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Inner-Alley Bicycle Boulevards in Seattle’s University District: A Transportation Design Concept for the Neighborhood West of 15th Avenue NE

Prepared By: Catherine Silva

June 2012


The following is a report prepared by Catherine Silva, a concurrent graduate candidate in Urban Planning and Policy Administration Building upon a particular interest in non-motorized transportation facilities design, this concept has been developed to better accommodate bicyclists in Seattle’s University District. The contents of this report were developed to meet the requirements of a digital design practicum at the University of Washington’s College of the Built Environments. Although elments of this plan are feasible, there is currently no consideration of any of the concepts presented here.


Inner-Alley Bicycle Boulevards A Design Concept for the West of 15th District

table of Contents 1: A New University District 1.2: Human Experience of Urban Form

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UW

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2: Safe Spaces to Ride 2.1: Integrating a New Bicycle Network 2.2: A Comfortable User Experience

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3: Alley Courtesy

3.1: Promoting a New Social Contract

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4: A Local Investment

S 13 15

S

5: Designed Dedication

6:

5.1: The Network as Way Finding Device 5.2: Bicycle Facilities that Encourage Use

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References

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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UW

A New University District

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A Distinct Neighborhood For the last three years, the University of

Washington has been involved in a planning

rethink the area’s planning. The institute has the stated commitment in areas around campus to help absorb residential and other growth that may occur from the introduction of Sound Transit service in 2016. Part of this planning effort has been public outreach meetings to neighborhood that interacts the most with the university campus. Perhaps due to its geographic environment, the University District has segmented areas, sepearted by steep slopes and wide roads. The northeastern most section is entirely cut off from campus, as the sharp

University Way NE runs along. This direct interaction that the area west of 15th Ave NE has with the University of Washington has led the institute to invest in property in the area in

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18TH AVE NE

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15TH AVE NE 16TH AVE NE

Figure 1: This map displays the current boundary lines for the University District and where the proposed district would be located..

Two-Foot Contour Lines

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City Streets University District

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10,000 Feet

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Redrawing Boundaries And Reconsidering Local Communities

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T O N RP

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and is currently a sub-district receiving special attention from University of Washington’s planning efforts in the area.

S H I P CA N A

Proposed West of 15th District Study Area No. 4 Lake Union

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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A New University District Geographic Seperation

North

The proposed district lies West of the University of Washington Seattle Campus. The campus slopes downward to the east.

South One portion of

the district sits below this ridge, physically separated. The University Village, a regional shopping mal, takes up much of this land, as well as family housing for University of Washington students.

East

West of campus—and a twenty minute walk uphill in concrete environments that is not safe to walk in the evening—is the proposed sub-district. The boundary sites the West of 15th district on a cohesive, soft slope with that is a node of both residential and retail activity.

West

This area rests in a distinct geography and has a unique connection to the campus. to contain accept this new subdistrict is a logical response to both the physical and public environments.

4

Figures 2-5: Aerial models of Seattle’s University District, with two-foot contour lines at each cardinal direction. Green: West of 15th District Red: Study Area No. 4 Scale: NTS

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


A New University District An Active public space

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Place for People

The proposed West of 15th district is located in within University District boundaries, directly west of the University of Washington's main campus. This portion of the University District experiences the largest impact of the University's faculty, staff, students, visitors, events, developments, and investments than other parts of the neighborhood. In recognition of this fact, the University is in the process of rethinking their role and social partnership with the district and its residents. Quiet alleys can be found nestled between the early 19th-century street-blocks throughout in the West of 15th area. This space between buildings provides a unique opportunity for non-motorized transportation planning in this area. This report addresses a role that strategies to improve accessibility and promote a local economy.

T 50th Street to the waterfront. To accommodate a coordinated analysis of the West of 15th district by students at the University of Washington’s College of Built Environments, This area is comprised of eighteen square blocks in the central area of the district, and has two distinct sub-areas. The western portion primarily residential, with commercial activity occurring along University Way NE and Roosevelt Way NE. In order to approach a study

Figure 6: Sidewalks are, as they should be, place for pedestrans and public life.

by all modes of transportation. Research concludes that the node of study area no. 4 lies along University Way NE, between 42nd Avenue NE and 45th Avenue NE. These two blocks provide a broad range of retail options and other services, many of which are local. Both blocks are bisected by in the north-south direction. As elements of this study will suggest, these inner-alleys spaces offer an interesting opportunity for non-motorized transportation and local accessibility.

Building Key West of 15th District

Figures 7-8: The activity node is the study area’s historic character, public life, and the access to alleys built into the street-blocks.

Study Area No. 4 Activity Node within No. 4 UW Campus Buildings

Transit, and Retail

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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A New University District The Built Environment

Activity Centers

Figure 13: The only building in the activity node, and one o the few in the West of 15th district, this mixed use building offers two Figure 12: Bartell Drugs is on the 100% corner, across from American Appearl. Different from other franchise locations, this store operates out of a mixed use building built in1909.

Figure 9: The American Appearl this 1949 building on the corner of University Way NE and NE 45th St, the neighborhood’s 100% corner.

a large underground parking garage. Built in 2009, the main restaurant MOD Pizza is in the

1949

Accessible Alleys Vacant Parcels City Streets Building Footprints Study Area No. 4 0 125 250

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Figure 11: This local magazine shop and street-side cafe is an independent business in brick, mixed use building from 1916.

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Figure 14: buildings are located around

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were developed in the early twentieth century, with the exception of one structure

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corner of University Way NE and NE 43rd St. The mail trucks enter and exit the facility through the alley, but there is still space for bicyclists.

1921 BROOKLYN AVE NE

Figure 10: The United States Post

Low Midrise Mu rise ltif C a NeiMg ultifamily Rommer hbo mily esid cial rho Re enti od C side al omm ntia erci l al

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century.

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


Safe Spaces to Ride Pedestrians and Transit Use

Street Facilities

S a safe, connected, and attractive network of bicycle facilities throughout the city.”1 The recommendation for bicycle boulevards along the alleys within the West of 15th district attempts to address each of these needs and establishes more secure and sheltered bike Seattle’s streets from 2007 to 2017.2 To achieve this goal in this district, attention must be paid to the existing conditions bicyclists and other road users experience along its streets.

The western portion of study area no. 4 is highly accessible to transit, with service connecting Figure 15: Mid-block crosswalk on University Way NE , between NE 43rd St and NE 45th St, accomidating the pedestrian environment along the street’s lively sidewalks.

developed, providing convenient access to transit and local services and amenities. The

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rainy days. Occasional sidewalk bicyclists must weave between the people and the sidewalk activity Seattle often occurs around bike racks, with people blocking them and sitting upon sidewalk bike parking facilities. That sidewalk bike racks are sat upon is no surprise—after ½ ½ all, they are scaled to match ½bicycles designed for people to sit on—but this interrupts ½ 8 9 : w8 8 9 : w8 9 : w 9 : w ½ ½ ½ their intended purpose. One option is to locate bike racks slightly farther from designated 8 9 : w 8 9 : w8 9 : w ½ 8 9 :8 9 :

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Safe Spaces to Ride Existing Facilities smoking areas, newspaper stands, and even bus stops. Alternatively, designated bicycle reduce interaction between dismounting bicyclists and pedestrians on busy sidewalks. As is discussed in a following section, bicycle boulevards located within the alleys allows for alternative implemention strategies for improved bicycle infrastructure.

In

the district and within the study area, Motorirst are well accommodated for, with

15th Avenue NE. Paid parallel parking is available on both sides of neary all streets, with the exception NE 45th Street and 15th Avenue NE. The district’s boarder, 15th Ave NE, in particular is appears designed with the to intention to discourage bicyclist use and serves as an automotive and pedestrian corridor. Although sharrows are present, riding along the street is unpleasant and puts the bicyclists in the middle of heavy transit and automotive

Figure 17: Bicyclists are secondary the most common infrastructure.

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icyclists have received a greater share of Seattle’s right-of-ways over the years in the form of bike lanes, sharrows, and bike boxes. The addition of these facilities are positive for the bicyclists and motorists safety alike, but providing facilities does not guarantee a positive user experience. The 2009 Bicycling Report Card issued by Cascade Bicycle Club states that approximately 18% of respondents complained of two few dedicated bicycle lanes in the city and poor paving quality of the streets. It was also reported that 20% of ½ respondents fear driver behavior. 8 9 w 3 :

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Safe Spaces to Ride Integrated Isolation

Bicyclists’ Needs

The University of Washington’s Master Plan for the Seattle Campus contains a transportation goal to enhance bicycle and pedestrian facilities,4 adhering to recommended regional growth center physical design guidelines. As the West of 15th District is located within the boundaries of the regionally designated University Community urban growth center, Centers. These are streets accessible to users of all ages and to users of all modes of transportation. Theses should become corridors of public life and safety for road users. The North-South streets like University Way NE and Brooklyn Avenue NE well embody this concept by providing facilities for motorists, transit riders, cyclists and pedestrians. That said, complete streets principles do not indicate that all modes must share the same rightof-way. This report argues that integrating portions of the local bicycle network into the alleys provides a safe travel environment for area bicyclists. Road user safety is of chief concern to the complete streets methodology. The well-used sidewalks and curbside parallel using the main corridors throughout the West of 15th district. The recommendation for bicycle boulevards mixed with light freight in the alleys represents adherences to complete street principles by rethinking these corridors and designing a safe and equitable local transportation network.5 Buildings Provide a Buffer

Figure22: Sharing the roads can mean that public busses and top of bicycle infrastructure, wearing the paint and ultimately wasting and erasing the implementation effort.

alleys as the northbound bicycle commuting cooridor Safe for All users

Figure23: Wide sidewalks and mid-block pedestrian infrastructure has developed along University Way NE, but bicyclists have no dedicated space.

Figures 20-21: Existing conditions in the alley east of University Way NE, between NE 43rd St and NE 45th St (above) and a vision of the alley as a safe slace to ride (left).

Riding Experience

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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safe places to ride North-South Alley Network

Why Boulevards?

ot all alleys are needed or appropriate to accomidate bicycle commuters, but many of the

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Figure 26: Alleys can be a small augmentation the transportatin network, but bicycle boulevards would enable a powerful and positive shift for the local bicycling community.

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Figure 25: Allow University Way NE to be the auto, transit, and pedestrian hub that it is and provide facilities for bicyclists along the safer inner-alley cooridors.

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have an expanded network and connectivity options, motorists will have fewer interactions with bicyclists, and the alleys create the opportunity for a safer rider experience in the West of 15th district. Augument Existing Infrastructure

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


Alley Courtesy ImagNon-Motorized Cooridors

Safer Crossing

Currently, cars drive through the alleys to access parking garages and for visiting the various shops and restaurants with alley entrances. Postal trucks and small delivery trucks also wind through the alleys making deliveries. Due to the convenient location of these alleys, bicyclists already take advantage of these safe spaces. However, because there is no formally established system, bicycling in the alleys is not currently as safe as it could be. A report must exist between motorists and bicyclists to establish a social contract that prioritized nonmotorized forms of transportation. This mentality will help to promote the safe environment made possible by the physical form of the alley. Additionally, an understood culture within the alleys will ameliorate the occasional inner-alley interaction between motorists and non-

Figure27: The existing infrastructure leaves bicyclists at risk when crossing intersections. Alley courtesy would give this rider priority to cross this bus street.

Noticable and Imageable to all Road Users

All Road Users Feel Safe

Minimizes BicyclistMotorist Interaction

Figures 28-29: Brightly painted bike lanes and clear sinage makes the mentality of alley courtesy imageable. Drivers know to yield when they see purple on the streets.

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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Alley Courtesy Signs For Renewal

Designed Courtesy A

a pedestrian, they yield. Motorist using the alleys are made well aware of the mentality of alley courtesy through use of strategically located signage. Signs will be above head, describing lane dedication. Pedestrian-scale signs will be displayed along the bicycle boulevards advertising user priority. Because the main single-occupancy users of these alleys are local residents that will become accustom to this alley culture. Promoting this of 15th bicycle boulevard and alley as an approachable, safe place.

Figures _: The same alley that connects to the University Bookstore connects directly with Schmitz Hall, the administrative center of the University of Washington. This community asset is to valuable to leave to infrequent car use and empty. Figure _: The alley behind the University Bookstore already contains signage promoting a pedestrian environment.

Figures _: The alley can transform from concrete space for cars (right) and into a safe space where pedestrian and bicyclist can seek refuge from busy streets (bottom). The signage and presence of the bike stop help to manage this environment and foster a culture of alley courtesy. Using only two of the angled parking spaces, a well-sized bike stop is possible. Parking could be provided to local residents, using Copehagen’s pink cargo bike ‘car’.

Pedestrian- and AutoOriented Signage Seating for Alley Users

Bicycle Facilities

Figure _: An inviting atmospher exists. Build off of this and draw more users into these unique urban spaces.

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


S

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This area has great access to many public and private, local and national community services and assets. The goal was to determine which section of study area no. 4 provides the most services, is accessible throughout the district, and is home to the local social scene. Retail as well as food and beverage establishments were left out of this survey, as they occupy much of the commercial space along University Way NE and are described by the land use map to follow. Instead, community-oriented organizations and infrastructure encouraging a social life within local district. Of all types of community-orientated organizations services NE 43RD ST

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services than elsewhere within study area no. 4. These facilities act to strengthen the area’s ability to serve a variety of users and encourages living life local. Keeping the community and economy local is a main element of bicycle urbanism and a social community life is vital

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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retail, and academic hub of activity. The study area is mainly a multifamily residential neighborhood, with two north-south running commercial streets. These streets create paths through the urban space and non-residential pedestrians rarely venture off these beaten paths. Parking lots only comprise a small portion of the surface area, as residential streets are accommodated by on-parcel and zoned street parking. This duel character

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Figures 31-32: The proposed West of 15th district is a retail and residential area.

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This post on Universtiy Way NE, between NE 42nd St & NE 43rd St was sponcered by the large University Congregational Church on 15th Ave NE.

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


A Local Investment

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A Regional Neighborhood

Local Destinations

One of the urban center policies in Seattle’s Comprehensive Plan for the University Community and impacts and facilitate intermodal connections, such as bus and monorail, and surface 6

cooperation by giving each mode a sense of priority and ownership of space. Because the continues. The station could orient bicycle parking into the alley, creating a formal transit bike stop and adding to the boulevard infrastructure.

An investment in this local public space is more than small change to the neighborhood— although it is expected to have a playful affect on the aesthetic. As the research and academic node of the Central Puget Sound region, the public places in this area are exposed to the entire region on a daily basis. Improvements in the public alley may make visitors linger longer and visit local businesses or entertainment. Although they serve the purpose of transportation corridors, the bicycle boulevards are promotional tools for the local economy by turning the West of 15th district into a bicycling destination.

Small Changes For Large Impacts

Figure 34: The University Bookstore is local independent bookstore and the main distributer textbooks for courses offered at the University of Washington Seattle campus. main entrance on University Way NE, between NE 45th St and NE 45th St, direct access to the a bicycle boulevard may be an economic opportunity for the store.

Figure 33: 2025 Visualization

regional community. The node-based boulevards should be integrated into the larger transportation system, connecting locals and visitors with entertainment venues, retail options, or residential areas.

Figure 35: TheVarsity Theatre is located across the street from the Univesity Bookstore. This building erected in 1900 and has been a theatre since the 1940’s.

Figure 36: Cafe Allegro, located in a 1914 building, customers take advantage of the sunlight and bicycle parking in the alley.

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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Residents and Retail According

to DESTINATION 2030—the document operating in concert with VISION 2040, describing the long range transportation planning plan in the Central Puget Sound region—20% of regional trips occur using non-motorized modes of transportation regional growth centers. As one of the twenty-seven regional growth centers, the University Community must aim for such goals set by the area’s metropolitan planning organization, the Puget Sound Regional Council. Growth centers should be compact areas that are intended to be pedestrian-oriented nodes of employment, commercial, civic and residential activities of be the heart of these activities.7

Figure 37: The Malloy Apartments have been located on the corner of NE 45th st and 15th Ave NE since 1928. This building represents the local residential communty that has called this pocke of the University District home for nearly a century.

Agreeing with the Seattle Bicycle Master Plan, the Seattle Comprehensive Plan contains a goal for 70% of the trips taken by area residents in 2020.8 Augmenting the local bicycle infrastructure will help to encourage short trips to occur by bike. Turning to the alley spaces to expand the dedicated bicycle network is a way of increasing miles of developed, dedicated bicycle lanes with no expansion of the street grid. This will assist in achieving city transportation goals for the area and will come at a low investment and implementation cost. when increased cycling impacts the local economy. This investment establishes an image of the University District as accessible, livable and bike-friendly. The loud purple paint sy¬mbolizes a connection to the University of Washington and promotes the area as a place students can be without a car. Increased bicycle use will make it more desirable to patronize local shops than those farther away. Improved bicycle facilities keep users riding and use of the alleys expands the network’s safety. Innovative bicycle urbanism will make the University District a healthier and more desirable place to live. Figures 39-40: 2025 Visualization— Connecting Crossroads Traiding Company with the Malloy Apartments with a bicycle boulevard in bike stop in their shared alley space.

Figure38: Crossroads Trading Company is a national chain store, This popular shop is located in a building built in 1907 and is on the corner of one of the most active streets and the store entrance is near to the alley.

Residential Communities

Opportunities

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


DESIGNED DEDICATION Color-Coded Infrastructure

Inspired Clarity

As

is indicated in the Seattle Bicycle Master Plan, the design of bicycle and other transportation facilities is an important aspect of implementation. Poorly designed facilities question how well motorists understand or follow those same rule. In addition to bicyclist safety and comfort, the context-sensetive and thoughtful design are vital to establishing true bicyclist dedication.

Cties

such as Copenhagen and New York have similarly painted local transportation

welcomes bicyclists. A recent study out of New York evaluated the safety of on-street bike lanes and found that the simple presence of marked bicycle facilities does not increase the incidence of bicycle crashes, accounting for the fact that increased number of bicyclists on the road. Where marked, dedicated facilities exist, motorists tend to decrease their speed 9

Figure 41: Seattle Department of Transportation uses signage and colored bike lanes along streets where bicyclists will ride. 11

Seattle’s Department of Transportation already uses the technique of painted bicycle lanes lanes are painted green, signaling to motorists that they must yield to the bicyclists. The act of marking the entire bike lane with a solid color better dedicates the space by increasing the legibility of where bicyclists can and should ride. Just as the green bike lanes protect and give priority to bicyclists on the streets, the purple lanes indicate that alley courtesy— which prioritizes non-motorized users over automobile drivers, with pedestrians receiving the highest priority—is to be exercised along alley bicycle boulevards.10

Figure 42: In Copenhagen Noerrebro neighborhood, red paint is used on street lanes to mark dedicated bus lanes.

A Non-Motorized Cooridor

Eye and User

Figure 43: 2025 Visualization— Bicycle boulevards will give something positive for visiters to remember abour their visit and improve the public realm for local pedestrians and bicyclists.

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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Designed Dedication Safer than Sharrows

Rider Navigation

In addition to creating this dedicated space within the alleys, the connection to bike lanes on normal surface streets must be considered. Where the bicycle boulevards cross eastwest streets, a Copenhagen left is used to provide a safe connection to another dedicated bike lane. Following the Danish method—which has cyclists cross the street and wait at the an intersection for a moment to turn left—the bike lane is designed so that bicyclist travels to the opposite curb and takes the marked left turn onto a lane that will safely take them to the street corner. At the corner, depending on their destination, bicyclist may travel services, frequent transit corridors, and those not vital to the freight network, among other lane will appear on on the north side of any east-west street with northbound alley access,

To complement this northbound network of bicycle boulevards, this study recommends the Figures 44: Bicyclists cross, wait, turn left and go when the signal allows.

not extend to 15th Avenue NE, as the study supports the current transit and auto-oriented uses of this street. In the immediate future, there is little space on most area streets for true dedicated bicycle infrastructure. However, by 2025 southbound cycle tracks are feasible, as on-street parking needs may be diminished. In 2016, operations for Sound Transit’s by Community, Environment, and Planning students at the College of Built Environments, single-occupancy-vehicles comprise 33% of the mode-split for University of Washington staff commuted to campus.12 have the potential to drastically impact regular commuter patterns, especially with a station planned for Brooklyn Avenue NE and NE 42nd Street. This study anticipates that by 2025

Entrances from Cross Streets

motorized transportation mode-split goal. This desired area mode-split shift will allow for Way NE, and implementing a system of cycle tracks integrated with the bicycle boulevards. Working with Sound Transit on this initative is an opportunity to integrate station design with the local non-motorized transportation network. A Place to Stop

Figures 45-46: 2025 Visualization—Bike lanes

are well marked and easy to understand set of rules. Organized lanes are organized along streetblocks, directing bicyclists and pedestrians into these established urban spaces.

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Clearly Marked Bike

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


DESIGNED DEDICATION The Bike Stop

Innovative Parking

A last key element to the design of the bicycle boulevards is the bike stops located within space for bike parking accommodating many users and a place to rest for some water or to emerged. These facilities provide 24-hour secure parking and some offer day-use lockers, self-repair station and repair assistance, and showers and changing rooms.13 The intension behind the bike stops is similar, with these inner-alley spaces providing dedicated bike needs. Approximately 20 bicycles will be accommodated for at each bike stop and sites where there is expressed user need, secure parking for cargo bikes may also be provided. ike stops are easily accessible to all users of the inner-alley boulevards. Riders need only signal to stop and pull off to the right into the bike stop’s dismount area and park their bike.

A reliable purposes. The satellite bicycle parking facilities and basic services provided at each bike stop design ease a bicyclist’s commute, therefore augment the overall appeal of using bicycle urbanism in the West of 15th district. According to William Whyte that attract

Figure 48: The alley space behind Cafe Allegro and Mod Pizza (east of University Way NE, between NE 42nd & 43rd St) achieves the desired bike stop atmosphere. Bike racks and places to sit are provided outside the alley

unique urban spaces.

the infrastructural implementation of this time-tested reasoning. Sinage Directing

Water Fountain Bicycle Pump

Protected Bicycle Parking Alley Courtesy

Figure 49: The bike stop is inspired by plesant bicycle parking facilities in Copenhagen’s Amager district. This attractive space provides plenty of bike racks and the sclupture is fun for children and functional for those needing a seat.

Figure 47: 2025 Visualization—The University Bookstore currently has an agreement with the parking lot behind their store, providing free or cheap parking to bookstore customers. If these spaces can be leased, this parking lot can become a lively pedestrian space with minimal impact on the single-occupancy-vehicle drivers. More standard shelters are recommended for destination stops. Branding these stops with a shared identity is a vital part of establishing the identity and culture of bicycle boulevards and the facilities users can expect to encounter along their route.

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010

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references 1 City of Seattle, Department of Transportation. Seattle Bike Master Plan: Introduction, (Seattle,

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2 Ibid. 3

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4 University of Washington, Department of Planning and Finance. University of Washington’s Master Plan, Seattle Campus: University Community Urban Center Plan and Master Plan Common Elements, (Seattle, WA: January, 2003), 168. 5

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6 City of Seattle, Department of Planning and Development. Seattle Comprehensive Plan: Neighborhood Planning Element, (Seattle, WA: January, 2005), 8.163. 7

8 City of Seattle, Department of Planning and Development. Seattle Comprehensive Plan: Transportation Planning Element, (Seattle, WA: January, 2005), 3.8. 9 Health, vol. 102, no. 6, (Online: June 2012) 1120-1127. 10

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11 Ibid. 12 Maya Jacobs, et. al. UW Tower: Brooklyn Station Construction Impacts. CEP 460 Final Report, prepared for UW Tower and University of Washington, (Seattle, WA: Autumn, 2011). tion-Impacts.pdf.

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13

Photography of the study area were taken by Catherine Silva and inspiration photos of renderings, and visualizations are the work of Catherine Silva

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Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards: A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Built Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


Thank you for Reading And Riding

Programs Used in document Production: ArcGIS: ArcMap and ArcCatalog Adobe: InDesign, PhotoShop, Illustrator Google: SketchUp, GoogleEarth Miccrosft: Excel, Word

For questions or comments, please contact: Catherine Silva | catmcsilva@uw.edu

Inner-Alley bicycle boulevards : A Transportation Design Concept Catherine Silva | UW College of the Bilt Environments | UDP573: Digital Design | June 2010


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