 14 23 44 42 39 48 64 14 52 38 50 55 38 48 65 47 42 32 41 62 36 58 31 41 45 39 41 57 31 39 55 45 48

PERCENT OF GRADUATES TAKING THE SAT/ACT (2009)

TOTAL OPERATING EXPENDITUREPER PUPIL (2009)

52 59 41 73 46 54 47 53 69 61 42 67 57 63 . 43 40 40 . 44 59 82 79 41 54 33 51 59 83 54 67 50 39 69 75 . 68 57 . 60 49 56 68 63 48 75 40 61 53 42 46 33 84 56 72 44 48 38 61 65 52

8658 8437 8151 9915 7824 12506 7663 8102 8186 8227 7622 7273 7129 7058 9729 8831 7771 15640 17848 7883 8748 7863 7031 8763 13464 8986 8888 9928 22221 13314 9231 7218 15267 7490 7740 15985 7655 9593 9403 8109 9853 7788 8271 7632 7847 8872 8458 7373 9121 7994 9279 7817 8978 8304 7930 9043 7432 8921 7838 8326 7708

*Includes Non-Charter School Districts In The Eight-County Houston Region. Source: Texas Education Agency 62

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

BRAZORIA ❘ CHAMBERS ❘ FORT BEND ❘ GALVESTON ❘ HARRIS ❘ LIBERTY ❘ MONTGOMERY ❘ WALLER

63


WORKFORCE PREPAREDNESS

Appendix

REFERENCES Achieving the Dream. (2011). Promising practices: 2011 leader colleges. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.achievingthedream.org/Portal/Modules/f22fb33e-8ac2-4e4c-82d9-b0976a9e7d26.asset All Kids Alliance. (2010). All kids alliance 2010 report. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.allkidsalliance.com/reports.htm Bailey, T. (2008). Challenge and opportunity: Rethinking the role and function of developmental education in community college. CCRC Working Paper No.14. NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2011). Automated student and adult learner follow-up system (academic years 2005-2006 through 2008-2009). Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.txhighereddata.org/reports/performance/ctcasalf/ Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2011a). Developmental education accountability measures. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.txhighereddata.org/reports/performance/deved/

Baum, S., Ma, J., & Payea, K. (2010). Education pays 2010. VA: College Board.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2011b). Baccalaureate/Associate’s graduation rates. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.txhighereddata.org/Interactive/GradRates.cfm#BTWO

Bowen, W., & Bok, D. (1998). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. NJ: Princeton University Press.

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2011c). First-time undergraduate applicant, acceptance, and enrollment information. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.txhighereddata.org/Interactive/AppAccEnr.cfm

Carnevale, A., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of jobs and education requirements through 2018. VA: Center on Education and the Workforce, Georgetown University.

Texas P-16 Public Education Information Resource. (2011). High school graduates enrolled in higher education – by education service center region. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.texaseducationinfo.org/tea.tpeir.web/Picklist.aspx?Page=Region&ReportName=tpeir_cra_grad_enroll_ region&PickList=School+Year&Title=High+School+Graduates+Enrolled+in+Higher+Education+-+by+Education+Service+Center+Region&Graph=N

College for All Texans. (2011). College costs-2011-2012-All institutions. Retrieved July 1, 2011, http://www.collegeforalltexans.com/apps/collegecosts.cfm Dana Center. (2007). The cost of developmental education in Texas. TX: University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.lbb.state.tx.us/Higher_Education/Cost_Developmental_Ed_TX_0407.pdf Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. (2010). Many moving parts: A look inside the U.S. labor market. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/ar/2010/pages/ar10_2c.cfm FSG Social Impact Consultants. (2011). Gulf coast regional overview. Boston: Author. Goldsmith, B. (2011, May 10). Houston competes for $1M ‘talent dividend.’ Houston Business Journal. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from http://www.bizjournals.com/houston/news/2011/05/10/houston-competes-for-1m-talent.html Greater Houston Partnership. (2009). Economic development. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.houston.org/economic-development/facts-figures/index.aspx Miller, J. (2010). America’s most literate cities. CT: Central Connecticut State University. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.ccsu.edu/page.cfm?p=8227 National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. (2009). Turning data into information. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.higheredinfo.org/ Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. (n.d.). Texas in focus: Gulf coast region. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/tif/gulf/education.php Texas Workforce Investment Council. (2010). Texas index 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://governor.state.tx.us/files/twic/2010_Texas_Index.pdf

Texas Tuition Promise Fund. (n.d.). Cost of college. TX: Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. Retrieved October 16, 2011, from https://www.texastuitionpromisefund.com/OFI529/PN/generated/en_us/PrimaryNavigation_07-09-08-173626.xml U. S. Department of Education. (2010). Official cohort default rate search for postsecondary schools fiscal years 2008, 2007, and 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.nslds.ed.gov/nslds_SA/defaultmanagement/search_cohort.cfm U. S. Department of Education Institute for Education Sciences. (n.d.). Integrated postsecondary education data system. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/datacenter/ U. S. Department of Labor. (2010). Employment projections. Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (n.d.). Gulf coast region enrollment-community and technical colleges. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from www.thecb.state.tx.us/download.cfm?downloadfile=AF473E68-05D4-B72A-17A8035FF2FBE326&amp;typename=dmF...

14

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (n.d.a.) Higher education accountability system. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from http://www.txhighereddata.org/Interactive/Accountability/default.cfm?CFID=3053016&CFTOKEN=7b03cc870d487f8d-2AC1AE2CA0D6-5BEC-4D51C8DDC4DAB667

17

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2000). Closing the gaps: The Texas higher education plan. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/reports/PDF/0379.PDF?CFID=18046495&CFTOKEN=80012026

15 16 18 19 20 21 22

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2009). Funding Texas higher education: Presentation for the house appropriations subcommittee on education. TX: Author. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/reports/PDF/1744.PDF?CFID=18046495&CFTOKEN=80012026

23

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2010). Fall 2010 headcount. TX: author. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from http://www.tacc.org/documents/EnrollFa10_CB.pdf

25

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2010a). Formula funding recommendations, 2012-2013 biennium. TX: author. Retrieved July 1, 2011, from http://www.thecb.state.tx.us/reports/PDF/2020.PDF?CFID=18046495&CFTOKEN=80012026

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Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2011*). Annual data profile. Austin, TX: author.

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24

26 27

FSG Social Impact Consultants (2011). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey (2010). Bowen and Bok (1998); Carnevale, Smith, and Strohl (2010); Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2000). National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (2009). Goldsmith (2011, May 10). FSG Social Impact Consultants (2011). Baum, Ma, and Payea (2010). Baum, Ma, and Payea (2010). Houston-Galveston Area Council Miller (2010). For example, All Kids Alliance (2010); Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2000). Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts (n.d.). Greater Houston Partnership (2009). U. S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences (n.d.). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (n.d.); Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2010). Author’s calculations. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2011c). Author’s calculations. Texas Tuition Promise Fund (n.d.). College for All Texans (2011). National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (2009). National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (2009). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2010). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2009). Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2011a). Author’s calculations. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2011b). Note: Inclusion conditional on enrolling 12 or more semester credit hours in first semester. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (2011b). Author’s calculations. Note: Inclusion conditional on enrolling 12 or more semester credit hours in first semester. Achieving the Dream (2011). Greater Texas Foundation (2011, p. 19).

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EDUCATION AND HEALTH

Appendix

REFERENCES 1

2

3 4

5

6 7 8

9

10 11

12

13 14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21 22

23

24

66

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 2011. Which Came First—Better Education or Better Health? The Regional Economist. http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/re/articles/?id=2092. Retrieved September 6, 2011. National Vital Statistics Report. 2007. The mortality rate for American males with less than a high school education, between 25 and 64 years was 665.2 per 100,000 deaths versus 238.9 for males with some college or higher. Reported in the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2011) report. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/social_determinants/en/. Retrieved July 13th, 2011. Dahlgren G, Whitehead M. (2006). Levelling up (part 2): A discussion paper on European strategies for tackling social inequities in health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/document/e89384.pdf. Retrieved September 15, 2011. Groot, Wim and Maassen van den Brink, Henriette. 2006. What does education do to our health? Measuring the Effects of Education on Health and Civic Engagement: Proceedings of the Copenhagen Symposium, OECD. p. 358. Groot and Maassen van den Brink. 2006., p. 359. Groot and Maassen van den Brink. 2006., p. 362. Bush School of Government and Public Service. 2005. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Universally Accessible Prekindergarten Education in Texas. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Egerter S., Braveman P., Sadegh-Nobari T., et al. 2009. Education Matters For Health. Washington, DC: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to Build a Healthier America Groot and Maassen van den Brink, 2006. p. 361 The 2011 HHS Poverty Guidelines. 2011 http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/11poverty.shtml Federal Poverty Level for a family of 4 is annual income $22,350 or less. Retrieved September 15, 2011. Meara, E.R., Richards, S., and Cutler, D. 2008. The Gap Gets Bigger: Changes in Mortality and Life Expectancy, By Education, 1981 – 2000. Health Affairs. 27 (2): 350-360. http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/27/2/350.abstract. Retrieved September 12, 2011. Meara, Richards and Cutler. 2008. National Vital Statistics Report. 2007. The mortality rate for American males with less than a high school education, between 25 and 64 years was 665.2 per 100,000 deaths versus 238.9 for males with some college or higher. Reported in the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis (2011) report. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2010. Commission to Build a Healthier America. Education and Health Calculator. http://www.commissiononhealth.org/Calculator.aspx. Retrieved July 13th, 2011 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. Commission to Build a Healthier America. 2000-2002 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. Prepared for the RWJF Commission to Build a Healthier America by the Center on Social Disparities in Health at the University of California, San Francisco. http://www.commissiononhealth.org/PDF/tab6_78.pdf. Retrieved September 15, 2011 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2011. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-029771.pdf. Retrieved September 15, 2011. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2011. http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-029771.pdf. Retrieved September 15, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Leading Causes of Death. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm. Retrieved September 15, 2011. Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Code Red: The Critical Condition of Health in Texas, 2008 www.coderedtexas.org. Retrieved September 15, 2011. p.136 Cutler D.M. and Lleras-Muney A. 2006. Education and health: evaluating theories and evidence. NBER working paper No. W12352. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Mezuk B, Eaton WW, Golden SH, Ding Y. 2008. “The influence of educational attainment on depression and risk of type 2 diabetes.” Am J Public Health. 98(8):1480-5. Mezuk, Eaton, Golden and Ding. 2008

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25 26

27 28 29

30

31 32

33

34 35

36 37 38 39

40

41 42

43 44

45 46

47 48 49 50

Schnittker J. 2004. “Education and the Changing Shape of the Income Gradient in Health.” Journal of Health and Socical Behavior. Vol 45: 286-305. Winkleby MA, Jatulis DE, Frank E, and Fortmann SP. 1992. “Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.” Am J Public Health. 82 (6): 816-820. Kimbro R., Bzostek S., Goldman N., and Rodriguez G. 2008. Race, Ethnicity, and the Education Gradient in Health. Health Affairs. 27(2): 361-372. Schnittker J. 2004. Education and the Changing Shape of the Income Gradient in Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Vol 45: 286-305. Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Drewnowski, A. (2009), Obesity, diets, and social inequalities. Nutrition Reviews, 67: S36–S39. Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Groot and Maassen van den Brink. 2006., p. 360. Texas Department of State Health Services, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFSS): Data Table Lookup. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/chs/brfss/, Retrieved September 8, 2011 Texas Department of State Health Services. 2008. Texas Health Data, Birth to Texas Residents. Texas Department of State Health Services, Birth Data: Data Table Lookup. http://soupfin.tdh.state.tx.us/birth05.htm. September 6, 2011 Texas Department of State Health Services, Birth Data: Data Table Lookup. http://soupfin.tdh.state.tx.us/birth05.htm. September 6, 2011 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. National Vital Statistics Report. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr55/nvsr55_14.pdf. Retrieved August 11, 2011. Currie J. and Moretti E. 2003. “Mother's Education and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital: Evidence from College Openings.” Quarterly Journal of Economics. VCXVII 4, 1495-1532. Currie and Moretti. 2003. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. Commission to Build a Healthier America. Issue Brief 1: Early Childhood Experiences and Health. http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/commissionearlychildhood062008.pdf. Retrieved September 16, 2011. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. Issue Brief 1 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. New State-by-State Report Finds Shortfalls in Children’s Health Tied to Parents’ Income and Education. Washington, DC. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. Issue Brief 1 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2008. Commission to Build a Better America. America’s Health Starts with Healthy Children: How do States Compare? October 2008. http://www.commissiononhealth.org/Documents/ChildrensHealth_Chartbook.pdf. Retrieved September 16, 2011 Groot and Maassen van den Brink. 2006. p. 355. Groot and Maassen ven den Brink. 2006. p. 361 Groot and Maassen ven den Brink. 2006. p. 362. The Institute for Health Policy. 2011. The University of Texas School of Public Health. Personal communication with the Interim Director, Dr. Stephen H. Linder, September 15, 2011.

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THANK YOU TO OUR

Donors Stanford and Joan Alexander Foundation Allegiance Bank Texas/The Stewart Organization Allen Boone Humphries Robinson LLP Amegy Bank of Texas Anadarko Petroleum Corporation Andrews Kurth, LLP Asia Chemical Corporation AT&T Bank of America Dan Bellow Bracewell & Giuliani, LLP Brown Foundation Philip and Alice Burguieres Camden Property Trust CenterPoint Energy Chevron Citizens for Affordable Energy Comerica Charitable Foundation Community Health Choice, Inc. ConocoPhillips Company Phil and Suzie Conway Rufus and Yvonne Cormier Dannenbaum Engineering Corporation William DeLaney Charles Duncan, Jr. El Paso Corporation Jenny and Jim Elkins Family Fund Energy XXI Everett Family Fund Exxon Mobil Corporation Larry and Mary Ann Faulkner Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas - Houston Fondren Foundation Doug and Sarah Foshee Kelly and Carmela Frels Frost National Bank Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P. Harry Gee, Jr. & Associates/MaloneBailey, LLP Generation Park/McCord Development Corporation, Inc. Gensler Greenberg Traurig, LLP Grijalva & Allen, P.C. Joseph and Merrill Hafner Junior and Pauline Higgins Houston Endowment, Inc. Huffington Foundation Jones Lang LaSalle JPMorgan Chase Foundation Kayser Foundation KBR 68

2012 COMMUNITY INDICATOR REPORT

Kempner Capital Management, Inc. Kinder Foundation King & Spalding LLP Kresge Foundation Stephen Lasher Locke Lord, LLP Lone Star College System M.D. Anderson Foundation Marathon Oil Corporation Marek Brothers Systems, Inc George and Kathryn Martinez MD Anderson Cancer Center Memorial Hermann Hospital System Steven and Sheila Miller Foundation Mitsubishi International Corporation Neighborhood Centers Inc. Cathy Nunnally Robert R. and Kay M. Onstead Foundation Palmetto Partners, LTD. Pannell Kerr Forster of Texas, PC Reliant Energy The Romans Group Leslie Elkins and Shannon Sasser Steven Schweitzer Scurlock Foundation Shadywood Foundation Terry Shaikh Shell Silver Eagle Distributors, LP Smith Seckman Reid, Inc. Smith, Graham & Co. Investment Advisors, LP Société Générale Spectra Energy Statesman Business Advisors Sysco Corporation Tejas Office Products, Inc. Tellepsen Family Fund Texas Children's Hospital Tudor, Pickering, Holt & Co. UHY Advisors University of Houston University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Eugene H. and Susan Vaughan Verizon Wireless Vinson & Elkins, LLP W.S. Bellows Construction Corporation Wells Fargo The Woodlands Township John L. Wortham & Son, L.P.

CENTER FOR HOUSTON’S FUTURE The Region’s Think Tank

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2012 Indicators Report: Education & Human Capital Development  

This is the Center for Houston’s Future fourth annual report in a series intended to help measure progress over time in key sustainability a...

2012 Indicators Report: Education & Human Capital Development  

This is the Center for Houston’s Future fourth annual report in a series intended to help measure progress over time in key sustainability a...

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